New! View global litigation for patent families

CA2665869C - In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system - Google Patents

In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system

Info

Publication number
CA2665869C
CA2665869C CA 2665869 CA2665869A CA2665869C CA 2665869 C CA2665869 C CA 2665869C CA 2665869 CA2665869 CA 2665869 CA 2665869 A CA2665869 A CA 2665869A CA 2665869 C CA2665869 C CA 2665869C
Authority
CA
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
heat
formation
fluid
transfer
temperature
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
CA 2665869
Other languages
French (fr)
Other versions
CA2665869A1 (en )
Inventor
Scott Vinh Nguyen
Harold J. Vinegar
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Shell International Research Mij BV
Original Assignee
Shell International Research Mij BV
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/16Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons
    • E21B43/24Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons using heat, e.g. steam injection
    • E21B43/243Combustion in situ
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G1/00Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials, e.g. wood, coal
    • C10G1/02Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials, e.g. wood, coal by distillation
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B36/00Heating, cooling, insulating arrangements for boreholes or wells, e.g. for use in permafrost zones
    • E21B36/04Heating, cooling, insulating arrangements for boreholes or wells, e.g. for use in permafrost zones using electrical heaters
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/30Specific pattern of wells, e.g. optimizing the spacing of wells
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B47/00Survey of boreholes or wells
    • E21B47/02Determining slope or direction
    • E21B47/022Determining slope or direction of the borehole, e.g. using geomagnetism
    • E21B47/02216Determining slope or direction of the borehole, e.g. using geomagnetism using at least one source of electromagnetic energy and at least one detector therefor
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G2300/00Aspects relating to hydrocarbon processing covered by groups C10G1/00 - C10G99/00
    • C10G2300/40Characteristics of the process deviating from typical ways of processing
    • C10G2300/4037In-situ processes

Abstract

Systems and methods for an in situ heat treatment process that utilizes a circulation system to heat one or more treatment areas are described herein. The circulation system may use a heated liquid heat transfer fluid that passes through piping in the formation to transfer heat to the formation. In some embodiments, the piping may be positioned in at least two of the wellbores.

Description

IN SITU HEAT TREATMENT PROCESS UTILIZING
A CLOSED LOOP HEATING SYSTEM
BACKGROUND
1. Field of the Invention [0001] The present invention relates generally to methods and systems for production of hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and/or other products from various subsurface formations such as hydrocarbon containing formations. In particular, certain embodiments relate to using a closed loop circulation system for heating a portion of the formation during an in situ conversion process.

2. Description of Related Art [0002] Hydrocarbons obtained from subterranean formations are often used as energy resources, as feedstocks, and as consumer products. Concerns over depletion of available hydrocarbon resources and concerns over declining overall quality of produced hydrocarbons have led to development of processes for more efficient recovery, processing and/or use of available hydrocarbon resources. In situ processes may be used to remove hydrocarbon materials from subterranean formations. Chemical and/or physical properties of hydrocarbon material in a subterranean formation may need to be changed to allow hydrocarbon material to be more easily removed from the subterranean formation. The chemical and physical changes may include in situ reactions that produce removable fluids, composition changes, solubility changes, density changes, phase changes, and/or viscosity changes of the hydrocarbon material in the formation. A fluid may be, but is not limited to, a gas, a liquid, an emulsion, a slurry, and/or a stream of solid particles that has flow characteristics similar to liquid flow.

[0003] WO/2006/116096 to Fowler et al., discoses methods and system for heating treatment areas in a formation using heat transfer from gas circulated through the system and/or from resistive heating from the piping that the circulated gas passes through. The piping may be made of a ferromagnetic material.

[0004] Circulating gas through piping to heat the treatment area may require relative large diameter piping to accommodate the volume of gas needed to heat the treatment area.
Thus, there is a need to improve circulation systems for heating treatment areas.

SUMMARY

[0005] Embodiments described herein generally relate to systems and/or methods of producing hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and/or other products from various subsurface formations such as hydrocarbon containing formations using liquid heat transfer fluid passing through piping to heat one or more treatment areas in the formation.

[0006] In some embodiments, an in situ heat treatment system for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes a plurality of wellbores in the formation;
piping positioned in at least two of the wellbores; a fluid circulation system coupled to the piping;
and a heat supply configured to heat a liquid heat transfer fluid circulated by the circulation system through the piping to heat the temperature of the formation to temperatures that allow for hydrocarbon production from the formation.
[0006a] According to an aspect, there is provided an in situ heat treatment system for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation, comprising: a plurality of wellbores in the formation;
piping positioned in at least two of the wellbores; a fluid circulation system coupled to the piping;
a heat supply configured to heat a liquid heat transfer fluid circulated by the circulation system through the piping to heat the formation to temperatures that allow for hydrocarbon production from the formation; and one or more electrical heaters coupled to the piping configured to initially heat the piping to a temperature above a solidification temperature of the liquid heat transfer fluid.

[0007] In some embodiments, a method of heating a subsurface formation includes heating a liquid heat transfer fluid using heat exchange with a heat supply; circulating the liquid heat transfer fluid through piping in the formation to heat a portion of the formation to allow hydrocarbons to be produced from the formation; and producing hydrocarbons from the formation.
[0007a] According to an aspect, there is provided a method of heating a subsurface formation, comprising: heating a liquid heat transfer fluid using heat exchange with a heat supply, wherein the liquid heat transfer fluid is heated to a temperature sufficient to inhibit solidification of the liquid heat transfer fluid during use, and wherein the heat transfer fluid comprises one or more molten salts; circulating the liquid heat transfer fluid through piping in the formation to heat a portion of the formation to allow hydrocarbons to be produced from the formation; and producing hydrocarbons from the formation.

[0008] In some embodiments, a method of heating a subsurface formation includes passing a liquid heat transfer fluid from a vessel to a heat exchanger; heating the liquid heat transfer fluid to a first temperature; flowing the liquid heat transfer fluid through a heater section to a sump, wherein heat transfers from the heater section to a treatment area in the formation; gas lifting the liquid heat transfer fluid to the surface from the sump; and returning at least a portion of the liquid heat transfer fluid to the vessel.
[0008a] According to an aspect, there is provided a method of heating a subsurface formation, comprising: passing a liquid heat transfer fluid from a vessel to a heat exchanger; heating the liquid heat transfer fluid to a first temperature, wherein the first temperature is sufficient to inhibit solidification of the liquid heat transfer fluid, and wherein the heat transfer fluid comprises one or more molten salts; flowing the liquid heat transfer fluid through a heater section to a sump, wherein heat transfers from the heater section to a treatment area in the formation; and gas lifting the liquid heat transfer fluid to the surface from the sump; and returning at least a portion of the liquid heat transfer fluid to the vessel.

[0009] In further embodiments, additional features may be added to the specific embodiments described herein.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0010] Advantages of the present invention may become apparent to those skilled in the art with the benefit of the following detailed description and upon reference to the accompanying drawings in which:

[0011] FIG. 1 depicts an illustration of stages of heating a hydrocarbon containing formation.

[0012] FIG. 2 shows a schematic view of an embodiment of a portion of an in situ conversion system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation.
2a

[0013] FIG. 3 depicts a schematic representation of a closed loop circulation system for heating a portion of a formation.

[0014] FIG. 4 depicts a plan view of wellbore entries and exits from a portion of a formation to be heated using a closed loop circulation system.

[0015] FIG. 5 depicts a cross sectional representation of piping of a circulation system with an insulated conductor heater positioned in the piping.

[0016] FIG. 6 depicts a side view representation of an embodiment of a system for heating the formation that can use a closed loop circulation system and/or electrical heating.

[0017] FIG. 7 depicts a schematic representation of an embodiment of a system for heating to the formation using gas lift to return the heat transfer fluid to the surface.

[0018] FIG. 8 depicts a schematic representation of an embodiment of an in situ heat treatment system that uses a nuclear reactor.

[0019] FIG. 9 depicts an elevational view of an in situ heat treatment system using pebble bed reactors.

[0020] FIG. 10 depicts a schematic representation of an embodiment of a downhole oxidizer assembly.

[0021] While the invention is susceptible to various modifications and alternative forms, specific embodiments thereof are shown by way of example in the drawings and may herein be described in detail. The drawings may not be to scale. It should be understood, however, that the drawings and detailed description thereto are not intended to limit the invention to the particular form disclosed, but on the contrary, the intention is to cover all modifications, equivalents and alternatives falling within the spirit and scope of the present invention as defined by the appended claims.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0022] The following description generally relates to systems and methods for treating hydrocarbons in the formations. Such formations may be treated to yield hydrocarbon products, hydrogen, and other products.

[0023] "Alternating current (AC)" refers to a time-varying current that reverses direction substantially sinusoidally. AC produces skin effect electricity flow in a ferromagnetic conductor.

[0024] "Curie temperature" is the temperature above which a ferromagnetic material loses all of its ferromagnetic properties. In addition to losing all of its ferromagnetic properties above the Curie temperature, the ferromagnetic material begins to lose its ferromagnetic properties when an increasing electrical current is passed through the ferromagnetic material.

[0025] A "formation" includes one or more hydrocarbon containing layers, one or more non-hydrocarbon layers, an overburden, and/or an underburden. The "overburden"
and/or the "underburden" include one or more different types of impermeable materials. For example, overburden and/or underburden may include rock, shale, mudstone, or wet/tight carbonate. In some embodiments of in situ conversion processes, the overburden and/or the underburden may include a hydrocarbon containing layer or hydrocarbon containing to layers that are relatively impermeable and are not subjected to temperatures during in situ conversion processing that result in significant characteristic changes of the hydrocarbon containing layers of the overburden and/or the underburden. For example, the underburden may contain shale or mudstone, but the underburden is not allowed to heat to pyrolysis temperatures during the in situ conversion process. In some cases, the overburden and/or the underburden may be somewhat permeable.

[0026] "Formation fluids" refer to fluids present in a formation and may include pyrolyzation fluid, synthesis gas, mobilized hydrocarbon, and water (steam).
Formation fluids may include hydrocarbon fluids as well as non-hydrocarbon fluids. The term "mobilized fluid" refers to fluids in a hydrocarbon containing formation that are able to flow as a result of thermal treatment of the formation. "Produced fluids"
refer to formation fluids removed from the formation.

[0027] A "heat source" is any system for providing heat to at least a portion of a formation substantially by conductive and/or radiative heat transfer. For example, a heat source may include electric heaters such as an insulated conductor, an elongated member, and/or a conductor disposed in a conduit. A heat source may also include systems that generate heat by burning a fuel external to or in a formation. The systems may be surface burners, downhole gas burners, flameless distributed combustors, and natural distributed combustors. In some embodiments, heat provided to or generated in one or more heat sources may be supplied by other sources of energy. The other sources of energy may directly heat a formation, or the energy may be applied to a transfer medium that directly or indirectly heats the formation. It is to be understood that one or more heat sources that are applying heat to a formation may use different sources of energy. Thus, for example, for a given formation some heat sources may supply heat from electric resistance heaters, some heat sources may provide heat from combustion, and some heat sources may provide heat from one or more other energy sources (for example, chemical reactions, solar energy, wind energy, biomass, or other sources of renewable energy). A chemical reaction may include an exothermic reaction (for example, an oxidation reaction). A heat source may also include a heater that provides heat to a zone proximate and/or surrounding a heating location such as a heater well.

[0028] A "heater" is any system or heat source for generating heat in a well or a near wellbore region. Heaters may be, but are not limited to, electric heaters, burners, combustors that react with material in or produced from a formation, and/or combinations thereof.

[0029] "Hydrocarbons" are generally defined as molecules formed primarily by carbon and hydrogen atoms. Hydrocarbons may also include other elements such as, but not limited to, halogens, metallic elements, nitrogen, oxygen, and/or sulfur. Hydrocarbons may be, but are not limited to, kerogen, bitumen, pyrobitumen, oils, natural mineral waxes, and asphaltites. Hydrocarbons may be located in or adjacent to mineral matrices in the earth.
Matrices may include, but are not limited to, sedimentary rock, sands, silicilytes, carbonates, diatomites, and other porous media. "Hydrocarbon fluids" are fluids that include hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon fluids may include, entrain, or be entrained in non-hydrocarbon fluids such as hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, water, and ammonia.

[0030] An "in situ conversion process" refers to a process of heating a hydrocarbon containing formation from heat sources to raise the temperature of at least a portion of the formation above a pyrolysis temperature so that pyrolyzation fluid is produced in the formation.

[0031] An "in situ heat treatment process" refers to a process of heating a hydrocarbon containing formation with heat sources to raise the temperature of at least a portion of the formation above a temperature that results in mobilized fluid, visbreaking, and/or pyrolysis of hydrocarbon containing material so that mobilized fluids, visbroken fluids, and/or pyrolyzation fluids are produced in the formation.

[0032] "Insulated conductor" refers to any elongated material that is able to conduct electricity and that is covered, in whole or in part, by an electrically insulating material (for example, magnesium oxide).

[0033] "Modulated direct current (DC)" refers to any substantially non-sinusoidal time-varying current that produces skin effect electricity flow in a ferromagnetic conductor.

[0034] "Pyrolysis" is the breaking of chemical bonds due to the application of heat. For example, pyrolysis may include transforming a compound into one or more other substances by heat alone. Heat may be transferred to a section of the formation to cause pyrolysis. In some formations, portions of the formation and/or other materials in the formation may promote pyrolysis through catalytic activity.

[0035] "Pyrolyzation fluids" or "pyrolysis products" refers to fluid produced substantially during pyrolysis of hydrocarbons. Fluid produced by pyrolysis reactions may mix with to other fluids in a formation. The mixture would be considered pyrolyzation fluid or pyrolyzation product. As used herein, "pyrolysis zone" refers to a volume of a formation (for example, a relatively permeable formation such as a tar sands formation) that is reacted or reacting to form a pyrolyzation fluid.

[0036] "Superposition of heat" refers to providing heat from two or more heat sources to a selected section of a formation such that the temperature of the formation at least at one location between the heat sources is influenced by the heat sources.

[0037] "Synthesis gas" is a mixture including hydrogen and carbon monoxide.
Additional components of synthesis gas may include water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, and other gases. Synthesis gas may be generated by a variety of processes and feedstocks.
Synthesis gas may be used for synthesizing a wide range of compounds.

[0038] "Temperature limited heater" generally refers to a heater that regulates heat output (for example, reduces heat output) above a specified temperature without the use of external controls such as temperature controllers, power regulators, rectifiers, or other devices. Temperature limited heaters may be AC (alternating current) or modulated (for example, "chopped") DC (direct current) powered electrical resistance heaters.

[0039] "Thermal conductivity" is a property of a material that describes the rate at which heat flows, in steady state, between two surfaces of the material for a given temperature difference between the two surfaces.

[0040] "Thermally conductive fluid" includes fluid that has a higher thermal conductivity than air at standard temperature and pressure (STP) (0 C and 101.325 kPa).

[0041] "Time-varying current" refers to electrical current that produces skin effect electricity flow in a ferromagnetic conductor and has a magnitude that varies with time.

Time-varying current includes both alternating current (AC) and modulated direct current (DC).

[0042] The term "wellbore" refers to a hole in a formation made by drilling or insertion of a conduit into the formation. A wellbore may have a substantially circular cross section, or another cross-sectional shape. As used herein, the terms "well" and "opening,"
when referring to an opening in the formation may be used interchangeably with the term "wellbore." A "u-shaped wellbore" refers to a wellbore that extends from a first opening in the formation, through at least a portion of the formation, and out through a second opening in the formation. In this context, the wellbore may be only roughly in the shape of to a "v" or "u", with the understanding that the "legs" of the "u" do not need to be parallel to each other, or perpendicular to the "bottom" of the "u" for the wellbore to be considered "u-shaped".

[0043] Hydrocarbons in formations may be treated in various ways to produce many different products. In certain embodiments, hydrocarbons in formations are treated in stages. FIG. 1 depicts an illustration of stages of heating the hydrocarbon containing formation. FIG. 1 also depicts an example of yield ("Y") in barrels of oil equivalent per ton (y axis) of formation fluids from the formation versus temperature ("T") of the heated formation in degrees Celsius (x axis).

[0044] Desorption of methane and vaporization of water occurs during stage 1 heating.
Heating of the formation through stage 1 may be performed as quickly as possible. When the hydrocarbon containing formation is initially heated, hydrocarbons in the formation desorb adsorbed methane. The desorbed methane may be produced from the formation. If the hydrocarbon containing formation is heated further, water in the hydrocarbon containing formation is vaporized. Water may occupy, in some hydrocarbon containing formations, between 10% and 50% of the pore volume in the formation. In other formations, water occupies larger or smaller portions of the pore volume.
Water typically is vaporized in a formation between 160 C and 285 C at pressures of 600 kPa absolute to 7000 kPa absolute. In some embodiments, the vaporized water produces wettability changes in the formation and/or increased formation pressure. The wettability changes and/or increased pressure may affect pyrolysis reactions or other reactions in the formation.
In certain embodiments, the vaporized water is produced from the formation. In other embodiments, the vaporized water is used for steam extraction and/or distillation in the formation or outside the formation. Removing the water from and increasing the pore volume in the formation increases the storage space for hydrocarbons in the pore volume.

[0045] In certain embodiments, after stage 1 heating, the formation is heated further, such that a temperature in the formation reaches (at least) an initial pyrolyzation temperature (such as a temperature at the lower end of the temperature range shown as stage 2).
Hydrocarbons in the formation may be pyrolyzed throughout stage 2. A pyrolysis temperature range varies depending on the types of hydrocarbons in the formation. The pyrolysis temperature range may include temperatures between 250 C and 900 C. The pyrolysis temperature range for producing desired products may extend through only a to portion of the total pyrolysis temperature range. In some embodiments, the pyrolysis temperature range for producing desired products may include temperatures between 250 C and 400 C or temperatures between 270 C and 350 C. If a temperature of hydrocarbons in the formation is slowly raised through the temperature range from 250 C
to 400 C, production of pyrolysis products may be substantially complete when the temperature approaches 400 C. Average temperature of the hydrocarbons may be raised at a rate of less than 5 C per day, less than 2 C per day, less than 1 C
per day, or less than 0.5 C per day through the pyrolysis temperature range for producing desired products. Heating the hydrocarbon containing formation with a plurality of heat sources may establish thermal gradients around the heat sources that slowly raise the temperature of hydrocarbons in the formation through the pyrolysis temperature range.

[0046] The rate of temperature increase through the pyrolysis temperature range for desired products may affect the quality and quantity of the formation fluids produced from the hydrocarbon containing formation. Raising the temperature slowly through the pyrolysis temperature range for desired products may inhibit mobilization of large chain molecules in the formation. Raising the temperature slowly through the pyrolysis temperature range for desired products may limit reactions between mobilized hydrocarbons that produce undesired products. Slowly raising the temperature of the formation through the pyrolysis temperature range for desired products may allow for the production of high quality, high API gravity hydrocarbons from the formation.
Slowly raising the temperature of the formation through the pyrolysis temperature range for desired products may allow for the removal of a large amount of the hydrocarbons present in the formation as hydrocarbon product.

[0047] In some in situ conversion embodiments, a portion of the formation is heated to a desired temperature instead of slowly heating the temperature through a temperature range.
In some embodiments, the desired temperature is 300 C, 325 C, or 350 C.
Other temperatures may be selected as the desired temperature. Superposition of heat from heat sources allows the desired temperature to be relatively quickly and efficiently established in the formation. Energy input into the formation from the heat sources may be adjusted to maintain the temperature in the formation substantially at the desired temperature. The heated portion of the formation is maintained substantially at the desired temperature until pyrolysis declines such that production of desired formation fluids from the formation to becomes uneconomical. Parts of the formation that are subjected to pyrolysis may include regions brought into a pyrolysis temperature range by heat transfer from only one heat source.

[0048] In certain embodiments, formation fluids including pyrolyzation fluids are produced from the formation. As the temperature of the formation increases, the amount of condensable hydrocarbons in the produced formation fluid may decrease. At high temperatures, the formation may produce mostly methane and/or hydrogen. If the hydrocarbon containing formation is heated throughout the entire pyrolysis range, the formation may produce only small amounts of hydrogen towards an upper limit of the pyrolysis range. After all of the available hydrogen is depleted, a minimal amount of fluid production from the formation will typically occur.

[0049] After pyrolysis of hydrocarbons, a large amount of carbon and some hydrogen may still be present in the formation. A significant portion of carbon remaining in the formation can be produced from the formation in the form of synthesis gas. Synthesis gas generation may take place during stage 3 heating depicted in FIG. 1. Stage 3 may include heating a hydrocarbon containing formation to a temperature sufficient to allow synthesis gas generation. For example, synthesis gas may be produced in a temperature range from about 400 C to about 1200 C, about 500 C to about 1100 C, or about 550 C
to about 1000 C. The temperature of the heated portion of the formation when the synthesis gas generating fluid is introduced to the formation determines the composition of synthesis gas produced in the formation. The generated synthesis gas may be removed from the formation through a production well or production wells.

[0050] Total energy content of fluids produced from the hydrocarbon containing formation may stay relatively constant throughout pyrolysis and synthesis gas generation. During pyrolysis at relatively low formation temperatures, a significant portion of the produced fluid may be condensable hydrocarbons that have a high energy content. At higher pyrolysis temperatures, however, less of the formation fluid may include condensable hydrocarbons. More non-condensable formation fluids may be produced from the formation. Energy content per unit volume of the produced fluid may decline slightly during generation of predominantly non-condensable formation fluids. During synthesis gas generation, energy content per unit volume of produced synthesis gas declines significantly compared to energy content of pyrolyzation fluid. The volume of the produced synthesis gas, however, will in many instances increase substantially, thereby to compensating for the decreased energy content.

[0051] FIG. 2 depicts a schematic view of an embodiment of a portion of the in situ heat treatment system for treating the hydrocarbon containing formation. The in situ heat treatment system may include barrier wells 200. Barrier wells are used to form a barrier around a treatment area. The barrier inhibits fluid flow into and/or out of the treatment area. Barrier wells include, but are not limited to, dewatering wells, vacuum wells, capture wells, injection wells, grout wells, freeze wells, or combinations thereof. In some embodiments, barrier wells 200 are dewatering wells. Dewatering wells may remove liquid water and/or inhibit liquid water from entering a portion of the formation to be heated, or to the formation being heated.

[0052] Freeze wells may be used to establish a low temperature zone around all or a portion of a treatment area. Refrigerant is circulated through freeze wells to form low temperature zones around each freeze well. The freeze wells are placed in the formation so that the low temperature zones overlap and form a low temperature zone around the treatment area. The low temperature zone established by freeze wells is maintained below the freezing temperature of aqueous fluid in the formation. Aqueous fluid entering the low temperature zone freezes and forms a frozen barrier.

[0053] In the embodiment depicted in FIG. 2, the barrier wells 200 are shown extending only along one side of heat sources 202, but the barrier wells typically encircle all heat sources 202 used, or to be used, to heat a treatment area of the formation.

[0054] Heat sources 202 are placed in at least a portion of the formation.
Heat sources 202 may include heaters such as insulated conductors, conductor-in-conduit heaters, surface burners, flameless distributed combustors, and/or natural distributed combustors. Heat sources 202 may also include other types of heaters. Heat sources 202 provide heat to at least a portion of the formation to heat hydrocarbons in the formation. Energy may be supplied to heat sources 202 through supply lines 204. Supply lines 204 may be structurally different depending on the type of heat source or heat sources used to heat the formation. Supply lines 204 for heat sources may transmit electricity for electric heaters, may transport fuel for combustors, or may transport heat exchange fluid that is circulated in the formation. In some embodiments, electricity for an in situ heat treatment process may be provided by a nuclear power plant or nuclear power plants. The use of nuclear power may allow for reduction or elimination of carbon dioxide emissions from the in situ heat treatment process.
to [0055] Production wells 206 are used to remove formation fluid from the formation. In some embodiments, production well 206 includes a heat source. The heat source in the production well may heat one or more portions of the formation at or near the production well. In some in situ heat treatment process embodiments, the amount of heat supplied to the formation from the production well per meter of the production well is less than the amount of heat applied to the formation from a heat source that heats the formation per meter of the heat source. Heat applied to the formation from the production well may increase formation permeability adjacent to the production well by vaporizing and removing liquid phase fluid adjacent to the production well and/or by increasing the permeability of the formation adjacent to the production well by formation of macro and/or micro fractures.
[0056] In some embodiments, the heat source in production well 206 allows for vapor phase removal of formation fluids from the formation. Providing heating at or through the production well may: (1) inhibit condensation and/or refluxing of production fluid when such production fluid is moving in the production well proximate the overburden, (2) increase heat input into the formation, (3) increase production rate from the production well as compared to a production well without a heat source, (4) inhibit condensation of high carbon number compounds (C6 and above) in the production well, and/or (5) increase formation permeability at or proximate the production well.
[0057] Subsurface pressure in the formation may correspond to the fluid pressure generated in the formation. As temperatures in the heated portion of the formation increase, the pressure in the heated portion may increase as a result of increased fluid generation and vaporization of water. Controlling rate of fluid removal from the formation may allow for control of pressure in the formation. Pressure in the formation may be determined at a number of different locations, such as near or at production wells, near or at heat sources, or at monitor wells.
[0058] In some hydrocarbon containing formations, production of hydrocarbons from the formation is inhibited until at least some hydrocarbons in the formation have been pyrolyzed. Formation fluid may be produced from the formation when the formation fluid is of a selected quality. In some embodiments, the selected quality includes an API gravity of at least 20 , 30 , or 40 . Inhibiting production until at least some hydrocarbons are pyrolyzed may increase conversion of heavy hydrocarbons to light hydrocarbons.

