CA2592096C - Light emitting device - Google Patents

Light emitting device Download PDF

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Publication number
CA2592096C
CA2592096C CA2592096A CA2592096A CA2592096C CA 2592096 C CA2592096 C CA 2592096C CA 2592096 A CA2592096 A CA 2592096A CA 2592096 A CA2592096 A CA 2592096A CA 2592096 C CA2592096 C CA 2592096C
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lt
combination
light emitting
cndot
emitting device
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CA2592096A
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French (fr)
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CA2592096A1 (en
Inventor
Gundula Roth
Walter Tews
Chung Hoon Lee
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Seoul Semiconductor Co Ltd
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Seoul Semiconductor Co Ltd
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Priority to EP04106882.6 priority Critical
Priority to EP04106882A priority patent/EP1605030B1/en
Application filed by Seoul Semiconductor Co Ltd filed Critical Seoul Semiconductor Co Ltd
Priority to PCT/KR2005/002332 priority patent/WO2006068359A1/en
Publication of CA2592096A1 publication Critical patent/CA2592096A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CA2592096C publication Critical patent/CA2592096C/en
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/77Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7728Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals comprising europium
    • C09K11/7734Aluminates; Silicates
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    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/66Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing germanium, tin or lead
    • C09K11/666Aluminates; Silicates
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    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/74Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing arsenic, antimony or bismuth
    • C09K11/75Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing arsenic, antimony or bismuth containing antimony
    • C09K11/751Chalcogenides
    • C09K11/753Chalcogenides with alkaline earth metals
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    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/74Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing arsenic, antimony or bismuth
    • C09K11/75Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing arsenic, antimony or bismuth containing antimony
    • C09K11/755Halogenides
    • C09K11/756Halogenides with alkali or alkaline earth metals
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    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/77Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7728Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals comprising europium
    • C09K11/7737Phosphates
    • C09K11/7738Phosphates with alkaline earth metals
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    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/77Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7728Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals comprising europium
    • C09K11/7737Phosphates
    • C09K11/7738Phosphates with alkaline earth metals
    • C09K11/7739Phosphates with alkaline earth metals with halogens
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    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/77Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7728Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals comprising europium
    • C09K11/774Borates
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    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/77Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7783Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals containing two or more rare earth metals one of which being europium
    • C09K11/7792Aluminates; Silicates
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B33/00Electroluminescent light sources
    • H05B33/12Light sources with substantially two-dimensional radiating surfaces
    • H05B33/14Light sources with substantially two-dimensional radiating surfaces characterised by the chemical or physical composition or the arrangement of the electroluminescent material, or by the simultaneous addition of the electroluminescent material in or onto the light source
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/01Means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected, e.g. chip-to-package, die-attach, "first-level" interconnects; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/26Layer connectors, e.g. plate connectors, solder or adhesive layers; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/31Structure, shape, material or disposition of the layer connectors after the connecting process
    • H01L2224/32Structure, shape, material or disposition of the layer connectors after the connecting process of an individual layer connector
    • H01L2224/321Disposition
    • H01L2224/32151Disposition the layer connector connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive
    • H01L2224/32221Disposition the layer connector connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive the body and the item being stacked
    • H01L2224/32245Disposition the layer connector connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive the body and the item being stacked the item being metallic
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/01Means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected, e.g. chip-to-package, die-attach, "first-level" interconnects; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/42Wire connectors; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/47Structure, shape, material or disposition of the wire connectors after the connecting process
    • H01L2224/48Structure, shape, material or disposition of the wire connectors after the connecting process of an individual wire connector
    • H01L2224/4805Shape
    • H01L2224/4809Loop shape
    • H01L2224/48091Arched
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/73Means for bonding being of different types provided for in two or more of groups H01L2224/10, H01L2224/18, H01L2224/26, H01L2224/34, H01L2224/42, H01L2224/50, H01L2224/63, H01L2224/71
    • H01L2224/732Location after the connecting process
    • H01L2224/73251Location after the connecting process on different surfaces
    • H01L2224/73265Layer and wire connectors
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/80Methods for connecting semiconductor or other solid state bodies using means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected
    • H01L2224/85Methods for connecting semiconductor or other solid state bodies using means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected using a wire connector
    • H01L2224/85909Post-treatment of the connector or wire bonding area
    • H01L2224/8592Applying permanent coating, e.g. protective coating
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/15Details of package parts other than the semiconductor or other solid state devices to be connected
    • H01L2924/181Encapsulation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L33/00Semiconductor devices with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier specially adapted for light emission; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L33/48Semiconductor devices with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier specially adapted for light emission; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof characterised by the semiconductor body packages
    • H01L33/50Wavelength conversion elements
    • H01L33/501Wavelength conversion elements characterised by the materials, e.g. binder
    • H01L33/502Wavelength conversion materials

Abstract

A light emitting device can include a substrate, electrodes provided on the substrate, a light emitting diode configured to emit light, the light emitting diode being provided on one of the electrodes, phosphors configured to change a wavelength of the light, and an electrically conductive device configured to connect the light emitting diode with another of the plurality of electrodes.
T he phosphors can substantially cove at least a portion of the light emitting diode. The phosphor may include aluminate type compounds, lead and/or copper doped silicates, lead and/or copper doped antimonates, lead and/or copper doped germanates, lead and/or copper doped germanate-silicates, lead and/or copper doped phosphates, or any combination thereof.

Description

Description LIGHT EMITTING DEVICE
Technical Field [1] The invention relates to light emitting devices and more particularly to light emitting devices including at least one light-emitting diode and phosphor, the phosphor including lead and/or copper doped chemical compounds and converting the wavelength of light.
Background Art

[2] Light emitting devices (LEDs), which used to be used for electronic devices, are now used for automobiles and illumination products. Since light emitting devices have superior electrical and mechanical characteristics, demands for light emitting devices have been increased. In connection to this, interests in white LEDs are increasing as an alternative to fluorescent lamps and incandescent lamps.

[3] In LED technology , solution for realization of white light is proposed variously.
Normally, realization of white LED technology is to put the phosphor on the light-emitting diode, and mix the primary emission from the light emitting diode and the secondary emission from the phosphor, which converts the wavelength. For example, as shown in WO 98/05078 and WO 98/12757, use a blue light emitting diode, which is capable of emitting a peak wavelength at 450-490 nm, and YAG group material, which absorbs light from the blue light emitting diode and emits yellowish light (mostly), which may have different wavelength from that of the absorbed light

[4] However, in such a usual white LED, color temperature range is narrow which is between about 6,000-8,000K, and CRI (Color Rendering Index) is about 60 to 75.
Therefore, it is hard to produce the white LED with color coordination and color temperature that are similar to those of the visible light. It is one of the reasons why only white light color with a cold feeling could be realized. Moreover, phosphors which are used for white LEDs are usually unstable in the water, vapor or polar solvent, and this unstableness may cause changes in the emitting characteristics of white LED.
Disclosure of Invention Technical Problem

[5] Accordingly, the present invention is conceived to solve the aforementioned problems in the prior art. It is an object of the present invention to provide a light emitting device capable of providing wide range of color temperature from about 2,000K to about 8,000K or about 10,000K and/or color rendering index of greater than about 90.

[6] Another object of the present invention is to provide a light emitting device in which desired color temperature or specific color coordination can be easily embodied.

[7] An additional object of the present invention is to provide a light emitting device with improved luminescent properties and also with improved stability against water, humidity as well as other polar solvents.
Technical Solution

[8] Wavelength conversion light emitting device are provided. In one embodiment consistent with this invention, a device is provided for emitting light. The device can include a substrate, a plurality of electrodes provided on the substrate, a light emitting diode configured to emit light, the light emitting diode being provided on one of the plurality of electrodes, phosphors configured to change a wavelength of the light, the phosphors substantially covering at least a portion of the light emitting diode, and an electrically conductive device configured to connect the light emitting diode with another of the plurality of electrodes.

