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CA2474858A1 - Microporous filter media, filtration systems containing same, and methods of making and using - Google Patents

Microporous filter media, filtration systems containing same, and methods of making and using

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Publication number
CA2474858A1
CA2474858A1 CA 2474858 CA2474858A CA2474858A1 CA 2474858 A1 CA2474858 A1 CA 2474858A1 CA 2474858 CA2474858 CA 2474858 CA 2474858 A CA2474858 A CA 2474858A CA 2474858 A1 CA2474858 A1 CA 2474858A1
Authority
CA
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
filter
microporous
structure
medium
nanofibers
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
CA 2474858
Other languages
French (fr)
Other versions
CA2474858C (en )
Inventor
Evan E. Koslow
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
KX Technologies LLC
Original Assignee
Koslow Technologies Corporation
Evan E. Koslow
Kx Industries, L.P.
Kx Technologies Llc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Family has litigation

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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/50Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by addition or application of a germicide or by oligodynamic treatment
    • C02F1/505Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by addition or application of a germicide or by oligodynamic treatment by oligodynamic treatment
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L2/00Methods or apparatus for disinfecting or sterilising materials or objects other than foodstuffs or contact lenses; Accessories therefor
    • A61L2/0005Methods or apparatus for disinfecting or sterilising materials or objects other than foodstuffs or contact lenses; Accessories therefor for pharmaceuticals, biologicals or living parts
    • A61L2/0011Methods or apparatus for disinfecting or sterilising materials or objects other than foodstuffs or contact lenses; Accessories therefor for pharmaceuticals, biologicals or living parts using physical methods
    • A61L2/0017Filtration
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L2/00Methods or apparatus for disinfecting or sterilising materials or objects other than foodstuffs or contact lenses; Accessories therefor
    • A61L2/0005Methods or apparatus for disinfecting or sterilising materials or objects other than foodstuffs or contact lenses; Accessories therefor for pharmaceuticals, biologicals or living parts
    • A61L2/0082Methods or apparatus for disinfecting or sterilising materials or objects other than foodstuffs or contact lenses; Accessories therefor for pharmaceuticals, biologicals or living parts using chemical substances
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L2/00Methods or apparatus for disinfecting or sterilising materials or objects other than foodstuffs or contact lenses; Accessories therefor
    • A61L2/02Methods or apparatus for disinfecting or sterilising materials or objects other than foodstuffs or contact lenses; Accessories therefor using physical phenomena
    • A61L2/022Filtration
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L9/00Disinfection, sterilisation or deodorisation of air
    • A61L9/16Disinfection, sterilisation or deodorisation of air using physical phenomena
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D29/00Other filters with filtering elements stationary during filtration, e.g. pressure or suction filters, or filtering elements therefor
    • B01D29/11Other filters with filtering elements stationary during filtration, e.g. pressure or suction filters, or filtering elements therefor with bag, cage, hose, tube, sleeve or like filtering elements
    • B01D29/13Supported filter elements
    • B01D29/15Supported filter elements arranged for inward flow filtration
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D29/00Other filters with filtering elements stationary during filtration, e.g. pressure or suction filters, or filtering elements therefor
    • B01D29/39Other filters with filtering elements stationary during filtration, e.g. pressure or suction filters, or filtering elements therefor with hollow discs side by side on, or around, one or more tubes, e.g. of the leaf type
    • B01D29/41Other filters with filtering elements stationary during filtration, e.g. pressure or suction filters, or filtering elements therefor with hollow discs side by side on, or around, one or more tubes, e.g. of the leaf type mounted transversely on the tube
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D37/00Processes of filtration
    • B01D37/02Precoating the filter medium; Addition of filter aids to the liquid being filtered
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D39/00Filtering material for liquid or gaseous fluids
    • B01D39/14Other self-supporting filtering material ; Other filtering material
    • B01D39/16Other self-supporting filtering material ; Other filtering material of organic material, e.g. synthetic fibres
    • B01D39/1607Other self-supporting filtering material ; Other filtering material of organic material, e.g. synthetic fibres the material being fibrous
    • B01D39/1623Other self-supporting filtering material ; Other filtering material of organic material, e.g. synthetic fibres the material being fibrous of synthetic origin
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D39/00Filtering material for liquid or gaseous fluids
    • B01D39/14Other self-supporting filtering material ; Other filtering material
    • B01D39/16Other self-supporting filtering material ; Other filtering material of organic material, e.g. synthetic fibres
