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CA2527911A1 - Superconducting quantum antenna - Google Patents

Superconducting quantum antenna

Info

Publication number
CA2527911A1
CA2527911A1 CA 2527911 CA2527911A CA2527911A1 CA 2527911 A1 CA2527911 A1 CA 2527911A1 CA 2527911 CA2527911 CA 2527911 CA 2527911 A CA2527911 A CA 2527911A CA 2527911 A1 CA2527911 A1 CA 2527911A1
Authority
CA
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
antenna
superconducting
primary
structure
filter
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
CA 2527911
Other languages
French (fr)
Other versions
CA2527911C (en )
Inventor
Joerg Oppenlaender
Christoph Haeussler
Nils Schopohl
Alexander Friesch
Joerg Tomes
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Qest Quantenelektronische Systeme GmbH
Original Assignee
Qest Quantenelektronische Systeme Tuebingen Gmbh Sitz Boeblingen
Joerg Oppenlaender
Christoph Haeussler
Nils Schopohl
Alexander Friesch
Joerg Tomes
Qest Quantenelektronische Systeme Gmbh
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R33/00Arrangements or instruments for measuring magnetic variables
    • G01R33/02Measuring direction or magnitude of magnetic fields or magnetic flux
    • G01R33/035Measuring direction or magnitude of magnetic fields or magnetic flux using superconductive devices
    • G01R33/0354SQUIDS
    • G01R33/0358SQUIDS coupling the flux to the SQUID
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QAERIALS
    • H01Q1/00Details of, or arrangements associated with, aerials
    • H01Q1/36Structural form of radiating elements, e.g. cone, spiral, umbrella; Particular materials used therewith
    • H01Q1/364Structural form of radiating elements, e.g. cone, spiral, umbrella; Particular materials used therewith using a particular conducting material, e.g. supraconductor

Abstract

The invention relates to an antenna for electromagnetic waves which comprises a quantum interference filter (51), at least one low-temperature transistor (51) and primary antenna structures (54, 55, 59, 60), means (51, 52, 53a, 53b) for diverting an electromagnetic wave from the circuit arrangement, cooling elements and insulating agents (57). The superconductive quantum interference filter (51) and the transistor (52) are active components. The primary antenna structure is connected to at least one of the active components (51, 52) in such a manner that, when an electromagnetic wave is incident on the primary antenna structure (54, 55, 59, 60) at the output of the at least one active component (51, 52), a guided electromagnetic wave is the result. At least a part of the circuit arrangement and at least a part of the primary antenna structure (54, 55, 59, 60) is thermally insulated. Said thermal insulation (57) is permeable to the frequency of electromagnetic waves. The cooling elements are adapted to cool at least a part of the circuit arrangement down to less than the transition temperature of at least one of the superconductive materials.

Claims (33)

