CA2352977A1 - Crankset device - Google Patents

Crankset device Download PDF

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Publication number
CA2352977A1
CA2352977A1 CA002352977A CA2352977A CA2352977A1 CA 2352977 A1 CA2352977 A1 CA 2352977A1 CA 002352977 A CA002352977 A CA 002352977A CA 2352977 A CA2352977 A CA 2352977A CA 2352977 A1 CA2352977 A1 CA 2352977A1
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Canada
Prior art keywords
platform
shoe
axle
foot
pedal
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
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Application number
CA002352977A
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French (fr)
Inventor
Andre Jacques
Original Assignee
Andre Jacques
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Publication date
Priority to CA2,253,014 priority Critical
Priority to CA002253014A priority patent/CA2253014A1/en
Application filed by Andre Jacques filed Critical Andre Jacques
Priority to PCT/CA1999/001020 priority patent/WO2000027690A1/en
Priority to CA002352977A priority patent/CA2352977A1/en
Publication of CA2352977A1 publication Critical patent/CA2352977A1/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62MRIDER PROPULSION OF WHEELED VEHICLES OR SLEDGES; POWERED PROPULSION OF SLEDGES OR SINGLE-TRACK CYCLES; TRANSMISSIONS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR SUCH VEHICLES
    • B62M1/00Rider propulsion of wheeled vehicles
    • B62M1/36Rider propulsion of wheeled vehicles with rotary cranks, e.g. with pedal cranks
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62MRIDER PROPULSION OF WHEELED VEHICLES OR SLEDGES; POWERED PROPULSION OF SLEDGES OR SINGLE-TRACK CYCLES; TRANSMISSIONS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR SUCH VEHICLES
    • B62M3/00Construction of cranks operated by hand or foot
    • B62M3/02Construction of cranks operated by hand or foot of adjustable length
    • B62M3/04Construction of cranks operated by hand or foot of adjustable length automatically adjusting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62MRIDER PROPULSION OF WHEELED VEHICLES OR SLEDGES; POWERED PROPULSION OF SLEDGES OR SINGLE-TRACK CYCLES; TRANSMISSIONS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR SUCH VEHICLES
    • B62M3/00Construction of cranks operated by hand or foot
    • B62M2003/006Crank arrangements to overcome dead points

Abstract

To understand this invention, it is necessary to begin by understanding in depth the following discovery which concerns the calf when one presses on a pedal, two optical illusions deceiving the whole world (fig 21 and 22 symbolize a lower limb pressing on a pedal, (6) being the thigh, (11) the leg, A + B the foot and (1) the ankle). The 1st illusion (fi g 21) is to believe that the calf (M) increases the pressure on the pedal. The second illusion (fig 22) is not to see the force M 'which cancels the force M. All of the pressure on the pedal comes from the thigh only, the contraction of the calf being a loss of energy. The invention consists in replacing the pedal with a mechanism making it possible to avoid the use of the calf c e which doubles the yield without loss of power.

Description

WO 00! 27690 PCT / CA99101020 DISPC> SITIF FOR PEDAL
05 What will be immediately explained is not the characteristic dominant of this invention, but this very simple explanation has the advantage of opening the mind of the reader to the fact that "whatever fundamentally important thing "has been totally overlooked by current cycling. By incredible luck, the inventor discovered that a visual interpretation error (an illusion optically misled everyone and it has been going on for 150 years since the first pedals were used on bicycles! The text that will immediately follow does not explain that not the nature of this optical illusion: this one is very subtle and will be explained later in the document, only after additional explanations have been given.
THE PROBLEM: the coasts are the enemy no: 1 of cyclists. For-what is it so exhausting to mount a cone while pedaling upright?
Is there a solution to this problem? Is it possible to in-vent something that can DIVIDE I? AR TWO (at least) the energy required to climb a hill? It would be a miracle ...
The amazing answer is YES, it is possible! (We will see far more than this invention also halves -at minimum- energy consumption on level ground, when it is used in a seated position). Below we will discuss only from a standing position, on a hill. See figs 1, 2, 3 and 4. Let’s compare a cyclist who climbs smoothly side by side standing with a person going up a staircase:
., IT IS INCREDIBLY REVELATEUIZ:
AND HEAVY OF CC1NSEQUENCES ...
SHEET SUBSTITUTES (RULE 26)

2 Fig 1 illustrates the normal way of climbing a staircase:
put the heel on the step. Fig 2 il: Luster the anar-maie to climb a staircase: we only put the end of the foot 05 on the step, the heel being in the vicie, which obliges the calf to exert a tension on the heel equal to THREE TIMES
the weight of the person (obviously, in the case of fig 1, the calf does not stuff). Why THREE TIMES, not TWO
or FOUR times? See fig 3: the ratio: A / B is THREE, or A is the distance between the toe joint (2) and the ankle joint (1), and B is the distance between (1) and the attachment point (3) of the calf (4) on the heel bone (via the Achilles tendon).
Try this experiment: suppose you have a staircase 40 stories to climb; you start by climbing the 40 sta-ges by putting the heels on the steps as in fig 1:
you are tired, but you get to the top. The next day (to have time to recover the lost energy), try to climb these 40 floors but going up as in fig 2, that is to say, on your toes, which forces you to form continuously calf calf intensity THREE TIMES your weight. NB. do it under the same conditions only the day before (you have to compare apples with apples), that is to say go up to the same speed only the day before and, between two floors, rest not by putting your heels on the floor. How many do you think you will be able to climb, at equal energy expenditure with the day before? The limit that it is humanly IMPOSSIBLE to exceed is TWENTY stories (HALF of the 40 stories)!
IF you manage to climb to the twentieth floor by keeping SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUILE 26) ~ 02352977 2001-05-03 WO 00/27690 PCTlCA99 / 01020

3 heels in a vacuum, you will have spent MUCH MORE
of energy than the day before when you climbed the 40 sta-normally; therefore, you spend 2 TIMES MORE energy (at 05 minimum) when climbing with the heels in the air than when climbing normally (heels on the steps): we can say, without may be very wrong, that the actual expenditure of energy when a year goes up with the heels in a vacuum is probably THREE TIMES bigger than when you climb normally!
Look at fig 4: it illustrates the foot of an AMOUNT cyclist ONE SIDE while pedaling in the STANDING position. This foot position on the pedal is that recommended by the experts: the articu-lation of the toes rests on the axis of the pedal, while LE
HEEL IS IN THE VACUUM, which forces the calf to force with an intensity equal to THREE TIMES the weight of the cyclist, AS
IN THE CASE OF FIG 2:
... climbing a hill while pedaling upright is ANALOG
walking up stairs heels IN THE
EMPTY: figures 2 and 4 represent a SAME
PHENOMENON...