    • B01D39/18Other self-supporting filtering material ; Other filtering material of organic material, e.g. synthetic fibres the material being cellulose or derivatives thereof
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D39/00Filtering material for liquid or gaseous fluids
    • B01D39/14Other self-supporting filtering material ; Other filtering material
    • B01D39/20Other self-supporting filtering material ; Other filtering material of inorganic material, e.g. asbestos paper, metallic filtering material of non-woven wires
    • B01D39/2003Glass or glassy material
    • B01D39/2017Glass or glassy material the material being filamentary or fibrous
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/28Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties
    • B01J20/28002Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties characterised by their physical properties
    • B01J20/28004Sorbent size or size distribution, e.g. particle size
    • B01J20/28007Sorbent size or size distribution, e.g. particle size with size in the range 1-100 nanometers, e.g. nanosized particles, nanofibers, nanotubes, nanowires or the like
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/28Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties
    • B01J20/28014Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties characterised by their form
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/28Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties
    • B01J20/28014Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof characterised by their form or physical properties characterised by their form
    • B01J20/28023Fibres or filaments
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/30Processes for preparing, regenerating, or reactivating
    • B01J20/32Impregnating or coating ; Solid sorbent compositions obtained from processes involving impregnating or coating
    • B01J20/3202Impregnating or coating ; Solid sorbent compositions obtained from processes involving impregnating or coating characterised by the carrier, support or substrate used for impregnation or coating
    • B01J20/3204Inorganic carriers, supports or substrates
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/30Processes for preparing, regenerating, or reactivating
    • B01J20/32Impregnating or coating ; Solid sorbent compositions obtained from processes involving impregnating or coating
    • B01J20/3202Impregnating or coating ; Solid sorbent compositions obtained from processes involving impregnating or coating characterised by the carrier, support or substrate used for impregnation or coating
    • B01J20/3206Organic carriers, supports or substrates
    • B01J20/3208Polymeric carriers, supports or substrates
    • B01J20/3212Polymeric carriers, supports or substrates consisting of a polymer obtained by reactions otherwise than involving only carbon to carbon unsaturated bonds
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J20/00Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof
    • B01J20/30Processes for preparing, regenerating, or reactivating
    • B01J20/32Impregnating or coating ; Solid sorbent compositions obtained from processes involving impregnating or coating
    • B01J20/3231Impregnating or coating ; Solid sorbent compositions obtained from processes involving impregnating or coating characterised by the coating or impregnating layer
    • B01J20/3234Inorganic material layers
    • B01J20/3236Inorganic material layers containing metal, other than zeolites, e.g. oxides, hydroxides, sulphides or salts
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
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    • B01J20/30Processes for preparing, regenerating, or reactivating
    • B01J20/32Impregnating or coating ; Solid sorbent compositions obtained from processes involving impregnating or coating
    • B01J20/3291Characterised by the shape of the carrier, the coating or the obtained coated product
    • B01J20/3293Coatings on a core, the core being particle or fiber shaped, e.g. encapsulated particles, coated fibers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B82NANOTECHNOLOGY
    • B82YSPECIFIC USES OR APPLICATIONS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MEASUREMENT OR ANALYSIS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT OF NANOSTRUCTURES
    • B82Y30/00Nanotechnology for materials or surface science, e.g. nanocomposites
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/001Processes for the treatment of water whereby the filtration technique is of importance
    • C02F1/003Processes for the treatment of water whereby the filtration technique is of importance using household-type filters for producing potable water, e.g. pitchers, bottles, faucet mounted devices
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/001Processes for the treatment of water whereby the filtration technique is of importance
    • C02F1/004Processes for the treatment of water whereby the filtration technique is of importance using large scale industrial sized filters
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/44Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by dialysis, osmosis or reverse osmosis
    • C02F1/444Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by dialysis, osmosis or reverse osmosis by ultrafiltration or microfiltration
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12HPASTEURISATION; STERILISATION; PRESERVATION; PURIFICATION; CLARIFICATION; AGEING
    • C12H1/00Pasteurisation, sterilisation, preservation, purification, clarification, or ageing of alcoholic beverages
    • C12H1/02Pasteurisation, sterilisation, preservation, purification, clarification, or ageing of alcoholic beverages combined with removal of precipitate or added materials, e.g. adsorption material