Inhibiting initial production may minimize the production of heavy hydrocarbons from the to formation. Production of substantial amounts of heavy hydrocarbons may require expensive equipment and/or reduce the life of production equipment.
[0059] After pyrolysis temperatures are reached and production from the formation is allowed, pressure in the formation may be varied to alter and/or control a composition of formation fluid produced, to control a percentage of condensable fluid as compared to non-condensable fluid in the formation fluid, and/or to control an API gravity of formation fluid being produced. For example, decreasing pressure may result in production of a larger condensable fluid component. The condensable fluid component may contain a larger percentage of olefins.
[0060] In some in situ heat treatment process embodiments, pressure in the formation may be maintained high enough to promote production of formation fluid with an API
gravity of greater than 20 . Maintaining increased pressure in the formation may inhibit formation subsidence during in situ heat treatment. Maintaining increased pressure may facilitate vapor phase production of fluids from the formation. Vapor phase production may allow for a reduction in size of collection conduits used to transport fluids produced from the formation. Maintaining increased pressure may reduce or eliminate the need to compress formation fluids at the surface to transport the fluids in collection conduits to treatment facilities.
[0061] Maintaining increased pressure in a heated portion of the formation may surprisingly allow for production of large quantities of hydrocarbons of increased quality and of relatively low molecular weight. Pressure may be maintained so that formation fluid produced has a minimal amount of compounds above a selected carbon number. The selected carbon number may be at most 25, at most 20, at most 12, or at most 8. Some high carbon number compounds may be entrained in vapor in the formation and may be removed from the formation with the vapor. Maintaining increased pressure in the formation may inhibit entrainment of high carbon number compounds and/or multi-ring hydrocarbon compounds in the vapor. High carbon number compounds and/or multi-ring hydrocarbon compounds may remain in a liquid phase in the formation for significant time periods. The significant time periods may provide sufficient time for the compounds to pyrolyze to form lower carbon number compounds.
[0062] Formation fluid produced from production wells 206 may be transported through collection piping 208 to treatment facilities 210. Formation fluids may also be produced from heat sources 202. For example, fluid may be produced from heat sources 202 to control pressure in the formation adjacent to the heat sources. Fluid produced from heat sources 202 may be transported through tubing or piping to collection piping 208 or the produced fluid may be transported through tubing or piping directly to treatment facilities 210. Treatment facilities 210 may include separation units, reaction units, upgrading units, fuel cells, turbines, storage vessels, and/or other systems and units for processing produced formation fluids. The treatment facilities may form transportation fuel from at least a portion of the hydrocarbons produced from the formation. In some embodiments, the transportation fuel may be jet fuel, such as JP-8.
[0063] In some in situ heat treatment process embodiments, a circulation system is used to heat the formation. The circulation system may be a closed loop circulation system. FIG.
3 depicts a schematic representation of a system for heating a formation using a circulation system. The system may be used to heat hydrocarbons that are relatively deep in the ground and that are in formations that are relatively large in extent. In some embodiments, the hydrocarbons may be 100 m, 200 m, 300 m or more below the surface. The circulation system may also be used to heat hydrocarbons that are not as deep in the ground. The hydrocarbons may be in formations that extend lengthwise up to 500 m, 750 m, 1000 m, or more. The circulation system may become economically viable in formations where the length of the hydrocarbon containing formation to be treated is long compared to the thickness of the overburden. The ratio of the hydrocarbon formation extent to be heated by heaters to the overburden thickness may be at least 3, at least 5, or at least 10. The heaters of the circulation system may be positioned relative to adjacent heaters so that superposition of heat between heaters of the circulation system allows the temperature of the formation to be raised at least above the boiling point of aqueous formation fluid in the formation.

[0064] In some embodiments, heaters 212 may be formed in the formation by drilling a first wellbore and then drilling a second wellbore that connects with the first wellbore.
Piping may be positioned in the U-shaped wellbore to form U-shaped heater 212.
Heaters 212 are connected to heat transfer fluid circulation system 214 by piping. Gas at high pressure may be used as the heat transfer fluid in the closed loop circulation system. In some embodiments, the heat transfer fluid is carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is chemically stable at the required temperatures and pressures and has a relatively high molecular weight that results in a high volumetric heat capacity. Other fluids such as steam, air, helium and/or nitrogen may also be used. The pressure of the heat transfer fluid entering to the formation may be 3000 kPa or higher. The use of high pressure heat transfer fluid allows the heat transfer fluid to have a greater density, and therefore a greater capacity to transfer heat. Also, the pressure drop across the heaters is less for a system where the heat transfer fluid enters the heaters at a first pressure for a given mass flow rate than when the heat transfer fluid enters the heaters at a second pressure at the same mass flow rate when the first pressure is greater than the second pressure.
[0065] In some embodiments, a liquid heat transfer fluid is used as the heat transfer file.
The liquid heat transfer fluid may be a natural or synthetic oil, molten metal, molten salt, or other type of high temperature heat transfer fluid. A liquid heat transfer fluid may allow for smaller diameter piping and reduced pumping/compression costs. In some embodiments, the piping is made of a material resistant to corrosion by the liquid heat transfer fluid. In some embodiments, the piping is lined with a material that is resistant to corrosion by the liquid heat transfer fluid. For example, if the heat transfer fluid is a molten fluoride salt, the piping may include a 10 mil thick nickel liner. The piping may be formed by roll bonding a nickel strip onto a strip of the piping material (for example, stainless steel), rolling the composite strip, and longitudinally welding the composite strip to form the piping. Other techniques may also be used. Corrosion of nickel by the molten fluoride salt may be less than 1 mil per year at a temperature of about 840 C.
[0066] Heat transfer fluid circulation system 214 may include heat supply 216, first heat exchanger 218, second heat exchanger 220, and compressor 222. Heat supply 216 heats the heat transfer fluid to a high temperature. Heat supply 216 may be a furnace, solar collector, chemical reactor, nuclear reactor, fuel cell exhaust heat, or other high temperature source able to supply heat to the heat transfer fluid. In the embodiment depicted in FIG. 3, heat supply 216 is a furnace that heats the heat transfer fluid to a temperature in a range from about 700 C to about 920 C, from about 770 C to about 870 C, or from about 800 C to about 850 C. In an embodiment, heat supply 216 heats the heat transfer fluid to a temperature of about 820 C. The heat transfer fluid flows from heat supply 216 to heaters 212. Heat transfers from heaters 212 to formation 224 adjacent to the heaters. The temperature of the heat transfer fluid exiting formation 224 may be in a range from 350 C to 580 C, from 400 C to 530 C, or from 450 C to 500 C. In an embodiment, the temperature of the heat transfer fluid exiting formation 224 is 480 C.
The metallurgy of the piping used to form heat transfer fluid circulation system 214 may be varied to significantly reduce costs of the piping. High temperature steel may be used from to heat supply 216 to a point where the temperature is sufficiently low so that less expensive steel can be used from that point to first heat exchanger 218. Several different steel grades may be used to form the piping of heat transfer fluid circulation system 214.
[0067] Heat transfer fluid from heat supply 216 of heat transfer fluid circulation system 214 passes through overburden 226 of formation 224 to hydrocarbon layer 228.
Portions of heaters 212 extending through overburden 226 may be insulated. In some embodiments, the insulation or part of the insulation is a polyimide insulating material.
Inlet portions of heaters 212 in hydrocarbon layer 228 may have tapering insulation to reduce overheating of the hydrocarbon layer near the inlet of the heater into the hydrocarbon layer.
[0068] In some embodiments, the diameter of the pipe in overburden 226 may be smaller than the diameter of pipe through hydrocarbon layer 228. The smaller diameter pipe through overburden 226 may allow for less heat transfer to the overburden.
Reducing the amount of heat transfer to overburden 226 reduces the amount of cooling of the heat transfer fluid supplied to pipe adjacent to hydrocarbon layer 228. The increased heat transfer in the smaller diameter pipe due to increased velocity of heat transfer fluid through the small diameter pipe is offset by the smaller surface area of the smaller diameter pipe and the decrease in residence time of the heat transfer fluid in the smaller diameter pipe.
[0069] After exiting formation 224, the heat transfer fluid passes through first heat exchanger 218 and second heat exchanger 220 to compressor 222. First heat exchanger 218 transfers heat between heat transfer fluid exiting formation 224 and heat transfer fluid exiting compressor 222 to raise the temperature of the heat transfer fluid that enters heat supply 216 and reduce the temperature of the fluid exiting formation 224.
Second heat exchanger 220 further reduces the temperature of the heat transfer fluid before the heat transfer fluid enters compressor 222.

[0070] In some embodiments, a liquid heat transfer fluid may be used instead of a gas heat transfer fluid. The compressor banks represented by compressor 222 in FIG. 3 may be replaced by pumps or other liquid moving devices.
[0071] FIG. 4 depicts a plan view of an embodiment of wellbore openings in the formation that is to be heated using the circulation system. Heat transfer fluid entries 230 into formation 224 alternate with heat transfer fluid exits 232. Alternating heat transfer fluid entries 230 with heat transfer fluid exits 232 may allow for more uniform heating of the hydrocarbons in formation 224.
[0072] In some embodiments, piping for the circulation system may allow the direction of to heat transfer fluid flow through the formation to be changed. Changing the direction of heat transfer fluid flow through the formation allows each end of a u-shaped wellbore to initially receive the heat transfer fluid at the hottest temperature of the heat transfer fluid for a period of time, which may result in more uniform heating of the formation. The direction of heat transfer fluid may be changed at desired time intervals. The desired time interval may be about a year, about six months, about three months, about two months or any other desired time interval.
[0073] In some embodiments, the circulation system may be used in conjunction with electrical heating. In some embodiments, at least a portion of the pipe in the U-shaped wellbores adjacent to portions of the formation that are to be heated is made of a ferromagnetic material. For example, the piping adjacent to a layer or layers of the formation to be heated is made of 9% to 13% chromium steel, such as 410 stainless steel.
The pipe may be a temperature limited heater when time varying electric current is applied to the piping. The time varying electric current may resistively heat the piping, which heats the formation and the material in the piping. In some embodiments, direct electric current may be used to resistively heat the pipe, which heats the formation.
In some embodiments, the material used to form the pipe in the U-shaped wellbore does not include ferromagnetic material. Direct or time varying current may be used to resistively heat the pipe, which heats the formation.
[0074] In some embodiments, one or more insulated conductors are placed in the piping.
Electrical current may be supplied to the insulated conductors to resistively heat at least a portion of the insulated conductors. Heated insulated conductors may provide heat to the contents of the piping and the piping. The piping heated by the insulated conductor may heat adjacent formation. FIG. 5 depicts insulated conductor 233 positioned in heater 212.

Heater 212 is piping of the circulation system positioned in the formation. In some embodiments, one or more insulated conductors may be strapped to the piping.
[0075] In some embodiments, the circulation system is used to heat the formation to a first temperature, and electrical energy is used to maintain the temperature of the formation and/or heat the formation to higher temperatures. The first temperature may be sufficient to vaporize aqueous formation fluid in the formation. The first temperature may be at most 200 C, at most 300 C, at most 350 C, or at most 400 C. Using the circulation system to heat the formation to the first temperature allows the formation to be dry when electricity is used to heat the formation. Heating the dry formation may minimize electrical current to leakage into the formation.
[0076] In some embodiments, the circulation system and electrical heating may be used to heat the formation to a first temperature. The formation may be maintained, or the temperature of the formation may be increased from the first temperature, using the circulation system and/or electrical heating. In some embodiments, the formation may be raised to the first temperature using electrical heating, and the temperature may be maintained and/or increased using the circulation system. Economic factors, available electricity, availability of fuel for heating the heat transfer fluid, and other factors may be used to determine when electrical heating and/or circulation system heating are to be used.
[0077] In some embodiments, electrical heating is used to raise the temperature of the piping to a desired temperature. The desired temperature may be a temperature higher than a temperature needed to maintain the heat transfer fluid (for example, a molten metal or a molten salt) in a liquid phase. The electrical heating may inhibit plugging of the piping and allow the heat transfer to flow through the piping. Electrical heating may be discontinued when the circulation system is able to maintain the heat transfer fluid as a liquid without additional heat input from the electrical heating. For example, electrical heating may initially be used when the system is initiated. The electrical heating may heat the piping so that the liquid heat transfer fluid does not solidify in the piping. After the formation adjacent to the piping becomes hotter than the melting temperature of the heat transfer fluid, the electrical heating may be discontinued. If a shut down or other problem occurs that might result in solidification of heat transfer fluid in the piping, electrical heating may be resumed.
[0078] FIG. 3 depicts an embodiment of a circulation system. In certain embodiments, the portion of heater 212 in hydrocarbon layer 228 is coupled to lead-in conductors. Lead-in conductors may be located in overburden 226. Lead-in conductors may electrically couple the portion of heater 212 in hydrocarbon layer 228 to one or more wellheads at the surface.
Electrical isolators may be located at a junction of the portion of heater 212 in hydrocarbon layer 228 with portions of heater 212 in overburden 226 so that the portions of the heater in the overburden are electrically isolated from the portion of the heater in the hydrocarbon layer.
[0079] In embodiments where the electrical heating is needed to raise the temperature of the piping to or above a desired temperature, the lead-in conductors are coupled to the piping at or near the surface so that all of the piping in the formation is heated to the desired temperature. Piping near the surface may include electrical insulation (for example, a porcelain coating) to inhibit current leakage to the formation.
[0080] In some embodiments, the lead-in conductors are placed inside of the pipe of the closed loop circulation system. In some embodiments, the lead-in conductors are positioned outside of the pipe of the closed loop circulation system. In some embodiments, the lead-in conductors are insulated conductors with mineral insulation, such as magnesium oxide. The lead-in conductors may include highly electrically conductive materials such as copper or aluminum to reduce heat losses in overburden 226 during electrical heating.
[0081] In certain embodiments, the portions of heater 212 in overburden 226 are used as lead-in conductors. The portions of heater 212 in overburden 226 may be electrically coupled to the portion of heater 212 in hydrocarbon layer 228. In some embodiments, one or more electrically conducting materials (such as copper or aluminum) are coupled (for example, cladded or welded) to the portions of heater 212 in overburden 226 to reduce the electrical resistance of the portions of the heater in the overburden.
Reducing the electrical resistance of the portions of heater 212 in overburden 226 reduces heat losses in the overburden during electrical heating.
[0082] In some embodiments, the portion of heater 212 in hydrocarbon layer 228 is a temperature limited heater with a self-limiting temperature between 600 C and 1000 C.
The portion of heater 212 in hydrocarbon layer 228 may be a 9% to 13% chromium stainless steel. For example, portion of heater 212 in hydrocarbon layer 228 may be 410 stainless steel. Time-varying current may be applied to the portion of heater 212 in hydrocarbon layer 228 so that the heater operates as a temperature limited heater.
[0083] FIG. 6 depicts a side view representation of an embodiment of a system for heating a portion of a formation using a circulated fluid system and/or electrical heating.

Wellheads 234 of heaters 212 may be coupled to heat transfer fluid circulation system 214 by piping. Wellheads 234 may also be coupled to electrical power supply system 236. In some embodiments, heat transfer fluid circulation system 214 is disconnected from the heaters when electrical power is used to heat the formation. In some embodiments, electrical power supply system 236 is disconnected from the heaters when heat transfer fluid circulation system 214 is used to heat the formation.
[0084] Electrical power supply system 236 may include transformer 238 and cables 240, 242. In certain embodiments, cables 240, 242 are capable of carrying high currents with low losses. For example, cables 240, 242 may be thick copper or aluminum conductors.
to The cables may also have thick insulation layers. In some embodiments, cable 240 and/or cable 242 may be superconducting cables. The superconducting cables may be cooled by liquid nitrogen. Superconducting cables are available from Superpower, Inc.
(Schenectady, New York, U.S.A.). Superconducting cables may minimize power loss and/or reduce the size of the cables needed to coupletransformer 238 to the heaters. In some embodiments, cables 240, 242 may be made of carbon nanotubes.
[0085] In some embodiments, a liquid heat transfer fluid is used to heat the treatment area.
In some embodiments, the liquid heat transfer fluid is a molten salt or a molten metal. The liquid heat transfer fluid may have a low viscosity and a high heat capacity at normal operating conditions. Table 1 shows melting (Tm) and boiling temperatures (Tb) for several materials that may be used as the liquid heat transfer fluid. When the liquid heat transfer fluid is a molten metal, molten salt or other fluid that has the potential to solidify in the formation, piping of the system may be electrically coupled to an electricity source to resistively heat the piping when needed and/or one or more heaters may be positioned in or adjacent to the piping to maintain the heat transfer fluid in a liquid state.

Material Tm ( C) Tb ( C) Zn 420 907 CdBr2 568 863 CdI2 388 744 CuBr2 498 900 PbBr2 371 892 T1Br 460 819 ThI4 566 837 SnF2 215 850 SnI2 320 714 ZnC12 290 732 [0086] FIG. 7 depicts a schematic representation of a system for providing and removing liquid heat transfer fluid to the treatment area of a formation using gravity and gas lifting as the driving forces for moving the liquid heat transfer fluid. The liquid heat transfer fluid may be a molten metal or a molten salt. Vessel 244 is elevated above heat exchanger 246.
Heat transfer fluid from vessel 244 flows through heat transfer unit 246 to the formation by gravity drainage. In an embodiment, heat exchanger 246 is a tube and shell heat exchanger. Input stream 248 is a hot fluid (for example, helium) from nuclear reactor 250.
Exit stream fluid 252 may be sent as a coolant stream to nuclear reactor 250.
In some to embodiments, the heat exchanger is a furnace, solar collector, chemical reactor, fuel cell, or other high temperature source able to supply heat to the liquid heat transfer fluid.
[0087] Hot heat transfer fluid from heat exchanger 246 may pass to a manifold that provides heat transfer fluid to individual heater legs positioned in the treatment area of the formation. The heat transfer fluid may pass to the heater legs by gravity drainage. The heat transfer fluid may pass through overburden 226 to hydrocarbon containing layer 228 of the treatment area. The piping adjacent to overburden 226 may be insulated.
Heat transfer fluid flows downwards to sump 254.
[0088] Gas lift piping may include gas supply line 256 within conduit 258. Gas supply line 256 may enter sump 254. When lift chamber 260 in sump 254 fills to a selected level with heat transfer fluid, a gas lift control system operates valves of the gas lift system so that the heat transfer fluid is lifted through the space between gas supply line 256 and conduit 258 to separator 262. Separator 262 may receive heat transfer fluid and lifting gas from a piping manifold that transports the heat transfer fluid and lifting gas from the individual heater legs in the formation. Separator 262 separates the lift gas from the heat transfer fluid. The heat transfer fluid is sent to vessel 244.
[0089] Conduits 258 from sumps 254 to separator 262 may include one or more insulated conductors or other types of heaters. The insulated conductors or other types of heaters may be placed in conduits 258 and/or be strapped or otherwise coupled to the outside of the conduits. The heaters may inhibit solidification of the heat transfer fluid in conduits 258 during the gas lift from sump 254.
[0090] In some embodiments, nuclear energy may be used to heat the heat transfer fluid used in the circulation system to heat a portion of the formation. Heat supply 216 in FIG. 3 may be a pebble bed reactor or other type of nuclear reactor, such as a light water reactor.
The use of nuclear energy provides a heat source with little or no carbon dioxide emissions.
Also, the use of nuclear energy can be more efficient because energy losses resulting from the conversion of heat to electricity and electricity to heat are avoided by directly utilizing to the heat produced from the nuclear reactions without producing electricity.
[0091] In some embodiments, a nuclear reactor may heat helium. For example, helium flows through a pebble bed reactor, and heat transfers to the helium. The helium may be used as the heat transfer fluid to heat the formation. In some embodiments, the nuclear reactor may heat helium, and the helium may be passed through a heat exchanger to provide heat to the heat transfer fluid used to heat the formation. The pebble bed reactor may include a pressure vessel that contains encapsulated enriched uranium dioxide fuel.
Helium may be used as a heat transfer fluid to remove heat from the pebble bed reactor.
Heat may be transferred in a heat exchanger from the helium to the heat transfer fluid used in the circulation system. The heat transfer fluid used in the circulation system may be carbon dioxide, a molten salt, or other fluid. Pebble bed reactor systems are available from PBMR Ltd. (Centurion, South Africa).
[0092] FIG. 8 depicts a schematic diagram of a system that uses nuclear energy to heat treatment area 264. The system may include helium system gas blower 266, nuclear reactor 268, heat exchanger units 270, and heat transfer fluid blower 272.
Helium system gas blower 266 may draw heated helium from nuclear reactor 268 to heat exchanger units 270. Helium from heat exchanger units 270 may pass through helium system gas blower 266 to nuclear reactor 268. Helium from nuclear reactor 268 may be at a temperature of 900 C to 1000 C. Helium from helium gas blower 266 may be at a temperature of 500 C to 600 C. Heat transfer fluid blower 272 may draw heat transfer fluid from heat exchanger units 270 through treatment area 264. Heat transfer fluid may pass through heat transfer fluid blower 272 to heat exchanger units 270. The heat transfer fluid may be carbon dioxide. The heat transfer fluid may be at a temperature from 850 C to after exiting heat exchanger units 270.

[0093] In some embodiments, the system may include auxiliary power unit 274.
In some embodiments, auxiliary power unit 274 generates power by passing the helium from heat exchanger units 270 through a generator to make electricity. The helium may be sent to one or more compressors and/or heat exchangers to adjust the pressure and temperature of the helium before the helium is sent to nuclear reactor 268. In some embodiments, auxiliary power unit 274 generates power using a heat transfer fluid (for example, ammonia or aqua ammonia). Helium from heat exchanger units 270 is sent to additional heat exchanger units to transfer heat to the heat transfer fluid. The heat transfer fluid is taken through a power cycle (such as a Kalina cycle) to generate electricity.
In an to embodiment, nuclear reactor 268 is a 400 MW reactor and auxiliary power unit 274 generates about 30 MW of electricity.
[0094] FIG. 9 depicts a schematic elevational view of an arrangement for an in situ heat treatment process. U-shaped wellbores may be formed in the formation to define treatment areas 264A, 264B, 264C, 264D. Additional treatment areas could be formed to the sides of the shown treatment areas. Treatment areas 264A, 264B, 264C, 264D may have widths of over 300 m, 500 m, 1000 m, or 1500 m. Well exits and entrances for the wellbores may be formed in well openings area 276. Rail lines 278 may be formed along sides of treatment areas 264. Warehouses, administration offices and/or spent fuel storage facilities may be located near ends of rail lines 278. Facilities 280 may be formed at intervals along spurs of rail lines 278. Each facility 280 may include a nuclear reactor, compressors and/or pumps, heat exchanger units and other equipment needed for circulating hot heat transfer fluid to the wellbores. Facilities 280 may also include surface facilities for treating formation fluid produced from the formation. In some embodiments, heat transfer fluid produced in facility 280' may be reheated by the reactor in facility 280" after passing through treatment area 264A. In some embodiments, each facility 280 is used to provide hot heat transfer fluid to wells in one half of the treatment area 264 adjacent to the facility.
Facilities 280 may be moved by rail to another facility site after production from a treatment area is completed.
[0095] In some in situ heat treatment embodiments, compressors provide compressed gases to the treatment area. For example, compressors may be used to provide oxidizing fluid 282 and /or fuel 284 to a plurality of oxidizer assemblies like oxidizer assembly 286 depicted in FIG. 10. Each oxidizer assembly 286 may include a number of oxidizers 288.
Oxidizers 288 may bum a mixture of oxidizing fluid 282 and fuel 284 to produce heat that heats the treatment area in the formation. Also, compressors 222 may be used to supply gas phase heat transfer fluid to the formation as depicted in FIG. 3. In some embodiments, pumps provide liquid phase heat transfer fluid to the treatment area.
[0096] A significant cost of the in situ heat treatment process may be operating the compressors and/or pumps over the life of the in situ heat treatment process if conventional electrical energy sources are used to power the compressors and/or pumps of the in situ heat treatment process. In some embodiments, nuclear power may be used to generate electricity that operates the compressors and/or pumps needed for the in situ heat treatment process. The nuclear power may be supplied by one or more nuclear reactors.
The nuclear to reactors may be light water reactors, pebble bed reactors, and/or other types of nuclear reactors. The nuclear reactors may be located at or near to the in situ heat treatment process site. Locating the nuclear reactors at or near to the in situ heat treatment process site may reduce equipment costs and electrical transmission losses over long distances.
The use of nuclear power may reduce or eliminate the amount of carbon dioxide generation associated with operating the compressors and/or pumps over the life of the in situ heat treatment process.
[0097] Excess electricity generated by the nuclear reactors may be used for other in situ heat treatment process needs. For example, excess electricity may be used to cool fluid for forming a low temperature barrier (frozen barrier) around treatment areas, and/or for providing electricity to treatment facilities located at or near the in situ heat treatment process site. In some embodiments, the electricity or excess electricity produced by the nuclear reactors may be used to resistively heat the conduits used to circulate heat transfer fluid through the treatment area.
[0098] In some embodiments, excess heat available from the nuclear reactors may be used for other in situ processes. For example, excess heat may be used to heat water or make steam that is used in solution mining processes. In some embodiments, excess heat from the nuclear reactors may be used to heat fluids used in the treatment facilities located near or at the in situ heat treatment site.
[0099] Further modifications and alternative embodiments of various aspects of the invention may be apparent to those skilled in the art in view of this description.
Accordingly, this description is to be construed as illustrative only and is for the purpose of teaching those skilled in the art the general manner of carrying out the invention. It is to be understood that the forms of the invention shown and described herein are to be taken as the presently preferred embodiments. Elements and materials may be substituted for those illustrated and described herein, parts and processes may be reversed, and certain features of the invention may be utilized independently, all as would be apparent to one skilled in the art after having the benefit of this description of the invention. Changes may be made in the elements described herein without departing from the scope of the invention as described in the following claims. In addition, it is to be understood that features described herein independently may, in certain embodiments, be combined.