[9] In another embodiment consistent with this invention, a light emitting device can include a plurality of leads , a diode holder provided at the end of one of the plurality of lead, a light emitting diode provided in the diode holder, the light emitting diode including a plurality of electrodes, phosphors configured to change a wavelength of the light, the phosphors substantially covering at least a portion of the light emitting diode;
and an electrically conductive device configured to connect the light emitting device with another of the plurality of leads .

[10] In another embodiment consistent with this invention, a light emitting device may include a housing, a heat sink at least partially provided in the housing, a plurality of lead frames provided on the heat sink, a light emitting diode mounted on one of the plurality of lead frames, phosphors configured to change a wavelength of the light, the phosphors substantially covering at least a portion of the light emitting diode, and an electrically conductive device configured to connect the light emitting diode with another of the plurality of lead frames.

[11] The phosphor in consistent with this invention may include aluminate type compounds, lead and/or copper doped silicates, lead and/or copper doped antimonates, lead and/or copper doped germanates, lead and/or copper doped germanate-silicates, lead and/or copper doped phosphates, or any combination thereof. Formulas for phosphors consistent with this invention are also provided.
Description of Drawings

[12] Further aspects of the invention may be apparent upon consideration of the following detailed description, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which like reference characters refer to like parts throughout, and in which:

[13] Fig. 1 shows a side cross-sectional view of an illustrative embodiment of a portion of a chip-type package light emitting device consistent with this invention;

[14] Fig. 2 shows a side cross-sectional view of an illustrative embodiment of a portion of a top-type package light emitting device consistent with this invention;

[15] Fig. 3 shows a side cross-sectional view of an illustrative embodiment of a portion of a lamp-type package light emitting device consistent with this invention;

[16] Fig. 4 shows a side cross-sectional view of an illustrative embodiment of a portion of a light emitting device for high power consistent with this invention;

[17] Fig. 5 shows a side cross-sectional view of another illustrative embodiment of a portion of a light emitting device for high power consistent with this invention;

[18] Fig. 6 shows emitting spectrum of a light emitting device with luminescent material consistent with this invention; and

[19] Fig. 7 shows emitting spectrum of the light emitting device with luminescent material according to another embodiment of the invention.
Best Mode

[20] Refer to the attached drawing, the wavelength conversion light emitting device is going to be explained in detail, and the light emitting device and the phosphor are separately explained for easiness of explanation as below.

[21] (Light emitting device)

[22] Fig. 1 shows a side cross-sectional view of an illustrative embodiment of a portion of a chip-type package light emitting device consistent with this invention.
The chip-type package light emitting device may comprise at least one light emitting diode and a phosphorescent substance. Electrodes 5 may be formed on both sides of substrate 1.
Light emitting diode 6 emitting light may be mounted on one of the electrodes 5. Light emitting diode 6 may be mounted on electrode 5 through electrically conductive paste 9. An electrode of light emitting diode 6 may be connected to electrode pattern 5 via an electrically conductive wire 2.

[23] Light emitting diodes may emit light with a wide range of wavelengths, for example, from ultraviolet light to visible light. In one embodiment consistent with this invention, a UV light emitting diode and/or blue light emitting diode may be use.

[24] Phosphor, i.e., a phosphorescent substance, 3 may be placed on the top and side faces of the light emitting diode 6. The phosphor in consistent with this invention may include lead and/or copper doped aluminate type compounds, lead and/or copper doped silicates, lead and/or copper doped antimonates , lead and/or copper doped germanates, lead and/or copper doped germanate-silicates, lead and/or copper doped phosphates, or any combination thereof. Phosphor 3 converts the wavelength of the light from the light emitting diode 6 to another wavelength or other wavelengths. In one embodiment consistent with this invention, the light is in a visible light range after the conversion. P

hosphor 3 may be applied to light emitting diode 6 after mixing phosphor 3 with a hardening resin. The hardening resin including phosphor 3 may also be applied to the bottom of light emitting diode 6 after mixing phosphor 3 with electrically conductive paste 9.

[25] The light emitting diode 6 mounted on substrate 1 may be sealed with one or more sealing materials 10. Phosphor 3 may be placed on the top and side faces of light emitting diode 6. Phosphor 3 can also be distributed in the hardened sealing material during the production. Such a manufacturing method is described in U.S. Patent No.
6,482,664, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[26] Phosphor 3 may comprise lead and/or copper doped chemical compound(s).
Phosphor 3 may include one or more single chemical compounds. The single compound may have an emission peak of, for example, from about 440nm to about 500nm, from about 500nm to about 590nm, or from about 580nm to 700nm. Phosphor 3 may include one or more single phosphors, which may have an emission peak as ex-emplified above.

[27] In regard to light emitting device 40, light emitting diode 6 may emit primary light when light emitting diode 6 receives power from a power supply. The primary light then may stimulate phosphor(s) 3, and phosphor(s) 3 may convert the primary light to a light with longer wavelength(s) (a secondary light). The primary light from the light emitting diode 6 and the secondary light from the phosphors 3 are diffused and mixed together so that a predetermined color of light in visible spectrum may be emitted from light emitting diode 6. In one embodiment consistent with this invention, more than one light emitting diodes that have different emission peaks can be mounted together.
Moreover, if the mixture ratio of phosphors is adjusted properly, specific color of light, color temperature, and CRI can be provided.

[28] As described above, if the light emitting diode 6 and the compound included in phosphor 3 are properly controlled then desired color temperature or specific color co-ordination can be provided, especially, wide range of color temperature, for example, from about 2,000K to about 8,000K or about 10,000K and/or color rendering index of greater than about 90. Therefore, the light emitting devices consistent with this invention may be used for electronic devices such as home appliances, stereos, telecommunication devices, and for interior/exterior custom displays. The light emitting devices consistent with this invention may also be used for automobiles and illumination products because they provide similar color temperatures and CRI
to those of the visible light.

[29] Fig. 2 shows a side cross-sectional view of an illustrative embodiment of a portion of a top-type package light emitting device consistent with this invention. A
top -type package light emitting device consistent with this invention may have a similar structure as that of the chip type package light emitting device 40 of Fig. 1.
The top-type package device may have reflector 31 which may reflect the light from the light emitting diode 6 to the desire direction.

[30] In top -type package light emitting device 50, more than one light emitting diodes can be mounted. Each of such light emitting diodes may have a different peak wavelength from that of others. Phosphor 3 may comprise a plurality of single compounds with different emission peak. The proportion of each of such plurality of compounds may be regulated. Such a phosphor may be applied to the light emitting diode and/or uniformly distributed in the hardening material of the reflector

31. As explained more fully below, the phosphor in consistent with this invention may include lead and/or copper doped aluminate type compounds, lead and/or copper doped silicates, lead and/or copper doped antimonates, lead and/or copper doped germanates, lead and/or copper doped germanate-silicates, lead and/or copper doped phosphates, or any combination thereof .
[31] In one embodiment consistent with this invention, the light emitting device of the Fig. 1 or Fig. 2 can include a metal substrate, which may have good heat conductivity.
Such a light emitting device may easily dissipate the heat from the light emitting diode.
Therefore, light emitting devices for high power may be manufactured. If a heat sink is provided beneath the metal substrate, the heat from the light emitting diode may be dissipated more effectively.

[32] Fig. 3 shows a side cross-sectional view of an illustrative embodiment of a portion of a lamp-type package light emitting device consistent with this invention.
Lamp type light emitting device 60 may have a pair of leads 51, 52, and a diode holder 53 may be formed at the end of one lead. Diode holder 53 may have a shape of cup, and one or more light emitting diodes 6 may provided in the diode holder 53. When a number of light emitting diodes are provided in the diode holder 53, each of them may have a different peak wavelength from that of others. An electrode of light emitting diode 6 may be connected to lead 52 by, for example, electrically conductive wire 2.