Indeed, the foot DESCENDS in relation to the frame of the bicycle-but, like riding the bike up here, the bottom line is that the 1st foot goes UP compared to the COAST: it is relative, as Albert Einstein would say ...
THE MIRACLE: here is a fabulous affirmation: to DIVIDE BY
TWO (minimum) energy consumption when mounting a side when pedaling upright, just REPLACE THE PEDALS by "something" that SUPPORTS THE HEELS, so as to avoid to have to force with the calves, hence a fabulous economy of energy without loss of propulsive power!
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) WO 00/27690 PCT / CA99l01020

4 There is no loss of power because the pressure used is always equal to the POTDS of the cyclist, it does not matter that the heels whether supported or not; it is similar with fig 1 and 2:
05 the pressure on the step is always equal to the weight of the person riding, it doesn't matter if the heel is on the step or in a vacuum. How come no one in 250 years of cycling, never thought of replacing the pedals with platforms who support the whole foot? Because of an optical illusion which occurs when you look at a leg pressing a pedometer the: this illusion has misled everyone. If what -that one would have already thought of replacing the pedals with flat shapes, there would be NO pedal bikes on roads; as there are ONLY pedal bikes on the roads, we are forced to conclude that nobody thought of it!
This optical illusion is extremely subtle and will be explained only after we have given relevant information tional; for now, only a brief explanation will be given to put you "on the track", that is to say for you to make people realize that this illusion is real, that it EXISTS, without however expressing it in: The details.
Try to erase fig 1 and 2 completely from your mind, that is to say temporarily forget this: comparison (staircase /
standing cyclist) that we do:> to do; put yourself in the shoes of the street man and just focus in fig 4 (the foot pressing the pedal): according to you, this drawing NORMAL? Of course YES: this is the normal picture WHO WAS ENGRAVED IN OUR MIND IN YOUR CHILDHOOD
that when we were very young we saw a cyclist pedaling for the SUBSTITUTE SHEET {RULE 26) heels in a vacuum you first time. Fig 4 illustrates the normal position of the foot on the pedal, the one recommended by the experts: The articula-tion of the toes rests on the axis of the pedal and the heel is 05 in the void. If you can't get it out of your mind fig 2 and 2 (the stairs), ask a third person if it finds NORMAL fig 4 (without showing it fig 1 and 2, of course): his answer will be sure "yes, Ia fig 4 is VERY NORMAL ". THE WHOLE WORLD (except: the inventor), finds that fig 4 represents a completely NORMAL situation, and this includes all cycling experts. Obviously YOU
KNOW that fig 4 is NOT normal because it is the equivalent in fig 2 which is NOT normal. YOU KNOW now that the fig 4 IS NOT normal because you made the COMPARISON
î5 with a SECOND totally independent observation, THAT OF
THE STAIRCASE. If you don't make such a comparison with a 2nd phenomenon, you will NEVER be able to fully discover realize that fig 4 IS NOT AT ALL NORMAL: without a two-th phenomenon to compare, you would be TOTALLY CONVINCED
that fig 4 is NORMAL as you are from your tender childhood, and you would remain totally convinced ALL YOUR LIFE
because you have been MISTAKEN from your lover childhood by an ILLUSION OF OPTICS that occurs when we re-keep one leg step on a pedal! It's an illusion of-"hereditary" perspective that has been passed down from generation to generation ration until today, that started 150 years ago approximately as soon as the first pedals have been used.
One of the purposes of this document is to unveil <sr this wasted waste-boast of energy that has been TOTALLY IGNORED since a century and a half: incredible, but true SHEET SUBSTITUTES (RULE 26) There is a huge difference between MISTING (making a mistake) and TO BE DECEIVED against our will (or to BE MISTAKEN IN ERROR) by an optical illusion. BEFORE making your discovery of the-05 existence of this optical illusion, the inventor was induced in error LIKE EVERYONE, like the experts, the scholars and BILLIONS of individuals who have cycled or simply SEEN a cyclist pedaling ... This gives you an idea of the POWERFUL-WHAT this optical illusion has'. You know now why no one has thought before about what is contained in this document: this famous optical illusion has created a powerful vicious circle which completely blocked the gripping of leg function when used to PUSH A PEDAL: that kept cycling SLOPING -25 VAGE all this time ...
You also understand why inventions based on discovery of the existence of an optical illusion are TRUE-MENT revolutionary: it is that this type of invention is VERY
RARE and THE SECRET PROTECTS EVERYTHING ALONE because of EXISTENCE
EVEN of the optical illusion. An optical illusion will not go tell you that IT IS an illusion! . you have to recover it and this can only happen ONLY ONE FAITH; i. ONLY ONE individual discovered that the earth was TURNING ON IT - SAME, which created an optical illusion: we had THE IMPRINT; VISUAL iSION that the sun MOVES through the sky rising east and moving lying west; FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS, the most great scholars and billions of individuals have been INDUCED in error and this illusion remained NOrf-discovered. We are IN AN ANALOGUE SITUATION with the invent.ion proposed here.
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) You are undoubtedly asking yourself some questions like:
what happens with this invention ON FLAT GROUND when you do we pedal SIT? etc ... DON'T TRY to answer FOR YOURSELF
05 to these questions because you would fall back into the trap of the illu-vision that we wanted to unveil. it would be a vicious circle because, by trying to judge FOR YOURSELF, you would necessarily use concepts engraved in your mind of-then childhood, notions that you BELIEVE to be true while, in reality, these notions are FALSE! ~! For now, please just the explanations of the INVENTOR and have the MIND
OPEN!
It is often said: "a picture is worth 1,000 words"; however, there is a exception to this rule: indeed, in the case of an invention arising from the discovery of the existence of an optical illusion that, the DRAWING of the invention visually deceives us and we makes believe that the invention is STUPID or useless! We are far from the 1,000 words! When we say ~ to a person we have invented something, what is the FIRST reaction of this person? She immediately wants YOUR DRAWING! And why?
Because this is the FASTEST way ~ to satisfy our cu-natural laughter! You can easily guess the consequences disastrous in the case of the invention proposed here! And it's why I had, at the very beginning of the document, BREAK THE CIRCLE
VICIOUS by explaining immediately THE Ct7MPARAISON staircase / cy-hill climb which temporarily cancels the perverse effects of the optical illusion and opens the reader's mind to the fact that "something" fundamental has been TOTALLY IGNORED by the current cycling.