Claims (20)

CLAIMS:
1. An in situ heat treatment system for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation, comprising:
a plurality of wellbores in the formation;
piping positioned in at least two of the wellbores;
a fluid circulation system coupled to the piping;
a heat supply configured to heat a liquid heat transfer fluid circulated by the circulation system through the piping to heat the formation to temperatures that allow for hydrocarbon production from the formation; and one or more electrical heaters coupled to the piping configured to initially heat the piping to a temperature above a solidification temperature of the liquid heat transfer fluid.
2. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the heat supply comprises a nuclear reactor.
3. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the heat supply comprises a gas burning furnace.
4. The system as claimed in any one of claims 1-3, wherein the heat transfer fluid comprises a molten salt.
5. The system as claimed in any one of claims 1-3, wherein the heat transfer fluid comprises a molten metal.
6. The system as claimed in any one of claims 1-5, wherein the one or more electrical heaters comprise one or more heaters placed in the piping.
7. The system as claimed in any one of claims 1-6, wherein the electrical heater comprises one or more conductors coupled to the piping, the conductors configured to apply electricity to the piping to resistively heat the piping.
8. The system as claimed in any one of claims 1-7, wherein the circulation system comprises a gas lift system configured to return molten salt to the surface.
9. A method of heating a subsurface formation, comprising:
heating a liquid heat transfer fluid using heat exchange with a heat supply, wherein the liquid heat transfer fluid is heated to a temperature sufficient to inhibit solidification of the liquid heat transfer fluid during use, and wherein the heat transfer fluid comprises one or more molten salts;
circulating the liquid heat transfer fluid through piping in the formation to heat a portion of the formation to allow hydrocarbons to be produced from the formation; and producing hydrocarbons from the formation.
10. The method as claimed in claim 9, wherein the heat supply comprises a nuclear reactor.
11. The method as claimed in any one of claims 9-10, further comprising returning the liquid heat transfer fluid to the surface using a gas lift system.
12. The method as claimed in any one of claims 9-11, further comprising heating the piping to a temperature sufficient to inhibit solidification of the molten salt in the piping using one or more electrical heaters.
13. The method as claimed in claim 12, wherein heating the piping using one or more electrical heaters comprises flowing current through the piping to resistively heat the piping.
14. The method as claimed in claim 12, wherein heating the piping using one more electrical heaters comprises placing a insulated conductor heater in or more portions of the piping and heating the insulated conductor heater to heat the piping.
15. A method of heating a subsurface formation, comprising:
passing a liquid heat transfer fluid from a vessel to a heat exchanger;
heating the liquid heat transfer fluid to a first temperature, wherein the first temperature is sufficient to inhibit solidification of the liquid heat transfer fluid, and wherein the heat transfer fluid comprises one or more molten salts;
flowing the liquid heat transfer fluid through a heater section to a sump, wherein heat transfers from the heater section to a treatment area in the formation; and gas lifting the liquid heat transfer fluid to the surface from the sump; and returning at least a portion of the liquid heat transfer fluid to the vessel.
16. The method as claimed in claim 15, wherein a fluid used to gas lift the liquid heat transfer fluid comprises carbon dioxide.
17. The method as claimed in any one of claims 15-16, wherein a fluid used to gas lift the liquid heat transfer fluid comprises methane.
18. The method as claimed in any one of claims 15-17, wherein the liquid heat transfer fluid is gas lifted from the sump through a conduit, and further comprising heating the conduit to inhibit solidification of liquid heat transfer fluid in the conduit.
19. The method as claimed in any one of claims 15-18, wherein the heat exchanger comprises one or more gas burners.
20. The method as claimed in any one of claims 15-19, wherein the heat exchanger comprises a tube-in-shell heat exchanger configured to transfer heat from a hot stream produced by a nuclear reactor.
CA 2665869 2006-10-20 2007-10-19 In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system Active CA2665869C (en)

Priority Applications (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US85309606 true 2006-10-20 2006-10-20
US60/853,096 2006-10-20
US92568507 true 2007-04-20 2007-04-20
US60/925,685 2007-04-20
PCT/US2007/081918 WO2008051836A3 (en) 2006-10-20 2007-10-19 In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
CA2665869A1 true CA2665869A1 (en) 2008-05-02
CA2665869C true CA2665869C (en) 2015-06-16

Family

ID=39324928

Family Applications (9)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CA 2666956 Active CA2666956C (en) 2006-10-20 2007-10-19 Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures
CA 2665864 Active CA2665864C (en) 2006-10-20 2007-10-19 Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a checkerboard pattern staged process
CA 2665869 Active CA2665869C (en) 2006-10-20 2007-10-19 In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system
CA 2666947 Active CA2666947C (en) 2006-10-20 2007-10-19 Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure
CA 2665862 Active CA2665862C (en) 2006-10-20 2007-10-19 Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process
CA 2667274 Abandoned CA2667274A1 (en) 2006-10-20 2007-10-19 Systems and processes for use in treating subsurface formations
CA 2666206 Abandoned CA2666206A1 (en) 2006-10-20 2007-10-19 In situ heat treatment process utilizing oxidizers to heat a subsurface formation
CA 2666959 Active CA2666959C (en) 2006-10-20 2007-10-19 Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid
CA 2665865 Expired - Fee Related CA2665865C (en) 2006-10-20 2007-10-19 Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence

Family Applications Before (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CA 2666956 Active CA2666956C (en) 2006-10-20 2007-10-19 Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures
CA 2665864 Active CA2665864C (en) 2006-10-20 2007-10-19 Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a checkerboard pattern staged process

Family Applications After (6)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CA 2666947 Active CA2666947C (en) 2006-10-20 2007-10-19 Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure
CA 2665862 Active CA2665862C (en) 2006-10-20 2007-10-19 Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process
CA 2667274 Abandoned CA2667274A1 (en) 2006-10-20 2007-10-19 Systems and processes for use in treating subsurface formations
CA 2666206 Abandoned CA2666206A1 (en) 2006-10-20 2007-10-19 In situ heat treatment process utilizing oxidizers to heat a subsurface formation
CA 2666959 Active CA2666959C (en) 2006-10-20 2007-10-19 Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid
CA 2665865 Expired - Fee Related CA2665865C (en) 2006-10-20 2007-10-19 Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence

Country Status (7)

Country Link
US (18) US7677314B2 (en)
EP (5) EP2074282A2 (en)
JP (5) JP5330999B2 (en)
CA (9) CA2666956C (en)
GB (3) GB2456251B (en)
RU (7) RU2460871C2 (en)
WO (10) WO2008051836A3 (en)

Families Citing this family (198)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6820688B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-11-23 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of coal formation with a selected hydrogen content and/or selected H/C ratio
US6918442B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-07-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation in a reducing environment
CN1671944B (en) 2001-10-24 2011-06-08 国际壳牌研究有限公司 Installation and use of removable heaters in a hydrocarbon containing formation
DE10245103A1 (en) * 2002-09-27 2004-04-08 General Electric Co. Cabinet for a wind turbine system and method for operating a wind power plant
WO2004097159A9 (en) 2003-04-24 2006-12-07 Shell Int Research Thermal processes for subsurface formations
DE10323774A1 (en) * 2003-05-26 2004-12-16 Khd Humboldt Wedag Ag Process and apparatus for drying a wet-milled cement raw meal thermal
US8296968B2 (en) * 2003-06-13 2012-10-30 Charles Hensley Surface drying apparatus and method
CN1839289B (en) * 2003-08-21 2010-07-21 凯尔图·埃里克森 Method and apparatus for dehumidification
WO2005106193A1 (en) 2004-04-23 2005-11-10 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. Temperature limited heaters used to heat subsurface formations
DE102004025528B4 (en) * 2004-05-25 2010-03-04 Eisenmann Anlagenbau Gmbh & Co. Kg Method and apparatus for drying coated articles
JP2006147827A (en) * 2004-11-19 2006-06-08 Seiko Epson Corp Method for forming wiring pattern, process for manufacturing device, device, electrooptical device, and electronic apparatus
DE102005000782A1 (en) * 2005-01-05 2006-07-20 Voith Paper Patent Gmbh Drying cylinder for use in the production or finishing of fibrous webs, e.g. paper, comprises heating fluid channels between a supporting structure and a thin outer casing
US7831134B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2010-11-09 Shell Oil Company Grouped exposed metal heaters
EP1871987B1 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-04-01 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. In situ conversion process systems utilizing wellbores in at least two regions of a formation
CA2626969C (en) * 2005-10-24 2014-06-10 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. Temperature limited heater with a conduit substantially electrically isolated from the formation
CA2650089C (en) 2006-04-21 2015-02-10 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material
US7603261B2 (en) * 2006-07-11 2009-10-13 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Method for predicting acid placement in carbonate reservoirs
CA2658943C (en) 2006-08-23 2014-06-17 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Composition and method for using waxy oil-external emulsions to modify reservoir permeability profiles
EP1902825B1 (en) * 2006-09-20 2011-11-09 ECON Maschinenbau und Steuerungstechnik GmbH Apparatus for dewatering and drying solid materials, especially plastics pelletized using an underwater granulator
JP4986559B2 (en) * 2006-09-25 2012-07-25 株式会社Kelk Temperature control apparatus and method for fluid
WO2008051836A3 (en) 2006-10-20 2008-07-10 Shell Oil Co In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system
JP5180466B2 (en) * 2006-12-19 2013-04-10 昭和シェル石油株式会社 Lubricating oil compositions
KR100814858B1 (en) * 2007-02-21 2008-03-20 삼성에스디아이 주식회사 Driving method for heating unit used in reformer, reformer applied the same, and fuel cell system applied the same
CN101688442B (en) 2007-04-20 2014-07-09 国际壳牌研究有限公司 Molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation
JP5063195B2 (en) * 2007-05-31 2012-10-31 ラピスセミコンダクタ株式会社 Data processing equipment
US7919645B2 (en) * 2007-06-27 2011-04-05 H R D Corporation High shear system and process for the production of acetic anhydride
US7836957B2 (en) * 2007-09-11 2010-11-23 Singleton Alan H In situ conversion of subsurface hydrocarbon deposits to synthesis gas
WO2009052054A1 (en) 2007-10-19 2009-04-23 Shell Oil Company Systems, methods, and processes utilized for treating subsurface formations
CA2706083A1 (en) * 2007-11-19 2009-05-28 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. Systems and methods for producing oil and/or gas
RU2494233C2 (en) * 2007-11-19 2013-09-27 Шелл Интернэшнл Рисерч Маатсхаппий Б.В. Oil and/or gas extraction system and method
US7673687B2 (en) * 2007-12-05 2010-03-09 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Cement compositions comprising crystalline organic materials and methods of using same
US7882893B2 (en) * 2008-01-11 2011-02-08 Legacy Energy Combined miscible drive for heavy oil production
WO2009098597A3 (en) * 2008-02-06 2009-10-01 Osum Oil Sands Corp. Method of controlling a recovery and upgrading operation in a reservor
RU2498055C2 (en) * 2008-02-27 2013-11-10 Шелл Интернэшнл Рисерч Маатсхаппий Б.В. Oil and/or gas extraction system and method
US20090260811A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-10-22 Jingyu Cui Methods for generation of subsurface heat for treatment of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20090260825A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-10-22 Stanley Nemec Milam Method for recovery of hydrocarbons from a subsurface hydrocarbon containing formation
US20090260809A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-10-22 Scott Lee Wellington Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7841407B2 (en) * 2008-04-18 2010-11-30 Shell Oil Company Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8172335B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-05-08 Shell Oil Company Electrical current flow between tunnels for use in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090260810A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-10-22 Michael Anthony Reynolds Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20090260812A1 (en) * 2008-04-18 2009-10-22 Michael Anthony Reynolds Methods of treating a hydrocarbon containing formation
US9074465B2 (en) 2009-06-03 2015-07-07 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Methods for allocating commingled oil production
GB2460668B (en) * 2008-06-04 2012-08-01 Schlumberger Holdings Subsea fluid sampling and analysis
US8485257B2 (en) * 2008-08-06 2013-07-16 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Supercritical pentane as an extractant for oil shale
CA2774095A1 (en) * 2008-09-13 2010-03-18 Louis Bilhete Method and apparatus for underground oil extraction
JP2010073002A (en) * 2008-09-19 2010-04-02 Hoya Corp Image processor and camera
US8220539B2 (en) * 2008-10-13 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Controlling hydrogen pressure in self-regulating nuclear reactors used to treat a subsurface formation
US9052116B2 (en) 2008-10-30 2015-06-09 Power Generation Technologies Development Fund, L.P. Toroidal heat exchanger
CN102203388B (en) 2008-10-30 2015-11-25 电力技术发展基金公司 An annular gas turbine boundary layer
CA2747045C (en) * 2008-11-03 2013-02-12 Laricina Energy Ltd. Passive heating assisted recovery methods
US8398862B1 (en) * 2008-12-05 2013-03-19 Charles Saron Knobloch Geothermal recovery method and system
JP2012514148A (en) * 2008-12-31 2012-06-21 シェブロン ユー.エス.エー. インコーポレイテッド Method for producing hydrocarbons from hydrate reservoirs using available waste heat and system
US7909093B2 (en) * 2009-01-15 2011-03-22 Conocophillips Company In situ combustion as adjacent formation heat source
CA2692204C (en) * 2009-02-06 2014-01-21 Javier Enrique Sanmiguel Method of gas-cap air injection for thermal oil recovery
US9034176B2 (en) 2009-03-02 2015-05-19 Harris Corporation Radio frequency heating of petroleum ore by particle susceptors
US8494775B2 (en) * 2009-03-02 2013-07-23 Harris Corporation Reflectometry real time remote sensing for in situ hydrocarbon processing
US8616323B1 (en) 2009-03-11 2013-12-31 Echogen Power Systems Hybrid power systems
US20100258291A1 (en) 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 Everett De St Remey Edward Heated liners for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
WO2010121255A1 (en) 2009-04-17 2010-10-21 Echogen Power Systems System and method for managing thermal issues in gas turbine engines
US9265556B2 (en) 2009-04-17 2016-02-23 Domain Surgical, Inc. Thermally adjustable surgical tool, balloon catheters and sculpting of biologic materials
US9131977B2 (en) 2009-04-17 2015-09-15 Domain Surgical, Inc. Layered ferromagnetic coated conductor thermal surgical tool
US9078655B2 (en) 2009-04-17 2015-07-14 Domain Surgical, Inc. Heated balloon catheter
US8523850B2 (en) 2009-04-17 2013-09-03 Domain Surgical, Inc. Method for heating a surgical implement
US9107666B2 (en) 2009-04-17 2015-08-18 Domain Surgical, Inc. Thermal resecting loop
WO2010151560A1 (en) 2009-06-22 2010-12-29 Echogen Power Systems Inc. System and method for managing thermal issues in one or more industrial processes
US8332191B2 (en) * 2009-07-14 2012-12-11 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Correction factors for electromagnetic measurements made through conductive material
CA2710078C (en) * 2009-07-22 2015-11-10 Conocophillips Company Hydrocarbon recovery method
US9316404B2 (en) 2009-08-04 2016-04-19 Echogen Power Systems, Llc Heat pump with integral solar collector
US8267197B2 (en) * 2009-08-25 2012-09-18 Baker Hughes Incorporated Apparatus and methods for controlling bottomhole assembly temperature during a pause in drilling boreholes
US8869531B2 (en) 2009-09-17 2014-10-28 Echogen Power Systems, Llc Heat engines with cascade cycles
US8613195B2 (en) 2009-09-17 2013-12-24 Echogen Power Systems, Llc Heat engine and heat to electricity systems and methods with working fluid mass management control
US9115605B2 (en) 2009-09-17 2015-08-25 Echogen Power Systems, Llc Thermal energy conversion device
US8813497B2 (en) 2009-09-17 2014-08-26 Echogen Power Systems, Llc Automated mass management control
US8356935B2 (en) 2009-10-09 2013-01-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for assessing a temperature in a subsurface formation
US9466896B2 (en) 2009-10-09 2016-10-11 Shell Oil Company Parallelogram coupling joint for coupling insulated conductors
US8257112B2 (en) 2009-10-09 2012-09-04 Shell Oil Company Press-fit coupling joint for joining insulated conductors
US20120198844A1 (en) * 2009-10-22 2012-08-09 Kaminsky Robert D System and Method For Producing Geothermal Energy
US8602103B2 (en) * 2009-11-24 2013-12-10 Conocophillips Company Generation of fluid for hydrocarbon recovery
CA2784496A1 (en) * 2009-12-15 2011-07-14 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. System, method and assembly for wellbore maintenance operations
KR101775608B1 (en) 2010-01-21 2017-09-19 파워다인, 인코포레이티드 Generating steam from carbonaceous material
US20110198095A1 (en) * 2010-02-15 2011-08-18 Marc Vianello System and process for flue gas processing
CA2693640C (en) 2010-02-17 2013-10-01 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Solvent separation in a solvent-dominated recovery process
CA2696638C (en) 2010-03-16 2012-08-07 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Use of a solvent-external emulsion for in situ oil recovery
US8616001B2 (en) 2010-11-29 2013-12-31 Echogen Power Systems, Llc Driven starter pump and start sequence
JP5868942B2 (en) * 2010-04-09 2016-02-24 シエル・インターナシヨナル・リサーチ・マートスハツペイ・ベー・ヴエー Spiral wound for installation of the insulated conductor heater
US8833453B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-09-16 Shell Oil Company Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with tapered copper thickness
US8701769B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-04-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations based on geology
US8631866B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-01-21 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US8939207B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-01-27 Shell Oil Company Insulated conductor heaters with semiconductor layers
US8502120B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2013-08-06 Shell Oil Company Insulating blocks and methods for installation in insulated conductor heaters
US9033042B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-05-19 Shell Oil Company Forming bitumen barriers in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US20110277996A1 (en) * 2010-05-11 2011-11-17 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Subterranean flow barriers containing tracers
US8955591B1 (en) 2010-05-13 2015-02-17 Future Energy, Llc Methods and systems for delivery of thermal energy
CA2705643C (en) 2010-05-26 2016-11-01 Imperial Oil Resources Limited Optimization of solvent-dominated recovery
CA2808416C (en) 2010-08-18 2016-06-07 Future Energy Llc Methods and systems for enhanced delivery of thermal energy for horizontal wellbores
US8646527B2 (en) * 2010-09-20 2014-02-11 Harris Corporation Radio frequency enhanced steam assisted gravity drainage method for recovery of hydrocarbons
CA2812589A1 (en) * 2010-09-24 2012-03-29 Conocophillips Company In situ hydrocarbon upgrading with fluid generated to provide steam and hydrogen
US8732946B2 (en) 2010-10-08 2014-05-27 Shell Oil Company Mechanical compaction of insulator for insulated conductor splices
US8857051B2 (en) 2010-10-08 2014-10-14 Shell Oil Company System and method for coupling lead-in conductor to insulated conductor
US8943686B2 (en) 2010-10-08 2015-02-03 Shell Oil Company Compaction of electrical insulation for joining insulated conductors
US8857186B2 (en) 2010-11-29 2014-10-14 Echogen Power Systems, L.L.C. Heat engine cycles for high ambient conditions
US9033033B2 (en) 2010-12-21 2015-05-19 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Electrokinetic enhanced hydrocarbon recovery from oil shale
US20120152570A1 (en) * 2010-12-21 2012-06-21 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. System and Method For Enhancing Oil Recovery From A Subterranean Reservoir
US20150233224A1 (en) * 2010-12-21 2015-08-20 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. System and method for enhancing oil recovery from a subterranean reservoir
US20120152537A1 (en) * 2010-12-21 2012-06-21 Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Auger for gas and liquid recovery from regolith
US8936089B2 (en) 2010-12-22 2015-01-20 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. In-situ kerogen conversion and recovery
US9127897B2 (en) 2010-12-30 2015-09-08 Kellogg Brown & Root Llc Submersed heat exchanger
US8443897B2 (en) * 2011-01-06 2013-05-21 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Subsea safety system having a protective frangible liner and method of operating same
CA2739953A1 (en) * 2011-02-11 2012-08-11 Cenovus Energy Inc. Method for displacement of water from a porous and permeable formation
CA2761321C (en) * 2011-02-11 2014-08-12 Cenovus Energy, Inc. Selective displacement of water in pressure communication with a hydrocarbon reservoir
RU2468452C1 (en) * 2011-03-02 2012-11-27 Открытое акционерное общество "Государственный научный центр Научно-исследовательский институт атомных реакторов" Operating method of nuclear reactor with organic heat carrier
WO2012119076A3 (en) * 2011-03-03 2013-08-15 Conocophillips Company In situ combustion following sagd
WO2012137068A9 (en) 2011-04-07 2016-02-18 Evolution Well Service Inc. Mobile, modular, electrically powered system for use in fracturing underground formations
WO2012138883A1 (en) 2011-04-08 2012-10-11 Shell Oil Company Systems for joining insulated conductors
EP2704657A4 (en) 2011-04-08 2014-12-31 Domain Surgical Inc Impedance matching circuit
US9016370B2 (en) 2011-04-08 2015-04-28 Shell Oil Company Partial solution mining of hydrocarbon containing layers prior to in situ heat treatment
US8932279B2 (en) 2011-04-08 2015-01-13 Domain Surgical, Inc. System and method for cooling of a heated surgical instrument and/or surgical site and treating tissue
WO2012149025A1 (en) * 2011-04-25 2012-11-01 Conocophillips Company In situ radio frequency catalytic upgrading
WO2012158722A3 (en) 2011-05-16 2013-03-21 Mcnally, David, J. Surgical instrument guide
US9051828B2 (en) 2011-06-17 2015-06-09 Athabasca Oil Sands Corp. Thermally assisted gravity drainage (TAGD)
US9279316B2 (en) 2011-06-17 2016-03-08 Athabasca Oil Corporation Thermally assisted gravity drainage (TAGD)
RU2014101695A (en) 2011-06-22 2015-07-27 Конокофиллипс Компани Selecting and extracting core samples from unconsolidated or loose seams
US9188691B2 (en) * 2011-07-05 2015-11-17 Pgs Geophysical As Towing methods and systems for geophysical surveys
WO2013010212A1 (en) * 2011-07-15 2013-01-24 Hine Garry System and method for power generation using a hybrid geothermal power plant including a nuclear plant
WO2013040255A3 (en) 2011-09-13 2014-05-15 Domain Surgical, Inc. Sealing and/or cutting instrument
RU2474677C1 (en) * 2011-10-03 2013-02-10 Открытое акционерное общество "Татнефть" имени В.Д. Шашина Development method of oil deposit with horizontal wells
US20130146288A1 (en) * 2011-10-03 2013-06-13 David Randolph Smith Method and apparatus to increase recovery of hydrocarbons
WO2013055391A1 (en) 2011-10-03 2013-04-18 Echogen Power Systems, Llc Carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle
CA2791725A1 (en) * 2011-10-07 2013-04-07 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. Treating hydrocarbon formations using hybrid in situ heat treatment and steam methods
EP2791460A4 (en) 2011-10-07 2015-12-23 Shell Int Research Forming insulated conductors using a final reduction step after heat treating
CN103987915B (en) 2011-10-07 2016-11-09 国际壳牌研究有限公司 Integrally bonding head for insulated wires
RU2612774C2 (en) 2011-10-07 2017-03-13 Шелл Интернэшнл Рисерч Маатсхаппий Б.В. Thermal expansion accommodation for systems with circulating fluid medium, used for rocks thickness heating
WO2013052566A1 (en) 2011-10-07 2013-04-11 Shell Oil Company Using dielectric properties of an insulated conductor in a subsurface formation to assess properties of the insulated conductor
RU2474678C1 (en) * 2011-10-13 2013-02-10 Открытое акционерное общество "Татнефть" имени В.Д. Шашина Development method of oil deposit with horizontal wells
US9243482B2 (en) * 2011-11-01 2016-01-26 Nem Energy B.V. Steam supply for enhanced oil recovery
US8783034B2 (en) 2011-11-07 2014-07-22 Echogen Power Systems, Llc Hot day cycle
CA2797554A1 (en) 2011-11-30 2013-05-30 Energy Heating Llc Mobile water heating apparatus
CN104039255B (en) 2011-12-06 2017-10-24 领域外科股份有限公司 A power control system and method for delivery of a surgical instrument
US8701788B2 (en) 2011-12-22 2014-04-22 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Preconditioning a subsurface shale formation by removing extractible organics
US9181467B2 (en) 2011-12-22 2015-11-10 Uchicago Argonne, Llc Preparation and use of nano-catalysts for in-situ reaction with kerogen
US8851177B2 (en) 2011-12-22 2014-10-07 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. In-situ kerogen conversion and oxidant regeneration
ES2482668T3 (en) * 2012-01-03 2014-08-04 Quantum Technologie Gmbh Apparatus and method for the exploitation of oil sands
US9222612B2 (en) 2012-01-06 2015-12-29 Vadxx Energy LLC Anti-fouling apparatus for cleaning deposits in pipes and pipe joints
CA2898956A1 (en) 2012-01-23 2013-08-01 Genie Ip B.V. Heater pattern for in situ thermal processing of a subsurface hydrocarbon containing formation
RU2488690C1 (en) * 2012-01-27 2013-07-27 Открытое акционерное общество "Татнефть" имени В.Д. Шашина Development method of oil deposits with horizontal wells
CA2766844A1 (en) * 2012-02-06 2013-08-06 Imperial Oil Resources Limited Heating a hydrocarbon reservoir
CN104105781A (en) * 2012-02-09 2014-10-15 梵德克斯能源有限责任公司 Zone-delineated pyrolysis apparatus for conversion of polymer waste
CA2811666A1 (en) 2012-04-05 2013-10-05 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. Compaction of electrical insulation for joining insulated conductors
US8992771B2 (en) 2012-05-25 2015-03-31 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Isolating lubricating oils from subsurface shale formations
RU2507388C1 (en) * 2012-07-27 2014-02-20 Открытое акционерное общество "Татнефть" имени В.Д. Шашина Method of extra-heavy oil and/or bitumen deposits development with help of inclined wells
WO2014031526A1 (en) 2012-08-20 2014-02-27 Echogen Power Systems, L.L.C. Supercritical working fluid circuit with a turbo pump and a start pump in series configuration
WO2014039726A1 (en) 2012-09-05 2014-03-13 Powerdyne, Inc. System for generating fuel materials using fischer-tropsch catalysts and plasma sources
EP2900353A4 (en) 2012-09-05 2016-05-18 Powerdyne Inc Method for sequestering heavy metal particulates using h2o, co2, o2, and a source of particulates
US9410452B2 (en) 2012-09-05 2016-08-09 Powerdyne, Inc. Fuel generation using high-voltage electric fields methods
EP2892643A4 (en) 2012-09-05 2016-05-11 Powerdyne Inc Methods for generating hydrogen gas using plasma sources
WO2014039719A1 (en) 2012-09-05 2014-03-13 Powerdyne, Inc. Fuel generation using high-voltage electric fields methods
WO2014039711A1 (en) 2012-09-05 2014-03-13 Powerdyne, Inc. Fuel generation using high-voltage electric fields methods
WO2014039706A1 (en) 2012-09-05 2014-03-13 Powerdyne, Inc. Methods for power generation from h2o, co2, o2 and a carbon feed stock
US9140110B2 (en) 2012-10-05 2015-09-22 Evolution Well Services, Llc Mobile, modular, electrically powered system for use in fracturing underground formations using liquid petroleum gas
US9118226B2 (en) 2012-10-12 2015-08-25 Echogen Power Systems, Llc Heat engine system with a supercritical working fluid and processes thereof
US9341084B2 (en) 2012-10-12 2016-05-17 Echogen Power Systems, Llc Supercritical carbon dioxide power cycle for waste heat recovery
US9638065B2 (en) 2013-01-28 2017-05-02 Echogen Power Systems, Llc Methods for reducing wear on components of a heat engine system at startup
WO2014117074A1 (en) 2013-01-28 2014-07-31 Echogen Power Systems, L.L.C. Process for controlling a power turbine throttle valve during a supercritical carbon dioxide rankine cycle
US9194221B2 (en) 2013-02-13 2015-11-24 Harris Corporation Apparatus for heating hydrocarbons with RF antenna assembly having segmented dipole elements and related methods
US9284826B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-03-15 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Oil extraction using radio frequency heating
US9738837B2 (en) 2013-05-13 2017-08-22 Cenovus Energy, Inc. Process and system for treating oil sands produced gases and liquids
CA2918201A1 (en) 2013-06-13 2014-12-18 Conocophillips Company Chemical treatment for organic fouling in boilers
US9435175B2 (en) * 2013-11-08 2016-09-06 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Oilfield surface equipment cooling system
US9399907B2 (en) 2013-11-20 2016-07-26 Shell Oil Company Steam-injecting mineral insulated heater design
US9556723B2 (en) 2013-12-09 2017-01-31 Baker Hughes Incorporated Geosteering boreholes using distributed acoustic sensing
US9435183B2 (en) 2014-01-13 2016-09-06 Bernard Compton Chung Steam environmentally generated drainage system and method
JP6217426B2 (en) * 2014-02-07 2017-10-25 いすゞ自動車株式会社 Waste heat recovery system
US20150226129A1 (en) * 2014-02-10 2015-08-13 General Electric Company Method for Detecting Hazardous Gas Concentrations within a Gas Turbine Enclosure
CA2882182A1 (en) 2014-02-18 2015-08-18 Athabasca Oil Corporation Cable-based well heater
CA2852766A1 (en) * 2014-05-29 2015-11-29 Chris Elliott Thermally induced expansion drive in heavy oil reservoirs
RU2583797C2 (en) * 2014-06-26 2016-05-10 Акционерное общество "Зарубежнефть" Method of creating combustion source in oil reservoir
US9451792B1 (en) * 2014-09-05 2016-09-27 Atmos Nation, LLC Systems and methods for vaporizing assembly
EP3215711A1 (en) * 2014-10-08 2017-09-13 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Electromagnetic imaging for structural inspection
RU2569375C1 (en) * 2014-10-21 2015-11-27 Николай Борисович Болотин Method and device for heating producing oil-bearing formation
CN104785515B (en) * 2015-04-27 2017-10-13 沈逍江 Two-stage auger indirect thermal desorption unit
GB201509772D0 (en) * 2015-06-05 2015-07-22 Statoil Asa Subsurface heater configuration for in situ hydrocarbon production
WO2017015199A1 (en) * 2015-07-21 2017-01-26 University Of Houston System Rapid detection and quantification of surface and bulk corrosion and erosion in metals and non-metallic materials with integrated monitoring system
RU2607127C1 (en) * 2015-07-24 2017-01-10 Открытое акционерное общество "Всероссийский нефтегазовый научно-исследовательский институт имени академика А.П. Крылова" (ОАО "ВНИИнефть") Method for development of non-uniform formations
US9745871B2 (en) 2015-08-24 2017-08-29 Saudi Arabian Oil Company Kalina cycle based conversion of gas processing plant waste heat into power
US9803513B2 (en) 2015-08-24 2017-10-31 Saudi Arabian Oil Company Power generation from waste heat in integrated aromatics, crude distillation, and naphtha block facilities
US9803930B2 (en) 2015-08-24 2017-10-31 Saudi Arabian Oil Company Power generation from waste heat in integrated hydrocracking and diesel hydrotreating facilities
US9803506B2 (en) 2015-08-24 2017-10-31 Saudi Arabian Oil Company Power generation from waste heat in integrated crude oil hydrocracking and aromatics facilities
US9803511B2 (en) 2015-08-24 2017-10-31 Saudi Arabian Oil Company Power generation using independent dual organic rankine cycles from waste heat systems in diesel hydrotreating-hydrocracking and atmospheric distillation-naphtha hydrotreating-aromatics facilities
US9725652B2 (en) 2015-08-24 2017-08-08 Saudi Arabian Oil Company Delayed coking plant combined heating and power generation
US9803507B2 (en) 2015-08-24 2017-10-31 Saudi Arabian Oil Company Power generation using independent dual organic Rankine cycles from waste heat systems in diesel hydrotreating-hydrocracking and continuous-catalytic-cracking-aromatics facilities
US9803505B2 (en) 2015-08-24 2017-10-31 Saudi Arabian Oil Company Power generation from waste heat in integrated aromatics and naphtha block facilities
US9828885B2 (en) 2015-08-24 2017-11-28 Saudi Arabian Oil Company Modified Goswami cycle based conversion of gas processing plant waste heat into power and cooling with flexibility
US9803508B2 (en) 2015-08-24 2017-10-31 Saudi Arabian Oil Company Power generation from waste heat in integrated crude oil diesel hydrotreating and aromatics facilities
US9556719B1 (en) 2015-09-10 2017-01-31 Don P. Griffin Methods for recovering hydrocarbons from shale using thermally-induced microfractures
RU2599653C1 (en) * 2015-09-14 2016-10-10 Публичное акционерное общество "Татнефть" имени В.Д. Шашина Well operation method
WO2017136924A1 (en) * 2016-02-08 2017-08-17 Proton Technologies Canada Inc. In-situ process to produce hydrogen from underground hydrocarbon reservoirs
WO2017212342A3 (en) * 2016-06-10 2018-02-08 Nano Dispersions Technology Inc. Processes and systems for improvement of heavy crude oil using induction heating
KR101800807B1 (en) 2016-11-11 2017-11-23 서강대학교산학협력단 Core-shell composite including iron oxide