[33] Regular volume of phosphor 3, which may be mixed in the epoxy resin, may be provided in diode holder 53. As explained more fully below, phosphor 3 may include lead and/or copper doped components.

[34] Moreover, the diode holder may include the light emitting diode 6 and the phosphor 3 may be sealed with hardening material such as epoxy resin or silicon resin.

[35] In one embodiment consistent with this invention, the lamp type package light emitting device may have more than one pair of electrode pair leads.

[36] Fig. 4 shows a side cross-sectional view of an illustrative embodiment of a portion of a light emitting device for high power consistent with this invention. Heat sink 71 may be provided inside of housing 73 of the light emitting device for high power 70, and it may be partially exposed to outside. A pair of lead frame 74 may protrude from housing 73.

[37] One or more light emitting diodes may be mounted one lead frame 74, and an electrode of the light emitting diode 6 and another lead frame 74 may be connected via electrically conductive wire. Electrically conductive pate 9 may be provided between light emitting diode 6 and lead frame 74. The phosphor 3 may be placed on top and side faces of light emitting diode 6.

[38] Fig. 5 shows a side cross-sectional view of another illustrative embodiment of a portion of a light emitting device for high power consistent with this invention.

[39] Light emitting device for high power 80 may have housing 63, which may contain light emitting diodes 6, 7, phosphor 3 arranged on the top and side faces of light emitting diodes 6, 7, one or more heat sinks 61, 62, and one or more lead frames 64.
The lead frames 64 may receive power from a power supplier and may protrude from housing 63.

[40] In the light emitting devices for high power 70, 80 in the Fig. 4 and 5, the phosphor 3 can be added to the paste, which may be provided between heat sink and light emitting devices. A lens may be combined with housing 63, 73.

[41] In a light emitting device for high power consistent with this invention, one or more light emitting diodes can be used selectively and the phosphor can be regulated depending on the light emitting diode. As explained more fully below, the phosphor may include lead and/or copper doped components.

[42] A light emitting device for high power consistent with this invention may have a radiator (not shown) and/or heat sink(s). Air or a fan may be used to cool the radiator.

[43] The light emitting devices consistent with this invention is not limited to the structures described above, and the structures can be modified depending on the char-acteristics of light emitting diodes, phosphor, wavelength of light, and also ap-plications. Moreover, new part can be added to the structures.

[44] An exemplary phosphor consistent with this invention is as follows.

[45] ( Phosphor )

[46] Phosphor in consistence with this invention may include lead and/or copper doped chemical compounds. The phosphor may be excited by UV and/or visible light, for example, blue light. The compound may include Aluminate, Silicate, Antimonate, Germanate, Germanate-silicate, or Phosphate type compounds.

[47] Aluminate type compounds may comprise compounds having formula (1), (2), and/or (5)

[48] a(M'O)=b(M" 2 O)=c(M"X)=dA12 0 3=e(M"'O)=f(M"" 2 03)=g(M""' O)=h(M""" XO
) P Y
...... (1)

[49] wherein M' may be Pb, Cu, and/or any combination thereof; M" may be one or more monovalent elements, for example, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Au, Ag, and/or any combination thereof; M"' may be one or more divalent elements, for example, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cd, Mn, and/or any combination thereof; M"" may be one or more trivalent elements, for example, Sc, B, Ga, In, and/or any combination thereof; M""' may be Si, Ge, Ti, Zr, Mn, V, Nb, Ta, W, Mo, and/or any combination thereof;
M"""
may be Bi, Sn, Sb, Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and/or any combination thereof; X may be F, Cl, Br, J, and/or any combination thereof; 0 < a <_2; 0 <_b <2; 0 <_c <_2; 0 <_d <8; 0 < e <_4; 0 <_f <3; 0 <_g <_8; 0 <
h<2;1<o<2;1<p<5;1<x<2;and1<y<5.

[50] a(M'O)=b(M" 2O)=c(M"X)=4-a-b

[51] -c(M"'O)=7(A1203)=d(B20 3)=e(Ga203)=f(Si02)=g(Ge0 2)=h(M"" XO...... (2)

[52] wherein M' may be Pb, Cu, and/or any combination thereof; M" may be one or more monovalent elements, for example, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Au, Ag, and/or any combination thereof; M"' may be one or more divalent elements, for example, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cd, Mn, and/or any combination thereof; M"" may be Bi, Sn, Sb, Sc, Y, La, In, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and any combination thereof; X may be F, Cl, Br, J, and any combination thereof; 0 < a<_ 4; 0<_ b<
2; 0<_ c <2;0<_d<1;0<_e<_1;0<_f<1;0<g<1;0<h<2;1<x<2;and1<y<5.

[53] The preparation of copper as well as lead doped luminescent materials may be a basic solid state reaction. Pure starting materials without any impurities, e.g. iron, may be used. Any starting material which may transfer into oxides via a heating process may be used to form oxygen dominated phosphors.

[54] Examples of preparation:

[55] Preparation of the luminescent material having formula (3)

[56] Cu 0.02 Sr 3.98 Al 14 0 25 : Eu ...... (3)

[57] Starting materials: CuO, SrC03 Al(OH) 3, Eu203, and/or any combination thereof.

[58] The starting materials in the form of oxides, hydroxides, and/or carbonates may be mixed in stoichiometric proportions together with small amounts of flux, e.g., H 3 BO 3.
The mixture may be fired in an alumina crucible in a first step at about 1,200 C for about one hour. After milling the pre-fired materials a second firing step at about 1,450 C in a reduced atmosphere for about 4 hours may be followed. After that the material may be milled, washed, dried and sieved. The resulting luminescent material may have an emission maximum of about 494 nm.

[59] Table 1: copper doped Eu2+ -activated aluminate compared with Eu2+-activated aluminate without copper at about 400 nm excitation wavelength

[60]

Copper doped compound Compound without copper Cu Sr Al O: Eu Sr Al O: Eu 0.02 3.98 14 25 4 14 25 Luminous density (%) 103.1 100 Wavelength (nm) 494 493

[61] Preparation of the luminescent material having formula (4)

[62] Pb 0.05 Sr 3.95 Al 14 0 25 : Eu ...... (4)

[63] Starting materials: PbO, SrCO 3, A1 2 O 3, Eu 2 O 3, and/or any combination thereof.

[64] The starting materials in form of very pure oxides, carbonates, or other components which may decompose thermically into oxides, may be mixed in stoichiometric proportion together with small amounts of flux, for example, H 3 BO 3 . The mixture may be fired in an alumina crucible at about 1,200 C for about one hour in the air. After milling the pre-fired materials a second firing step at about 1,450 C in air for about 2 hours and in a reduced atmosphere for about 2 hours may be followed. Then the material may be milled, washed, dried, and sieved. The resulting luminescent material may have an emission maximum of from about 494.5 nm.

[65] Table 2: lead doped Eu2+-activated aluminate compared with Eu2+-activated aluminate without lead at about 400 nm excitation wavelength

[66]

Lead doped compound Compound without lead Pb Sr Al O: Eu Sr Al O: Eu 0.05 3.95 14 25 4 14 25 Luminous density (%) 101.4 100 Wavelength (nm) 494.5 493

[67] Table 3: optical properties of some copper and/or lead doped aluminates excitable by long wave ultraviolet and/or by visible light and their luminous density in % at 400 nm excitation wavelength

[68]

Composition Possible Luminous Peak wave Peak wave excitation density at 400 length of lead/ length of range(nm) nm excitation copper doped materials compared with materials (nm) without lead/
copper/lead not copper (nm) doped compounds (%) Cu Sr Al 0 360 - 430 101.2 495 493 0.5 3.5 14 25 : Eu Cu Sr Al 0 360 - 430 103.1 494 493 0.02 3.98 14 = Eu 25 ' Pb Sr Al 0 360 - 430 101.4 494.5 493 0.05 3.95 14 2 = Eu 5' Cu Sr Al 360 - 430 103 494 492 0.01 3.99 13.99 Si 0 : Eu 0.005 25 Cu Sr Ba 360 - 430 100.8 494 493 0.01 3.395 0.59 Al 0 : Eu, Dy Pb Sr Al 360 - 430 101.5 494 494 0.05 3.95 13.95 Ga O : Eu 0.05 25

[69] a(M'O) = b(M"O) = c(A1203) d(M"' 203) = e(M""O2) f(M""' XO...... (5)

[70] wherein M' may be Pb, Cu, and/or any combination thereof; M" may be Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cd, Mn, and/or any combination thereof; M"' may be B, Ga, In, and/or any combination thereof; M"" may be Si, Ge, Ti, Zr, Hf, and/or any combination thereof ; M""' may be Bi, Sn, Sb, Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and/or any combination thereof; 0< a<_ 1; 0<_ b< 2; 0< c<_ 8;
0<_ d <1;0<_e<_1;0<f<2;1<x<2;and1<y<5.