SHEET SUBSTITUTES (RULE 26) If you DON'T KNOW this COMPARISON between someone who climbs a staircase and a cyclist climbing a hill while pedaling standing up, and you WATCH A DRAWING of this invention, you 05 are automatically led to believe that this invention is UNNECESSARY because you are, UNDER KNOWLEDGE, misled by this optical illusion! Another equally strange phenomenon gonna happen when people try this invention for the first time: PHYSICALLY, they will experience DIMI-FANTASTIC NUTION of fatigue but WITHOUT UNDERSTANDING WHY, that is to say, without being able to explain it. the people will see it 2 ~ HYICALLY only '. I1 will have to YEARS to change the image people have of fishing because this optical illusion is very old and is strongly engraved in our minds IN CHILDHOOD '. From the standpoint UTILITY of this invention, the fact that people will understand dre only physically (not intellectually) is NO MATTER: people DO NOT NEED to understand INTEL-LECTUALLY to USE the invention; everything that matters for them, it's that it is MUCH ME: NS tiring to use than a pedal bicycle, whatever; SECURITY (feet do not slide easily as with pedals because ALL
FOOT is supported, and it is not attached: practical in case abrupt stop), and, for ladies, FINISH THE BIG CALVES (the great fear of women): finally A BEAUTIFUL LEG ... People do not try to find out HOW such prodigies are possi-bles: IT WORKS and that's all they want to know ..:
Why is it so difficult to find out ~ .r the existence of a optical illusion? People don't try to CHECK
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) if what they SEE is TRUE: why would they do it?
Why would we doubt what we are CERTAIN visual-is lying? Most people ONLY believe what they SEE, 05 like Saint Thomas! Now, to have a chance to find out something extraordinary, you have to 'CHECK what SEEMS
obvious, it doesn't matter if this "apparent evidence" is ture OPTICAL (the case which interests us here), of nature INTEL-LECTUAL (this is the case of Einstein who doubted the veracity of certain postulates of classical physics), or of a nature SPIRITUAL (... we'll talk about it again ...)!
People question what they doubt and not what they are SOME of; for discover something, it: Must do THE OPPOSITE: analyze what we are SURE ......
in case it is FALSE !!!!!
An optical illusion will not tell you that IT IS a illusion. DISCOVER IT by COMPARING what we see with another totally independent visual phenomenon ~ pendant: this is the only way to get there. AND IT ARRIVES VERY RARELY ...
The inventor discovered this optical illusion of the leg BY CHANCE, thanks to an exceptional combination of circumstances!
It's like winning the jackpot in the lottery: it's very rare but it happens sometimes! Cycling specialists are not are not deceived, in the sense "to make mistake" for lack of ju-gement: they WERE DECEPTED against their will, induced into MALGRE them error by this optical illusion of the leg (that we will define later) in the same way as the largest scholars of the world, for thousands of years, have been INDUCED
in error despite themselves by the optical illusion of the sun which is SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) move in the sky, until a person discovers this illusion and tries (courageously) to explain to these scholars that it is the earth which turns on itself, the sun does not 05 not moving. These scholars did not believe it, even with EVIDENCE
r SUPPORTING . they REFUSED to believe it (out of pride). All like these scholars, YOU WILL NOT BELIEVE the inventor in what concerns the optical illusion of the leg; you will believe it VERY LITTLE if you just read the text without doing the ZO 4 proposed experiences. BY PERFORMING these experiences, you go START to believe the inventor and, by testing the prototype of the invention, you will be OBLIGED to believe the wind. HERE will be your reaction to the rest of this document.
ment: IT'S CERTAIN, and I say that because it was MY reaction tion (and yet I AM THE INVENTOR):. at the beginning, I had difficulty believing what ME-ME had discovered! I've been grown TOTALLY only when testing the prototype ... IT'S THAT
the dominant characteristic of a REALLY revolutionary invention tionnaire! THE MORE revolutionary it is, the LESS people believe: THEY REFUSED outright to believe it, EVEN WITH PROOF-VES. We must OBLIGATE people to believe when they get home DE
FORCE information in the head: not easy the job inventor!
The explanations which will now follow are simplified at maximum; complex scientific explanations have been willing tually omitted so that the reader does not lose the document's main thread.
IMPORTANT: later in this document, several MECHANISMS
SHEET SUBSTITUTES (RULE 26) are described; some of them have more creative merit that others; some mechanisms have advantages than others do not have: it is the experience acquired with use that will determine 05 which of these mechanisms will be marketed. But these various mechanisms have one thing in common: they all accomplish THE SAME
FUNCTION, or allow AVOIDING CONTRACTION OF CALVES by providing SUPPORT to the heels (directly or indirectly).
But the importance of the current document does NOT arise from these mechanisms; THE CORNERSTONE which supports this whole document, it is the EVIDENCE (experimental and theoretical) that LA GON -TRACTION OF THE MOLLETS CANNOT INCREASE THE PRESSURE ON THE
PEDALS and, therefore, just replace the pedals dales by a mechanism to avoid contraction of calves (supporting the heels), which allows a very large energy saving WITHOUT LOSS OF PRESSURE propulsion!
The inventor made a SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY concerning the LEG operation when used to press A PEDAL: he discovered that THE WORLD: WHOLE was induced in error by an ILLUSION OF OPTICS Iaissa: nt believe (falsely) "that the contraction of the calf INCREASED the pressure on the dale ". THIS IS THE ESSENTIAL OF THE PRESENT DOCUMENT AND NOT
the dozen MECHANISMS described at the end; of course these mecha--nisms are important, but only to the extent that they allow to effectively use the PRINCIPLE of this DISCOVERY
SCIENTIFIC GREEN. These are the EVIDENCE {experimental AND
theoretical) that "contraction of the calf CANNOT
increase the pressure on the pedal "which give a value SCIENTIFICALLY PROVEN to these mechanisms by PROVEN that they divide energy consumption by TWO.
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1 . additional remarks regarding the comparison STAIRCASE / CYCLIST ON THE COAST from the start:
05 Chapter 2. the true role of the calf.
Chapter 3, two aspects of the invention:
- a SPECTACULAR aspect -A FANTASTIC aspect (but unspectacular) Chapter 4. how the WHOLE WORLD (including experts) interprets pedaling.
Chapter 5. definition of the leg optic illusion.