Family Cites Families (892)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US48994A (en) 1865-07-25 Improvement in devices for oil-wells
US94813A (en) * 1869-09-14 Improvement in torpedoes for oil-wells
US345586A (en) 1886-07-13 Oil from wells
US326439A (en) 1885-09-15 Protecting wells
US2734579A (en) 1956-02-14 Production from bituminous sands
CA899987A (en) 1972-05-09 Chisso Corporation Method for controlling heat generation locally in a heat-generating pipe utilizing skin effect current
US2732195A (en) 1956-01-24 Ljungstrom
US760304A (en) * 1903-10-24 1904-05-17 Frank S Gilbert Heater for oil-wells.
US1342741A (en) * 1918-01-17 1920-06-08 David T Day Process for extracting oils and hydrocarbon material from shale and similar bituminous rocks
US1269747A (en) 1918-04-06 1918-06-18 Lebbeus H Rogers Method of and apparatus for treating oil-shale.
GB156396A (en) 1919-12-10 1921-01-13 Wilson Woods Hoover An improved method of treating shale and recovering oil therefrom
US1510655A (en) * 1922-11-21 1924-10-07 Clark Cornelius Process of subterranean distillation of volatile mineral substances
US1634236A (en) * 1925-03-10 1927-06-28 Standard Dev Co Method of and apparatus for recovering oil
US1646599A (en) 1925-04-30 1927-10-25 George A Schaefer Apparatus for removing fluid from wells
US1666488A (en) 1927-02-05 1928-04-17 Crawshaw Richard Apparatus for extracting oil from shale
US1681523A (en) * 1927-03-26 1928-08-21 Patrick V Downey Apparatus for heating oil wells
US1913395A (en) 1929-11-14 1933-06-13 Lewis C Karrick Underground gasification of carbonaceous material-bearing substances
US2144144A (en) * 1935-10-05 1939-01-17 Meria Tool Company Means for elevating liquids from wells
US2288857A (en) 1937-10-18 1942-07-07 Union Oil Co Process for the removal of bitumen from bituminous deposits
US2244255A (en) 1939-01-18 1941-06-03 Electrical Treating Company Well clearing system
US2244256A (en) 1939-12-16 1941-06-03 Electrical Treating Company Apparatus for clearing wells
US2319702A (en) 1941-04-04 1943-05-18 Socony Vacuum Oil Co Inc Method and apparatus for producing oil wells
US2365591A (en) 1942-08-15 1944-12-19 Ranney Leo Method for producing oil from viscous deposits
US2423674A (en) * 1942-08-24 1947-07-08 Johnson & Co A Process of catalytic cracking of petroleum hydrocarbons
US2381256A (en) 1942-10-06 1945-08-07 Texas Co Process for treating hydrocarbon fractions
US2390770A (en) 1942-10-10 1945-12-11 Sun Oil Co Method of producing petroleum
US2484063A (en) * 1944-08-19 1949-10-11 Thermactor Corp Electric heater for subsurface materials
US2472445A (en) 1945-02-02 1949-06-07 Thermactor Company Apparatus for treating oil and gas bearing strata
US2481051A (en) 1945-12-15 1949-09-06 Texaco Development Corp Process and apparatus for the recovery of volatilizable constituents from underground carbonaceous formations
US2444755A (en) * 1946-01-04 1948-07-06 Ralph M Steffen Apparatus for oil sand heating
US2634961A (en) 1946-01-07 1953-04-14 Svensk Skifferolje Aktiebolage Method of electrothermal production of shale oil
US2466945A (en) * 1946-02-21 1949-04-12 In Situ Gases Inc Generation of synthesis gas
US2497868A (en) 1946-10-10 1950-02-21 Dalin David Underground exploitation of fuel deposits
US2939689A (en) * 1947-06-24 1960-06-07 Svenska Skifferolje Ab Electrical heater for treating oilshale and the like
US2786660A (en) 1948-01-05 1957-03-26 Phillips Petroleum Co Apparatus for gasifying coal
US2548360A (en) 1948-03-29 1951-04-10 Stanley A Germain Electric oil well heater
US2685930A (en) 1948-08-12 1954-08-10 Union Oil Co Oil well production process
US2630307A (en) 1948-12-09 1953-03-03 Carbonic Products Inc Method of recovering oil from oil shale
US2595979A (en) * 1949-01-25 1952-05-06 Texas Co Underground liquefaction of coal
US2642943A (en) * 1949-05-20 1953-06-23 Sinclair Oil & Gas Co Oil recovery process
US2593477A (en) 1949-06-10 1952-04-22 Us Interior Process of underground gasification of coal
GB674082A (en) 1949-06-15 1952-06-18 Nat Res Dev Improvements in or relating to the underground gasification of coal
US2670802A (en) 1949-12-16 1954-03-02 Thermactor Company Reviving or increasing the production of clogged or congested oil wells
US2714930A (en) 1950-12-08 1955-08-09 Union Oil Co Apparatus for preventing paraffin deposition
US2695163A (en) 1950-12-09 1954-11-23 Stanolind Oil & Gas Co Method for gasification of subterranean carbonaceous deposits
GB697189A (en) 1951-04-09 1953-09-16 Nat Res Dev Improvements relating to the underground gasification of coal
US2630306A (en) 1952-01-03 1953-03-03 Socony Vacuum Oil Co Inc Subterranean retorting of shales
US2757739A (en) 1952-01-07 1956-08-07 Parelex Corp Heating apparatus
US2780450A (en) 1952-03-07 1957-02-05 Svenska Skifferolje Ab Method of recovering oil and gases from non-consolidated bituminous geological formations by a heating treatment in situ
US2777679A (en) 1952-03-07 1957-01-15 Svenska Skifferolje Ab Recovering sub-surface bituminous deposits by creating a frozen barrier and heating in situ
US2789805A (en) 1952-05-27 1957-04-23 Svenska Skifferolje Ab Device for recovering fuel from subterraneous fuel-carrying deposits by heating in their natural location using a chain heat transfer member
US2761663A (en) 1952-09-05 1956-09-04 Louis F Gerdetz Process of underground gasification of coal
US2780449A (en) 1952-12-26 1957-02-05 Sinclair Oil & Gas Co Thermal process for in-situ decomposition of oil shale
US2825408A (en) 1953-03-09 1958-03-04 Sinclair Oil & Gas Company Oil recovery by subsurface thermal processing
US2771954A (en) * 1953-04-29 1956-11-27 Exxon Research Engineering Co Treatment of petroleum production wells
US2703621A (en) * 1953-05-04 1955-03-08 George W Ford Oil well bottom hole flow increasing unit
US2743906A (en) 1953-05-08 1956-05-01 William E Coyle Hydraulic underreamer
US2803305A (en) 1953-05-14 1957-08-20 Pan American Petroleum Corp Oil recovery by underground combustion
US2914309A (en) * 1953-05-25 1959-11-24 Svenska Skifferolje Ab Oil and gas recovery from tar sands
US2847306A (en) 1953-07-01 1958-08-12 Exxon Research Engineering Co Process for recovery of oil from shale
US2902270A (en) 1953-07-17 1959-09-01 Svenska Skifferolje Ab Method of and means in heating of subsurface fuel-containing deposits "in situ"
US2890754A (en) * 1953-10-30 1959-06-16 Svenska Skifferolje Ab Apparatus for recovering combustible substances from subterraneous deposits in situ
US2890755A (en) 1953-12-19 1959-06-16 Svenska Skifferolje Ab Apparatus for recovering combustible substances from subterraneous deposits in situ
US2841375A (en) * 1954-03-03 1958-07-01 Svenska Skifferolje Ab Method for in-situ utilization of fuels by combustion
US2794504A (en) 1954-05-10 1957-06-04 Union Oil Co Well heater
US2793696A (en) 1954-07-22 1957-05-28 Pan American Petroleum Corp Oil recovery by underground combustion
US2787325A (en) * 1954-12-24 1957-04-02 Pure Oil Co Selective treatment of geological formations
US2801699A (en) * 1954-12-24 1957-08-06 Pure Oil Co Process for temporarily and selectively sealing a well
US2923535A (en) 1955-02-11 1960-02-02 Svenska Skifferolje Ab Situ recovery from carbonaceous deposits
US2799341A (en) * 1955-03-04 1957-07-16 Union Oil Co Selective plugging in oil wells
US2801089A (en) 1955-03-14 1957-07-30 California Research Corp Underground shale retorting process
US2862558A (en) 1955-12-28 1958-12-02 Phillips Petroleum Co Recovering oils from formations
US2819761A (en) 1956-01-19 1958-01-14 Continental Oil Co Process of removing viscous oil from a well bore
US2857002A (en) 1956-03-19 1958-10-21 Texas Co Recovery of viscous crude oil
US2906340A (en) 1956-04-05 1959-09-29 Texaco Inc Method of treating a petroleum producing formation
US2991046A (en) 1956-04-16 1961-07-04 Parsons Lional Ashley Combined winch and bollard device
US2889882A (en) 1956-06-06 1959-06-09 Phillips Petroleum Co Oil recovery by in situ combustion
US3120264A (en) * 1956-07-09 1964-02-04 Texaco Development Corp Recovery of oil by in situ combustion
US3016053A (en) 1956-08-02 1962-01-09 George J Medovick Underwater breathing apparatus
US2997105A (en) 1956-10-08 1961-08-22 Pan American Petroleum Corp Burner apparatus
US2932352A (en) 1956-10-25 1960-04-12 Union Oil Co Liquid filled well heater
US2804149A (en) 1956-12-12 1957-08-27 John R Donaldson Oil well heater and reviver
US2952449A (en) 1957-02-01 1960-09-13 Fmc Corp Method of forming underground communication between boreholes
US3127936A (en) 1957-07-26 1964-04-07 Svenska Skifferolje Ab Method of in situ heating of subsurface preferably fuel containing deposits
US2942223A (en) 1957-08-09 1960-06-21 Gen Electric Electrical resistance heater
US2906337A (en) 1957-08-16 1959-09-29 Pure Oil Co Method of recovering bitumen
US3007521A (en) 1957-10-28 1961-11-07 Phillips Petroleum Co Recovery of oil by in situ combustion
US3010516A (en) 1957-11-18 1961-11-28 Phillips Petroleum Co Burner and process for in situ combustion
US2954826A (en) * 1957-12-02 1960-10-04 William E Sievers Heated well production string
US2994376A (en) 1957-12-27 1961-08-01 Phillips Petroleum Co In situ combustion process
US3061009A (en) 1958-01-17 1962-10-30 Svenska Skifferolje Ab Method of recovery from fossil fuel bearing strata
US3062282A (en) * 1958-01-24 1962-11-06 Phillips Petroleum Co Initiation of in situ combustion in a carbonaceous stratum
US3051235A (en) 1958-02-24 1962-08-28 Jersey Prod Res Co Recovery of petroleum crude oil, by in situ combustion and in situ hydrogenation
US3004603A (en) * 1958-03-07 1961-10-17 Phillips Petroleum Co Heater
US3032102A (en) 1958-03-17 1962-05-01 Phillips Petroleum Co In situ combustion method
US3004601A (en) 1958-05-09 1961-10-17 Albert G Bodine Method and apparatus for augmenting oil recovery from wells by refrigeration
US3048221A (en) 1958-05-12 1962-08-07 Phillips Petroleum Co Hydrocarbon recovery by thermal drive
US3026940A (en) 1958-05-19 1962-03-27 Electronic Oil Well Heater Inc Oil well temperature indicator and control
US3010513A (en) 1958-06-12 1961-11-28 Phillips Petroleum Co Initiation of in situ combustion in carbonaceous stratum
US2958519A (en) 1958-06-23 1960-11-01 Phillips Petroleum Co In situ combustion process
US3044545A (en) 1958-10-02 1962-07-17 Phillips Petroleum Co In situ combustion process
US3050123A (en) 1958-10-07 1962-08-21 Cities Service Res & Dev Co Gas fired oil-well burner
US2950240A (en) 1958-10-10 1960-08-23 Socony Mobil Oil Co Inc Selective cracking of aliphatic hydrocarbons
US2974937A (en) 1958-11-03 1961-03-14 Jersey Prod Res Co Petroleum recovery from carbonaceous formations
US2998457A (en) 1958-11-19 1961-08-29 Ashland Oil Inc Production of phenols
US2970826A (en) * 1958-11-21 1961-02-07 Texaco Inc Recovery of oil from oil shale
US3097690A (en) 1958-12-24 1963-07-16 Gulf Research Development Co Process for heating a subsurface formation
US3036632A (en) 1958-12-24 1962-05-29 Socony Mobil Oil Co Inc Recovery of hydrocarbon materials from earth formations by application of heat
US2969226A (en) 1959-01-19 1961-01-24 Pyrochem Corp Pendant parting petro pyrolysis process
US3017168A (en) 1959-01-26 1962-01-16 Phillips Petroleum Co In situ retorting of oil shale
US3110345A (en) * 1959-02-26 1963-11-12 Gulf Research Development Co Low temperature reverse combustion process
US3113619A (en) 1959-03-30 1963-12-10 Phillips Petroleum Co Line drive counterflow in situ combustion process
US3113620A (en) 1959-07-06 1963-12-10 Exxon Research Engineering Co Process for producing viscous oil
US3113623A (en) 1959-07-20 1963-12-10 Union Oil Co Apparatus for underground retorting
US3181613A (en) 1959-07-20 1965-05-04 Union Oil Co Method and apparatus for subterranean heating
US3132692A (en) * 1959-07-27 1964-05-12 Phillips Petroleum Co Use of formation heat from in situ combustion
US3116792A (en) * 1959-07-27 1964-01-07 Phillips Petroleum Co In situ combustion process
US3150715A (en) 1959-09-30 1964-09-29 Shell Oil Co Oil recovery by in situ combustion with water injection
US3095031A (en) 1959-12-09 1963-06-25 Eurenius Malte Oscar Burners for use in bore holes in the ground
US3131763A (en) 1959-12-30 1964-05-05 Texaco Inc Electrical borehole heater
US3163745A (en) 1960-02-29 1964-12-29 Socony Mobil Oil Co Inc Heating of an earth formation penetrated by a well borehole
US3127935A (en) * 1960-04-08 1964-04-07 Marathon Oil Co In situ combustion for oil recovery in tar sands, oil shales and conventional petroleum reservoirs
US3137347A (en) 1960-05-09 1964-06-16 Phillips Petroleum Co In situ electrolinking of oil shale
US3139928A (en) 1960-05-24 1964-07-07 Shell Oil Co Thermal process for in situ decomposition of oil shale
US3058730A (en) 1960-06-03 1962-10-16 Fmc Corp Method of forming underground communication between boreholes
US3106244A (en) 1960-06-20 1963-10-08 Phillips Petroleum Co Process for producing oil shale in situ by electrocarbonization
US3142336A (en) 1960-07-18 1964-07-28 Shell Oil Co Method and apparatus for injecting steam into subsurface formations
US3105545A (en) * 1960-11-21 1963-10-01 Shell Oil Co Method of heating underground formations
US3164207A (en) 1961-01-17 1965-01-05 Wayne H Thessen Method for recovering oil
US3138203A (en) 1961-03-06 1964-06-23 Jersey Prod Res Co Method of underground burning
US3191679A (en) 1961-04-13 1965-06-29 Wendell S Miller Melting process for recovering bitumens from the earth
US3207220A (en) 1961-06-26 1965-09-21 Chester I Williams Electric well heater
US3114417A (en) 1961-08-14 1963-12-17 Ernest T Saftig Electric oil well heater apparatus
US3246695A (en) 1961-08-21 1966-04-19 Charles L Robinson Method for heating minerals in situ with radioactive materials
US3057404A (en) 1961-09-29 1962-10-09 Socony Mobil Oil Co Inc Method and system for producing oil tenaciously held in porous formations
US3183675A (en) * 1961-11-02 1965-05-18 Conch Int Methane Ltd Method of freezing an earth formation
US3170842A (en) 1961-11-06 1965-02-23 Phillips Petroleum Co Subcritical borehole nuclear reactor and process
US3209825A (en) 1962-02-14 1965-10-05 Continental Oil Co Low temperature in-situ combustion
US3205946A (en) 1962-03-12 1965-09-14 Shell Oil Co Consolidation by silica coalescence
US3165154A (en) 1962-03-23 1965-01-12 Phillips Petroleum Co Oil recovery by in situ combustion
US3149670A (en) 1962-03-27 1964-09-22 Smclair Res Inc In-situ heating process
US3149672A (en) 1962-05-04 1964-09-22 Jersey Prod Res Co Method and apparatus for electrical heating of oil-bearing formations
US3208531A (en) 1962-08-21 1965-09-28 Otis Eng Co Inserting tool for locating and anchoring a device in tubing
US3182721A (en) 1962-11-02 1965-05-11 Sun Oil Co Method of petroleum production by forward in situ combustion
US3288648A (en) 1963-02-04 1966-11-29 Pan American Petroleum Corp Process for producing electrical energy from geological liquid hydrocarbon formation
US3258069A (en) 1963-02-07 1966-06-28 Shell Oil Co Method for producing a source of energy from an overpressured formation
US3205942A (en) 1963-02-07 1965-09-14 Socony Mobil Oil Co Inc Method for recovery of hydrocarbons by in situ heating of oil shale
US3221505A (en) 1963-02-20 1965-12-07 Gulf Research Development Co Grouting method
US3221811A (en) 1963-03-11 1965-12-07 Shell Oil Co Mobile in-situ heating of formations
US3250327A (en) 1963-04-02 1966-05-10 Socony Mobil Oil Co Inc Recovering nonflowing hydrocarbons
US3241611A (en) 1963-04-10 1966-03-22 Equity Oil Company Recovery of petroleum products from oil shale
GB959945A (en) 1963-04-18 1964-06-03 Conch Int Methane Ltd Constructing a frozen wall within the ground
US3237689A (en) * 1963-04-29 1966-03-01 Clarence I Justheim Distillation of underground deposits of solid carbonaceous materials in situ
US3205944A (en) 1963-06-14 1965-09-14 Socony Mobil Oil Co Inc Recovery of hydrocarbons from a subterranean reservoir by heating
US3233668A (en) 1963-11-15 1966-02-08 Exxon Production Research Co Recovery of shale oil
US3285335A (en) 1963-12-11 1966-11-15 Exxon Research Engineering Co In situ pyrolysis of oil shale formations
US3273640A (en) 1963-12-13 1966-09-20 Pyrochem Corp Pressure pulsing perpendicular permeability process for winning stabilized primary volatiles from oil shale in situ
US3272261A (en) 1963-12-13 1966-09-13 Gulf Research Development Co Process for recovery of oil
US3303883A (en) * 1964-01-06 1967-02-14 Mobil Oil Corp Thermal notching technique
US3275076A (en) 1964-01-13 1966-09-27 Mobil Oil Corp Recovery of asphaltic-type petroleum from a subterranean reservoir
US3342258A (en) 1964-03-06 1967-09-19 Shell Oil Co Underground oil recovery from solid oil-bearing deposits
US3294167A (en) 1964-04-13 1966-12-27 Shell Oil Co Thermal oil recovery
US3284281A (en) 1964-08-31 1966-11-08 Phillips Petroleum Co Production of oil from oil shale through fractures
US3302707A (en) 1964-09-30 1967-02-07 Mobil Oil Corp Method for improving fluid recoveries from earthen formations
US3316020A (en) 1964-11-23 1967-04-25 Mobil Oil Corp In situ retorting method employed in oil shale
US3380913A (en) 1964-12-28 1968-04-30 Phillips Petroleum Co Refining of effluent from in situ combustion operation
US3332480A (en) 1965-03-04 1967-07-25 Pan American Petroleum Corp Recovery of hydrocarbons by thermal methods
US3338306A (en) 1965-03-09 1967-08-29 Mobil Oil Corp Recovery of heavy oil from oil sands
US3358756A (en) 1965-03-12 1967-12-19 Shell Oil Co Method for in situ recovery of solid or semi-solid petroleum deposits
US3262741A (en) 1965-04-01 1966-07-26 Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co Solution mining of potassium chloride
DE1242535B (en) 1965-04-13 1967-06-22 Deutsche Erdoel Ag A process for Restausfoerderung of Erdoellagerstaetten
US3316344A (en) 1965-04-26 1967-04-25 Central Electr Generat Board Prevention of icing of electrical conductors
US3342267A (en) 1965-04-29 1967-09-19 Gerald S Cotter Turbo-generator heater for oil and gas wells and pipe lines
US3278234A (en) 1965-05-17 1966-10-11 Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co Solution mining of potassium chloride
US3352355A (en) 1965-06-23 1967-11-14 Dow Chemical Co Method of recovery of hydrocarbons from solid hydrocarbonaceous formations
US3346044A (en) 1965-09-08 1967-10-10 Mobil Oil Corp Method and structure for retorting oil shale in situ by cycling fluid flows
US3349845A (en) 1965-10-22 1967-10-31 Sinclair Oil & Gas Company Method of establishing communication between wells
US3379248A (en) 1965-12-10 1968-04-23 Mobil Oil Corp In situ combustion process utilizing waste heat
US3454365A (en) * 1966-02-18 1969-07-08 Phillips Petroleum Co Analysis and control of in situ combustion of underground carbonaceous deposit
US3386508A (en) 1966-02-21 1968-06-04 Exxon Production Research Co Process and system for the recovery of viscous oil
US3362751A (en) 1966-02-28 1968-01-09 Tinlin William Method and system for recovering shale oil and gas
US3595082A (en) 1966-03-04 1971-07-27 Gulf Oil Corp Temperature measuring apparatus
US3410977A (en) 1966-03-28 1968-11-12 Ando Masao Method of and apparatus for heating the surface part of various construction materials
DE1615192B1 (en) 1966-04-01 1970-08-20 Chisso Corp Inductively heated heating pipe
US3410796A (en) 1966-04-04 1968-11-12 Gas Processors Inc Process for treatment of saline waters
US3513913A (en) 1966-04-19 1970-05-26 Shell Oil Co Oil recovery from oil shales by transverse combustion
US3372754A (en) 1966-05-31 1968-03-12 Mobil Oil Corp Well assembly for heating a subterranean formation
US3399623A (en) 1966-07-14 1968-09-03 James R. Creed Apparatus for and method of producing viscid oil
US3412011A (en) 1966-09-02 1968-11-19 Phillips Petroleum Co Catalytic cracking and in situ combustion process for producing hydrocarbons
US3465819A (en) 1967-02-13 1969-09-09 American Oil Shale Corp Use of nuclear detonations in producing hydrocarbons from an underground formation
US3389975A (en) 1967-03-10 1968-06-25 Sinclair Research Inc Process for the recovery of aluminum values from retorted shale and conversion of sodium aluminate to sodium aluminum carbonate hydroxide
NL6803827A (en) 1967-03-22 1968-09-23
US3438439A (en) 1967-05-29 1969-04-15 Pan American Petroleum Corp Method for plugging formations by production of sulfur therein
US3474863A (en) 1967-07-28 1969-10-28 Shell Oil Co Shale oil extraction process
US3528501A (en) 1967-08-04 1970-09-15 Phillips Petroleum Co Recovery of oil from oil shale
US3480082A (en) * 1967-09-25 1969-11-25 Continental Oil Co In situ retorting of oil shale using co2 as heat carrier
US3434541A (en) 1967-10-11 1969-03-25 Mobil Oil Corp In situ combustion process
US3485300A (en) 1967-12-20 1969-12-23 Phillips Petroleum Co Method and apparatus for defoaming crude oil down hole
US3477058A (en) 1968-02-01 1969-11-04 Gen Electric Magnesia insulated heating elements and methods of production
US3580987A (en) 1968-03-26 1971-05-25 Pirelli Electric cable
US3455383A (en) 1968-04-24 1969-07-15 Shell Oil Co Method of producing fluidized material from a subterranean formation
US3578080A (en) 1968-06-10 1971-05-11 Shell Oil Co Method of producing shale oil from an oil shale formation
US3529682A (en) 1968-10-03 1970-09-22 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Location detection and guidance systems for burrowing device
US3537528A (en) 1968-10-14 1970-11-03 Shell Oil Co Method for producing shale oil from an exfoliated oil shale formation
US3593789A (en) 1968-10-18 1971-07-20 Shell Oil Co Method for producing shale oil from an oil shale formation
US3502372A (en) 1968-10-23 1970-03-24 Shell Oil Co Process of recovering oil and dawsonite from oil shale
US3565171A (en) 1968-10-23 1971-02-23 Shell Oil Co Method for producing shale oil from a subterranean oil shale formation
US3554285A (en) 1968-10-24 1971-01-12 Phillips Petroleum Co Production and upgrading of heavy viscous oils
US3545544A (en) * 1968-10-24 1970-12-08 Phillips Petroleum Co Recovery of hydrocarbons by in situ combustion
US3629551A (en) 1968-10-29 1971-12-21 Chisso Corp Controlling heat generation locally in a heat-generating pipe utilizing skin-effect current
US3501201A (en) 1968-10-30 1970-03-17 Shell Oil Co Method of producing shale oil from a subterranean oil shale formation
US3614986A (en) 1969-03-03 1971-10-26 Electrothermic Co Method for injecting heated fluids into mineral bearing formations
US3562401A (en) 1969-03-03 1971-02-09 Union Carbide Corp Low temperature electric transmission systems
US3542131A (en) 1969-04-01 1970-11-24 Mobil Oil Corp Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale
US3547192A (en) 1969-04-04 1970-12-15 Shell Oil Co Method of metal coating and electrically heating a subterranean earth formation
US3618663A (en) 1969-05-01 1971-11-09 Phillips Petroleum Co Shale oil production
US3605890A (en) 1969-06-04 1971-09-20 Chevron Res Hydrogen production from a kerogen-depleted shale formation
US3572838A (en) 1969-07-07 1971-03-30 Shell Oil Co Recovery of aluminum compounds and oil from oil shale formations
US3526095A (en) 1969-07-24 1970-09-01 Ralph E Peck Liquid gas storage system
US3599714A (en) 1969-09-08 1971-08-17 Roger L Messman Method of recovering hydrocarbons by in situ combustion
US3547193A (en) 1969-10-08 1970-12-15 Electrothermic Co Method and apparatus for recovery of minerals from sub-surface formations using electricity
US3702886A (en) 1969-10-10 1972-11-14 Mobil Oil Corp Crystalline zeolite zsm-5 and method of preparing the same
US3679264A (en) 1969-10-22 1972-07-25 Allen T Van Huisen Geothermal in situ mining and retorting system
US3661423A (en) 1970-02-12 1972-05-09 Occidental Petroleum Corp In situ process for recovery of carbonaceous materials from subterranean deposits
US3943160A (en) 1970-03-09 1976-03-09 Shell Oil Company Heat-stable calcium-compatible waterflood surfactant
US3858397A (en) 1970-03-19 1975-01-07 Int Salt Co Carrying out heat-promotable chemical reactions in sodium chloride formation cavern
US3676078A (en) * 1970-03-19 1972-07-11 Int Salt Co Salt solution mining and geothermal heat utilization system
US3709979A (en) 1970-04-23 1973-01-09 Mobil Oil Corp Crystalline zeolite zsm-11
US3647358A (en) 1970-07-23 1972-03-07 Anti Pollution Systems Method of catalytically inducing oxidation of carbonaceous materials by the use of molten salts
US3759574A (en) 1970-09-24 1973-09-18 Shell Oil Co Method of producing hydrocarbons from an oil shale formation
US3661424A (en) 1970-10-20 1972-05-09 Int Salt Co Geothermal energy recovery from deep caverns in salt deposits by means of air flow
US3679812A (en) 1970-11-13 1972-07-25 Schlumberger Technology Corp Electrical suspension cable for well tools
US3765477A (en) 1970-12-21 1973-10-16 Huisen A Van Geothermal-nuclear energy release and recovery system
US3680633A (en) 1970-12-28 1972-08-01 Sun Oil Co Delaware Situ combustion initiation process
US3675715A (en) 1970-12-30 1972-07-11 Forrester A Clark Processes for secondarily recovering oil
US3770614A (en) 1971-01-15 1973-11-06 Mobil Oil Corp Split feed reforming and n-paraffin elimination from low boiling reformate
US3832449A (en) 1971-03-18 1974-08-27 Mobil Oil Corp Crystalline zeolite zsm{14 12
US3700280A (en) 1971-04-28 1972-10-24 Shell Oil Co Method of producing oil from an oil shale formation containing nahcolite and dawsonite
US3770398A (en) 1971-09-17 1973-11-06 Cities Service Oil Co In situ coal gasification process
US3812913A (en) 1971-10-18 1974-05-28 Sun Oil Co Method of formation consolidation
US3893918A (en) 1971-11-22 1975-07-08 Engineering Specialties Inc Method for separating material leaving a well
US3766982A (en) 1971-12-27 1973-10-23 Justheim Petrol Co Method for the in-situ treatment of hydrocarbonaceous materials
US3759328A (en) 1972-05-11 1973-09-18 Shell Oil Co Laterally expanding oil shale permeabilization
US3794116A (en) 1972-05-30 1974-02-26 Atomic Energy Commission Situ coal bed gasification
US3779602A (en) 1972-08-07 1973-12-18 Shell Oil Co Process for solution mining nahcolite
US3757860A (en) 1972-08-07 1973-09-11 Atlantic Richfield Co Well heating
US3809159A (en) 1972-10-02 1974-05-07 Continental Oil Co Process for simultaneously increasing recovery and upgrading oil in a reservoir
US3804172A (en) 1972-10-11 1974-04-16 Shell Oil Co Method for the recovery of oil from oil shale
US3794113A (en) 1972-11-13 1974-02-26 Mobil Oil Corp Combination in situ combustion displacement and steam stimulation of producing wells
US3804169A (en) 1973-02-07 1974-04-16 Shell Oil Co Spreading-fluid recovery of subterranean oil
US3947683A (en) 1973-06-05 1976-03-30 Texaco Inc. Combination of epithermal and inelastic neutron scattering methods to locate coal and oil shale zones
US4138442A (en) 1974-12-05 1979-02-06 Mobil Oil Corporation Process for the manufacture of gasoline
US4076761A (en) 1973-08-09 1978-02-28 Mobil Oil Corporation Process for the manufacture of gasoline