[71] Example of preparation:

[72] Preparation of the luminescent material having formula (6)

[73] Cu 0.05 Sr 0.95 Al 1.9997 Si 0.0003 0 4 : Eu ...... (6)

[74] Starting materials: CuO, SrCO 3, A1 2 O 3, Si0 2, Eu 2 O 3 , and/or any combination thereof.

[75] The starting materials in the form of, for example, pure oxides and/or as carbonates may be mixed in stoichiometric proportions together with small amounts of flux, for example, A1F3. The mixture may be fired in an alumina crucible at about 1,250 C in a reduced atmosphere for about 3 hours. After that the material may be milled, washed, dried and sieved. The resulting luminescent material may have an emission maximum of about 521.5 nm.

[76] Table 4: copper doped Eu2+-activated aluminate compared with Eu2+-activated aluminate without copper at about 400 nm excitation wavelength

[77]

Copper doped compound Compound without copper Cu Sr Al Si 0 SrAl O: Eu 0.05 0.95 1.9997 0.0003 4 2 4 Eu Luminous density (%) 106 100 Wavelength (nm) 521.5 519

[78] Preparation of the luminescent material having formula (7)

[79] Cu 0.12 BaMg 1.88 Al 16 0 27 : Eu ...... (7)

[80] Starting materials: CuO, MgO, BaCO 3, Al(OH) 3, Eu 2 O 3 , and/or any combination thereof.

[81] The starting materials in the form of, for example, pure oxides, hydroxides, and/or carbonates may be mixed in stoichiometric proportions together with small amounts of flux, for example, A1F3. The mixture may be fired in an alumina crucible at about 1,420 C in a reduced atmosphere for about 2 hours. After that the material may be milled, washed, dried, and sieved. The resulting luminescent material may have an emission maximum of about 452 nm.

[82] Table 5: copper doped Eu2+-activated aluminate compared with copper not doped Eu2+-activated aluminate at 400 nm excitation wavelength

[83]

Copper doped compound Comparison without copper Cu 0.12 BaMg 1.88 Al 16 0 27 : Eu BaMg 2 Al 16 0 27 : Eu Luminous density (%) 101 100 Wavelength (nm) 452 450

[84] Preparation of the luminescent material having formula (8)

[85] Pb 01 Sr 0.9 Al 2 0 4 : Eu ...... (8)

[86] Starting materials: PbO, SrC03, Al(OH)3, Euz03, and/or any combination thereof.

[87] The starting materials in form of, for example, pure oxides, hydroxides, and/or carbonates may be mixed in stochiometric proportions together with small amounts of flux, for example, H 3 BO 3 . The mixture may be fired in an alumina crucible at about 1,000 C for about 2 hours in the air. After milling the pre-fired materials a second firing step at about 1,420 C in the air for about 1 hour and in a reduced atmosphere for about 2 hours may be followed. After that the material may be milled, washed, dried and sieved. The resulting luminescent material may have an emission maximum of about 521 nm.

[88] Table 6: lead doped Eu2+-activated aluminate compared with Eu2+-activated aluminate without lead at about 400 nm excitation wavelength

[89]

Lead doped compound Compound without lead Pb Sr Al O: Eu SrAl O: Eu 0.1 0.9 2 4 2 4 Luminous density (%) 102 100 Wavelength (nm) 521 519

[90] Results obtained in regard to copper and/or lead doped aluminates are shown in table 7.

[91] Table 7: optical properties of some copper and/or lead doped aluminates excitable by long wave ultraviolet and/or by visible light and their luminous density in % at 400 nm excitation wavelength

[92]

Composition Possible Luminous density Peak wave Peak wave excitation at 400 nm length of lead/ length of range excitation copper doped materials (nm) compared with materials without lead/
copper/lead not (nm) copper (nm) doped compounds (%) Cu Sr Al Si 360 - 440 106 521.5 519 0.05 0.95 1.9997 0.0003 O=Eu Cu 0.2 Mg 0.7995 Li 0.0005 Al 1.9 360 - 440 101.2 482 480 Ga 0.1 0 4 : Eu, Dy Pb Sr A1 0 : Eu 360 - 440 102 521 519 0.1 0.9 2 4 Cu 0.05 BaMg 1.95 Al 16 0 27 : 360 - 400 100.5 451,515 450,515 Eu, Mn Cu 0.12 BaMg 1.88 Al 16 0 27 : 360 - 400 101 452 450 Eu Cu 0.01 BaMg 0.99 Al 10 0 17 : 360 - 400 102.5 451 449 Eu Pb 0.1 BaMg 0.9 Al 9.5 Ga 0.5 360 - 400 100.8 448 450 017:Eu,Dy Pb 0.08 Sr 0.902 A1 2 O 4 : Eu, 360 - 440 102.4 521 519 Dy Pb Sr A1 0 : Mn 360 - 440 100.8 658 655 0.2 0.8 2 4 Cu Sr A1 0 : Eu 360 - 440 102.3 521 519 0.06 0.94 2 4 Cu 0.05 Ba 0.94 Pb 0.06 Mg 0.95 360 - 440 100.4 451 449 Al O : Eu Pb 0.3 Ba 0.7 Cu 0.1 Mg 1.9 Al 360 - 400 100.8 452 450 O =Eu 16 27 ' Pb 0.3 Ba 0.7 Cu 0.1 Mg 1.9 Al 360 - 400 100.4 452,515 450,515 O : Eu, Mn

[93] A lead and/or copper doped silicates having formula (9)

[94] a(M'O)=b(M"O)=c(M"'X)=d(M"' O)=e(M"" O)=f(M""' O)=g(SiO )= h(M""" 0 2 2 3 o p 2 x y ...... (9)

[95] wherein M' may be Pb, Cu, and/or any combination thereof; M" may be Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cd, Mn, and/or any combination thereof; M"' may be Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Au, Ag, and/or any combination thereof; M"" may be Al, Ga, In, and/or any combination thereof; M""' may be Ge, V, Nb, Ta, W, Mo, Ti, Zr, Hf, and/or any combination thereof; M""" may be Bi, Sn, Sb, Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and/or any combination thereof; X may be F, Cl, Br, J, andanycombinationthereof;0<a<_2;0<b<8;0<_c<_4;0<_d<2;0<_e<_2;0 f<2;0<g<10;0<h<5;1<o<2;1<p<5;1<x<2;and1<y<5.

[96] Example of preparation:

[97] Preparation of the luminescent material having formula (10)

[98] Cu 0.05 Sr 1.7 Ca 0.25 SiO 4 : Eu ...... (10)

[99] Starting materials: CuO, SrCO 3, CaCO 3, SiO 2, Eu 2 O 3, and/or any combination thereof.

[100] The starting materials in the form of pure oxides and/or carbonates may be mixed in stoichiometric proportions together with small amounts of flux, for example, NH 4 Cl.
The mixture may be fired in an alumina crucible at about 1,200 C in an inert gas atmosphere (e.g., N2 or noble gas) for about 2 hours. Then the material may be milled.
After that, the material may be fired in an alumina crucible at about 1,200 C
in a slightly reduced atmosphere for about 2 hours. Then, the material may be milled, washed, dried, and sieved. The resulting luminescent material may have an emission maximum at about 592 nm.