Chapter 6. EXPERIMENTAL evidence of the existence of the illu Optical Zion of the Leg and WASTE
OF ENERGY that this illusion causes.
Chapter 7. how does this optical illusion TAKE
BIRTH in our mind.
Chapter 8. THEORETICAL analysis of the functioning of the leg in the PARTICULAR CASE of: The pedal:
section 1: interpretation of the WHOLE WORLD (chap 4):
identification of the FIRST error.
section 2: interpretation of the WHOLE WORLD (chap 4):
identification of the DEUX7C ~ ME error.
section 3: THEORETICAL proof that SCENARIO NO 2 is VRAT
section 4: the proven UNIVERSAL PEDALING LAW
experimentally.
section 5: theoretical proof BY THE ABSORDE that the SCENARIO NO 1 is FALSE.
section 6: numerical comparison between LA PÉDALE and this invention.
section 7: THE UNIVERSAL PEDALERS LAW.
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) section 8. how the OPTICAL illusion of the calf is TRANSFORMED into MUSCULAR illusion {and others topics) 05 Then follow the description of the MECHANISMS, the AGGREGATE and the CLAIMS.
CHAPTER 1 . additional remarks regarding the comparison ESGALIER / CYCLISTE EN COTE from the start.
Here is a truth MORE THAN OBVIOUS, but which will be all the same very useful later in the document.
In the case of fig 1 and 2, the pressure; on the step is strict-earth equal to the WEIGHT of the person going up the stairs, LITTLE
IMPORTANT that the person puts the heels ON the steps (fig 1) or OUTSIDE the steps (fig 2}; so, here is this obvious truth:
in the case of fig 2 (heels in a vacuum), forced contraction of the calf does not increase the pressure on the step (which was equal to the weight of the person, as in fig 1).
And we come to a STMILAR and just as obvious truth, in the case of a cyclist ascending a hill while pedaling STANDING:
IT MATTERS that the heels are NOT supported (case of pedals) or SUPPORTED {as in the case of the invention proposed here}, the pressure for propulsion is always equal to WEIGHT
cyclist; therefore, in the case of the pedal (fig 4}, forced contraction of the calf does not increase Ia pressure on the pedal: TOTAL pressure on the pedal comes ONLY from the WEIGHT of the cyclist.
The inventor made a point of mentioning this EVIDENT truth because, more SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUILE 26) far in the document we will prove a similar truth but NOT obvious in the case of the SIT pedaling position, it is that is, in the SIT position, the TOTALI'.ÉP of pressure on the 05 pedal comes ONLY from the contraci ~ ion of the muscles THIGH: forced contraction of the calf does NOT INCREASE the pressure Zion on the pedal. The inventor wants everything: simply explain that there is a DEEP SIMILITUDE between the STANDING position and the seated position. whether you are pedaling standing or sitting, the contraction forced calf DOES NOT INCREASE pressure on the pedal; gold, in the SIT position, it turns out that THE WORLD
WHOLE thinks EXACTLY the opposite of what I have just said.
the whole world is TOTALLY CONVINCED that, in the SIT position, ia contraction of the calf INCREASES the pressure on the pedal, when the whole world knows very well that in position STANDING, the contraction of the calf does NOT INCREASE the pressure on the pedal °. HERE IS CONTRADICTION: the whole world knows very although, STANDING, the pressure on the pedal comes only WEIGHT of the cyclist, the calf does NOT contribute to this pressure.
Lion; on the other hand, this same WHOLE WORLD is TOTALLY CONVINCED
CONTRAIRE in SITTING position: the whole world is convinced that, SITTING, the contraction of the calf contributes to INCREASE the pressure on the pedal when, in reality, THAT IS FALSE.
we will prove that, in the SITTING position, the contraction of the calf CANNOT increase pressure on the pedal; we let's explain that this WORLD ENTER error in the case from the SIT position comes precisely from this ILLUSION
LEG OPTICS. So this optical illusion occurs ONLY when looking at the leg of a cyclist pedaling SITTING position: this illusion DOES NOT HAPPEN when looking SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUDE 26) of the leg of a cyclist pedaling DEBOLfT!
Conclusion: THE ILLUSION OF OPTICS OF THE JrAMBE, which we will set further, ONLY occurs in the SIT position.
05 CHAPTER 2. the true role of the calf.
We have already shown that the calf is useless in the case from the STANDING pedaling position, thanks to the comparison ESCALIER / CYCLISTE EN COTE that you read at the beginning; we-Let's soon PROVE that the calf is also useless in 10 the SIT position. So, THE CALF is TOTALLY useless in "pedal" cycling since its contraction CANNOT increase lie the pressure on the pedal and, in addition, the calf is NUI-SIBLE because it consumes a large amount of energy unnecessarily (we will see later that the UN experts evaluate enormously 15 calf energy consumption: ACTUAL energy consumption calf energy is FOUR TIMES higher than the number advanced by specialists and we WILL PROVE it).
The calf is useless and harmful in the PARTICULAR CASE of PEDALS; but in other situations where there is no use of PEDALS, the calf is ESSENTIAL: stand upright without moving ger, walk, run.
The calf is essential to KEEP BALANCE when you are standing upright without moving: without him, WE FALL BY
BEFORE. In fact, when you stand and motionless, immediately let our body tilt A LITTLE forward, our calves are pull A LITTLE (and for a split second only) . , by pulling SLIGHTLY on the heels to STRAIGHTEN our body.
This barely noticeable process continues continuously;
THIS IS THE REAL role of the calf and this process requires VERY
LITTLE energy because the heel TOUCHES THE GROUND: that's why we SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RiJLE 26) can stand and stand still for. very long WITHOUT
EXHAUST.
In the case of WALKING, the calf serves TWO uses:
05 -as in the case of standing still, the calf spends ONE
LITTLE energy to KEEP US IN BALANCE, -in walking, the calf also exerts a LIGHT PROPUL force-SIVE forward to allow us TO MOVE FORWARD. When we walk-che, the heel DOES NOT touch the ground LA MOTTI ~ time (the jam-be in the back) and it's while the heel is NOT touching the that the calf forces and exerts its propelling force forward (always the back leg); but, VERY IMPORTANT POINT, when the calf of the back leg is forcing because the heel is in air, 90% of the body weight is supported BY THE OTHER LEG (the leg forward) whose heel TOUCHES LE; 50L 'So the strength of calf contraction required for us: Advance when we walking IS VERY LOW. Indeed, we can walk several kilometers without running out provided the heel of the foot in before TOUCHING THE GROUND at each step. To convince you, ten-try to walk several kilometers while walking, but do not NEVER put your heels on the floor (walking continuously-on the tips of the feet). you are going to be COMPLETELY
SOLD OUT after only a few hundred meters! (if-similar to climbing 30 stories heels ON
steps versus VERY FEW floors heels IN THE VACUUM).