    • C12H1/04Pasteurisation, sterilisation, preservation, purification, clarification, or ageing of alcoholic beverages combined with removal of precipitate or added materials, e.g. adsorption material with the aid of ion-exchange material or inert clarification material, e.g. adsorption material
    • C12H1/0408Pasteurisation, sterilisation, preservation, purification, clarification, or ageing of alcoholic beverages combined with removal of precipitate or added materials, e.g. adsorption material with the aid of ion-exchange material or inert clarification material, e.g. adsorption material with the aid of inorganic added material
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12HPASTEURISATION; STERILISATION; PRESERVATION; PURIFICATION; CLARIFICATION; AGEING
    • C12H1/00Pasteurisation, sterilisation, preservation, purification, clarification, or ageing of alcoholic beverages
    • C12H1/02Pasteurisation, sterilisation, preservation, purification, clarification, or ageing of alcoholic beverages combined with removal of precipitate or added materials, e.g. adsorption material
    • C12H1/04Pasteurisation, sterilisation, preservation, purification, clarification, or ageing of alcoholic beverages combined with removal of precipitate or added materials, e.g. adsorption material with the aid of ion-exchange material or inert clarification material, e.g. adsorption material
    • C12H1/0416Pasteurisation, sterilisation, preservation, purification, clarification, or ageing of alcoholic beverages combined with removal of precipitate or added materials, e.g. adsorption material with the aid of ion-exchange material or inert clarification material, e.g. adsorption material with the aid of organic added material
    • C12H1/0424Pasteurisation, sterilisation, preservation, purification, clarification, or ageing of alcoholic beverages combined with removal of precipitate or added materials, e.g. adsorption material with the aid of ion-exchange material or inert clarification material, e.g. adsorption material with the aid of organic added material with the aid of a polymer
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2201/00Details relating to filtering apparatus
    • B01D2201/34Seals or gaskets for filtering elements
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2220/00Aspects relating to sorbent materials
    • B01J2220/40Aspects relating to the composition of sorbent or filter aid materials
    • B01J2220/42Materials comprising a mixture of inorganic materials
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/001Processes for the treatment of water whereby the filtration technique is of importance
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/28Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by sorption
    • C02F1/281Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by sorption using inorganic sorbents
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/28Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by sorption
    • C02F1/283Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by sorption using coal, charred products, or inorganic mixtures containing them
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/42Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by ion-exchange
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/72Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by oxidation
    • C02F1/76Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by oxidation with halogens or compounds of halogens
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2303/00Specific treatment goals
    • C02F2303/04Disinfection
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2307/00Location of water treatment or water treatment device
    • C02F2307/04Location of water treatment or water treatment device as part of a pitcher or jug
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
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    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/249921Web or sheet containing structurally defined element or component
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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Abstract

The invention is directed to a microbiological interception enhanced filter medium, preferably having an adsorbent prefilter located upstream from the filter medium. Preferably, the prefilter is adapted to remove natural organic matter in an influent prior to the influent contacting themicrobiological interception enhanced filter medium, thereby preventing loss of charge on the filter medium. The microbiological interception enhanced filter medium is most preferably comprised of fibrillated cellulose nanofibers, in particular, lyocell nanofibers. At least a portion of the surface of the at least some of the nanofibers have formed thereon a microbiological interception enhancing agent comprising a cationic metal complex. A filter medium of the present invention provides greater than about 4 log viral interception, and greater than about 6 log bacterial interception.

Claims (65)

1. A filter medium comprising:
a microporous structure having a mean flow path of less than or equal to about 1 micron; and a microbiological interception enhancing agent comprising a cationic metal complex capable of imparting a positive charge on at least a portion of said microporous structure.
2. A filter medium according to claim 1 wherein said microporous structure comprises a plurality of nanofibers having a fiber diameter of less than about 1000 nanometers.
3. A filter medium according to claim 2 wherein the nanofibers comprise organic nanofibers, inorganic nanofibers, or a mixture thereof.