US4016245A (en) 1973-09-04 1977-04-05 Mobil Oil Corporation Crystalline zeolite and method of preparing same
US3881551A (en) 1973-10-12 1975-05-06 Ruel C Terry Method of extracting immobile hydrocarbons
US3853185A (en) 1973-11-30 1974-12-10 Continental Oil Co Guidance system for a horizontal drilling apparatus
US3907045A (en) 1973-11-30 1975-09-23 Continental Oil Co Guidance system for a horizontal drilling apparatus
US3882941A (en) 1973-12-17 1975-05-13 Cities Service Res & Dev Co In situ production of bitumen from oil shale
US4037655A (en) 1974-04-19 1977-07-26 Electroflood Company Method for secondary recovery of oil
US4199025A (en) 1974-04-19 1980-04-22 Electroflood Company Method and apparatus for tertiary recovery of oil
US3922148A (en) 1974-05-16 1975-11-25 Texaco Development Corp Production of methane-rich gas
US3948755A (en) 1974-05-31 1976-04-06 Standard Oil Company Process for recovering and upgrading hydrocarbons from oil shale and tar sands
US3894769A (en) 1974-06-06 1975-07-15 Shell Oil Co Recovering oil from a subterranean carbonaceous formation
US3948758A (en) 1974-06-17 1976-04-06 Mobil Oil Corporation Production of alkyl aromatic hydrocarbons
US4006778A (en) * 1974-06-21 1977-02-08 Texaco Exploration Canada Ltd. Thermal recovery of hydrocarbon from tar sands
US4026357A (en) 1974-06-26 1977-05-31 Texaco Exploration Canada Ltd. In situ gasification of solid hydrocarbon materials in a subterranean formation
US4029360A (en) 1974-07-26 1977-06-14 Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. Method of recovering oil and water from in situ oil shale retort flue gas
US4005752A (en) 1974-07-26 1977-02-01 Occidental Petroleum Corporation Method of igniting in situ oil shale retort with fuel rich flue gas
US3941421A (en) 1974-08-13 1976-03-02 Occidental Petroleum Corporation Apparatus for obtaining uniform gas flow through an in situ oil shale retort
GB1454324A (en) 1974-08-14 1976-11-03 Iniex Recovering combustible gases from underground deposits of coal or bituminous shale
US3948319A (en) 1974-10-16 1976-04-06 Atlantic Richfield Company Method and apparatus for producing fluid by varying current flow through subterranean source formation
CA1075906A (en) 1974-11-06 1980-04-22 Haldor Topsoe A/S Process for preparing methane rich gases
US3933447A (en) 1974-11-08 1976-01-20 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Energy Research And Development Administration Underground gasification of coal
US3952802A (en) 1974-12-11 1976-04-27 In Situ Technology, Inc. Method and apparatus for in situ gasification of coal and the commercial products derived therefrom
US3986556A (en) 1975-01-06 1976-10-19 Haynes Charles A Hydrocarbon recovery from earth strata
US3958636A (en) 1975-01-23 1976-05-25 Atlantic Richfield Company Production of bitumen from a tar sand formation
DE2505420B2 (en) 1975-02-08 1977-03-10 Situ combustion process for the extraction of energy-raw materials from underground deposits
US3972372A (en) 1975-03-10 1976-08-03 Fisher Sidney T Exraction of hydrocarbons in situ from underground hydrocarbon deposits
US4096163A (en) 1975-04-08 1978-06-20 Mobil Oil Corporation Conversion of synthesis gas to hydrocarbon mixtures
US3924680A (en) 1975-04-23 1975-12-09 In Situ Technology Inc Method of pyrolysis of coal in situ
US3973628A (en) 1975-04-30 1976-08-10 New Mexico Tech Research Foundation In situ solution mining of coal
US4016239A (en) 1975-05-22 1977-04-05 Union Oil Company Of California Recarbonation of spent oil shale
US3987851A (en) 1975-06-02 1976-10-26 Shell Oil Company Serially burning and pyrolyzing to produce shale oil from a subterranean oil shale
US3986557A (en) 1975-06-06 1976-10-19 Atlantic Richfield Company Production of bitumen from tar sands
CA1064890A (en) 1975-06-10 1979-10-23 Mae K. Rubin Crystalline zeolite, synthesis and use thereof
US3950029A (en) 1975-06-12 1976-04-13 Mobil Oil Corporation In situ retorting of oil shale
US3993132A (en) 1975-06-18 1976-11-23 Texaco Exploration Canada Ltd. Thermal recovery of hydrocarbons from tar sands
US4069868A (en) 1975-07-14 1978-01-24 In Situ Technology, Inc. Methods of fluidized production of coal in situ
US4199024A (en) 1975-08-07 1980-04-22 World Energy Systems Multistage gas generator
US3954140A (en) 1975-08-13 1976-05-04 Hendrick Robert P Recovery of hydrocarbons by in situ thermal extraction
US3986349A (en) 1975-09-15 1976-10-19 Chevron Research Company Method of power generation via coal gasification and liquid hydrocarbon synthesis
US3994341A (en) 1975-10-30 1976-11-30 Chevron Research Company Recovering viscous petroleum from thick tar sand
US4037658A (en) 1975-10-30 1977-07-26 Chevron Research Company Method of recovering viscous petroleum from an underground formation
US3994340A (en) 1975-10-30 1976-11-30 Chevron Research Company Method of recovering viscous petroleum from tar sand
US4087130A (en) 1975-11-03 1978-05-02 Occidental Petroleum Corporation Process for the gasification of coal in situ
US4018279A (en) 1975-11-12 1977-04-19 Reynolds Merrill J In situ coal combustion heat recovery method
US4078608A (en) 1975-11-26 1978-03-14 Texaco Inc. Thermal oil recovery method
US4018280A (en) 1975-12-10 1977-04-19 Mobil Oil Corporation Process for in situ retorting of oil shale
US3992474A (en) 1975-12-15 1976-11-16 Uop Inc. Motor fuel production with fluid catalytic cracking of high-boiling alkylate
US4019575A (en) 1975-12-22 1977-04-26 Chevron Research Company System for recovering viscous petroleum from thick tar sand
US3999607A (en) 1976-01-22 1976-12-28 Exxon Research And Engineering Company Recovery of hydrocarbons from coal
US4031956A (en) 1976-02-12 1977-06-28 In Situ Technology, Inc. Method of recovering energy from subsurface petroleum reservoirs
US4008762A (en) 1976-02-26 1977-02-22 Fisher Sidney T Extraction of hydrocarbons in situ from underground hydrocarbon deposits
US4010800A (en) 1976-03-08 1977-03-08 In Situ Technology, Inc. Producing thin seams of coal in situ
US4048637A (en) 1976-03-23 1977-09-13 Westinghouse Electric Corporation Radar system for detecting slowly moving targets
DE2615874C3 (en) 1976-04-10 1979-06-21 Deutsche Texaco Ag, 2000 Hamburg
GB1544245A (en) 1976-05-21 1979-04-19 British Gas Corp Production of substitute natural gas
US4049053A (en) 1976-06-10 1977-09-20 Fisher Sidney T Recovery of hydrocarbons from partially exhausted oil wells by mechanical wave heating
US4487257A (en) 1976-06-17 1984-12-11 Raytheon Company Apparatus and method for production of organic products from kerogen
US4193451A (en) 1976-06-17 1980-03-18 The Badger Company, Inc. Method for production of organic products from kerogen
US4067390A (en) 1976-07-06 1978-01-10 Technology Application Services Corporation Apparatus and method for the recovery of fuel products from subterranean deposits of carbonaceous matter using a plasma arc
US4057293A (en) 1976-07-12 1977-11-08 Garrett Donald E Process for in situ conversion of coal or the like into oil and gas
US4043393A (en) 1976-07-29 1977-08-23 Fisher Sidney T Extraction from underground coal deposits
US4091869A (en) 1976-09-07 1978-05-30 Exxon Production Research Company In situ process for recovery of carbonaceous materials from subterranean deposits
US4140184A (en) 1976-11-15 1979-02-20 Bechtold Ira C Method for producing hydrocarbons from igneous sources
US4083604A (en) 1976-11-15 1978-04-11 Trw Inc. Thermomechanical fracture for recovery system in oil shale deposits
US4059308A (en) 1976-11-15 1977-11-22 Trw Inc. Pressure swing recovery system for oil shale deposits
US4077471A (en) 1976-12-01 1978-03-07 Texaco Inc. Surfactant oil recovery process usable in high temperature, high salinity formations
US4064943A (en) * 1976-12-06 1977-12-27 Shell Oil Co Plugging permeable earth formation with wax
US4089374A (en) 1976-12-16 1978-05-16 In Situ Technology, Inc. Producing methane from coal in situ
US4084637A (en) 1976-12-16 1978-04-18 Petro Canada Exploration Inc. Method of producing viscous materials from subterranean formations
US4457365A (en) * 1978-12-07 1984-07-03 Raytheon Company In situ radio frequency selective heating system
US4093026A (en) 1977-01-17 1978-06-06 Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. Removal of sulfur dioxide from process gas using treated oil shale and water
US4277416A (en) 1977-02-17 1981-07-07 Aminoil, Usa, Inc. Process for producing methanol
US4085803A (en) * 1977-03-14 1978-04-25 Exxon Production Research Company Method for oil recovery using a horizontal well with indirect heating
US4137720A (en) 1977-03-17 1979-02-06 Rex Robert W Use of calcium halide-water as a heat extraction medium for energy recovery from hot rock systems
US4099567A (en) 1977-05-27 1978-07-11 In Situ Technology, Inc. Generating medium BTU gas from coal in situ
US4169506A (en) 1977-07-15 1979-10-02 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) In situ retorting of oil shale and energy recovery
US4140180A (en) 1977-08-29 1979-02-20 Iit Research Institute Method for in situ heat processing of hydrocarbonaceous formations
US4144935A (en) 1977-08-29 1979-03-20 Iit Research Institute Apparatus and method for in situ heat processing of hydrocarbonaceous formations
NL181941C (en) 1977-09-16 1987-12-01 Ir Arnold Willem Josephus Grup Process for the underground gasification of coal or brown coal.
US4125159A (en) 1977-10-17 1978-11-14 Vann Roy Randell Method and apparatus for isolating and treating subsurface stratas
US4440224A (en) 1977-10-21 1984-04-03 Vesojuzny Nauchno-Issledovatelsky Institut Ispolzovania Gaza V Narodnom Khozyaistve I Podzemnogo Khranenia Nefti, Nefteproduktov I Szhizhennykh Gazov (Vniipromgaz) Method of underground fuel gasification
US4119349A (en) 1977-10-25 1978-10-10 Gulf Oil Corporation Method and apparatus for recovery of fluids produced in in-situ retorting of oil shale
US4114688A (en) 1977-12-05 1978-09-19 In Situ Technology Inc. Minimizing environmental effects in production and use of coal
US4161103A (en) * 1977-12-15 1979-07-17 United Technologies Corporation Centrifugal combustor with fluidized bed and construction thereof
US4158467A (en) 1977-12-30 1979-06-19 Gulf Oil Corporation Process for recovering shale oil
US4148359A (en) 1978-01-30 1979-04-10 Shell Oil Company Pressure-balanced oil recovery process for water productive oil shale
DE2812490A1 (en) 1978-03-22 1979-09-27 Texaco Ag Method for determining the spatial extent of reactions untertaegigen
US4197911A (en) 1978-05-09 1980-04-15 Ramcor, Inc. Process for in situ coal gasification
US4228853A (en) 1978-06-21 1980-10-21 Harvey A Herbert Petroleum production method
US4185692A (en) 1978-07-14 1980-01-29 In Situ Technology, Inc. Underground linkage of wells for production of coal in situ
US4184548A (en) 1978-07-17 1980-01-22 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) Method for determining the position and inclination of a flame front during in situ combustion of an oil shale retort
US4257650A (en) 1978-09-07 1981-03-24 Barber Heavy Oil Process, Inc. Method for recovering subsurface earth substances
US4183405A (en) 1978-10-02 1980-01-15 Magnie Robert L Enhanced recoveries of petroleum and hydrogen from underground reservoirs
US4446917A (en) 1978-10-04 1984-05-08 Todd John C Method and apparatus for producing viscous or waxy crude oils
US4311340A (en) 1978-11-27 1982-01-19 Lyons William C Uranium leeching process and insitu mining
NL7811732A (en) 1978-11-30 1980-06-03 Stamicarbon A process for the conversion of dimethyl ether.
US4299086A (en) 1978-12-07 1981-11-10 Gulf Research & Development Company Utilization of energy obtained by substoichiometric combustion of low heating value gases
US4186801A (en) 1978-12-18 1980-02-05 Gulf Research And Development Company In situ combustion process for the recovery of liquid carbonaceous fuels from subterranean formations
US4265307A (en) 1978-12-20 1981-05-05 Standard Oil Company Shale oil recovery
US4194562A (en) * 1978-12-21 1980-03-25 Texaco Inc. Method for preconditioning a subterranean oil-bearing formation prior to in-situ combustion
US4258955A (en) 1978-12-26 1981-03-31 Mobil Oil Corporation Process for in-situ leaching of uranium
US4274487A (en) 1979-01-11 1981-06-23 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) Indirect thermal stimulation of production wells
US4232902A (en) 1979-02-09 1980-11-11 Ppg Industries, Inc. Solution mining water soluble salts at high temperatures
US4324292A (en) 1979-02-21 1982-04-13 University Of Utah Process for recovering products from oil shale
US4289354A (en) 1979-02-23 1981-09-15 Edwin G. Higgins, Jr. Borehole mining of solid mineral resources
US4248306A (en) 1979-04-02 1981-02-03 Huisen Allan T Van Geothermal petroleum refining
US4241953A (en) 1979-04-23 1980-12-30 Freeport Minerals Company Sulfur mine bleedwater reuse system
US4282587A (en) 1979-05-21 1981-08-04 Daniel Silverman Method for monitoring the recovery of minerals from shallow geological formations
US4368114A (en) 1979-12-05 1983-01-11 Mobil Oil Corporation Octane and total yield improvement in catalytic cracking
US4216079A (en) 1979-07-09 1980-08-05 Cities Service Company Emulsion breaking with surfactant recovery
US4290650A (en) 1979-08-03 1981-09-22 Ppg Industries Canada Ltd. Subterranean cavity chimney development for connecting solution mined cavities
US4228854A (en) 1979-08-13 1980-10-21 Alberta Research Council Enhanced oil recovery using electrical means
US4256945A (en) 1979-08-31 1981-03-17 Iris Associates Alternating current electrically resistive heating element having intrinsic temperature control
US4701587A (en) 1979-08-31 1987-10-20 Metcal, Inc. Shielded heating element having intrinsic temperature control
US4327805A (en) 1979-09-18 1982-05-04 Carmel Energy, Inc. Method for producing viscous hydrocarbons
US4549396A (en) 1979-10-01 1985-10-29 Mobil Oil Corporation Conversion of coal to electricity
US4305463A (en) * 1979-10-31 1981-12-15 Oil Trieval Corporation Oil recovery method and apparatus
US4250230A (en) 1979-12-10 1981-02-10 In Situ Technology, Inc. Generating electricity from coal in situ
US4250962A (en) 1979-12-14 1981-02-17 Gulf Research & Development Company In situ combustion process for the recovery of liquid carbonaceous fuels from subterranean formations
US4359687A (en) 1980-01-25 1982-11-16 Shell Oil Company Method and apparatus for determining shaliness and oil saturations in earth formations using induced polarization in the frequency domain
US4398151A (en) 1980-01-25 1983-08-09 Shell Oil Company Method for correcting an electrical log for the presence of shale in a formation
USRE30738E (en) 1980-02-06 1981-09-08 Iit Research Institute Apparatus and method for in situ heat processing of hydrocarbonaceous formations
US4303126A (en) 1980-02-27 1981-12-01 Chevron Research Company Arrangement of wells for producing subsurface viscous petroleum
US4319635A (en) 1980-02-29 1982-03-16 P. H. Jones Hydrogeology, Inc. Method for enhanced oil recovery by geopressured waterflood
US4445574A (en) 1980-03-24 1984-05-01 Geo Vann, Inc. Continuous borehole formed horizontally through a hydrocarbon producing formation
US4417782A (en) 1980-03-31 1983-11-29 Raychem Corporation Fiber optic temperature sensing
JPS56139392A (en) * 1980-04-01 1981-10-30 Hitachi Shipbuilding Eng Co Recovery of low level crude oil harnessing solar heat
CA1168283A (en) 1980-04-14 1984-05-29 Hiroshi Teratani Electrode device for electrically heating underground deposits of hydrocarbons
US4273188A (en) 1980-04-30 1981-06-16 Gulf Research & Development Company In situ combustion process for the recovery of liquid carbonaceous fuels from subterranean formations
US4306621A (en) 1980-05-23 1981-12-22 Boyd R Michael Method for in situ coal gasification operations
US4409090A (en) 1980-06-02 1983-10-11 University Of Utah Process for recovering products from tar sand
CA1165361A (en) 1980-06-03 1984-04-10 Toshiyuki Kobayashi Electrode unit for electrically heating underground hydrocarbon deposits
US4381641A (en) 1980-06-23 1983-05-03 Gulf Research & Development Company Substoichiometric combustion of low heating value gases
US4310440A (en) 1980-07-07 1982-01-12 Union Carbide Corporation Crystalline metallophosphate compositions
US4401099A (en) 1980-07-11 1983-08-30 W.B. Combustion, Inc. Single-ended recuperative radiant tube assembly and method
US4299285A (en) 1980-07-21 1981-11-10 Gulf Research & Development Company Underground gasification of bituminous coal
US4396062A (en) 1980-10-06 1983-08-02 University Of Utah Research Foundation Apparatus and method for time-domain tracking of high-speed chemical reactions
US4353418A (en) 1980-10-20 1982-10-12 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) In situ retorting of oil shale
US4384613A (en) 1980-10-24 1983-05-24 Terra Tek, Inc. Method of in-situ retorting of carbonaceous material for recovery of organic liquids and gases
US4366864A (en) 1980-11-24 1983-01-04 Exxon Research And Engineering Co. Method for recovery of hydrocarbons from oil-bearing limestone or dolomite
US4401163A (en) 1980-12-29 1983-08-30 The Standard Oil Company Modified in situ retorting of oil shale
US4385661A (en) 1981-01-07 1983-05-31 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy Downhole steam generator with improved preheating, combustion and protection features
US4423311A (en) 1981-01-19 1983-12-27 Varney Sr Paul Electric heating apparatus for de-icing pipes
DE3141646C2 (en) * 1981-02-09 1994-04-21 Hydrocarbon Research Inc Process for the treatment of heavy oil
US4366668A (en) 1981-02-25 1983-01-04 Gulf Research & Development Company Substoichiometric combustion of low heating value gases
US4363361A (en) 1981-03-19 1982-12-14 Gulf Research & Development Company Substoichiometric combustion of low heating value gases
US4390067A (en) 1981-04-06 1983-06-28 Exxon Production Research Co. Method of treating reservoirs containing very viscous crude oil or bitumen
US4399866A (en) 1981-04-10 1983-08-23 Atlantic Richfield Company Method for controlling the flow of subterranean water into a selected zone in a permeable subterranean carbonaceous deposit
US4444255A (en) 1981-04-20 1984-04-24 Lloyd Geoffrey Apparatus and process for the recovery of oil
US4380930A (en) 1981-05-01 1983-04-26 Mobil Oil Corporation System for transmitting ultrasonic energy through core samples
US4429745A (en) 1981-05-08 1984-02-07 Mobil Oil Corporation Oil recovery method
US4378048A (en) 1981-05-08 1983-03-29 Gulf Research & Development Company Substoichiometric combustion of low heating value gases using different platinum catalysts
US4384614A (en) 1981-05-11 1983-05-24 Justheim Pertroleum Company Method of retorting oil shale by velocity flow of super-heated air
US4437519A (en) 1981-06-03 1984-03-20 Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. Reduction of shale oil pour point
US4428700A (en) 1981-08-03 1984-01-31 E. R. Johnson Associates, Inc. Method for disposing of waste materials
US4456065A (en) 1981-08-20 1984-06-26 Elektra Energie A.G. Heavy oil recovering
US4344483A (en) 1981-09-08 1982-08-17 Fisher Charles B Multiple-site underground magnetic heating of hydrocarbons
US4452491A (en) 1981-09-25 1984-06-05 Intercontinental Econergy Associates, Inc. Recovery of hydrocarbons from deep underground deposits of tar sands
US4425967A (en) 1981-10-07 1984-01-17 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) Ignition procedure and process for in situ retorting of oil shale
US4605680A (en) 1981-10-13 1986-08-12 Chevron Research Company Conversion of synthesis gas to diesel fuel and gasoline
US4401162A (en) 1981-10-13 1983-08-30 Synfuel (An Indiana Limited Partnership) In situ oil shale process
JPS6053159B2 (en) * 1981-10-20 1985-11-22 Mitsubishi Electric Corp
US4410042A (en) 1981-11-02 1983-10-18 Mobil Oil Corporation In-situ combustion method for recovery of heavy oil utilizing oxygen and carbon dioxide as initial oxidant
US4444258A (en) 1981-11-10 1984-04-24 Nicholas Kalmar In situ recovery of oil from oil shale
US4407366A (en) 1981-12-07 1983-10-04 Union Oil Company Of California Method for gas capping of idle geothermal steam wells
US4418752A (en) 1982-01-07 1983-12-06 Conoco Inc. Thermal oil recovery with solvent recirculation
FR2519688B1 (en) 1982-01-08 1984-09-14 Elf Aquitaine
US4397732A (en) 1982-02-11 1983-08-09 International Coal Refining Company Process for coal liquefaction employing selective coal feed
US4551226A (en) 1982-02-26 1985-11-05 Chevron Research Company Heat exchanger antifoulant
US4441985A (en) * 1982-03-08 1984-04-10 Exxon Research And Engineering Co. Process for supplying the heat requirement of a retort for recovering oil from solids by partial indirect heating of in situ combustion gases, and combustion air, without the use of supplemental fuel
GB2117030B (en) 1982-03-17 1985-09-11 Cameron Iron Works Inc Method and apparatus for remote installations of dual tubing strings in a subsea well
US4530401A (en) 1982-04-05 1985-07-23 Mobil Oil Corporation Method for maximum in-situ visbreaking of heavy oil
CA1196594A (en) 1982-04-08 1985-11-12 Guy Savard Recovery of oil from tar sands
US4662439A (en) 1984-01-20 1987-05-05 Amoco Corporation Method of underground conversion of coal
US4537252A (en) 1982-04-23 1985-08-27 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) Method of underground conversion of coal
US4491179A (en) 1982-04-26 1985-01-01 Pirson Sylvain J Method for oil recovery by in situ exfoliation drive
US4455215A (en) 1982-04-29 1984-06-19 Jarrott David M Process for the geoconversion of coal into oil
US4412585A (en) 1982-05-03 1983-11-01 Cities Service Company Electrothermal process for recovering hydrocarbons
US4524826A (en) 1982-06-14 1985-06-25 Texaco Inc. Method of heating an oil shale formation
US4457374A (en) 1982-06-29 1984-07-03 Standard Oil Company Transient response process for detecting in situ retorting conditions
US4442896A (en) 1982-07-21 1984-04-17 Reale Lucio V Treatment of underground beds
US4440871A (en) 1982-07-26 1984-04-03 Union Carbide Corporation Crystalline silicoaluminophosphates
US4407973A (en) 1982-07-28 1983-10-04 The M. W. Kellogg Company Methanol from coal and natural gas
US4479541A (en) 1982-08-23 1984-10-30 Wang Fun Den Method and apparatus for recovery of oil, gas and mineral deposits by panel opening
US4460044A (en) 1982-08-31 1984-07-17 Chevron Research Company Advancing heated annulus steam drive
US4458767A (en) 1982-09-28 1984-07-10 Mobil Oil Corporation Method for directionally drilling a first well to intersect a second well
US4485868A (en) 1982-09-29 1984-12-04 Iit Research Institute Method for recovery of viscous hydrocarbons by electromagnetic heating in situ
US4927857A (en) 1982-09-30 1990-05-22 Engelhard Corporation Method of methanol production
US4695713A (en) 1982-09-30 1987-09-22 Metcal, Inc. Autoregulating, electrically shielded heater
US4498531A (en) 1982-10-01 1985-02-12 Rockwell International Corporation Emission controller for indirect fired downhole steam generators
US4485869A (en) 1982-10-22 1984-12-04 Iit Research Institute Recovery of liquid hydrocarbons from oil shale by electromagnetic heating in situ
EP0110449B1 (en) 1982-11-22 1986-08-13 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. Process for the preparation of a fischer-tropsch catalyst, a catalyst so prepared and use of this catalyst in the preparation of hydrocarbons
US4498535A (en) * 1982-11-30 1985-02-12 Iit Research Institute Apparatus and method for in situ controlled heat processing of hydrocarbonaceous formations with a controlled parameter line
US4474238A (en) 1982-11-30 1984-10-02 Phillips Petroleum Company Method and apparatus for treatment of subsurface formations
US4752673A (en) 1982-12-01 1988-06-21 Metcal, Inc. Autoregulating heater
US4483398A (en) * 1983-01-14 1984-11-20 Exxon Production Research Co. In-situ retorting of oil shale
US4501326A (en) 1983-01-17 1985-02-26 Gulf Canada Limited In-situ recovery of viscous hydrocarbonaceous crude oil
US4609041A (en) 1983-02-10 1986-09-02 Magda Richard M Well hot oil system
US4886118A (en) 1983-03-21 1989-12-12 Shell Oil Company Conductively heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil
US4640352A (en) * 1983-03-21 1987-02-03 Shell Oil Company In-situ steam drive oil recovery process
US4500651A (en) 1983-03-31 1985-02-19 Union Carbide Corporation Titanium-containing molecular sieves
US4458757A (en) 1983-04-25 1984-07-10 Exxon Research And Engineering Co. In situ shale-oil recovery process
US4545435A (en) 1983-04-29 1985-10-08 Iit Research Institute Conduction heating of hydrocarbonaceous formations
US4524827A (en) 1983-04-29 1985-06-25 Iit Research Institute Single well stimulation for the recovery of liquid hydrocarbons from subsurface formations
US4518548A (en) 1983-05-02 1985-05-21 Sulcon, Inc. Method of overlaying sulphur concrete on horizontal and vertical surfaces
US4794226A (en) 1983-05-26 1988-12-27 Metcal, Inc. Self-regulating porous heater device
US5073625A (en) 1983-05-26 1991-12-17 Metcal, Inc. Self-regulating porous heating device
DE3319732A1 (en) 1983-05-31 1984-12-06 Kraftwerk Union Ag Medium-load power plant with integrated coal gasification plant for generation of electricity and methanol
US4658215A (en) 1983-06-20 1987-04-14 Shell Oil Company Method for induced polarization logging
US4583046A (en) 1983-06-20 1986-04-15 Shell Oil Company Apparatus for focused electrode induced polarization logging
US4717814A (en) 1983-06-27 1988-01-05 Metcal, Inc. Slotted autoregulating heater
US5209987A (en) 1983-07-08 1993-05-11 Raychem Limited Wire and cable
US4598392A (en) 1983-07-26 1986-07-01 Mobil Oil Corporation Vibratory signal sweep seismic prospecting method and apparatus
US4501445A (en) 1983-08-01 1985-02-26 Cities Service Company Method of in-situ hydrogenation of carbonaceous material
US4538682A (en) 1983-09-08 1985-09-03 Mcmanus James W Method and apparatus for removing oil well paraffin
US4698149A (en) 1983-11-07 1987-10-06 Mobil Oil Corporation Enhanced recovery of hydrocarbonaceous fluids oil shale
US4573530A (en) 1983-11-07 1986-03-04 Mobil Oil Corporation In-situ gasification of tar sands utilizing a combustible gas
US4489782A (en) 1983-12-12 1984-12-25 Atlantic Richfield Company Viscous oil production using electrical current heating and lateral drain holes
US4598772A (en) 1983-12-28 1986-07-08 Mobil Oil Corporation Method for operating a production well in an oxygen driven in-situ combustion oil recovery process
US4613754A (en) 1983-12-29 1986-09-23 Shell Oil Company Tomographic calibration apparatus
US4542648A (en) 1983-12-29 1985-09-24 Shell Oil Company Method of correlating a core sample with its original position in a borehole
US4583242A (en) 1983-12-29 1986-04-15 Shell Oil Company Apparatus for positioning a sample in a computerized axial tomographic scanner
US4571491A (en) 1983-12-29 1986-02-18 Shell Oil Company Method of imaging the atomic number of a sample