So, in standing stillness and walking, the contraction ass of calf is ESSENTIAL and it is USEFUL since it fulfills a specific function: to allow us to KEEP THE BALANCE-BRE and make us ADVANCE. So the energy expended BY THE
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (UK: LE 26) CALF when standing or walking is BTEN USEFUL-SEE ~ to fulfill a USEFUL role and the amount of energy expended is WEAK, Unlike the pedals or. the contraction of the mol-05 let fulfills NO useful role and spends a VERY LARGE
energy!
In running, the effort required on the calves is more great than walking, but this effort is USEFUL because it allows put to INCREASE our speed (compared to walking); in marathons, the runner TAKES CARE to put the heel BY EARTH (of the FRONT leg which supports 90% of the weight), which causes the contraction of the calf of the leg which propels the front (REAR leg) is MUCH less than 3 TIMES
THE WEIGHT of the runner (because the REAR leg supports ONLY 10%
of the weight of the runner: therefore the calf supports 30% of the weight of the runner versus 300% - or 20 TIMES PLUS - when climbing a staircase heels in a vacuum or that you pedal upright because then the mol-let support 3 TIMES WEIGHT of the runner). So in the race, ALL the energy expended by the calf is used WELL to fold a USEFUL function. allow us to move MORE
QUICKLY in walking and the amount of energy expended by the calves is TEN TIMES smaller than in pedaling STANDING {the calf fulfilling NO USEFUL role in the case pedal).
So when you stand still, the REAL role of the calf is to keep us from falling; when you walk, your calf depends A LITTLE MORE energy and it is WELL used since ON
ADVANCED; when we run, the calf spends A LITTLE MORE energy than in walking, but it is WELL used since we FORWARD more than in walking. HOWEVER, when you go up SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RLfLE 26) a staircase heels IN THE VACUUM or that we pedal STANDING, the calf performs an UNUSED and HARMFUL role, useless because that it doesn't help climb the stairs or the hill faster, 05 and harmful because it consumes HALF (or more) of power lives without reason. pure waste ...
CONCLUSION. the calf is not designed to exert efforts CONSIDERABLES (like supporting 3 times the weight) and for LONG periods of time, especially when it has NO use! BIO-mechanically, the mol-is visibly designed to exercise WEAK
efforts during SHORT periods of time, including me in standing stillness, walking and race.
We are done with the STANDING position. We have taken as examples the stairs, the hill, walking and running. We can climb certain ribs by pedaling SIT and, conversely, you may have to get up to pedal STANDING on FLAT terrain because we have to fight against a strong head wind for example.
A little reflection will make you understand that everything that has been explained to date on the STANDING position applies from UNIVERSAL way.
Now, the REAL surprises will start with studying the SITTING pedaling position, which will allow us to EXPLAIN
the optical illusion of the leg. The FOUR EXPERIENCES with the bathroom scale, sitting position, will be particularly important: EVERYTHING will be PROVEN EXPERIMENTALLY. Both first will PROVE the real existence of the optical illusion that of the leg, and the last two will PROVE that this invention allows to DIVIDE BY TWO (at least) the SUBSTITUTE SHEET (Ri3LE 26) energy consumption in seated position WITHOUT LOSS OF POWER-CE compared to a pedal bike.
CHAPTER 3. two aspects of the invention:
05 - the SPECTACULAR aspect -the FANTASTIC aspect (but unspectacular) The SPECTACULAR aspect of this invention is to make the ex-...
perience of GOING UP A SIDE, then going up the same hill with a pedal bike (1st day only, history of recover the energy lost so as not to distort the comparison);
or take 2 people of the same physical condition; the first using the invention and second using the pedal bicycle, and make them climb a given hill AT THE SAME TIME: we note immediately a HUGE difference between: the two 'The fact that the person using the invention can ACCELERATE UP
(EASILY VISUALLY noticeable) is REALLY
spectacular. it is UNIQUE IN THE WORLD and it is NOTED!
The FANTASTIC (but NOT spectacular) aspect is the DIVISION
BY TWO (minimum) of power consumption in position SITTING (so ON FLAT GROUND ia most of the time). Why this appearance is it LITTLE spectacular? Because we don't notice QUICK difference (compared to pedals): you NEED MORE
TIME to physically feel the difference from pedals. Our human energy tank with capacity limited, maintain a LOW medium pressure if wants to be able to cover an appreciable distance. so we must cover a fairly long distance (this requires MORE THAN
TIME) to physically feel a NOTABLE effect (for example compared to pedals); therefore, it is LITTLE SPECTACULAR.
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUI, E 26) Even if it's SPECTACULAR, ia div: ision BY TWO (minimum) of energy consumption in the SIT position is FANTASTIC ' Why, then? Because it makes this invention useful and 05 pleasant TO ALL of the population "and not only to some privileged groups. The total value of this invention comes ONLY (or almost) from the position ASSIS, the contribution of energy saving IN THE COASTS
being NEGLIGIBLE in comparison (although being SPECTACULAR).
10 Here's why. The MEDIUM cyclist avoids the hills; the very large most of the time is spent ON FLAT GROUND (seated): there is that cyclists and young people who are interested in ribs. If there was NO energy saving in position SIT with this invention (so, if there was ONLY the eco-friendly 15 energy standard in STANDING position), only runners and young people would be interested in this invention, not THE-SEEMS of the population; therefore, energy saving in position SITTING is of paramount importance to interest ALL of the population (women, the elderly, etc.). The cyclist 20 AVERAGE simply wants to get from point A to point B by then jump the MINIMUM of energy {at equal power compared to peda-them), either for PLEASURE or BY NECESSITY (ex: go to job). ELDERLY and WOMEN will be attracted by this energy saving in the SIT position: many of they refuse to use the bicycle because they find the exhausting pedals even on level ground; women will be DOUBLE attracted by the fact that this invention prevents to have BIG DISGRACIOUS MOLLETS {a horror for females mes) by ELIMINATING the use of calves! {this aspect is EXTRE-MEMENT important from the commercial point of view ~ G 'is obvious).