4. A filter medium according to claim 2 wherein the nanofibers comprise substantially fibrillated lyocell nanofibers.
5. A filter medium according to claim 4 wherein the fibrillated lyocell nanofibers have a Canadian Standard Freeness of less than or equal to about 45.
6. A filter medium according to claim 1 wherein said microporous structure is a membrane comprising an organic material, an inorganic material, or a mixture thereof.
7. A filter medium according to claim 6 wherein the membrane comprises a polymer material.
8. A filter medium according to claim 1 wherein said microbiological interception enhancing agent consists of a cationic metal complex wherein a cationic material on a surface of said microporous structure has an associated counter ion therewith and wherein a biologically active metal is caused to precipitate with at least a portion of the counter ion associated with the cationic material.
9. A filter medium according to claim 8 wherein the cationic material having a counter ion associated therewith is selected from the group consisting of amines, amides, quaternary ammonium salts, imides, benzalkonium compounds, biguanides, aminosilicon compounds, polymers thereof, and combinations thereof.
10. A filter medium according to claim 1 wherein the cationic metal complex includes a biologically active metal selected from the group consisting of silver, copper, zinc, cadmium, mercury, antimony, gold, aluminum, platinum, palladium, and combinations thereof.
11. A filter medium according to claim 1 wherein the cationic metal complex is formed by treating at least a portion of said microporous structure with a cationic material comprising a homopolymer of diallyl dimethyl ammonium halide followed by precipitation of silver with at least a portion of the halide counter ion associated with the homopolymer of diallyl dimethyl ammonium halide.
12. A filter medium as in any one of claims 1 through 11 wherein said microporous structure is combined with an adsorbent prefilter medium containing activated carbon, activated alumina, zeolites, diatomaceous earth, silicates, aluminosilicates, titanates, bone char, calcium hydroxyapatite, manganese oxides, iron oxides, magnesia, perlite, talc, polymeric particulates, clay, iodated resins, ion exchange resins, ceramics, or combinations thereof.
13. A filter medium comprising:
as adsorbent prefilter having immobilized therein a material capable of removing charge-reducing contaminants;
a microporous structure, disposed downstream from said adsorbent layer, comprising a plurality of nanofibers, said microporous structure having a mean flow path of less than about 0.6 micron; and a microbiological interception enhancing agent comprising a silver-cationic material-halide complex having a high charge density, coated on at least a portion of a surface of at least some of the plurality of nanofibers of said microporous structure.
14. A filter medium according to claim 13 wherein said microbiological interception enhancing agent consists of a silver-cationic material-halide complex wherein a homopolymer of diallyl dimethyl ammonium on a surface of said microporous structure has a halide counter ion associated therewith and wherein silver is precipitated with at least a portion of the halide counter ion.
15. A filter medium as in any one of claims 1, 12, and 13 wherein the homopolymer of diallyl dimethyl ammonium halide has a molecular weight of greater than or equal to about 400,000 Daltons.
16. A filter medium as in any one of claims 1, 13, 14, and 15 wherein said microporous structure incorporates one or more materials selected from the group consisting of activated carbon, activated alumina, zeolites, diatomaceous earth, silicates, aluminosilicates, titanates, bone char, calcium hydroxyapatite, manganese oxides, iron oxides, magnesia, perlite, talc, polymeric particulates, clay, iodated resins, ion exchange resins, ceramics, and combinations thereof.
17. A filter medium as in any one of claims 1 and 13 wherein said microporous structure further includes a binder.
18. A filter medium as in any one of claims 1 and 13 further including a particulate prefilter.
19. A filter medium as in any one of claims 2 and 13 wherein the plurality of nanofibers are made from material selected from the group consisting of polymers, ion-exchange resins, engineered resins, ceramics, cellulose, rayon, wool, silk, glass, metal, litanates activated alumina, ceramics activated carbon, silica, zeolites, diatomaceous earth, activated bauxite, fuller's earth, calcium hydroxyapatite, and combinations thereof.
20. A filter system comprising:
a bed of granular material capable of removing charge-reducing contaminants;
a microporous structure, disposed downstream from said granular bed, having a mean flow path of less than about 0.6 micron;
and a microbiological interception enhancing agent comprising a silver-cationic material-halide complex having a high charge density, coated on at least a portion of a surface of said microporous structure.