US4540882A (en) 1983-12-29 1985-09-10 Shell Oil Company Method of determining drilling fluid invasion
US4635197A (en) 1983-12-29 1987-01-06 Shell Oil Company High resolution tomographic imaging method
US4572229A (en) 1984-02-02 1986-02-25 Thomas D. Mueller Variable proportioner
US4623401A (en) 1984-03-06 1986-11-18 Metcal, Inc. Heat treatment with an autoregulating heater
US4644283A (en) * 1984-03-19 1987-02-17 Shell Oil Company In-situ method for determining pore size distribution, capillary pressure and permeability
US4552214A (en) 1984-03-22 1985-11-12 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) Pulsed in situ retorting in an array of oil shale retorts
US4637464A (en) 1984-03-22 1987-01-20 Amoco Corporation In situ retorting of oil shale with pulsed water purge
US4570715A (en) 1984-04-06 1986-02-18 Shell Oil Company Formation-tailored method and apparatus for uniformly heating long subterranean intervals at high temperature
US4577690A (en) 1984-04-18 1986-03-25 Mobil Oil Corporation Method of using seismic data to monitor firefloods
US4592423A (en) 1984-05-14 1986-06-03 Texaco Inc. Hydrocarbon stratum retorting means and method
US4597441A (en) 1984-05-25 1986-07-01 World Energy Systems, Inc. Recovery of oil by in situ hydrogenation
US4620592A (en) 1984-06-11 1986-11-04 Atlantic Richfield Company Progressive sequence for viscous oil recovery
US4663711A (en) 1984-06-22 1987-05-05 Shell Oil Company Method of analyzing fluid saturation using computerized axial tomography
US4577503A (en) 1984-09-04 1986-03-25 International Business Machines Corporation Method and device for detecting a specific acoustic spectral feature
US4577691A (en) 1984-09-10 1986-03-25 Texaco Inc. Method and apparatus for producing viscous hydrocarbons from a subterranean formation
US4576231A (en) 1984-09-13 1986-03-18 Texaco Inc. Method and apparatus for combating encroachment by in situ treated formations
US4597444A (en) 1984-09-21 1986-07-01 Atlantic Richfield Company Method for excavating a large diameter shaft into the earth and at least partially through an oil-bearing formation
US4691771A (en) 1984-09-25 1987-09-08 Worldenergy Systems, Inc. Recovery of oil by in-situ combustion followed by in-situ hydrogenation
US4616705A (en) 1984-10-05 1986-10-14 Shell Oil Company Mini-well temperature profiling process
US4598770A (en) 1984-10-25 1986-07-08 Mobil Oil Corporation Thermal recovery method for viscous oil
US4572299A (en) 1984-10-30 1986-02-25 Shell Oil Company Heater cable installation
US4634187A (en) * 1984-11-21 1987-01-06 Isl Ventures, Inc. Method of in-situ leaching of ores
US4669542A (en) 1984-11-21 1987-06-02 Mobil Oil Corporation Simultaneous recovery of crude from multiple zones in a reservoir
US4585066A (en) 1984-11-30 1986-04-29 Shell Oil Company Well treating process for installing a cable bundle containing strands of changing diameter
US4704514A (en) 1985-01-11 1987-11-03 Egmond Cor F Van Heating rate variant elongated electrical resistance heater
US4985313A (en) 1985-01-14 1991-01-15 Raychem Limited Wire and cable
US4645906A (en) 1985-03-04 1987-02-24 Thermon Manufacturing Company Reduced resistance skin effect heat generating system
US4643256A (en) 1985-03-18 1987-02-17 Shell Oil Company Steam-foaming surfactant mixtures which are tolerant of divalent ions
US4698583A (en) 1985-03-26 1987-10-06 Raychem Corporation Method of monitoring a heater for faults
US4785163A (en) 1985-03-26 1988-11-15 Raychem Corporation Method for monitoring a heater
US4670634A (en) * 1985-04-05 1987-06-02 Iit Research Institute In situ decontamination of spills and landfills by radio frequency heating
US4733057A (en) 1985-04-19 1988-03-22 Raychem Corporation Sheet heater
US4671102A (en) 1985-06-18 1987-06-09 Shell Oil Company Method and apparatus for determining distribution of fluids
US4626665A (en) 1985-06-24 1986-12-02 Shell Oil Company Metal oversheathed electrical resistance heater
US4605489A (en) 1985-06-27 1986-08-12 Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. Upgrading shale oil by a combination process
US4623444A (en) 1985-06-27 1986-11-18 Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. Upgrading shale oil by a combination process
US4662438A (en) 1985-07-19 1987-05-05 Uentech Corporation Method and apparatus for enhancing liquid hydrocarbon production from a single borehole in a slowly producing formation by non-uniform heating through optimized electrode arrays surrounding the borehole
US4728892A (en) 1985-08-13 1988-03-01 Shell Oil Company NMR imaging of materials
US4719423A (en) 1985-08-13 1988-01-12 Shell Oil Company NMR imaging of materials for transport properties
US4662437A (en) 1985-11-14 1987-05-05 Atlantic Richfield Company Electrically stimulated well production system with flexible tubing conductor
CA1253555A (en) 1985-11-21 1989-05-02 Egmond Cornelis F.H. Van Heating rate variant elongated electrical resistance heater
US4662443A (en) 1985-12-05 1987-05-05 Amoco Corporation Combination air-blown and oxygen-blown underground coal gasification process
US4686029A (en) 1985-12-06 1987-08-11 Union Carbide Corporation Dewaxing catalysts and processes employing titanoaluminosilicate molecular sieves
US4849611A (en) 1985-12-16 1989-07-18 Raychem Corporation Self-regulating heater employing reactive components
US4730162A (en) * 1985-12-31 1988-03-08 Shell Oil Company Time-domain induced polarization logging method and apparatus with gated amplification level
US4706751A (en) 1986-01-31 1987-11-17 S-Cal Research Corp. Heavy oil recovery process
US4694907A (en) 1986-02-21 1987-09-22 Carbotek, Inc. Thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus
DE3609253A1 (en) * 1986-03-19 1987-09-24 Interatom Process for tertiary oil extraction from deep wells with recycling of the exiting erdoelgases
US4640353A (en) 1986-03-21 1987-02-03 Atlantic Richfield Company Electrode well and method of completion
US4734115A (en) 1986-03-24 1988-03-29 Air Products And Chemicals, Inc. Low pressure process for C3+ liquids recovery from process product gas
US4651825A (en) 1986-05-09 1987-03-24 Atlantic Richfield Company Enhanced well production
US4814587A (en) 1986-06-10 1989-03-21 Metcal, Inc. High power self-regulating heater
US4682652A (en) 1986-06-30 1987-07-28 Texaco Inc. Producing hydrocarbons through successively perforated intervals of a horizontal well between two vertical wells
US4769602A (en) 1986-07-02 1988-09-06 Shell Oil Company Determining multiphase saturations by NMR imaging of multiple nuclides
US4893504A (en) 1986-07-02 1990-01-16 Shell Oil Company Method for determining capillary pressure and relative permeability by imaging
US4716960A (en) 1986-07-14 1988-01-05 Production Technologies International, Inc. Method and system for introducing electric current into a well
US4818370A (en) 1986-07-23 1989-04-04 Cities Service Oil And Gas Corporation Process for converting heavy crudes, tars, and bitumens to lighter products in the presence of brine at supercritical conditions
US4772634A (en) 1986-07-31 1988-09-20 Energy Research Corporation Apparatus and method for methanol production using a fuel cell to regulate the gas composition entering the methanol synthesizer
US4744245A (en) 1986-08-12 1988-05-17 Atlantic Richfield Company Acoustic measurements in rock formations for determining fracture orientation
US4696345A (en) 1986-08-21 1987-09-29 Chevron Research Company Hasdrive with multiple offset producers
US4769606A (en) 1986-09-30 1988-09-06 Shell Oil Company Induced polarization method and apparatus for distinguishing dispersed and laminated clay in earth formations
US5316664A (en) 1986-11-24 1994-05-31 Canadian Occidental Petroleum, Ltd. Process for recovery of hydrocarbons and rejection of sand
US5340467A (en) 1986-11-24 1994-08-23 Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. Process for recovery of hydrocarbons and rejection of sand
US4983319A (en) * 1986-11-24 1991-01-08 Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. Preparation of low-viscosity improved stable crude oil transport emulsions
CA1288043C (en) 1986-12-15 1991-08-27 Meurs Peter Van Conductively heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeabilityand subsequently produce oil
US4766958A (en) 1987-01-12 1988-08-30 Mobil Oil Corporation Method of recovering viscous oil from reservoirs with multiple horizontal zones
US5085055A (en) * 1987-06-15 1992-02-04 The University Of Alabama/Research Foundation Reversible mechanochemical engines comprised of bioelastomers capable of modulable inverse temperature transitions for the interconversion of chemical and mechanical work
US4756367A (en) 1987-04-28 1988-07-12 Amoco Corporation Method for producing natural gas from a coal seam
US4817711A (en) 1987-05-27 1989-04-04 Jeambey Calhoun G System for recovery of petroleum from petroleum impregnated media
US4818371A (en) 1987-06-05 1989-04-04 Resource Technology Associates Viscosity reduction by direct oxidative heating
US4787452A (en) 1987-06-08 1988-11-29 Mobil Oil Corporation Disposal of produced formation fines during oil recovery
US4821798A (en) 1987-06-09 1989-04-18 Ors Development Corporation Heating system for rathole oil well
US4793409A (en) 1987-06-18 1988-12-27 Ors Development Corporation Method and apparatus for forming an insulated oil well casing
US4827761A (en) 1987-06-25 1989-05-09 Shell Oil Company Sample holder
US4856341A (en) 1987-06-25 1989-08-15 Shell Oil Company Apparatus for analysis of failure of material
US4884455A (en) 1987-06-25 1989-12-05 Shell Oil Company Method for analysis of failure of material employing imaging
US4776638A (en) 1987-07-13 1988-10-11 University Of Kentucky Research Foundation Method and apparatus for conversion of coal in situ
US4848924A (en) 1987-08-19 1989-07-18 The Babcock & Wilcox Company Acoustic pyrometer
US4828031A (en) 1987-10-13 1989-05-09 Chevron Research Company In situ chemical stimulation of diatomite formations
US4762425A (en) 1987-10-15 1988-08-09 Parthasarathy Shakkottai System for temperature profile measurement in large furnances and kilns and method therefor
US5306640A (en) 1987-10-28 1994-04-26 Shell Oil Company Method for determining preselected properties of a crude oil
US4987368A (en) 1987-11-05 1991-01-22 Shell Oil Company Nuclear magnetism logging tool using high-temperature superconducting squid detectors
US4842448A (en) 1987-11-12 1989-06-27 Drexel University Method of removing contaminants from contaminated soil in situ
US4808925A (en) 1987-11-19 1989-02-28 Halliburton Company Three magnet casing collar locator
US4900196A (en) * 1987-11-20 1990-02-13 Iit Research Institute Confinement in porous material by driving out water and substituting sealant
US4823890A (en) 1988-02-23 1989-04-25 Longyear Company Reverse circulation bit apparatus
US4866983A (en) 1988-04-14 1989-09-19 Shell Oil Company Analytical methods and apparatus for measuring the oil content of sponge core
US4885080A (en) 1988-05-25 1989-12-05 Phillips Petroleum Company Process for demetallizing and desulfurizing heavy crude oil
US5046560A (en) 1988-06-10 1991-09-10 Exxon Production Research Company Oil recovery process using arkyl aryl polyalkoxyol sulfonate surfactants as mobility control agents
US4884635A (en) 1988-08-24 1989-12-05 Texaco Canada Resources Enhanced oil recovery with a mixture of water and aromatic hydrocarbons
US4840720A (en) 1988-09-02 1989-06-20 Betz Laboratories, Inc. Process for minimizing fouling of processing equipment
US4842070A (en) * 1988-09-15 1989-06-27 Amoco Corporation Procedure for improving reservoir sweep efficiency using paraffinic or asphaltic hydrocarbons
US4928765A (en) 1988-09-27 1990-05-29 Ramex Syn-Fuels International Method and apparatus for shale gas recovery
US4856587A (en) 1988-10-27 1989-08-15 Nielson Jay P Recovery of oil from oil-bearing formation by continually flowing pressurized heated gas through channel alongside matrix
US5064006A (en) 1988-10-28 1991-11-12 Magrange, Inc Downhole combination tool
US4848460A (en) 1988-11-04 1989-07-18 Western Research Institute Contained recovery of oily waste
US5065501A (en) 1988-11-29 1991-11-19 Amp Incorporated Generating electromagnetic fields in a self regulating temperature heater by positioning of a current return bus
US4860544A (en) 1988-12-08 1989-08-29 Concept R.K.K. Limited Closed cryogenic barrier for containment of hazardous material migration in the earth
US4974425A (en) 1988-12-08 1990-12-04 Concept Rkk, Limited Closed cryogenic barrier for containment of hazardous material migration in the earth
US5050386A (en) 1989-08-16 1991-09-24 Rkk, Limited Method and apparatus for containment of hazardous material migration in the earth
US4940095A (en) 1989-01-27 1990-07-10 Dowell Schlumberger Incorporated Deployment/retrieval method and apparatus for well tools used with coiled tubing
US5103920A (en) 1989-03-01 1992-04-14 Patton Consulting Inc. Surveying system and method for locating target subterranean bodies
CA2015318C (en) 1990-04-24 1994-02-08 Jack E. Bridges Power sources for downhole electrical heating
US4895206A (en) 1989-03-16 1990-01-23 Price Ernest H Pulsed in situ exothermic shock wave and retorting process for hydrocarbon recovery and detoxification of selected wastes
US4913065A (en) 1989-03-27 1990-04-03 Indugas, Inc. In situ thermal waste disposal system
US5150118A (en) 1989-05-08 1992-09-22 Hewlett-Packard Company Interchangeable coded key pad assemblies alternately attachable to a user definable keyboard to enable programmable keyboard functions
DE3918265A1 (en) 1989-06-05 1991-01-03 Henkel Kgaa Process for production of surfactant mixtures on ethersulfonatbasis and their use
US5059303A (en) 1989-06-16 1991-10-22 Amoco Corporation Oil stabilization
DE3922612C2 (en) 1989-07-10 1998-07-02 Krupp Koppers Gmbh A process for the production of methanol synthesis gas
US4982786A (en) 1989-07-14 1991-01-08 Mobil Oil Corporation Use of CO2 /steam to enhance floods in horizontal wellbores
US5097903A (en) 1989-09-22 1992-03-24 Jack C. Sloan Method for recovering intractable petroleum from subterranean formations
US5305239A (en) 1989-10-04 1994-04-19 The Texas A&M University System Ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation of thin specimens
US4926941A (en) 1989-10-10 1990-05-22 Shell Oil Company Method of producing tar sand deposits containing conductive layers
US4984594A (en) 1989-10-27 1991-01-15 Shell Oil Company Vacuum method for removing soil contamination utilizing surface electrical heating
US5656239A (en) 1989-10-27 1997-08-12 Shell Oil Company Method for recovering contaminants from soil utilizing electrical heating
US5020596A (en) 1990-01-24 1991-06-04 Indugas, Inc. Enhanced oil recovery system with a radiant tube heater
US5082055A (en) 1990-01-24 1992-01-21 Indugas, Inc. Gas fired radiant tube heater
US5011329A (en) 1990-02-05 1991-04-30 Hrubetz Exploration Company In situ soil decontamination method and apparatus
CA2032131C (en) * 1990-02-05 2000-02-01 Joseph Madison Nelson In situ soil decontamination method and apparatus
CA2009782A1 (en) 1990-02-12 1991-08-12 Anoosh I. Kiamanesh In-situ tuned microwave oil extraction process
US5152341A (en) 1990-03-09 1992-10-06 Raymond S. Kasevich Electromagnetic method and apparatus for the decontamination of hazardous material-containing volumes
US5027896A (en) 1990-03-21 1991-07-02 Anderson Leonard M Method for in-situ recovery of energy raw material by the introduction of a water/oxygen slurry
GB9007147D0 (en) 1990-03-30 1990-05-30 Framo Dev Ltd Thermal mineral extraction system
CA2015460C (en) 1990-04-26 1993-12-14 Kenneth Edwin Kisman Process for confining steam injected into a heavy oil reservoir
US5126037A (en) 1990-05-04 1992-06-30 Union Oil Company Of California Geopreater heating method and apparatus
US5050601A (en) 1990-05-29 1991-09-24 Joel Kupersmith Cardiac defibrillator electrode arrangement
US5032042A (en) 1990-06-26 1991-07-16 New Jersey Institute Of Technology Method and apparatus for eliminating non-naturally occurring subsurface, liquid toxic contaminants from soil
US5201219A (en) 1990-06-29 1993-04-13 Amoco Corporation Method and apparatus for measuring free hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons potential from whole core
US5054551A (en) 1990-08-03 1991-10-08 Chevron Research And Technology Company In-situ heated annulus refining process
US5046559A (en) 1990-08-23 1991-09-10 Shell Oil Company Method and apparatus for producing hydrocarbon bearing deposits in formations having shale layers
US5042579A (en) 1990-08-23 1991-08-27 Shell Oil Company Method and apparatus for producing tar sand deposits containing conductive layers
US5060726A (en) 1990-08-23 1991-10-29 Shell Oil Company Method and apparatus for producing tar sand deposits containing conductive layers having little or no vertical communication
DE69117395D1 (en) 1990-08-28 1996-04-04 Petroleo Brasileiro Sa Method and apparatus for electrical heating of pipelines
US5085276A (en) 1990-08-29 1992-02-04 Chevron Research And Technology Company Production of oil from low permeability formations by sequential steam fracturing
US5207273A (en) 1990-09-17 1993-05-04 Production Technologies International Inc. Method and apparatus for pumping wells
US5066852A (en) 1990-09-17 1991-11-19 Teledyne Ind. Inc. Thermoplastic end seal for electric heating elements
US5182427A (en) 1990-09-20 1993-01-26 Metcal, Inc. Self-regulating heater utilizing ferrite-type body
JPH04272680A (en) 1990-09-20 1992-09-29 Thermon Mfg Co Switch control type zone heating cable and its assembly method
US5517593A (en) 1990-10-01 1996-05-14 John Nenniger Control system for well stimulation apparatus with response time temperature rise used in determining heater control temperature setpoint
US5400430A (en) 1990-10-01 1995-03-21 Nenniger; John E. Method for injection well stimulation
FR2669077B2 (en) 1990-11-09 1995-02-03 Institut Francais Petrole Method and device for carrying out interventions in wells or prevailing high temperatures.
US5217076A (en) * 1990-12-04 1993-06-08 Masek John A Method and apparatus for improved recovery of oil from porous, subsurface deposits (targevcir oricess)
US5060287A (en) 1990-12-04 1991-10-22 Shell Oil Company Heater utilizing copper-nickel alloy core
US5190405A (en) 1990-12-14 1993-03-02 Shell Oil Company Vacuum method for removing soil contaminants utilizing thermal conduction heating
US5065818A (en) 1991-01-07 1991-11-19 Shell Oil Company Subterranean heaters
US5289882A (en) 1991-02-06 1994-03-01 Boyd B. Moore Sealed electrical conductor method and arrangement for use with a well bore in hazardous areas
US5103909A (en) 1991-02-19 1992-04-14 Shell Oil Company Profile control in enhanced oil recovery
US5261490A (en) 1991-03-18 1993-11-16 Nkk Corporation Method for dumping and disposing of carbon dioxide gas and apparatus therefor
US5093002A (en) 1991-04-29 1992-03-03 Texaco Inc. Membrane process for treating a mixture containing dewaxed oil and dewaxing solvent
US5102551A (en) 1991-04-29 1992-04-07 Texaco Inc. Membrane process for treating a mixture containing dewaxed oil and dewaxing solvent
US5204270A (en) 1991-04-29 1993-04-20 Lacount Robert B Multiple sample characterization of coals and other substances by controlled-atmosphere programmed temperature oxidation
US5246273A (en) 1991-05-13 1993-09-21 Rosar Edward C Method and apparatus for solution mining
EP0519573B1 (en) 1991-06-21 1995-04-12 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. Hydrogenation catalyst and process
EP0544859B1 (en) 1991-06-24 1996-12-11 Enel-Ente Nazionale Per L'energia Elettrica A system for measuring the transfer time of a sound-wave
US5133406A (en) 1991-07-05 1992-07-28 Amoco Corporation Generating oxygen-depleted air useful for increasing methane production
US5215954A (en) 1991-07-30 1993-06-01 Cri International, Inc. Method of presulfurizing a hydrotreating, hydrocracking or tail gas treating catalyst
US5189283A (en) 1991-08-28 1993-02-23 Shell Oil Company Current to power crossover heater control
US5168927A (en) 1991-09-10 1992-12-08 Shell Oil Company Method utilizing spot tracer injection and production induced transport for measurement of residual oil saturation
US5193618A (en) 1991-09-12 1993-03-16 Chevron Research And Technology Company Multivalent ion tolerant steam-foaming surfactant composition for use in enhanced oil recovery operations
RU2019686C1 (en) * 1991-09-23 1994-09-15 Иван Николаевич Стрижов Method for development of oil field
US5173213A (en) 1991-11-08 1992-12-22 Baker Hughes Incorporated Corrosion and anti-foulant composition and method of use
US5347070A (en) 1991-11-13 1994-09-13 Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs Treating of solid earthen material and a method for measuring moisture content and resistivity of solid earthen material
US5349859A (en) 1991-11-15 1994-09-27 Scientific Engineering Instruments, Inc. Method and apparatus for measuring acoustic wave velocity using impulse response
US5199490A (en) 1991-11-18 1993-04-06 Texaco Inc. Formation treating
RU2019685C1 (en) * 1991-12-09 1994-09-15 Вели Аннабаевич Аннабаев Method for drilling-in
DE4294444T1 (en) 1991-12-13 1994-01-13 Gore & Ass Improved mechanical control cable system
JP3183886B2 (en) 1991-12-16 2001-07-09 アンスティテュ フランセ デュ ペトロール Stationary device for active and / or passive monitoring of underground deposits
CA2058255C (en) 1991-12-20 1997-02-11 Roland P. Leaute Recovery and upgrading of hydrocarbons utilizing in situ combustion and horizontal wells
US5246071A (en) 1992-01-31 1993-09-21 Texaco Inc. Steamflooding with alternating injection and production cycles
US5420402A (en) 1992-02-05 1995-05-30 Iit Research Institute Methods and apparatus to confine earth currents for recovery of subsurface volatiles and semi-volatiles
US5211230A (en) 1992-02-21 1993-05-18 Mobil Oil Corporation Method for enhanced oil recovery through a horizontal production well in a subsurface formation by in-situ combustion
GB9207174D0 (en) 1992-04-01 1992-05-13 Raychem Sa Nv Method of forming an electrical connection
US5255740A (en) * 1992-04-13 1993-10-26 Rrkt Company Secondary recovery process
US5332036A (en) 1992-05-15 1994-07-26 The Boc Group, Inc. Method of recovery of natural gases from underground coal formations
US5366012A (en) 1992-06-09 1994-11-22 Shell Oil Company Method of completing an uncased section of a borehole
US5255742A (en) 1992-06-12 1993-10-26 Shell Oil Company Heat injection process
US5392854A (en) 1992-06-12 1995-02-28 Shell Oil Company Oil recovery process
US5226961A (en) 1992-06-12 1993-07-13 Shell Oil Company High temperature wellbore cement slurry
US5297626A (en) 1992-06-12 1994-03-29 Shell Oil Company Oil recovery process
US5236039A (en) 1992-06-17 1993-08-17 General Electric Company Balanced-line RF electrode system for use in RF ground heating to recover oil from oil shale
US5295763A (en) 1992-06-30 1994-03-22 Chambers Development Co., Inc. Method for controlling gas migration from a landfill
US5275726A (en) 1992-07-29 1994-01-04 Exxon Research & Engineering Co. Spiral wound element for separation
US5256516A (en) 1992-07-31 1993-10-26 Xerox Corporation Toner compositions with dendrimer charge enhancing additives
US5282957A (en) 1992-08-19 1994-02-01 Betz Laboratories, Inc. Methods for inhibiting polymerization of hydrocarbons utilizing a hydroxyalkylhydroxylamine
US5305829A (en) 1992-09-25 1994-04-26 Chevron Research And Technology Company Oil production from diatomite formations by fracture steamdrive
US5229583A (en) 1992-09-28 1993-07-20 Shell Oil Company Surface heating blanket for soil remediation
US5339904A (en) 1992-12-10 1994-08-23 Mobil Oil Corporation Oil recovery optimization using a well having both horizontal and vertical sections
US5358045A (en) 1993-02-12 1994-10-25 Chevron Research And Technology Company, A Division Of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Enhanced oil recovery method employing a high temperature brine tolerant foam-forming composition
US5353874A (en) * 1993-02-22 1994-10-11 Manulik Matthew C Horizontal wellbore stimulation technique
CA2096034C (en) 1993-05-07 1996-07-02 Kenneth Edwin Kisman Horizontal well gravity drainage combustion process for oil recovery
US5360067A (en) 1993-05-17 1994-11-01 Meo Iii Dominic Vapor-extraction system for removing hydrocarbons from soil
DE4323768C1 (en) 1993-07-15 1994-08-18 Priesemuth W Plant for generating energy
US5377756A (en) 1993-10-28 1995-01-03 Mobil Oil Corporation Method for producing low permeability reservoirs using a single well
US5388641A (en) * 1993-11-03 1995-02-14 Amoco Corporation Method for reducing the inert gas fraction in methane-containing gaseous mixtures obtained from underground formations
US5388645A (en) 1993-11-03 1995-02-14 Amoco Corporation Method for producing methane-containing gaseous mixtures
US5566755A (en) 1993-11-03 1996-10-22 Amoco Corporation Method for recovering methane from a solid carbonaceous subterranean formation
US5388643A (en) 1993-11-03 1995-02-14 Amoco Corporation Coalbed methane recovery using pressure swing adsorption separation
US5388640A (en) 1993-11-03 1995-02-14 Amoco Corporation Method for producing methane-containing gaseous mixtures
US5388642A (en) 1993-11-03 1995-02-14 Amoco Corporation Coalbed methane recovery using membrane separation of oxygen from air
US5411086A (en) 1993-12-09 1995-05-02 Mobil Oil Corporation Oil recovery by enhanced imbitition in low permeability reservoirs
US5435666A (en) 1993-12-14 1995-07-25 Environmental Resources Management, Inc. Methods for isolating a water table and for soil remediation
US5411089A (en) 1993-12-20 1995-05-02 Shell Oil Company Heat injection process
US5404952A (en) 1993-12-20 1995-04-11 Shell Oil Company Heat injection process and apparatus
US5433271A (en) 1993-12-20 1995-07-18 Shell Oil Company Heat injection process
US5634984A (en) 1993-12-22 1997-06-03 Union Oil Company Of California Method for cleaning an oil-coated substrate
US5541517A (en) 1994-01-13 1996-07-30 Shell Oil Company Method for drilling a borehole from one cased borehole to another cased borehole
US5411104A (en) 1994-02-16 1995-05-02 Conoco Inc. Coalbed methane drilling
CA2144597C (en) 1994-03-18 1999-08-10 Paul J. Latimer Improved emat probe and technique for weld inspection
US5415231A (en) 1994-03-21 1995-05-16 Mobil Oil Corporation Method for producing low permeability reservoirs using steam
US5439054A (en) 1994-04-01 1995-08-08 Amoco Corporation Method for treating a mixture of gaseous fluids within a solid carbonaceous subterranean formation
US5431224A (en) 1994-04-19 1995-07-11 Mobil Oil Corporation Method of thermal stimulation for recovery of hydrocarbons
US5409071A (en) 1994-05-23 1995-04-25 Shell Oil Company Method to cement a wellbore
WO1995032801A1 (en) 1994-06-01 1995-12-07 Ashland Inc. A process for improving the effectiveness of a process catalyst