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RLiLE 26) WU 00! 27690 PCT / CA99 / 01020 Finally, the elderly, women, children, couples reurs, the "mountain bikers" ... will ALL be attracted by the as-SECURITY pect. unlike pedals, feet CAN'T
05 DOES NOT slide with this invention; when we pass in a hole or on a bump (even a small one) with a PEDAL bike, our feet tend to slip and this could cause us to lose the balance; the proposed invention replaces the pedals with platforms that support ALL THE FOOT, which gives an Ires great safety: the feet CANNOT slide although they are NOT attached; these platforms are provided with POSITIONING of the foot which guarantee that the foot is automa-correctly placed; as these guides are placed on ..
ONLY ONE SIDE of the platform, it is easy to install QUICKLY
the foot on the ground in the event of a sudden stop, and the REPOSITIONING
OK with the foot to leave is just as fast, all this being done without the need to LOOK, which further increases more security.
,.
So, the INCREASED SAFETY, the fact that the calves cease to GROWING DEMESUREMENT (for women), and, ESPECIALLY, DIVISION
BY TWO (minimum) of consumption of anergy in position SEATED are elements that give a FANTASTIC aspect to this-te invention, although the 3 elements mentioned are LITTLE SPECTACU-LAIRES in comparison to the experience of climbing a hill.
The FANTASTIC aspect therefore comes from the fact that the 3 elements cites make this invention VERY interesting for ALL
of the population, while the SPECTACULAR aspect (climb the odds) only interests runners and youngsters.
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Note: here we have a vocabulary problem. Indeed, the word PEDAL applies specifically to the pedals themselves same; if you remove the pedals and replace them with what you 05 calls PLATFORMS in this document, it should logically use a word other than "pedaling": the word "platformer" is ridiculous. For the time being, to temporarily resolve the issue me, we will continue to use the word PLATFORM to de-sign "that thing" which replaces the pedals, and we're going continue to use the word PEDAL to denote use platforms, for lack of anything better, while waiting for linguists solve this problem.
CHAPTER 4. how the WHOLE WORLD (including experts) interprets pedaling.
Today, this interpretation is EXACTLY THE SAME for all: the experts, the man in the street, the runner ... All VISUALI-FEEL the functioning of the leg of the same Tacon, IN THE CASE
PARTICULAR of its use WITH THE PEDAL. It is this in-interpretation which will now be given; then we PROVE
RONES that this interpretation is WRONG and we will explain THE OPTICAL ILLUSION that deceived everyone. For well assi-miler what follows, try TO FORGET: R COMPLETELY everything which has been previously explained; especially this comparison STAIRCASE / CYCLISTE EN COTE (which had the sole purpose of making you understand that "something" important has been totally ignored by current cycling, without PREC: IS ~ R what it is).
Put yourself "in the skin" of the world: interpret the father dalage as they interpret it visually. So here is this interpretation of THE WHOLE WORLD.
Fig. 5 represents a leg which depresses a pedal in posi-SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RIJLE 26) tion seated. Is this drawing NORMAL? Of course YES: the posi-the foot on the pedal is the one recommended by the ex-parts, the toe joint resting on the axis of the peda-05 the, the heel being IN THE VACUUM. If we ask everyone (the experts, the man in the street, the runners ...) WHAT MUSCLES
pressure on the pedal, TC) US will eventually respond dre THE SAME THING after reflection, and will say THIS:
"... the pressure on the pedal comes from TWO
sources, the first being THE THIGH and the second being LE MOLLET, these two forces ADDING ... "
An EXPERT will provide more details and say this (see the (Figures 6 and 7). "... the pressure on the pedal is made up i5 of TWO ADDING forces; the first comes from the contraction of the THIGH muscles (5, fig 6) that grow the thigh bone (6) downwards, which produces a first pressure (P1) on the pedal. The SECOND force on the pedal (P2, fig 7) comes from the contraction of the CALF (4) which pulls the heel UP, which tends to rotate the foot around the ANKLE (1), this producing a movement TOWARDS
THE BOTTOM of the toe joint (2), which produces a TWO ~ ME pressure (P2) on the pedal. TOTAL pressure on the pedal is THE SUM of pressure from the THIGH (P2) plus the pressure from THE MOLLET (P2) ... "
Note: the muscles illustrated (5, fig 6 and 4, fig 7) are SYMBOLS only; this is not the actual structure of muscles which is illustrated. For example, the calf (4, fig 7) consists of two twins and the ground ~ eaire (not shown);
as for the "muscle" (5, fig 6), it SYMBOLIZES the push towards SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RLJLE 26) lower thigh; in reality the downward push of the thigh is caused by TWO muscles: THE BIG BUT which contracting, pushes directly the thigh bone towards the 05 down, and THE QUADRICEPS which produces the extention: leg injury:
as the foot must remain on the pedal, this extension of the leg produces a displacement towards the lbas of the thigh because the pedal obviously goes down. So these two muscles (glutes and quadriceps) produce a downward displacement of the thigh, and this is what is SYMBOLIZED by muscle 5, fig 6.
With regard to this document, we do not have to concern ourselves with the REAL muscular structure because we do a purely MECHANICAL study of 7The leg: we study 3 articulated segments (the foot, the leg bone, and the ace of the thigh joined together by points of rotation (the joints ankle and knee lations}, focusing on ONE
PRECISE DETAIL, namely to study the role played by LE MOLLET of a purely MECHANICAL point of view. All of this will become very clear in your mind as you read the document itself.
CHAPTER 5. definition of the leg optic illusion.
What follows will give you a shock! At first you NOT believe the inventor, just as the great scholars did not believed the man who wanted to explain to them that the sun NE SE
DO NOT MOVE in the sky, it is an ILLUSION OF OPTICS!
They REFUSED to believe it, even WITH EVIDENCE! In in our case, it is ESPECIALLY the cycling experts who will REFUSE to believe it. By PERFORMING the four experiments Bées {with the weighing person}, you will START to believe it, and BY TRYING the prototype, you will be OBLIGED to believe it!
This OPTICAL ILLUSION is represented; in fig 7: what we SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUILE 26) VISUALIZED in fig 7 IS NOT TRUE: in reality, the pressure P2 is ZERO because THE CALF, by contracting, CANNOT
put pressure on the pedal! The TOTAL pressure 05 on the pedal comes ONLY from the THIGH (the force P1 on fig 6)! And this statement, that we will soon PROVE is the EXACT OPPOSITE of what the WHOLE WORLD thinks!