[101] Table 8: copper doped Eu2+-activated silicate compared with Eu2+-activated silicate without copper at about 400 nm excitation wavelength

[102]

Copper doped compound Compound without copper Cu Sr Ca SiO : Eu Sr Ca SiO : Eu 0.05 1.7 0.25 4 1.7 0.3 4 Luminous density (%) 104 100 Wavelength (nm) 592 588

[103] Preparation of the luminescent material having formula (11):

[104] Cu 0.2 Ba z Zn 0.2 Mg 0.6 Si z 0 7 : Eu ...... (11)

[105] Starting materials: CuO, BaCO 3, ZnO, MgO, Si0 2, Eu 2 O 3, and/or any combination thereof.

[106] The starting materials in the form of very pure oxides and carbonates may be mixed in stoichiometric proportions together with small amounts of flux, for example, NH4C1. In a first step the mixture may be fired in an alumina crucible at about 1,100 C
in a reduced atmosphere for about 2 hours. Then the material may be milled.
After that the material may be fired in an alumina crucible at about 1,235 C in a reduced atmosphere for about 2 hours. Then that the material may be milled, washed, dried and sieved. The resulting luminescent material may have an emission maximum at about 467 nm.

[107] Table 9: copper doped Eu2+-activated silicate compared with Eu2+-activated silicate without copper at 400 nm excitation wavelength

[108]

Copper doped compound Compound without copper Cu 0.2 Sr 2 Zn 0.2 Mg 0.6 Si 2 0 7 : Sr 2 Zn 2 Mg 0.6 Si 2 0 7 : Eu Eu Luminous density (%) 101.5 100 Wavelength (nm) 467 465

[109] Preparation of the luminescent material having formula (12)

[110] Pb 0.1 Ba 0.95 Sr 0.95 Si 0.998 Ge 0.002 0 4 : Eu ...... (12)

[111] Starting materials: PbO, SrCO 3, BaCO 3, Si0 2, Ge0 2, Eu 2 O 3 , and/or any combination thereof

[112] The starting materials in the form of oxides and/or carbonates may be mixed in sto-ichiometric proportions together with small amounts of flux, for example, NH4C1. The mixture may be fired in an alumina crucible at about 1,000 C for about 2 hours in the air. After milling the pre-fired materials a second firing step at 1,220 C in air for 4 hours and in reducing atmosphere for 2 hours may be followed. After that the material may be milled, washed, dried and sieved. The resulting luminescent material may have an emission maximum at about 527 nm.

[113] Table 10: lead doped Eu2+-activated silicate compared with Eu2+-activated silicate without lead at about 400 nm excitation wavelength

[114]

Lead doped compound Compound without lead Pb Ba Sr Si Ge BaSrSiO : Eu 0.1 0.95 0.95 0.998 0.002 4 O=Eu Luminous density (%) 101.3 100 Wavelength (nm) 527 525

[115] Preparation of the luminescent material having formula (13)

[116] Pb 0.25 Sr 3.75 Si 3 0 8 Cl 4 : Eu ...... (13)

[117] Starting materials : PbO, SrCO 3, SrCl 2, Si0 2, Eu 2 O 3, and any combination thereof.

[118] The starting materials in the form of oxides, chlorides, and/or carbonates may be mixed in stoichiometric proportions together with small amounts of flux, for example, NH4C1. The mixture may be fired in an alumina crucible in a first step at about 1,100 C for about 2 hours in the air. After milling the pre-fired materials a second firing step at about 1,220 C in the air for about 4 hours and in a reduced atmosphere for about 1 hour may be followed. After that the material may be milled, washed, dried and sieved.
The resulting luminescent material may have an emission maximum at about 492 nm.

[119] Table 11: lead doped Eu2+-activated chlorosilicate compared with Eu2+-activated chlorosilicate without lead at 400 nm excitation wavelength

[120]

Lead doped compound Compound without lead Pb Sr Si 0 Cl : Eu Sr Si 0 Cl : Eu 0.25 3.75 3 8 4 4 3 8 4 Luminous density (%) 100.6 100 Wavelength (nm) 492 490

[121] Results obtained with respect to copper and/or lead doped silicates are shown in table 12.

[122] Table 12: optical properties of some copper and/or lead doped rare earth activated silicates excitable by long wave ultraviolet and/or by visible light and their luminous density in % at about 400 nm excitation wavelength

[123]

Composition Possible Luminous Peak wave Peak wave excitation density at length of lead/ length of range (nm) 400nm copper doped materials excitation materials (nm) without lead/
compared with copper (nm) copper/lead not doped compounds (%) Pb Ba Sr Si 360 - 470 101.3 527 525 0.1 0.95 0.95 Ge O : Eu 0.998 0.002 4 Cu 0.02 (Ba,Sr,Ca,Zn) 360 - 500 108.2 565 560 SiO : Eu 1.98 4 Cu Sr Ca SiO 360 - 470 104 592 588 0.05 1.7 0.25 = Eu Cu Li Sr Ba 360 - 470 102.5 557 555 0.05 0.002 1.5 SiO : Gd, Eu 0.448 4 Cu 0.2 Sr 2 Zn 0.2 Mg 0.6 Si 360 - 450 101.5 467 465 O=Eu 2 7' Cu 0.02 Ba 2.8 Sr 0.2 Mg 360 - 420 100.8 440,660 438,660 Si O : Eu, Mn 0.98 2 8 Pb Sr Si O Cl 360 - 470 100.6 492 490 0.25 3.75 3 8 4 : Eu Cu Ba Sr Pb 360 - 430 100.8 448 445 0.2 2.2 0.75 0.05 Zn Si O : Eu 0.8 2 8 Cu 0.2 Ba 3 Mg 0.8 Si 1.99 360 - 430 101 444 440 Ge O : Eu 0.01 8 Cu Zn Ba Ge Si 360 - 420 102.5 435 433 0.5 0.5 2 0.2 O=Eu 1.8 7 ' Cu 0.8 Mg 0.2 Ba 3 Si 2 O 8 360 - 430 103 438,670 435,670 : Eu, Mn Pb Ba Zn Si 360 - 500 101 512 510 0.15 1.84 0.01 Zr O : Eu 0.99 0.01 4 Cu Ba Ca Si O 360 - 470 101.8 495 491 0.2 5 2.8 4 16 : Eu

[124] With lead and/or copper doped antimonates having formula (14)

[125] a(M'O) = b(M" 20) = c(M"X) = d(Sb205) = e(M"'O) = f(M"" XOy) ...... (14)

[126] wherein M' may be Pb, Cu, and/or any combination thereof; M" may be Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Au, Ag, and/or any combination thereof; M"' may be Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cd, Mn, and/or any combination thereof; M"" may be Bi, Sn, Sc, Y, La, Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Gd, and/or any combination thereof; X may be F, Cl, Br, J, and/or any combination thereof; 0 < a <_2; 0 <_b <2; 0 <_c <_4; 0 < d <8; 0 <_e <_8; 0 <_f <2; 1 <x<2;and1<y<5.

[127] Examples of preparation:

[128] Preparation of the luminescent material having formula (15)

[129] Cu 0.2 Mg 1.7 Li 0.2 Sb z 0 7 : Mn ...... (15)

[130] Starting materials: CuO, MgO, Li 2 O, Sb 2 O 5, MnCO 3, and/or any combination thereof.

[131] The starting materials in the form of oxides may be mixed in stoichiometric proportion together with small amounts of flux. In a first step the mixture may be fired in an alumina crucible at about 985 C in the air for about 2 hours. After pre-firing the material may be milled again. In a second step the mixture may be fired in an alumina crucible at about 1,200 C in an atmosphere containing oxygen for about 8 hours. After that the material may be milled, washed, dried and sieved. The resulting luminescent material may have an emission maximum at about 626 nm.