1. An antenna for electromagnetic waves composed of at least one superconducting quantum interference filter (51) (SQIF) that comprises closed superconducting cells which form a current loop and in each case include a plurality of, preferably two, Josephson junctions, wherein at least three of these cells are connected in a superconducting and/or non-superconducting fashion, the junctions of the at least three cells can be energized in such a way that a time-variant voltage drops in each case across at least two junctions of a cell, the time average of which voltage does not vanish, the at least three cells are configured differently geometrically in such a way that the magnetic fluxes enclosed by the cells in the case of an existing magnetic field differ from one another in such a way that the frequency spectrum of the voltage response function has no significant .PHI.0-periodic component with reference to the magnetic flux, or in that if a discrete frequency spectrum exists, the contribution of the .PHI.0-periodic component of the discrete frequency spectrum is not dominant compared to the non-~~-periodic components of the discrete frequency spectrum, of primary antenna structures made from normally conducting and/or superconducting materials in which an antenna current is induced upon incidence of an electromagnetic wave, of means for generating an adjustable magnetic field for controlling the superconducting quantum interference filter, of means for supplying the superconducting quantum interference filter with an operating current and of means (51, 52, 53a, 53b) that are designed to be able to lead off as electromagnetic wave a voltage oscillation dropping across the superconducting quantum interference filter (51), wherein the primary antenna structure is electrically connected to the superconducting quantum interference filter (51) and/or is magnetically coupled thereto, and the superconducting quantum interference filter (51) is supplied with an operating current in such a way, and the magnetic field for controlling the superconducting quantum interference filter (51) can be adjusted in such a way that the antenna current flowing in the antenna structure upon incidence of electromagnetic waves excites the superconducting quantum interference filter (51) such that an electric voltage dependent on the antenna current drops across the superconducting quantum interference filter (51).
2. The apparatus as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the magnetic control field of the superconducting quantum interference filter is adjusted in such a way that a time-variant antenna current excites the superconducting quantum interference filter in such a way that the frequency of the antenna current is included in the frequency spectrum of the electrical voltage dropping across the superconducting quantum interference filter.
3. An antenna for electromagnetic waves of high frequency, composed of a normally conducting and/or superconducting electrical circuit of at least one superconducting quantum interference filter (51) that comprises closed superconducting cells which form a current loop and in each case include a plurality of, preferably two, Josephson junctions, wherein at least three of these cells are connected in a superconducting and/or non-superconducting fashion, the junctions of the at least three cells can be energized in such a way that a time-variant voltage drops in each case across at least two junctions of a cell, the time average of which voltage does not vanish, the at least three cells are configured differently geometrically in such a way that the magnetic fluxes enclosed by the cells in the case of an existing magnetic field differ from one another in such a way that the frequency spectrum of the voltage response function has no significant .PHI.0-periodic component with reference to the magnetic flux, or in that if a discrete frequency spectrum exists, the contribution of the .PHI.0-periodic component of the discrete frequency spectrum is not dominant compared to the non-.PHI.0-periodic components of the discrete frequency spectrum, of at least one low-temperature transistor (52) and primary antenna structures, of means for supplying the circuit with electric energy, of means for supplying the circuit with a control current and/or a control voltage, of means (51, 52, 53a, 53b) for leading off an electromagnetic wave from the circuit, of cooling elements that can extract heat from at least a part of the circuit during operation, and of insulating means (57) for thermally insulating at least a part of the circuit and of the primary antenna structure, wherein the superconducting quantum interference filter (51) and the transistor (52) act as active components, an antenna current is induced in the primary antenna structures upon incidence of an electromagnetic wave, the primary antenna structure is connected up to at least one of the active components (51, 52) in such a way that upon incidence of an electromagnetic wave on the primary antenna structure there is present at the output of the at least one active component (51, 52) a conducted electromagnetic wave that can be passed on to a consumer, and wherein at least one part of the circuit and at least one part of the primary antenna structure are thermally insulated, the thermal insulation (57) of the part of the primary antenna structure is transparent to electromagnetic waves of high frequency at at least one location, and the cooling elements can withdraw heat from the at least one part of the circuit and the at least one part of the primary antenna structure and are designed to cool down at least one part of the circuit below the transition temperature of at least one of the superconducting materials.
4. An antenna for electromagnetic waves of high frequency, composed of a normally conducting and/or superconducting electrical circuit of at least one low-temperature transistor and primary antenna structures, of means for supplying the circuit with electric energy, of means for supplying the circuit with a control current and/or a control voltage, of means for leading off an electromagnetic wave from the circuit, of cooling elements that can extract heat from at least a part of the circuit during operation, and of insulating means for thermally insulating at least a part of the circuit and of the primary antenna structure, wherein the transistor acts as an active component, an antenna current is induced in the primary antenna structures upon incidence of an electromagnetic wave, the primary antenna structure is connected up to the active component in such a way that upon incidence of an electromagnetic wave on the primary antenna structure there is present at the output of the at least one active component a conducted electromagnetic wave that can be passed on to a consumer, and wherein at least one part of the circuit and at least one part of the primary antenna structure are thermally insulated, the thermal insulation of the part of the primary antenna structure is transparent to electromagnetic waves of high frequency at at least one location, and the cooling elements can withdraw heat from the at least one part of the circuit and the at least one part of the primary antenna structure and are designed to cool down at least one part of the circuit below a comparatively low temperature of, for example, 150 kelvins.
5. The apparatus as claimed in claim 3 or 4, characterized in that the thermal insulation is designed as a vacuum chamber.
6. The apparatus as claimed in one of claims 3 to 5, characterized in that the thermal insulation is part of the primary antenna structure.