It is the USE of the pedal that OBLIGATES the calf to be con-tow, since the heel is IN THE VACUUM (not supported). Com-10 me the contraction of the calf CANNOT increase the pressure on the pedal (as we will prove), this contraction calf is a PURE LOSS of energy; the invention proposed here ELIMINATE this energy loss by providing support to the heel, WITHOUT LOSS OF PRESSURE for propulsion since the 15 ALL of this pressure comes ONLY from the thigh!
There is a great similarity between the pedaling position STANDING and the SIT position; standing, contraction of the calf is 3 times the WEIGHT of the cyclist while, seated, the calf traction is 3 times DOWN PRESSURE exerted 20 THIGH. the only difference between the two positions lies in the INTENSITY of the forces at play.
Expressed in words, THE OPTICAL ILLUSION that deceives the WORLD
WHOLE for at least a century is.
"... believing that the contraction of the calf pulls 25 heel UP, which turns the foot around the ankle, causing displacement DOWN with your toes, which INCREASES THE
PRESSURE ON THE PEDAL ... "
i Later in this document, we will explain with precision WHY people believe (falsely) c: ela: in summary, it's SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) because of the way our mind works when it is about VISUAL PERCEPTION! What characterizes strong-This invention is the fact that knowledge 05 more diverse are involved, not just science physics and mathematics: you have to take into account PSYCHOLOGICAL, BIO-mechanical and "nature" considerations human "; that’s the ONLY way to explain HOW
billion people (even scholars) may have been INDUCED in error for a very long time. At the same time, this demonstrates that inventions based on the discovery of a optical illusion are VERY RARE, which gives them a VERY
GREAT VALUE. The optical illusion will not tell you "it IS "an illusion! IT MUST BE DISCOVERED! In fact, the truth HIDDEN behind the illusion is perfectly protected against discovery: "security agent" prevents intruders to open the door, and this agent is the optical illusion itself-die!
The next chapter is REVEALING, because it PROVES (experiment-also) the REAL existence of the optical illusion of the leg.
Later, THEORETICAL proofs will be given, which eliminates definitely will doubt any of your mind.
CHAPTER 6. EXPERIMENTAL evidence of the existence of the optical illusion of the leg and wasted energy it causes.
We will PROVE that THE WHOLE WORLD is wrong by performing 4 very simple experiences! Everything that's necessary as material, it is a straight chair and a simple weight person portable model (the ones we usually use to control our weight).
SHEET SUBSTITUTES (RtULE 26) Sit down and put ONLY ONE foot (the right for example) on the scales (7, fig 8)); leave the left foot on the ground â
side of the scale. DON'T TRY: DON'T TRY YOU
05 create support points with your hands {like pulling on arm of the chair) and do not try to press with your body leaning forward: stay straight on the chair and press WITH THE LEG ONLY. It is important that you do not not lift your left foot: it must remain on the ground (we are instinctively inclined to lift the left foot WITHOUT Y
THINK: this distorts the results). Repeat the experiment SEVERAL TIMES to make sure you get results correct. We will perform two tests (fig 8 and 9).
Fig 8: in the first test, the heel must be ON the weight person (7) to AVOID contraction of the calf. You understood the trick used: gxace with the scale, we can MEASURE the pressure exerted by the leg! So here, the weighing-person plays the role of a prototype of: The invention since the heel is supported.
Fig 9: in the second test, we place ONLY THE END OF THE FOOT
on the person scale (7), the heel being IN THE VACUUM, which OBLIGATES the calf to contract. Here, the scale is playing the role of a conventional PEDAL, with: The advantage you can MEASURE the pressure obtained!
Thanks to these two simple tests, we can MEASURE THE DIFFERENCE
between the ordinary pedal and the proposed invention. Don't you do not attempt to READ the experience: PERFORM these two tests; so you can PHYSICALLY check that this OPTICAL ILLUSION
is a PHYSICAL REALITY! You will be surprised with the results that will COUNTER what THE WHOLE WORLD thinks, nothing less!
SUBSTITUTE SIiEET (RULE 26) WO OU / 27690 PCT / CA99 / 0102ü

The two tests (fig 8 and 9} consist in pressing ALL YOUR
STRENGTHS on the scale (7) WITH THE LEG ONLY and NOTE THE PRESSURE obtained. This is important: do not try to 05 give a strong (quick and sudden) blow down with your leg; rather, press SLOWLY and GRADUALLY to increase the pressure gently to its MAXTMUM value, and note the result obtained. The only difference between the two tests is that the calf does NOT force: AT ALL in the 1st test (fig 8: this is the invention) and it forces a LOT in the 2nd test (fig 9: the pedal). Obviously, THE THIGH forces with THE SAME INTENSITY in both tests since you press DE
ALL YOUR STRENGTHS with your thigh.
BEFORE performing the two tests, note this well: IF what LE
WHOLE WORLD thinks IS TRUE, that is, "... the pressure on the pedal comes from TWO
sources, the first being LA CUi; SSE and second being LE MOLLET, these two forces ADDING ... "
then, in this case, by performing both tests, you should normally get PLUS G1 ~ ANDE pressure in the SECOND
test (fig 9) than in the first test (f: ig 8) because the thigh AND calf force EVERYBODY in the second test while the thigh ONLY strength dan: the first test. Com-thigh strength with THE SAME intensity ~ in both tests (because we force TO THE MAXIMUM), then, if the whole world is right, it is MANDATORY that the pressure in the SECOND
test is GREATER than the pressure obtained in the first test because in the second test the calf pressure ADDED to that of the thigh.
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) This is what OUR EYES seem to tell us. So let's check if THE WHOLE WORLD is right or late PERFORMING the 2 tests.
THE AMAZING RESPONSE is that the world eni: ier 5E TROMPE ' 05 Even I, WHO AM THE INVENTOR ,. had trouble TO BELIEVE what the graduated scale on the scale indicated!
It seemed totally crazy to me, contrary to natural laws -REAL, THE EXACT CONTEST OF WHAT I BELIEVED TO BE TRUE
ELLEMENT like everyone else! I HAVE ALOF; WAS OBLIGED TO ADMIT
That I was deceived by an illusion of optics, that what I
SEE with my eyes was FALSE! But there was UNDERSTANDING
the phenomenon and trying to EXPLAIN IT in SIMPLE terms: he told me it took SEVERAL YEARS to complete this task. When we KNOWS the content of the current document, we conclude that everything this is relatively SIMPLE, but TO DISCOVER all of this in starting from NOTHING, there are SEVERAL miracles. it is NOT
ALL obvious ...