21. A filter system comprising:
a solid composite block comprising a material capable of removing charge-reducing contaminants;

a microporous structure, disposed downstream from said block, having a mean flow path of less than about 2.0 microns; and a microbiological interception enhancing agent comprising a silver-cationic material-halide complex having a high charge density, coated on at least a portion of a surface of said microporous structure.
22. A filter system as in any one of claims 20 and 21 further including a particulate prefilter.
23. A filter system as in any one of claims 20 and 21 wherein the silver-cationic material-halide complex comprises a homopolymer of dially dimethyl ammonium on a surface of said microporous structure having a halide counter ion associated therewith and wherein silver is precipitated with at least a portion of the halide counter ion.
24. A filter system as in any one of claims 20 and 21 wherein the silver-cationic material-halide complex comprises a homopolymer of dially dimethyl ammonium on a surface of said microporous structure having a halide counter ion associated therewith wherein the homopolymer of diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride has a molecular weight of greater than or equal to about 400,000 Daltons, and wherein silver is precipitated with at least a portion of the halide counter ion,.
25. A filter system as in any one of claims 20 and 21 wherein the material capable of removing charge-reducing contaminants comprises activated carbon, activated alumina, zeolites, diatomaceous earth, silicates, aluminosilicates, titanates, bone char, calcium hydroxyapatite, manganese oxides, iron oxides, magnesia, perlite, talc, polymeric particulates, clay, iodated resins, ion exchange resins, ceramics, or combinations thereof.
26. A filter system as in any one of claims 20 and 21 wherein said microporous structure incorporates one or more materials selected from the group consisting of activated carbon, activated alumina, zeolites, diatomaceous earth, silicates, aluminosilicates, titanates, bone char, calcium hydroxyapatite, manganese oxides, iron oxides, magnesia, perlite, talc, polymeric particulates, clay, iodated resins, ion exchange resins, ceramics, and combinations thereof.
27. A filter system as in any one of claims 20 and 21 wherein said microporous structure further includes a binder.
28. A process of making a filter medium comprising the steps of:
providing a microporous structure having a mean flow path of less than about 1 micron; and coating at least a portion of the microporous structure with a microbiological interception enhancing agent, the microbiological interception enhancing agent comprising a cationic metal complex capable of imparting a positive charge on at least a portion of the microporous structure.
29. A process according to claim 28 wherein the step of providing a microporous structure comprises forming a plurality of nanofibers having a fiber diameter of less than about 1000 nanometers into the microporous structure.
30. A process according to claim 28 wherein the step of providing a microporous structure comprises forming a plurality of nanofibers, wherein the nanofibers comprise organic nanofibers, inorganic nanofibers, or a mixture thereof, into the microporous structure.
31. A process according to claim 28 wherein the step of providing a microporous structure comprises forming a plurality of substantially fibrillated lyocell nanofibers wherein at least a portion of the fibrillated lyocell nanofibers are about 1 millimeter to about 8 millimeters in length having a diameter of about 250 nanometers, into the microporous structure.
32. A process according to claim 28 wherein the step of forming a plurality of substantially fibrillated lyocell nanofibers comprises forming a plurality of substantially fibrillated lyocell nanofibers having a Canadian Standard Freeness of less than or equal to about 45, into the microporous structure.
33. A process according to claim 28 wherein the step of providing a microporous structure comprises providing a membrane comprising an organic material, an inorganic material, or a mixture thereof.
34. A process for making a filter medium comprising the steps of:
providing a plurality of nanofibers;
coating at least a portion of a surface of at least some of the plurality of nanofibers with a microbiological interception enhancing agent, the microbiological intercepting agent comprising a cationic metal complex; and forming said nanofibers into a microporous structure having a mean flow path of less than about 1 micron.
35. A process for making a filter medium comprising the steps of:
providing a plurality of polymer nanofibers;
coating at least a portion of a surface of at least some of the plurality of polymer nanofibers with a microbiological interception enhancing agent, the microbiological intercepting agent comprising a cationic metal complex; and forming a microporous structure having a mean flow path of less than about 1 micron.
36. A process for making a filter medium comprising the steps of:
providing a plurality of cellulose nanofibers;
coating at least a portion of a surface of at least some of the plurality of cellulose nanofibers with a microbiological interception enhancing agent, the microbiological intercepting agent comprising a cationic metal complex; and forming a microporous structure having a mean flow path of less than about 1 micron.