US5503226A (en) 1994-06-22 1996-04-02 Wadleigh; Eugene E. Process for recovering hydrocarbons by thermally assisted gravity segregation
WO1996002831A1 (en) 1994-07-18 1996-02-01 The Babcock & Wilcox Company Sensor transport system for flash butt welder
US5458774A (en) 1994-07-25 1995-10-17 Mannapperuma; Jatal D. Corrugated spiral membrane module
US5632336A (en) 1994-07-28 1997-05-27 Texaco Inc. Method for improving injectivity of fluids in oil reservoirs
US5525322A (en) 1994-10-12 1996-06-11 The Regents Of The University Of California Method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen from water and from hydrocarbons
US5553189A (en) 1994-10-18 1996-09-03 Shell Oil Company Radiant plate heater for treatment of contaminated surfaces
US5624188A (en) 1994-10-20 1997-04-29 West; David A. Acoustic thermometer
US5498960A (en) * 1994-10-20 1996-03-12 Shell Oil Company NMR logging of natural gas in reservoirs
US5497087A (en) 1994-10-20 1996-03-05 Shell Oil Company NMR logging of natural gas reservoirs
US5559263A (en) 1994-11-16 1996-09-24 Tiorco, Inc. Aluminum citrate preparations and methods
US5554453A (en) 1995-01-04 1996-09-10 Energy Research Corporation Carbonate fuel cell system with thermally integrated gasification
US6088294A (en) 1995-01-12 2000-07-11 Baker Hughes Incorporated Drilling system with an acoustic measurement-while-driving system for determining parameters of interest and controlling the drilling direction
US6427124B1 (en) 1997-01-24 2002-07-30 Baker Hughes Incorporated Semblance processing for an acoustic measurement-while-drilling system for imaging of formation boundaries
WO1996021871A1 (en) 1995-01-12 1996-07-18 Baker Hughes Incorporated A measurement-while-drilling acoustic system employing multiple, segmented transmitters and receivers
DE19505517A1 (en) 1995-02-10 1996-08-14 Siegfried Schwert A method for extracting a pipe laid in the ground
CA2152521C (en) 1995-03-01 2000-06-20 Jack E. Bridges Low flux leakage cables and cable terminations for a.c. electrical heating of oil deposits
US5621844A (en) 1995-03-01 1997-04-15 Uentech Corporation Electrical heating of mineral well deposits using downhole impedance transformation networks
US5935421A (en) 1995-05-02 1999-08-10 Exxon Research And Engineering Company Continuous in-situ combination process for upgrading heavy oil
US5911898A (en) 1995-05-25 1999-06-15 Electric Power Research Institute Method and apparatus for providing multiple autoregulated temperatures
US5571403A (en) 1995-06-06 1996-11-05 Texaco Inc. Process for extracting hydrocarbons from diatomite
US6015015A (en) 1995-06-20 2000-01-18 Bj Services Company U.S.A. Insulated and/or concentric coiled tubing
US5899958A (en) 1995-09-11 1999-05-04 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Logging while drilling borehole imaging and dipmeter device
US5759022A (en) 1995-10-16 1998-06-02 Gas Research Institute Method and system for reducing NOx and fuel emissions in a furnace
US5890840A (en) 1995-12-08 1999-04-06 Carter, Jr.; Ernest E. In situ construction of containment vault under a radioactive or hazardous waste site
KR100445853B1 (en) 1995-12-27 2004-10-15 쉘 인터내셔날 리써취 마트샤피지 비.브이. Flameless combustor
CN1066510C (en) 1996-01-10 2001-05-30 帕德里格·麦克阿利斯特 Ice composite bodies
US5685362A (en) 1996-01-22 1997-11-11 The Regents Of The University Of California Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs
US5751895A (en) 1996-02-13 1998-05-12 Eor International, Inc. Selective excitation of heating electrodes for oil wells
US5826655A (en) 1996-04-25 1998-10-27 Texaco Inc Method for enhanced recovery of viscous oil deposits
US5652389A (en) 1996-05-22 1997-07-29 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of Commerce Non-contact method and apparatus for inspection of inertia welds
US6022834A (en) 1996-05-24 2000-02-08 Oil Chem Technologies, Inc. Alkaline surfactant polymer flooding composition and process
US5769569A (en) 1996-06-18 1998-06-23 Southern California Gas Company In-situ thermal desorption of heavy hydrocarbons in vadose zone
US5828797A (en) 1996-06-19 1998-10-27 Meggitt Avionics, Inc. Fiber optic linked flame sensor
EP0909258A1 (en) 1996-06-21 1999-04-21 Syntroleum Corporation Synthesis gas production system and method
WO1998001514A1 (en) 1996-07-09 1998-01-15 Syntroleum Corporation Process for converting gas to liquids
US5826653A (en) 1996-08-02 1998-10-27 Scientific Applications & Research Associates, Inc. Phased array approach to retrieve gases, liquids, or solids from subaqueous geologic or man-made formations
US6056057A (en) 1996-10-15 2000-05-02 Shell Oil Company Heater well method and apparatus
US6079499A (en) 1996-10-15 2000-06-27 Shell Oil Company Heater well method and apparatus
US5861137A (en) 1996-10-30 1999-01-19 Edlund; David J. Steam reformer with internal hydrogen purification
US5816325A (en) 1996-11-27 1998-10-06 Future Energy, Llc Methods and apparatus for enhanced recovery of viscous deposits by thermal stimulation
US5862858A (en) 1996-12-26 1999-01-26 Shell Oil Company Flameless combustor
US6039121A (en) 1997-02-20 2000-03-21 Rangewest Technologies Ltd. Enhanced lift method and apparatus for the production of hydrocarbons
US5744025A (en) 1997-02-28 1998-04-28 Shell Oil Company Process for hydrotreating metal-contaminated hydrocarbonaceous feedstock
GB9704181D0 (en) 1997-02-28 1997-04-16 Thompson James Apparatus and method for installation of ducts
US5926437A (en) 1997-04-08 1999-07-20 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Method and apparatus for seismic exploration
US5984578A (en) 1997-04-11 1999-11-16 New Jersey Institute Of Technology Apparatus and method for in situ removal of contaminants using sonic energy
DE69841500D1 (en) 1997-05-02 2010-03-25 Baker Hughes Inc Method and device for control of a chemical injection of a surface treatment system
WO1998050179A1 (en) 1997-05-07 1998-11-12 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. Remediation method
US6023554A (en) 1997-05-20 2000-02-08 Shell Oil Company Electrical heater
CA2289080C (en) 1997-06-05 2006-07-25 Shell Canada Limited Contaminated soil remediation method
US6102122A (en) 1997-06-11 2000-08-15 Shell Oil Company Control of heat injection based on temperature and in-situ stress measurement
US5984010A (en) 1997-06-23 1999-11-16 Elias; Ramon Hydrocarbon recovery systems and methods
CA2208767A1 (en) 1997-06-26 1998-12-26 Reginald D. Humphreys Tar sands extraction process
US5992522A (en) 1997-08-12 1999-11-30 Steelhead Reclamation Ltd. Process and seal for minimizing interzonal migration in boreholes
US6112808A (en) 1997-09-19 2000-09-05 Isted; Robert Edward Method and apparatus for subterranean thermal conditioning
US5868202A (en) 1997-09-22 1999-02-09 Tarim Associates For Scientific Mineral And Oil Exploration Ag Hydrologic cells for recovery of hydrocarbons or thermal energy from coal, oil-shale, tar-sands and oil-bearing formations
US6149344A (en) 1997-10-04 2000-11-21 Master Corporation Acid gas disposal
US6354373B1 (en) 1997-11-26 2002-03-12 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Expandable tubing for a well bore hole and method of expanding
EP1060326B1 (en) 1997-12-11 2003-04-02 Alberta Research Council, Inc. Oilfield in situ hydrocarbon upgrading process
US6152987A (en) 1997-12-15 2000-11-28 Worcester Polytechnic Institute Hydrogen gas-extraction module and method of fabrication
US6094048A (en) 1997-12-18 2000-07-25 Shell Oil Company NMR logging of natural gas reservoirs
CA2315783C (en) 1997-12-22 2004-03-30 Eureka Oil Asa A method to increase the oil production from an oil reservoir
US6026914A (en) 1998-01-28 2000-02-22 Alberta Oil Sands Technology And Research Authority Wellbore profiling system
CA2264354C (en) 1998-03-06 2007-11-06 Shell Canada Limited Electrical heater
US6540018B1 (en) 1998-03-06 2003-04-01 Shell Oil Company Method and apparatus for heating a wellbore
WO1999051854A1 (en) 1998-04-06 1999-10-14 Da Qing Petroleum Administration Bureau A foam drive method
US6035701A (en) 1998-04-15 2000-03-14 Lowry; William E. Method and system to locate leaks in subsurface containment structures using tracer gases
DE19983216T1 (en) 1998-05-12 2001-05-17 Lockheed Martin Corp Manassas System and method for optimizing gravity measurements Neigungssmesser
US6016867A (en) 1998-06-24 2000-01-25 World Energy Systems, Incorporated Upgrading and recovery of heavy crude oils and natural bitumens by in situ hydrovisbreaking
US6016868A (en) 1998-06-24 2000-01-25 World Energy Systems, Incorporated Production of synthetic crude oil from heavy hydrocarbons recovered by in situ hydrovisbreaking
US6388947B1 (en) 1998-09-14 2002-05-14 Tomoseis, Inc. Multi-crosswell profile 3D imaging and method
GB2341442B (en) 1998-09-14 2001-01-24 Cit Alcatel A heating system for crude oil pipelines
US6192748B1 (en) * 1998-10-30 2001-02-27 Computalog Limited Dynamic orienting reference system for directional drilling
US5968349A (en) 1998-11-16 1999-10-19 Bhp Minerals International Inc. Extraction of bitumen from bitumen froth and biotreatment of bitumen froth tailings generated from tar sands
US6269881B1 (en) 1998-12-22 2001-08-07 Chevron U.S.A. Inc Oil recovery method for waxy crude oil using alkylaryl sulfonate surfactants derived from alpha-olefins and the alpha-olefin compositions
US6609761B1 (en) 1999-01-08 2003-08-26 American Soda, Llp Sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate production from nahcolitic oil shale
US6078868A (en) 1999-01-21 2000-06-20 Baker Hughes Incorporated Reference signal encoding for seismic while drilling measurement
US6318469B1 (en) 1999-02-09 2001-11-20 Schlumberger Technology Corp. Completion equipment having a plurality of fluid paths for use in a well
US6218333B1 (en) 1999-02-15 2001-04-17 Shell Oil Company Preparation of a hydrotreating catalyst
US6283230B1 (en) 1999-03-01 2001-09-04 Jasper N. Peters Method and apparatus for lateral well drilling utilizing a rotating nozzle
US6155117A (en) 1999-03-18 2000-12-05 Mcdermott Technology, Inc. Edge detection and seam tracking with EMATs
US6561269B1 (en) * 1999-04-30 2003-05-13 The Regents Of The University Of California Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole
US6110358A (en) 1999-05-21 2000-08-29 Exxon Research And Engineering Company Process for manufacturing improved process oils using extraction of hydrotreated distillates
US6257334B1 (en) 1999-07-22 2001-07-10 Alberta Oil Sands Technology And Research Authority Steam-assisted gravity drainage heavy oil recovery process
US6269310B1 (en) 1999-08-25 2001-07-31 Tomoseis Corporation System for eliminating headwaves in a tomographic process
US6196350B1 (en) 1999-10-06 2001-03-06 Tomoseis Corporation Apparatus and method for attenuating tube waves in a borehole
US6193010B1 (en) 1999-10-06 2001-02-27 Tomoseis Corporation System for generating a seismic signal in a borehole
US6288372B1 (en) 1999-11-03 2001-09-11 Tyco Electronics Corporation Electric cable having braidless polymeric ground plane providing fault detection
US6353706B1 (en) 1999-11-18 2002-03-05 Uentech International Corporation Optimum oil-well casing heating
US6417268B1 (en) 1999-12-06 2002-07-09 Hercules Incorporated Method for making hydrophobically associative polymers, methods of use and compositions
US6318468B1 (en) * 1999-12-16 2001-11-20 Consolidated Seven Rocks Mining, Ltd. Recovery and reforming of crudes at the heads of multifunctional wells and oil mining system with flue gas stimulation
US6422318B1 (en) 1999-12-17 2002-07-23 Scioto County Regional Water District #1 Horizontal well system
US6679332B2 (en) 2000-01-24 2004-01-20 Shell Oil Company Petroleum well having downhole sensors, communication and power
US7259688B2 (en) 2000-01-24 2007-08-21 Shell Oil Company Wireless reservoir production control
US6715550B2 (en) 2000-01-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company Controllable gas-lift well and valve
US6633236B2 (en) 2000-01-24 2003-10-14 Shell Oil Company Permanent downhole, wireless, two-way telemetry backbone using redundant repeaters
US6896054B2 (en) * 2000-02-15 2005-05-24 Mcclung, Iii Guy L. Microorganism enhancement with earth loop heat exchange systems
DE60123584D1 (en) 2000-03-02 2006-11-16 Shell Int Research Use of downhole high-pressure gas in a gas lift well
US7170424B2 (en) 2000-03-02 2007-01-30 Shell Oil Company Oil well casting electrical power pick-off points
RU2258805C2 (en) 2000-03-02 2005-08-20 Шелл Интернэшнл Рисерч Маатсхаппий Б.В. System for chemical injection into well, oil well for oil product extraction (variants) and oil well operation method
US6357526B1 (en) 2000-03-16 2002-03-19 Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. Field upgrading of heavy oil and bitumen
US6485232B1 (en) 2000-04-14 2002-11-26 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Low cost, self regulating heater for use in an in situ thermal desorption soil remediation system
US6918444B2 (en) 2000-04-19 2005-07-19 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Method for production of hydrocarbons from organic-rich rock
GB0009662D0 (en) 2000-04-20 2000-06-07 Scotoil Group Plc Gas and oil production
US6820688B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-11-23 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of coal formation with a selected hydrogen content and/or selected H/C ratio
US6698515B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-03-02 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US20030085034A1 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-05-08 Wellington Scott Lee In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce pyrolsis products
US7011154B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-03-14 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a kerogen and liquid hydrocarbon containing formation
US6715548B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce nitrogen containing formation fluids
US6715546B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2004-04-06 Shell Oil Company In situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation through a heat source wellbore
US7096953B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2006-08-29 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a movable heating element
US6588504B2 (en) 2000-04-24 2003-07-08 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce nitrogen and/or sulfur containing formation fluids
US6584406B1 (en) 2000-06-15 2003-06-24 Geo-X Systems, Ltd. Downhole process control method utilizing seismic communication
WO2002057805B1 (en) 2000-06-29 2003-03-06 Paulo S Tubel Method and system for monitoring smart structures utilizing distributed optical sensors
FR2813209B1 (en) 2000-08-23 2002-11-29 Inst Francais Du Petrole supported bimetallic catalyst having a strong interaction between a metal of Group VIII and tin and its use in a catalytic reforming process
US6585046B2 (en) 2000-08-28 2003-07-01 Baker Hughes Incorporated Live well heater cable
US6412559B1 (en) 2000-11-24 2002-07-02 Alberta Research Council Inc. Process for recovering methane and/or sequestering fluids
US20020110476A1 (en) 2000-12-14 2002-08-15 Maziasz Philip J. Heat and corrosion resistant cast stainless steels with improved high temperature strength and ductility
US20020112987A1 (en) 2000-12-15 2002-08-22 Zhiguo Hou Slurry hydroprocessing for heavy oil upgrading using supported slurry catalysts
US20020112890A1 (en) 2001-01-22 2002-08-22 Wentworth Steven W. Conduit pulling apparatus and method for use in horizontal drilling
US6516891B1 (en) 2001-02-08 2003-02-11 L. Murray Dallas Dual string coil tubing injector assembly
US6821501B2 (en) 2001-03-05 2004-11-23 Shell Oil Company Integrated flameless distributed combustion/steam reforming membrane reactor for hydrogen production and use thereof in zero emissions hybrid power system
US20020153141A1 (en) 2001-04-19 2002-10-24 Hartman Michael G. Method for pumping fluids
WO2002086029A3 (en) 2001-04-24 2009-10-01 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons
CA2668389C (en) * 2001-04-24 2012-08-14 Shell Canada Limited In situ recovery from a tar sands formation
US7055600B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2006-06-06 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with controlled production rate
US6918442B2 (en) 2001-04-24 2005-07-19 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation in a reducing environment
US20030029617A1 (en) 2001-08-09 2003-02-13 Anadarko Petroleum Company Apparatus, method and system for single well solution-mining
US6591908B2 (en) 2001-08-22 2003-07-15 Alberta Science And Research Authority Hydrocarbon production process with decreasing steam and/or water/solvent ratio
US7128150B2 (en) 2001-09-07 2006-10-31 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Acid gas disposal method
US6755251B2 (en) 2001-09-07 2004-06-29 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Downhole gas separation method and system
US6969123B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2005-11-29 Shell Oil Company Upgrading and mining of coal
RU2319830C2 (en) * 2001-10-24 2008-03-20 Шелл Интернэшнл Рисерч Маатсхаппий Б.В. Method and device for hydrocarbon reservoir interior heating along with exposing thereof to ground surface in two locations
US7051808B1 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-05-30 Shell Oil Company Seismic monitoring of in situ conversion in a hydrocarbon containing formation
CN1671944B (en) 2001-10-24 2011-06-08 国际壳牌研究有限公司 Installation and use of removable heaters in a hydrocarbon containing formation
CA2463108C (en) * 2001-10-24 2011-11-22 Shell Canada Limited Isolation of soil with a frozen barrier prior to conductive thermal treatment of the soil
US7165615B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2007-01-23 Shell Oil Company In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor-in-conduit heat sources with an electrically conductive material in the overburden
US7077199B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-07-18 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation
US7090013B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-08-15 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce heated fluids
US7104319B2 (en) 2001-10-24 2006-09-12 Shell Oil Company In situ thermal processing of a heavy oil diatomite formation
US6759364B2 (en) 2001-12-17 2004-07-06 Shell Oil Company Arsenic removal catalyst and method for making same
US6679326B2 (en) 2002-01-15 2004-01-20 Bohdan Zakiewicz Pro-ecological mining system
US6684948B1 (en) 2002-01-15 2004-02-03 Marshall T. Savage Apparatus and method for heating subterranean formations using fuel cells
US7032809B1 (en) 2002-01-18 2006-04-25 Steel Ventures, L.L.C. Seam-welded metal pipe and method of making the same without seam anneal
WO2003062590A1 (en) 2002-01-22 2003-07-31 Presssol Ltd. Two string drilling system using coil tubing
US6958195B2 (en) 2002-02-19 2005-10-25 Utc Fuel Cells, Llc Steam generator for a PEM fuel cell power plant
US6715553B2 (en) 2002-05-31 2004-04-06 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Methods of generating gas in well fluids
US7093370B2 (en) 2002-08-01 2006-08-22 The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. Multi-gimbaled borehole navigation system
US6942037B1 (en) 2002-08-15 2005-09-13 Clariant Finance (Bvi) Limited Process for mitigation of wellbore contaminants
CA2499759C (en) 2002-08-21 2011-03-08 Presssol Ltd. Reverse circulation directional and horizontal drilling using concentric drill string
US20040035582A1 (en) 2002-08-22 2004-02-26 Zupanick Joseph A. System and method for subterranean access
US20080069289A1 (en) 2002-09-16 2008-03-20 Peterson Otis G Self-regulating nuclear power module
US20040062340A1 (en) 2002-09-16 2004-04-01 Peterson Otis G. Self-regulating nuclear power module
WO2004038173A1 (en) 2002-10-24 2004-05-06 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. Temperature limited heaters for heating subsurface formations or wellbores
US7048051B2 (en) 2003-02-03 2006-05-23 Gen Syn Fuels Recovery of products from oil shale
US7055602B2 (en) 2003-03-11 2006-06-06 Shell Oil Company Method and composition for enhanced hydrocarbons recovery
WO2004097159A9 (en) 2003-04-24 2006-12-07 Shell Int Research Thermal processes for subsurface formations
US6951250B2 (en) * 2003-05-13 2005-10-04 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Sealant compositions and methods of using the same to isolate a subterranean zone from a disposal well
CN100392206C (en) 2003-06-24 2008-06-04 埃克森美孚上游研究公司 Methods of treating a subterranean formation to convert organic matter into producible hydrocarbons
US7114880B2 (en) 2003-09-26 2006-10-03 Carter Jr Ernest E Process for the excavation of buried waste
US7147057B2 (en) 2003-10-06 2006-12-12 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Loop systems and methods of using the same for conveying and distributing thermal energy into a wellbore
CA2543963C (en) 2003-11-03 2012-09-11 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Hydrocarbon recovery from impermeable oil shales
US20070000810A1 (en) 2003-12-19 2007-01-04 Bhan Opinder K Method for producing a crude product with reduced tan
US20060289340A1 (en) 2003-12-19 2006-12-28 Brownscombe Thomas F Methods for producing a total product in the presence of sulfur
US8025794B2 (en) 2003-12-19 2011-09-27 Shell Oil Company Systems, methods, and catalysts for producing a crude product
US7828958B2 (en) 2003-12-19 2010-11-09 Shell Oil Company Systems and methods of producing a crude product
US7337841B2 (en) 2004-03-24 2008-03-04 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Casing comprising stress-absorbing materials and associated methods of use
WO2005106193A1 (en) 2004-04-23 2005-11-10 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. Temperature limited heaters used to heat subsurface formations
US7070359B2 (en) * 2004-05-20 2006-07-04 Battelle Energy Alliance, Llc Microtunneling systems and methods of use
US20050289536A1 (en) * 2004-06-23 2005-12-29 International Business Machines Coporation Automated deployment of an application
US7582203B2 (en) 2004-08-10 2009-09-01 Shell Oil Company Hydrocarbon cracking process for converting gas oil preferentially to middle distillate and lower olefins
EP1781759A1 (en) 2004-08-10 2007-05-09 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. Method and apparatus for making a middle distillate product and lower olefins from a hydrocarbon feedstock
US7398823B2 (en) 2005-01-10 2008-07-15 Conocophillips Company Selective electromagnetic production tool
CA2604012C (en) 2005-04-11 2013-11-19 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. Method and catalyst for producing a crude product having a reduced mcr content
US7426959B2 (en) 2005-04-21 2008-09-23 Shell Oil Company Systems and methods for producing oil and/or gas
US7831134B2 (en) 2005-04-22 2010-11-09 Shell Oil Company Grouped exposed metal heaters
EP1871987B1 (en) 2005-04-22 2009-04-01 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. In situ conversion process systems utilizing wellbores in at least two regions of a formation
WO2007002111A1 (en) 2005-06-20 2007-01-04 Ksn Energies, Llc Method and apparatus for in-situ radiofrequency assisted gravity drainage of oil (ragd)
CA2626969C (en) 2005-10-24 2014-06-10 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. Temperature limited heater with a conduit substantially electrically isolated from the formation
US7124584B1 (en) 2005-10-31 2006-10-24 General Electric Company System and method for heat recovery from geothermal source of heat
US7743826B2 (en) 2006-01-20 2010-06-29 American Shale Oil, Llc In situ method and system for extraction of oil from shale
CN101421488B (en) 2006-02-16 2012-07-04 洛斯阿拉莫斯国家安全有限责任公司 Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources
WO2007126676A3 (en) 2006-04-21 2008-02-21 Exxonmobil Upstream Res Co In situ co-development of oil shale with mineral recovery
CA2650089C (en) 2006-04-21 2015-02-10 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material
CA2662615C (en) 2006-09-14 2014-12-30 Ernest E. Carter, Jr. Method of forming subterranean barriers with molten wax
US7665524B2 (en) 2006-09-29 2010-02-23 Ut-Battelle, Llc Liquid metal heat exchanger for efficient heating of soils and geologic formations
US7516785B2 (en) 2006-10-13 2009-04-14 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Method of developing subsurface freeze zone
WO2008048456A3 (en) 2006-10-13 2008-08-14 Exxonmobil Upstream Res Co Optimized well spacing for in situ shale oil development
CA2666296A1 (en) 2006-10-13 2008-04-24 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Heating an organic-rich rock formation in situ to produce products with improved properties
WO2008051836A3 (en) 2006-10-20 2008-07-10 Shell Oil Co In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US20080216323A1 (en) 2007-03-09 2008-09-11 Eveready Battery Company, Inc. Shaving preparation delivery system for wet shaving system
CN101688442B (en) 2007-04-20 2014-07-09 国际壳牌研究有限公司 Molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation
US8151877B2 (en) 2007-05-15 2012-04-10 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Downhole burner wells for in situ conversion of organic-rich rock formations
WO2008150531A3 (en) 2007-05-31 2009-02-05 Ernest E Carter Jr Method for construction of subterranean barriers
WO2009012374A1 (en) 2007-07-19 2009-01-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for producing oil and/or gas
WO2009052054A1 (en) 2007-10-19 2009-04-23 Shell Oil Company Systems, methods, and processes utilized for treating subsurface formations
US8172335B2 (en) 2008-04-18 2012-05-08 Shell Oil Company Electrical current flow between tunnels for use in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8220539B2 (en) 2008-10-13 2012-07-17 Shell Oil Company Controlling hydrogen pressure in self-regulating nuclear reactors used to treat a subsurface formation
US20100258291A1 (en) 2009-04-10 2010-10-14 Everett De St Remey Edward Heated liners for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
WO2010132704A3 (en) 2009-05-15 2011-03-31 American Shale Oil, Llc In situ method and system for extraction of oil from shale
US8631866B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-01-21 Shell Oil Company Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US9033042B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2015-05-19 Shell Oil Company Forming bitumen barriers in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US8701769B2 (en) 2010-04-09 2014-04-22 Shell Oil Company Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations based on geology
US8464792B2 (en) 2010-04-27 2013-06-18 American Shale Oil, Llc Conduction convection reflux retorting process