7. The apparatus as claimed in one of claims 3 to 6, characterized in that the entire circuit is thermally insulated, and the, for example active and/or passive, cooling elements can extract heat from the entire circuit.
8. The apparatus as claimed in one of claims 3 to 7, characterized in that a part of the primary antenna structure is composed of a hollow conductor termination into which there projects at least one elongated antenna element, for example an antenna pin, that is electrically insulated from the hollow conductor, and the at least one antenna element is electrically connected to the input of at least one active component, and the circuit includes a plurality of active components that are connected in series, and the hollow conductor termination and the part of the circuit that includes the active components are located in an evacuatable vessel, and heat can be extracted from the hollow conductor termination and the part of the circuit that includes the active components.
9. The apparatus as claimed in claim 8, characterized in that projecting into the hollow conductor termination are two antenna elements that are fitted offset from one another and that in each case are individually electrically connected to the input of an active component such that two independent polarizations can be led off from the hollow conductor termination.
10. The apparatus as claimed in one of the preceding claims, characterized in that a part of the primary antenna structures is composed of at least one of the following structures:
- an array of normally conducting and/or superconducting aperture antennas, - an array of normally conducting and/or superconducting patch antennas, - one or more electromagnetic lenses, - one or more horn antennas, or - one or more parabolic antennas, whose output signal is assembled via a hollow conductor structure and/or a normally conducting and/or superconducting lead structure and is coupled to at least one of the active components.
11. The apparatus as claimed in one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the electrodes of the superconducting quantum interference filter itself are designed as the primary antenna structures.
12. The apparatus as claimed in one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the superconducting quantum interference filter is equipped with an impedance transformer that transforms the impedance of the superconducting quantum interference filter to the impedance of a connected waveguide or a connected consumer.
13. The apparatus as claimed in one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the superconducting quantum interference filter is operated in such a way that the part of the electric voltage dropping across the superconducting quantum interference filter which oscillates rapidly with the Josephson relation locks onto the carrier frequency of the incident electromagnetic wave such that the voltage dropping across the superconducting quantum interference filter includes the frequency-modulated signal of the incident electromagnetic wave.
14. The apparatus as claimed in one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the superconducting quantum interference filter and the primary antenna structure are applied to a common carrier.
15. The apparatus as claimed in one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the superconducting quantum interference filter and the primary antenna structure are applied to separate carriers.
16. The apparatus as claimed in one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the superconducting quantum interference filter is applied to one carrier, and the primary antenna structure is applied to another carrier, and the two carriers lie above an other.
17. The apparatus as claimed in one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the superconducting quantum interference filter is constructed from grain boundary Josephson junctions, and the electrodes are composed of high-temperature superconductors.
18. The apparatus as claimed in one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the primary antenna structure is composed of high-temperature superconductors.
19. The apparatus as claimed in one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the antenna is operated in an active cooler.
20. The apparatus as claimed in claim 19, characterized in that the antenna is located on a chip that is fitted on the cooling finger of the active cooler, and in that the antenna signal is derived from said antenna chip with the aid of a poorly thermally conducting waveguide.
21. The apparatus as claimed in claim 20, characterized in that the operating current of the superconducting quantum interference filter is fed and led off by the waveguide.
22. The apparatus as claimed in one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the primary antenna structure is composed of one or an array of antenna rods or other electric conductors whose length or dimensions is/are in the range of half the wavelength of the incident electromagnetic wave.
23. The apparatus as claimed in one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the primary antenna structure is composed of one or an array of closed or open loop antennas.
24. The apparatus as claimed in one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the primary antenna structure is composed of one or more electrically small antennas.
25. The apparatus as claimed in one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the primary antenna structure is also or exclusively composed of dielectric materials.
26. The apparatus as claimed in one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the antenna is operated in a resonant cavity that has at a suitable location an opening for the electromagnetic wave incident indirectly or directly.
27. The apparatus as claimed in one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the primary antenna structure is equipped with additional filter elements in such a way that one or more frequency bands are selected.
28. The apparatus as claimed in one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the antenna includes additional electronic components, in particular electric resistors, capacitors, coils, filter components, transistors or electronic amplifiers.
29. The apparatus as claimed in one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the antenna is applied to a substrate by means of microstripline technology such that an electrically conducting base plate forms the counter-electrode.
30. The apparatus as claimed in one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the antenna is equipped with an electronic feedback control with the aid of which the output signal of the superconducting quantum interference filter is fed back to the latter.
31. The apparatus as claimed in one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the superconducting quantum interference filter impresses a time-variant voltage on the primary antenna structure such that a time-variant antenna current flows in the primary antenna structure and the primary antenna structure emits an electromagnetic wave.
32. An antenna field having two or more antennas as claimed in one of the preceding claims.
33. The antenna field as claimed in claim 32, characterized in that means are provided with the aid of which the signals of the antennas arranged in the antenna array can be superposed in a phase-sensitive fashion to form an aggregate signal.
CA 2527911 2003-06-13 2004-06-14 Superconducting quantum antenna Active CA2527911C (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE10327061.2 2003-06-13
DE10327061 2003-06-13
PCT/DE2004/001209 WO2004114463A1 (en) 2003-06-13 2004-06-14 Superconductive quantum antenna