37. A process of making a filter medium comprising the steps of:
providing a membrane having a mean flow path of less than about 1 micron; and coating at least a portion of the membrane with a microbiological interception enhancing agent, the microbiological interception enhancing agent comprising a cationic metal complex capable of imparting a positive charge on at least a portion of the membrane.
38. A process according to claim 37 wherein the step of coating comprises treating at least a portion of the membrane with a cationic material having a counter ion associated therewith to form a cationically charged membrane;

exposing the cationically charged membrane to a biologically active metal salt; and precipitating a biologically-active metal complex with at least a portion of the counter ion associated with the cationic material on at least a portion of the membrane.
39. A process for making a filter medium comprising the steps of:
providing a plurality of nanofibers;
coating at least a portion of a surface of at least some of the plurality of said nanofibers with a microbiological interception enhancing agent, the microbiological intercepting agent comprising a silver-amine-halide complex having a medium to high charge density and a molecular weight greater than 5000 Daltons; and forming a microporous structure having a mean flow path of less than or about 0.6 microns.
providing an adsorbent prefilter comprising a material capable of removing charge-reducing contaminants from an influent, and placing said adsorbent prefilter upstream of said microporous structure.
40. A process for making a filter system comprising the steps of:
providing an adsorbent prefilter comprising a material capable of removing charge-reducing contaminants from an influent, wherein the material is immobilized into a solid composite block;
providing a plurality of nanofibers;
coating at least a portion of a surface of at least some of the plurality of said nanofibers with a microbiological interception enhancing agent, the microbiological intercepting agent comprising a silver-amine-halide complex having a medium to high charge density and a molecular weight greater than 5000 Daltons; and forming a microporous structure comprising the plurality of nanofibers having a mean flow path of less than or about 0.6 microns, wherein the microporous structure is downstream from the adsorbent prefilter.
41. A process as in any one of claims 28, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, and 40 further including the step of incorporating one or more ingredients to the filter ~
medium selected from the group consisting of activated carbon, activated alumina, zeolites, diatomaceous earth, silicates, aluminosilicates, titanates, bone char, calcium hydroxyapatite, manganese oxides, iron oxides, magnesia, perlite, talc, polymeric particulates, clay, iodated resins, ion exchange resins, ceramics, and combinations thereof.
42. A process as in any one of claims 34, 36, 39, and 40 wherein the step of providing a plurality of nanofibers comprising forming a plurality of fibrillated lyocell nanofibers and forming the fibrillated lyocell nanofibers into the microporous structure.
43. A process as in any one of claims 34, 35, and 36 wherein the step of coating comprises:
treating at least a portion of the plurality of nanofibers with a cationic material having a counter ion associated therewith to form a cationically charged fiber material;
exposing the cationically charged fiber material to a biologically active metal salt; and precipitating a biologically-active metal complex with at least a portion of the counter ion associated with the cationic material on at least a portion of the cationically charged fiber material.
44. A process as in any one of claims 34, 35, and 36 wherein in the step of coating, at least a portion of the plurality of nanofibers are treated with a cationic material having a counter ion associated therewith to form a cationically charged fiber material, wherein the cationic material is selected from the group consisting of amines, amides, quaternary ammonium salts, imides, benzalkonium compounds, biguanides, pyrroles aminosilicon compounds, polymers thereof, and combinations thereof.
45. A process as in any one of claims 34, 35, and 36 wherein in the step of coating, the cationically charged fiber material is exposed to a biologically active metal salt, wherein the biologically active metal is selected from the group consisting of silver, copper, zinc, cadmium, mercury, antimony, gold, aluminum, platinum, palladium, and combinations thereof.
46. A process as in any one of claims 34, 35, and 36 wherein in the step of coating, the cationic metal complex comprises a metal-amine-halide complex.
47. A process as in any one of claims 34, 35, and 36 wherein in the step of coating, the cationic metal complex comprises a silver-amine-halide complex.
48. A process as in any one of claims 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, and 40 further including the step of providing a prefilter capable of removing charge-reducing contaminants from an influent prior to the influent contacting the microporous structure.