[132] Table 13: copper doped antimonate compared with antimonate without copper at about 400 nm excitation wavelength

[133]

Copper doped compound Comparison without copper Cu 0.2 Mg 1.7 Li 0.2 Sb 2 0 7 : Mn Mg 2 Li 0.2 Sb 2 0 7 : Mn Luminous density (%) 101.8 100 Wavelength (nm) 652 650

[134] Preparation of the luminescent material having formula (16)

[135] Pb 0.006 Ca 0.6 Sr 0.394 Sb 2 0 6 ...... (16)

[136] Starting materials: PbO, CaCO 3, SrCO 3, Sb 2 O 5, and/or any combination thereof.

[137] The starting materials in the form of oxides and/or carbonates may be mixed in sto-ichiometric proportions together with small amounts of flux. In a first step the mixture may be fired in an alumina crucible at about 975 C in the air for about 2 hours. After pre-firing the material may be milled again. In a second step the mixture may be fired in an alumina crucible at about 1,175 C in the air for about 4 hours and then in an oxygen-containing atmosphere for about 4 hours. After that the material may be milled, washed, dried and sieved. The resulting luminescent material may have an emission maximum at about 637 nm.

[138] Table 14: lead doped antimonate compared with antimonate without lead at 400 nm excitation wavelength

[139]

Lead doped compound Compound without lead Pb Ca Sr Sb 0 Ca Sr Sb 0 0.006 0.6 0.394 2 6 0.6 0.4 2 6 Luminous density (%) 102 100 Wavelength (nm) 637 638

[140] Results obtained in respect to copper and/or lead doped antimonates are shown in table 15.

[141] Table 15: optical properties of some copper and/or lead doped antimonates excitable by long wave ultraviolet and/or by visible light and their luminous density in % at about 400 nm excitation wavelength

[142]

Composition Possible Luminous Peak wave Peak wave excitation density at 400 length of lead/ length of range nm excitation copper doped materials (nm) compared with materials (nm) without lead/
copper/lead not copper (nm) doped comp ounds (%) Pb 0.2 Mg 0.002 Ca 1.798 Sb 2 360 - 400 102 645 649 OF :Mn Cu Ca Sr Sb 360 - 400 101.5 660 658 0.15 1.845 0.005 Si O : Mn 1.998 0.002 7 Cu 0.2 Mg 1.7 Li 0.2 Sb 2 0 7 : 360 - 400 101.8 652 650 Mn Cu Pb Ca Sb 360 - 400 98.5 658 658 0.2 0.01 0.79 1.98 Nb O : Mn 0.02 6 Cu Ca Sb V 360 - 400 100.5 660 657 0.01 1.99 1.9995 O =Mn 0.0005 7 Pb Ca Sr Sb 0 360 - 400 102 637 638 0.006 0.6 0.394 2 Cu Ca Sr Ba 360 - 400 102.5 649 645 0.02 0.9 0.5 0.4 Mg Sb O
0.18 2 7 Pb 0.198 Mg 0.004 Ca 1.798 Sb 360 - 400 101.8 628 630 OF

[143] Lead and/or copper doped germanates and/or a germanate-silicates having formula (17)

[144] a(M'O)=b(M" 2O)=c(M"X)=dGeO2=e(M"'O)=f(M"" 203)=g(M""' Op)=h(M""" XOy ......

(17)

[145] wherein M' may be Pb, Cu, and/or any combination thereof; M" may be Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Au, Ag, and/or any combination thereof; M"' may be Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cd, and/or any combination thereof; M"" may be Sc, Y, B, Al, La, Ga, In, and/or any combination thereof; M""' may be Si, Ti, Zr, Mn, V, Nb, Ta, W, Mo, and/or any combination thereof; M""" may be Bi, Sn, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, and/or any combination thereof ; X may be F, Cl, Br, J, and/or any combination thereof; 0 < a<_ 2;
0<_b<2;0<_c<_10;0<d<10;0<_e<_14;0<_f<14;0<g<10;0<_h<2;1<o <2;1<p<5;1<x<2;and1<y<5.

[146] Example of preparation:

[147] Preparation of the luminescent material having formula (18)

[148] Pb 0.004 Ca 1.99 Zn 0.006 Ge 0.8 Si 0.2 0 4 : Mn ...... (18)

[149] Starting materials: PbO, CaCO 3, ZnO, Ge0 2, Si0 2 , MnCO 3 , and/or any combination thereof,

[150] The starting materials in the form of oxides and/or carbonates may be mixed in sto-ichiometric proportions together with small amounts of flux, for example, NH 4 Cl. In a first step the mixture may be fired in an alumina crucible at about 1,200 C in an oxygen-containing atmosphere for about 2 hours. Then, the material may be milled again. In a second step the mixture may be fired in an alumina crucible at about 1,200 C in oxygen containing atmosphere for about 2 hours. After that the material may be milled, washed, dried and sieved. The resulting luminescent material may have an emission maximum at about 655 nm.

[151] Table 16: lead doped Mn-activated germanate compared with Mn-activated germanate without lead at about 400 nm excitation wavelength

[152]

Copper doped compound Comparison without copper Pb Ca Zn Ge Si Ca Zn Ge Si O: Mn 0.004 1.99 0.006 0.8 0.2 1.99 0.01 0.8 0.2 4 O =Mn Luminous density (%) 101.5 100 Wavelength (nm) 655 657

[153] Preparation of the luminescent material having formula (19)

[154] Cu 0.46 Sr 0.54 Ge 0.6 Si 0.4 0 3 : Mn ...... (19)

[155] Starting materials : CuO, SrCO 3, GeO 2, SiO 2, MnCO 3, and/or any combination thereof

[156] The starting materials in the form of oxides and/or carbonates may be mixed in sto-ichiometric proportions together with small amounts of flux, for example, NH4C1. In a first step the mixture may be fired in an alumina crucible at about 1,100 C in an oxygen-containing atmosphere for about 2 hours. Then, the material may be milled again. In a second step the mixture may be fired in an alumina crucible at about 1,180 C in an oxygen-containing atmosphere for about 4 hours. After that the material may be milled, washed, dried and sieved. The resulting luminescent material may have an emission maximum at about 658 nm.

[157] Table 17: copper doped Mn-activated germanate-silicate compared with Mn-activated germanate-silicate without copper at 400 nm excitation wavelength

[158]

Copper doped compound Compound without copper Cu Sr Ge Si O: Mn SrGe Si O: Mn 0.46 0.54 0.6 0.4 3 0.6 0.4 3 Luminous density (%) 103 100 Wavelength (nm) 658 655

[159] Table 18: optical properties of some copper and/or lead doped germanate-silicates excitable by long wave ultraviolet and/or by visible light and their luminous density in % at about 400 nm excitation wavelength

[160]