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
CA2527911A1 true true CA2527911A1 (en) 2004-12-29
CA2527911C CA2527911C (en) 2010-09-14

Family

ID=33482924

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CA 2527911 Active CA2527911C (en) 2003-06-13 2004-06-14 Superconducting quantum antenna

Country Status (8)

Country Link
US (1) US7369093B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1634351B1 (en)
JP (1) JP4303286B2 (en)
CA (1) CA2527911C (en)
DE (2) DE502004007007D1 (en)
DK (1) DK1634351T3 (en)
ES (1) ES2305780T3 (en)
WO (1) WO2004114463A1 (en)

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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DE60329869D1 (en) * 2003-12-18 2009-12-10 Fujitsu Ltd Antenna device, radio receiving device and sparking device
US7615385B2 (en) 2006-09-20 2009-11-10 Hypres, Inc Double-masking technique for increasing fabrication yield in superconducting electronics
US8179135B2 (en) * 2008-01-28 2012-05-15 California Institute Of Technology Low field electron paramagnetic resonance imaging with SQUID detection
US8134516B1 (en) 2007-06-08 2012-03-13 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Electrically small supergain endfire array antenna
US8179133B1 (en) 2008-08-18 2012-05-15 Hypres, Inc. High linearity superconducting radio frequency magnetic field detector
US8593141B1 (en) 2009-11-24 2013-11-26 Hypres, Inc. Magnetic resonance system and method employing a digital squid
US9112279B2 (en) 2011-02-25 2015-08-18 Honeywell International Inc. Aperture mode filter
RU2483392C1 (en) * 2011-12-14 2013-05-27 Учреждение Российской академии наук Институт радиотехники и электроники им. В.А. Котельникова РАН Superconductive appliance based on multi-element structure from josephson junctions
JP5921337B2 (en) * 2012-05-28 2016-05-24 株式会社東芝 Receiving antenna device
US9097751B1 (en) * 2012-11-28 2015-08-04 The United States Of America, As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Linear voltage response of non-uniform arrays of bi-SQUIDs
JP6029079B2 (en) * 2013-06-03 2016-11-24 大学共同利用機関法人 高エネルギー加速器研究機構 Radio measurement device
US9385159B2 (en) 2014-06-30 2016-07-05 The United States of America as represented by the Sercretary of the Navy Electronic circuitry having superconducting tunnel junctions with functional electromagnetic-responsive tunneling regions
CN107683527A (en) * 2015-04-17 2018-02-09 耶鲁大学 Wireless Josephson parameter converter
GB201511803D0 (en) * 2015-07-06 2015-08-19 Univ Loughborough Superconducting magnetic sens

Family Cites Families (5)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH042979A (en) 1990-04-19 1992-01-07 Seiko Instr Inc Magnetic field detector with high sensitivity
US6363268B1 (en) * 1994-08-10 2002-03-26 Bae Systems Aerospace Electronics Inc. Superconducting ultrabroadband antenna
US6212404B1 (en) * 1997-08-01 2001-04-03 K&L Microwave Inc. Cryogenic filters
EP1135694B1 (en) * 1999-10-04 2004-01-02 QEST Quantenelektronische Systeme Tübingen GmbH Sitz Böblingen Device for high resolution measurement of magnetic fields
JP3957997B2 (en) * 2001-07-10 2007-08-15 株式会社エヌ・ティ・ティ・ドコモ High-sensitivity radio receiver

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
DE102004028432A1 (en) 2004-12-30 application
JP4303286B2 (en) 2009-07-29 grant
JP2006527548A (en) 2006-11-30 application
WO2004114463A1 (en) 2004-12-29 application
ES2305780T3 (en) 2008-11-01 grant
EP1634351A1 (en) 2006-03-15 application
US7369093B2 (en) 2008-05-06 grant
DK1634351T3 (en) 2008-08-18 grant
EP1634351B1 (en) 2008-04-30 grant
DE502004007007D1 (en) 2008-06-12 grant
US20060145694A1 (en) 2006-07-06 application
CA2527911C (en) 2010-09-14 grant

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