49. A process as in any one of claims 29, 30, 34, 39, and 40 wherein the step of providing a plurality of nanofibers, the nanofibers are made from a material selected from the group consisting of polymers, ion-exchange resins, engineered resins, ceramics, cellulose, rayon, wool, silk, glass, metal, litanates activated alumina, ceramics activated carbon, silica, zeolites, diatomaceous earth, activated bauxite, fuller's earth, calcium hydroxyapatite, and combinations thereof.
50. A process as in any one of claims 34, 35, 36, 39, and 40 wherein the step of forming the microporous structure comprises a wet laid process, a dry laid melt blown, or dry laid spun-bonding.
51. A process as in any one of claims 34, 35, 36, 39, and 40 wherein the step of forming the microporous structure includes incorporating into the microporous structure one or more ingredients selected from the group consisting of activated carbon, activated alumina, zeolites, diatomaceous earth, silicates, aluminosilicates, titanates, bone char, calcium hydroxyapatite, manganese oxides, iron oxides, magnesia, perlite, talc, polymeric particulates, clay, iodated resins, ion exchange resins, ceramics, and combinations thereof.
52. A method of removing microbiological contaminants in a fluid comprising the steps of:
providing a filter medium having a microporous structure having a mean flow path of less than about 1 micron, the microporous structure having coated on at least a portion thereof a microbiological interception enhancing agent comprising a cationic metal complex wherein said cationic material has a medium to high charge density and a molecular weight greater than about 5000 Daltons;

contacting the fluid to the filter medium for greater than about 3 seconds; and obtaining at least about 6 log reduction of microbiological contaminants smaller than the mean flow path of the filter medium that pass through the filter medium.
53. A method according to claim 52 wherein the step of providing a filter medium comprises providing a filter medium wherein the microporous structure comprises a plurality of nanofibers such that the microporous structure has a mean flow path of less than about 0.6.microns.
54. A method according to claim 52 wherein the step of providing a filter medium comprises providing a filter medium wherein the microporous structure comprises a plurality of fibrillated lyocell nanofibers such that the microporous structure has a mean flow path of less than about 0.6 microns.
55. A method according to claim 52 wherein the step of providing a filter medium comprises providing a filter medium wherein the microporous structure comprises a membrane such that the microporous structure has a mean flow path of less than about 0.6 microns.
56. A method according to claim 52 wherein in the step of providing a filter medium, the microbiological interception enhancing agent is coated on the microporous structure by treating at least a portion of the microporous structure with a quaternary ammonium salt to form a cationically charged microporous structure;

exposing the cationically charged microporous structure to a biologically active metal salt; and precipitating biologically-active metal with at least a portion of a counter ion associated with the quaternary ammonium salt on at least a portion of the microporous structure.
57 A method according to claim 52 wherein in the step of providing a filter medium, the microbiological interception enhancing agent comprises a cationic polymer having a medium to high charge density and a molecular weight of about 400,000 Daltons, and a biologically-active metal is precipitated with at least a portion of the counter ion associated with the cationic polymer.
58. A gravity-flow filtration system for treating, storing, and dispensing fluids comprising:
a first reservoir for holding a fluid to be filtered;
a filter medium in fluid communication with said first reservoir, said filter medium comprising a microporous structure with a mean flow path of less than about 1 micron, and wherein said filter medium is so treated as to provide at least about 4 log reduction of microbiological contaminants smaller than the mean flow path of said filter medium; and a second reservoir in fluid communication with said filter medium for collecting a filtered fluid.
59. The gravity-flow filtration system according to claim 58 wherein said filter medium has a volume of less than about 500 cm3 and has an initial flow rate of greater than about 25 ml/minute.
60. A filter medium as in one of claims 1 to 18 as substantially described herein with reference to and/or illustrated in the accompanying drawings.
61. A filter medium according to any one of claims 1 to 18 as described herein in any of the examples.
62. A filter system as in any of claims 19 to 27 or 58 to 59 substantially described herein with reference to and/or illustrated in the accompanying drawings.
63. A filter system as in any of claims 19 to 27 or 58 to 59 as described herein in any of the examples.
64. A process of making a filter medium as in any one of claims 28 to 51.
65. A method of removing microbiological contaminants in a fluid as in any one of claims 52 to 57.
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