Composition Possible Luminous Peak wave Peak wave excitation density at 400 length of lead/ length of range nm excitation copper doped materials (nm) compared with materials (nm) without lead/
copper/lead not copper (nm) doped compounds (%) Pb Ca Zn Ge 360- 101.5 655 657 0.004 1.99 0.006 0.8 Si 0 : Mn 400 0.2 4 Pb Sr Ca Ge 360- 101.5 660 661 0.002 0.954 1.044 Si 0 : Mn 400 0.93 0.07 4 Cu Sr Ge Si 0 360- 103 658 655 0.46 0.54 0.6 0.4 3 Mn 400 Cu Sr Ba Ca 360- 102 538 533 0.002 0.998 0.99 0.01 Si Ge O: Eu 470 0.98 0.02 4 Cu Mg Ge Si O 360 - 102 660 657 1.45 5 26.55 9.4 0.6 : Mn 400 Cu 1.2 Mg 26.8 Ge 8.9 Si 1.1 0 48 360- 103.8 670 656 : Mn 400 Cu 4 Mg 20 Zn 4 Ge 5 Si 2.5 0 360- 101.5 658 655 F : Mn 400 Pb Ba Zn Sr 360- 101.8 550 545 0.001 0.849 0.05 1.1 Ge Si O: Eu 470 0.04 0.96 4 Cu 0.05 Mg 4.95 Ge0 6 F 2 : 360 - 100.5 655 653 Mn 400 Cu 0.05 Mg 3.95 Ge0 5.5 F: 360 - 100.8 657 653 Mn 400 [1611 Lead and/or copper doped phosphates having formula (20 ) [162] a(M'O)=b(M" 0)=c(M"X)=dP0 =e(M... O)= f(M.... 0)=g( M..... 0)=h(M......
O) ......
2 2 5 2 3 2 x y (20) [163] wherein M' may be Pb, Cu, and/or any combination thereof; M" may be Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Au, Ag, and/or any combination thereof; M"' may be Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cd, Mn, and/or any combination thereof; M"" may be Sc, Y, B, Al, La, Ga, In, and/or any combination thereof; M""' may be Si, Ge, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, W, Mo, and/or any combination thereof; M""" may be Bi, Sn, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ce, Tb, and/or any combination thereof; X may be F, Cl, Br, J, and/or any combination thereof; 0<
a<_ 2;
0<_b<12;0<_c<_16;0<d<3;0<_e<_5;0<_f<3;0<g<2;0<h<2;1<x<2;
andl<y<5.
[164] Examples of preparation:
[165] Preparation of the luminescent material having formula (21) [166] Cu 0.02 Ca 4.98 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl : Eu ...... (21) [167] Starting materials: CuO, CaCO 3, Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2, CaC1 2, Eu 2 O 3, and/or any combination thereof, [168] The starting materials in the form of oxides, phosphates, and/or carbonates and chlorides may be mixed in stoichiometric proportions together with small amounts of flux. The mixture may be fired in an alumina crucible at about 1,240 C in reducing atmosphere for about 2 hours. After that the material may be milled, washed, dried and sieved. The luminescent material may have an emission maximum at about 450 nm.
[169] Table 19: copper doped Eu2+-activated chlorophosphate compared with Eu2+
-activated chlorophosphate without copper at about 400 nm excitation wavelength [170]

Copper doped compound Compound without copper Cu 0.02 Ca 4.98 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl : Eu Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl : Eu Luminous density (%) 101.5 100 Wavelength (nm) 450 447 [171] Table 20: copper and/or lead doped phosphates excitable by long wave ultraviolet and/or by visible light and their luminous density in % at about 400 nm excitation wavelength [172]

Composition Possible Luminous Peak wave Peak wave excitation density at 400 length of lead/ length of range (nm) nm excitation copper doped materials compared with materials (nm) without lead/
copper/lead not copper (nm) doped compounds (%) Cu Sr (PO ) Cl 360 - 410 101.5 450 447 0.02 4.98 4 3 : Eu Cu 0.2 Mg 0.8 BaP 2 0 7 360 - 400 102 638 635 : Eu, Mn Pb Sr P B 0 360-400 102 425 420 0.5 1.5 1.84 0.16 = Eu 6.84 Cu 0.5 Mg 0.5 Ba 2 (P,Si) 360 - 400 101 573 570 O=Eu Cu 0.5 Sr 9.5 (P,B) 6 0 24 360 - 410 102 460 456 Cl : Eu Cu Ba Sr P O 360 - 410 102 443 442 0.5 3 6.5 6 24 (F,Cl)2 : Eu Cu 0.05 (Ca,Sr,Ba) 4.95 360 - 410 101.5 438,641 435,640 P O C1 : Eu, Mn Pb Ba P 0 : Eu 360 - 400 103 421 419 0.1 2.9 2 8 [173] Meanwhile, the phosphor of the light emitting device consistent with this invention can comprise aluminate, silicate, antimonate, germanate, phosphate type chemical compound, and any combination thereof.
[174] Fig. 6 is a one of the embodiment's emission spectrum according to the invention, which the phosphor is used for the light emitting device. The embodiment may have a light emitting diode with 405nm wavelength and the phosphor, which is mixture of the selected multiple chemical compounds in proper ratio. The phosphor may be composed of Cu BaMg Al O: Eu which may have peak wavelength at about 451nm, Cu 0.05 1.95 16 27 0.03 Sr Ca Si0 : Eu which may have peak wavelength at 586nm, Pb Ca Sr Sb 0 1.5 0.47 4 0.006 0.6 0.394 2 6 Mn4+ which may have peak wavelength at about 637nm, Pb Ba Zn Si Zr 0 0.15 1.84 0.01 0.99 0.01 4 Eu which may have peak wavelength at around 512nm, and Cu 0.2 Sr 3.8 Al 14 0 25 : Eu which may have peak wavelength at about 494nm.
[175] In such an embodiment, part of the initial about 405nm wavelength emission light from the light emitting diode is absorbed by the phosphor, and it is converted to longer 2"a wavelength. The 1st and 2"d light is mixed together and the desire emission is produced. As the shown Fig. 6, the light emitting device convert the 1st UV
light of 405nm wavelength to wide spectral range of visible light, that is, white light, and at this time the color temperature is about 3,000K and CRI is about 90 to about 95.
[176] Fig. 7 is another embodiment's emission spectrum according to the invention, which the phosphor is applied for the light emitting device. The embodiment may have a light emitting diode with about 455nm wavelength and the phosphor, which is mixture of the selected multiple chemical compounds in proper ratio.
[177] The phosphor is composed of Cu 0.05 Sr 1.7 Ca 0.25 Si0 4 : Eu which may have peak wavelength at about 592nm, Pb 0.1 Ba 0.95 Sr 0.95 Si 0.998 Ge 0.002 0 4 : Eu which may have peak wavelength at about 527nm, and Cu 0.05 Li 0.002 Sr 1.5 Ba 0.448 Si0 4 : Gd, Eu which may have peak wavelength at about 557nm.
[178] In such an embodiment, part of the initial about 455nm wavelength emission light from the light emitting diode is absorbed by the phosphor, and it is converted to longer 2"a wavelength. The 1st and 2"d light is mixed together and the desire emission is produced. As the shown Fig. 7, the light emitting device convert the 1st blue light of about 455nm wavelength to wide spectral range of visible light, that is, white light, and at this time the color temperature is about 4,000K to about 6,500K and CRI is about 86 to about 93.
[179] The phosphor of the light emitting device according to the invention can be applied by single chemical compound or mixture of plurality of single chemical compound besides the embodiments in relation to Fig. 6 and Fig. 7, which are explained above.
[180] According to the description above, light emitting device with wide range of color temperature about 2,000K or about 8,000K or about 10,000K and superior color rendering index more than about 90 can be realized by using the lead and/or copper doped chemical compounds containing rare earth elements.
Industrial Applicability [181] In such a wavelength conversion light emitting device is capable of applying on mobile phone, note book and electronic devices such as home appliance, stereo, telecommunication products, but also for custom display's key pad and back light ap-plication. Moreover, it can be applied for automobile, medical instrument and il-lumination products.
[182] According to the invention, it is also able to provide a wavelength conversion light emitting device with stability against water, humidity, vapor as well as other polar solvents.
[183] In the foregoing described embodiments, various features are grouped together in a single embodiment for purposes of streamlining the disclosure. This method of disclosure is not to be interpreted as reflecting an intention that the claimed invention requires more features than are expressly recited in each claim. Rather, as the following claims reflect, inventive aspects lie in less than all features of a single foregoing disclosed embodiment. Thus, the following claims are hereby incorporated into this Detailed Description of Embodiments, with each claim standing on its own as a separate preferred embodiment of the invention.