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
RU2009118919A (en) 2010-11-27 application
US7730946B2 (en) 2010-06-08 grant
US20080283246A1 (en) 2008-11-20 application
US20080135254A1 (en) 2008-06-12 application
JP5331000B2 (en) 2013-10-30 grant
US7845411B2 (en) 2010-12-07 grant
RU2451170C2 (en) 2012-05-20 grant
WO2008051830A3 (en) 2009-04-30 application
CA2666956A1 (en) 2008-05-02 application
WO2008051833A2 (en) 2008-05-02 application
CA2666959A1 (en) 2008-05-02 application
CA2665862C (en) 2015-06-02 grant
US20090014180A1 (en) 2009-01-15 application
JP2010507692A (en) 2010-03-11 application
RU2009118928A (en) 2010-11-27 application
US7703513B2 (en) 2010-04-27 grant
RU2452852C2 (en) 2012-06-10 grant
US7841401B2 (en) 2010-11-30 grant
US20080217003A1 (en) 2008-09-11 application
WO2008051831A3 (en) 2008-11-06 application
US20080217004A1 (en) 2008-09-11 application
US7717171B2 (en) 2010-05-18 grant
CA2665865C (en) 2015-06-16 grant
EP2074281A2 (en) 2009-07-01 application
RU2009118924A (en) 2010-11-27 application
US8555971B2 (en) 2013-10-15 grant
US20080217016A1 (en) 2008-09-11 application
RU2454534C2 (en) 2012-06-27 grant
US8191630B2 (en) 2012-06-05 grant
US20080236831A1 (en) 2008-10-02 application
CA2666947C (en) 2016-04-26 grant
US20080142217A1 (en) 2008-06-19 application
RU2460871C2 (en) 2012-09-10 grant
CA2666206A1 (en) 2008-05-02 application
WO2008051825A1 (en) 2008-05-02 application
US20080277113A1 (en) 2008-11-13 application
JP2010507739A (en) 2010-03-11 application
RU2453692C2 (en) 2012-06-20 grant
WO2008051836A3 (en) 2008-07-10 application
US7631690B2 (en) 2009-12-15 grant
JP2010507738A (en) 2010-03-11 application
JP5616634B2 (en) 2014-10-29 grant
GB2461362A (en) 2010-01-06 application
WO2008051831A2 (en) 2008-05-02 application
WO2008051834A2 (en) 2008-05-02 application
US7673681B2 (en) 2010-03-09 grant
US20080185147A1 (en) 2008-08-07 application
RU2009118926A (en) 2010-11-27 application
US7681647B2 (en) 2010-03-23 grant
JP5643513B2 (en) 2014-12-17 grant
WO2008051834A3 (en) 2008-08-07 application
WO2008051837A3 (en) 2008-11-13 application
WO2008051833A3 (en) 2008-10-16 application
WO2008051495A2 (en) 2008-05-02 application
EP2074281A4 (en) 2017-03-15 application
CA2666947A1 (en) 2008-05-02 application
EP2074284A4 (en) 2017-03-15 application
WO2008051830A2 (en) 2008-05-02 application
EP2074283A2 (en) 2009-07-01 application
WO2008051822A3 (en) 2008-10-30 application
EP2074282A2 (en) 2009-07-01 application
CA2666959C (en) 2015-06-23 grant
EP2074279A2 (en) 2009-07-01 application
US20080135244A1 (en) 2008-06-12 application
CA2666956C (en) 2016-03-22 grant
CA2665864C (en) 2014-07-22 grant
JP2010520959A (en) 2010-06-17 application
US20080128134A1 (en) 2008-06-05 application
CA2665862A1 (en) 2008-05-02 application
GB0906326D0 (en) 2009-05-20 grant
US20080217015A1 (en) 2008-09-11 application
GB0906325D0 (en) 2009-05-20 grant
US7677310B2 (en) 2010-03-16 grant
RU2447274C2 (en) 2012-04-10 grant
US7677314B2 (en) 2010-03-16 grant
GB2456251A (en) 2009-07-15 application
RU2009118915A (en) 2010-11-27 application
EP2074284A2 (en) 2009-07-01 application
US7562707B2 (en) 2009-07-21 grant
US7730947B2 (en) 2010-06-08 grant
RU2009118916A (en) 2010-11-27 application
CA2667274A1 (en) 2008-05-02 application
US20080135253A1 (en) 2008-06-12 application
US7644765B2 (en) 2010-01-12 grant
GB0905850D0 (en) 2009-05-20 grant
WO2008051495A8 (en) 2009-07-30 application
JP5378223B2 (en) 2013-12-25 grant
WO2008051837A2 (en) 2008-05-02 application
US20130056210A1 (en) 2013-03-07 application
GB2456251B (en) 2011-03-16 grant
WO2008051495A3 (en) 2008-10-30 application
RU2447275C2 (en) 2012-04-10 grant
CA2665869A1 (en) 2008-05-02 application
WO2008051822A2 (en) 2008-05-02 application
JP2010507740A (en) 2010-03-11 application
CA2665865A1 (en) 2008-05-02 application
GB2455947A (en) 2009-07-01 application
US7540324B2 (en) 2009-06-02 grant
US20100276141A1 (en) 2010-11-04 application
US7730945B2 (en) 2010-06-08 grant
CA2665864A1 (en) 2008-05-02 application
WO2008051827A3 (en) 2008-08-28 application
JP5330999B2 (en) 2013-10-30 grant
WO2008051836A2 (en) 2008-05-02 application
RU2009118914A (en) 2010-11-27 application
US20080142216A1 (en) 2008-06-19 application
US7635024B2 (en) 2009-12-22 grant
US20090014181A1 (en) 2009-01-15 application
GB2455947B (en) 2011-05-11 grant
WO2008051827A2 (en) 2008-05-02 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US7841408B2 (en) In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation
US7484561B2 (en) Electro thermal in situ energy storage for intermittent energy sources to recover fuel from hydro carbonaceous earth formations
US20100288497A1 (en) In situ method and system for extraction of oil from shale
US7370704B2 (en) Triaxial temperature limited heater
US20110247817A1 (en) Helical winding of insulated conductor heaters for installation
US7575053B2 (en) Low temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers
US7831133B2 (en) Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration
Butler et al. Progress in the in situ recovery of heavy oils and bitumen
WO2007050445A1 (en) Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20110259590A1 (en) Conduction convection reflux retorting process
US20110247819A1 (en) Low temperature inductive heating of subsurface formations
US8631866B2 (en) Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
WO2008060668A2 (en) Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material
US20130269935A1 (en) Treating hydrocarbon formations using hybrid in situ heat treatment and steam methods
US20130087383A1 (en) Integral splice for insulated conductors
US8939207B2 (en) Insulated conductor heaters with semiconductor layers
US20130086800A1 (en) Forming insulated conductors using a final reduction step after heat treating
US20120085535A1 (en) Methods of heating a subsurface formation using electrically conductive particles
US20110247810A1 (en) Methods for heating with slots in hydrocarbon formations
US8857051B2 (en) System and method for coupling lead-in conductor to insulated conductor
RU2305175C2 (en) In-situ thermal treatment of hydrocarbon-containing reservoir and upgrading produced fluid before following fluid processing
WO2004038173A1 (en) Temperature limited heaters for heating subsurface formations or wellbores
CN1575373A (en) In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation via backproducing through a heater well
US20130087337A1 (en) Thermal expansion accommodation for circulated fluid systems used to heat subsurface formations
CN1717529A (en) Temperature limited heaters for heating subsurface formations or wellbores

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
EEER Examination request