Claims (17)

WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:
1. A light emitting device, comprising:
a substrate;
a plurality of electrodes on the substrate;
a light emitting diode configured to emit light, the light emitting diode provided on one of the plurality of electrodes; and a phosphor configured to change a wavelength of the light, the phosphor covering at least a portion of the light emitting diode; and an electrically conductive device configured to connect the light emitting diode with another of the plurality of electrodes;
wherein the phosphor comprises an aluminate containing lead and/or copper, a silicate containing lead and/or copper, an antimonite containing lead and/or copper, a germinate containing lead and/or copper, a germinate-silicate containing lead and/or copper, a phosphate containing lead and/or copper, or any combination thereof.
2. The light emitting device according to claim 1, wherein the phosphor includes a compound having formula (1) a(M1O).cndot. b(M2 2O).cndot. c(M2X).cndot. dAl2O3.cndot.e(M3O).cndot. f(M4 2O3).cndot.g(M5 o O p).cndot. h(M6 x O y) (1) wherein M1 is Pb, Cu, or any combination thereof;
M2 is Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Au, Ag or any combination thereof;
M3 is Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cd, Mn or any combination thereof;
M4 is Sc, B, Ga, In, or any combination thereof;
M5 is Si, Ge, Ti, Zr, Mn, V, Nb, Ta, W, Mo, or any combination thereof;
M6 is Bi, Sn, Sb, Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, or any combination thereof;
X is F, Cl, Br, I, or any combination thereof;
0 <a <= 2;

0<=b<=2;
0<=c<=2;
0<=d<=8;
0<=e<=4;
0<=f<=3;
0<=g<=8;
0 <=h<=2;
1<=o<=2;
1<=p<=5;
1 <= x <= 2; and 1 <= y <=5.
3. The light emitting device according to claim 1, wherein the phosphor includes a compound having formula (2) a(M1O).cndot.b(M2 2O).cndot.c(M2X).cndot.4-a-b -c(M3O).cndot.7(Al2O3).cndot.d(B2O3).cndot.e(Ga2O3).cndot.f(SiO2).cndot.g(GeO2) .cndot.h (M4x O y) (2) wherein M1 is Pb, Cu, or any combination thereof;
M2 is Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Au, Ag, or any combination thereof;
M3 is Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cd, Mn, or any combination thereof;
M4 is Bi, Sn, Sb, Sc, Y, La, In, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, or any combination thereof;
X is F, Cl, Br, I, or any combination thereof;
0 <=a <=4;
0<=b<=2;
0<=c<=2;
0<=d<=1;
0<=e<=1;
0<=f<=1;
0 <=g<=1;
0 <h <=2;
1 <= x <= 2; and 1<= y<= 5 .
4. The light emitting device according to claim 1, wherein the phosphor includes a compound having formula (5) a(M1O) .cndot. b(M2O) .cndot. c(Al2O3) .cndot. d(M3 2O3) .cndot. e(M4O2) .cndot. f (M5 x O y) (5) wherein M1 is Pb, Cu, or any combination thereof;
M2 is Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cd, Mn, or any combination thereof;
M3 is B, Ga, In, or any combination thereof;
M4 is Si, Ge, Ti, Zr, Hf, or any combination thereof;
M5 is Bi, Sn, Sb, Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, or any combination thereof;
0 < a <= 1;
0<=b<=2;
0< c <=8;
0<=d<=1;
0<=e<=1;
0 < f <=2;
1 <= x <= 2; and 1<=y<=5.
5. The light emitting device according to claim 1, wherein the phosphor includes a compound having formula (9) a(M1O).cndot.b(M2O).cndot.c(M3X).cndot.d(M3 2O).cndot. e(M4 2O3).cndot.(M5o Op)..cndot.(SiO2).cndot.h(M6 x O y) .(9) wherein M1 is Pb, Cu, or any combination thereof;
M2 is Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cd, Mn, or any combination thereof;
M3 is Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Au, Ag, or any combination thereof;
M4 is Al, Ga, In, or any combination thereof;
M5 is Ge, V, Nb, Ta, W, Mo, Ti, Zr, Hf, or any combination thereof;
M6 is Bi, Sn, Sb, Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, or any combination thereof;

X is F, CI, Br, I, or any combination thereof;
0 < a<= 2;
0 < b<=8;
0<=c<=4;
0<=d<=2;
0<=e<=2;
0<=f<=2;
0<=g<=10;
0 <h<=5;
1<=o<= 2;
1<=p<=5;
1<=x<=2; and 1<=y<=5.
6. The light emitting device according to claim 1, wherein the phosphor includes a compound having formula (14) a(M1O).cndot. b(M2 2O) .cndot. c(M2X) .cndot. d(Sb2O5) .cndot. e(M3O).cndot.
f(M4xOy) (14) wherein M1 is Pb, Cu, or any combination thereof;
M2 is Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Au, Ag, or any combination thereof;
M3 is Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cd, Mn, or any combination thereof;
M4 is Bi, Sn, Sc, Y, La, Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Gd, or any combination thereof;
X is F, CI, Br, I, or any combination thereof;
0 <a <=2;
0<=b<=2;
0<=c<=4;
0 <d<=8;
0<e<=8;
0<=f<=2;
1<=x<=2;and
7. The light emitting device according to claim 1, wherein the phosphor includes a compound having formula (17) a(M1O) b(M2 2O).cndot.c(M2X) dGeO2 e(M3O) f(M4 2 O3) g(M5oOp).cndot.h(M6xOy) (17) wherein M1 is Pb, Cu, or any combination thereof;
M2 is Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Au, Ag, or any combination thereof;
M3 is Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cd, or any combination thereof;
M4 is Sc, Y, B, Al, La, Ga, In, or any combination thereof;
M5 is Si, Ti, Zr, Mn, V, Nb, Ta, W, Mo, or any combination thereof;
M6 is Bi, Sn, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, or any combination thereof;
X is F, Cl, Br, I, or any combination thereof;
0 <a<=2;
0<=b<=2;
0<=c<=10;
0 <d<=10;
0<=e<=14;
0<=f<=14;
0<=g<=10;
0<=h<=2;
1<=o<=2;
1<=p<=5;
1<= x<= 2; and 1<=y<=5.
8. The light emitting device according to claim 1, wherein the phosphor includes a compound having formula (20) a(M1O).cndot. b(M2 2O) c(M2X).cndot. dP2O5 e(M3O).cndot. f(M4 2O3) g(M5O2) h(M6 x O y) (20) wherein M1 is Pb, Cu, or any combination thereof, M2 is Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Au, Ag, or any combination thereof, M3 is Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cd, Mn, or any combination thereof, M4 is Sc, Y, B, Al, La, Ga, In, or any combination thereof, M5 is Si, Ge, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, W, Mo, or any combination thereof, M6 is Bi, Sn, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ce, Tb, or any combination thereof, X is F, CI, Br, I, or any combination thereof, 0 <a <= 2;
0 <= b <= 12;
0<=c<=16;
0 <d<=3;
0<=e<=5;
0<=f<=3;
0<=g<=2;
0 <h<= 2;
1<=x<= 2; and 1 <=y <=5.
9. The light emitting device according to any one of claim 1 to 8, wherein the phosphor includes one or more single compounds or any combination thereof.
10. The light emitting device according to any one of the claims 1 to 9 further comprising a sealing material configured to cover the light emitting diode and the phosphor.
11. The light emitting device according to claim 10, wherein the phosphor is distributed in the sealing material.
12. The light emitting device according to any one of the claims 1 to 11, wherein the phosphor is mixed with a hardening material.
13. The light emitting device according to any one of the clams 1 to 12, wherein the light emitting diode comprises a plurality of light emitting diodes.
14. The light emitting device according to any one of the claims 1 to 13, further comprising electrically conductive paste provided between the light emitting diode and the one of the plurality of electrodes.
15. The light emitting device according to any one of the claims 1 to 14, further comprising a reflector configured to reflect the light from the light emitting diode.
16. The light emitting device according to any one of the claims 1 to 15, further comprising a heat sink for radiating the heat from the light emitting diode.
17. The light emitting device according to claim 16, wherein the heat sink comprises a plurality of heat sinks.
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