The inventor has performed these two tests dozens of times and he ALWAYS got EXACTLY the same result, 54 pounds pressure in EACH of the two tests:
The pressure obtained is EXACTLY the same, EVERYTHING that the FORCE calf (fig 9) or DO NOT FORCE (f ig 8)!
There is ONLY ONE possible conclusion:
The contraction of the calf in the SECOND
test (fig 9} DOES NOT INCREASE pressure on the scale (therefore THE PEDAL)!
This statement is the EXACTLY OPPOSITE of what THE WORLD
WHOLE THINK (this whole world being CONVINCED that the contraction calf INCREASES the pressure on the pedal)!
SUBSTITUTE SHEET {RULE 26) So when you pedal SITTING with a conventional pedal bike -nel, ALL of the pedal pressure is UNIQUE -MIND of the contraction of the THIGH muscles. contraction 05 forced MOLLET is a PURE LOSS of energy, and this loss is HUGE, as the next two tests will demonstrate!
CONCLUSION. fig 7 represents an ILLUSION OF OPTICS
The pressure P2 is ZERO.
DOES NOT EXIST, it is an ILLUSION!
10 IMPORTANT. it is NOT a coincidence that the pressure is EXACTLY
the same (54 books) in ies TWO tests, per pound px'es!
This PROVES that ALL of the pressure comes ONLY
THIGH; indeed, if we force TO THE MAXIMUM OF THE THIGH in EACH of the two tests then, necessarily, the INTENSITY of the force 15 is THE SAME in each test (the MAXTMUM of the first test is EQUAL to the MAXIMUM of the second test, of course). In the case per-staff of the inventor, this MAXIMUM is 54 pounds; but figure may vary depending on the particular physical condition of the person performing the tests. But one thing is SOME.
20 if you get let's say 38 pounds in the first test you should get EXACTLY 38 pounds in the second test ON CONDITION to correctly perform the two tests (without you create support points with your arms, Ean not pressing with your body by leaning forward: and, ESPECIALLY, by letting 25 feels left foot ON EARTH).
We will now do TWO OTHER similar experiments to EXPERIMENTALLY check that there is indeed ~ DIVISION
BY TWO (approximately) of energy consumption in position SITTING, this WITHOUT LOSS OF PRESSURE for propulsion (ie a 30 EQUAL POWER with an ordinary pedal bicycle), when SUBSTITUTE SHEET (UK: LE 26) replaces the pedals with this invention. You will live PHY-ONLY this difference which is HUGE. These two tests seem a lot to the two previous tests except that they must be 05 use more care not to distort the results.
Take the same precautions as in the two previous tests:
do not create a support point with your arms, do not not lean forward to press with your body and, sur-all, leave the left foot EARTH (we are instinctive-are inclined to lift it without realizing it, which distorts the results). The precaution must be taken -following shovel: in both tests, it IS ESSENTIAL that the leg either PERPENDICULAR (90 degrees) to weight scale (7) as illustrated by fig 10 and 21. If the weighing: -person tends to slide forward, put a heavy object in front.
In these two tests, it is a matter of GRADUALLY obtaining the if MAXIMUM as in the two previous tests, but the goal is to MAINTAIN this maximum pressure FOR THE LONGEST TIME
POSSIBLE and record your FATIGUE LEVEL when you have the heel ON the person (fig 10: it's: the invention) COMPARED
At your level of fatigue when the heel is in the void (fig 11: the ordinary pedal). You have to .. keep the pressure CONSTANT maximum throughout the test time: if for example you got 38 pounds in the previous two tests you will have to HOLD this 38 pounds all the time of the test, never let the pressure go UNDER that 38 pound figure. Repeat these tests several times to be certain of the results.
These two energy consumption tests (by measuring the LEVEL
DE FATIGUE) will give you results like this:
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (UK: LE 26) WO 00/27690 PCTlCA99 / 01020 FIRST TEST (heel ON the scale, fig 20). here the mol-let does NOT consume energy because it does not contract, which is the equivalent of the invention.
05 Result obtained by the inventor:
a) he was able to HOLD MAXIMUM pressure for 90 seconds 54 pounds, b) after about 45 seconds after the start of the test, begins to experience slight muscle pain on thigh, c) 90 seconds after the start of the test, this muscle pain becomes difficult to bear, d) the inventor stops the test, but he notes that his rhythm devil has NOT grown significantly and it is NOT
25 breathless; ONLY PAIN in the thigh led him to stop the test, NOT FATIGUE due to heavy consumption of energy: without this pain, the inventor could MAINTAIN-NIR MAXIMUM pressure of 54 pounds 1, READ LONGER than 90 seconds ...
TWO ~ ME TEST (heel IN THE VACUUM, fig 1.L). here the calf MUST
contract with an intensity of 3 TIMES 54 pounds, or 162 books; the calf expends a LOT of energy. This test is the equivalent of the usual pedal.
Result obtained by the inventor:
a) in the FIRST SECONDS of the test, the inventor performs immediately that it is VERY difficult ~ TO REACH the pres-MAXIMUM Sion of 54 pounds (which was: VERY EASY in the first test!), b} after about 30 seconds after successfully reaching and MAINTAIN this 54 pounds, the inventor finds great SUBSTITUTE SHEET (UK: LE 26) stiffness of the CALF: it begins at your:> pain in the Achilles tendon (which connects the soft; at the heel), c) 45 seconds after having successfully REACHED and HOLD this 05 54 pounds, THIGH pain is added to that of the tendon Achilles; the inventor realizes that his heart rate begins to increase in a SIGNIFICANT manner and; that his breathing becomes faster; the whole leg BEGINS TO SHAKE, d) after 60 seconds able to re: ussi. to REACH and MAINTAIN this 54 pounds, the inventor is TOTALLY UNABLE
to MAINTAIN the MAXIMUM pressure of 54 pounds: the pressure FAST DROP ...
THE COMPARISON BETWEEN THE RESULTS OF THESE 2 TESTS allows safely assert that energy consumption is TWICE greater (approximately) in the second test than in the first test, the 2nd test being THE PEDAL and the first test being the proposed invention.
THEN, when using the invention in the SIT position, there are DIVISION BY TWO (approximately) of the energy consumption compared on pedal bikes, WITHOUT LOSS OF POWER (because the pressure obtained is THE SAME in both tests (54 pounds)!
The heyday of the "royal pedal" is completed; this invention makes RIDICULE the current pedal, just like the pedal made ridiculous the balance bike (scooter) there is 150 years: everyone's turn ... IT'S PROGRESS!
This completes the EXPERIMENTAL evidence; further in the docu-ment, THEORETICAL proofs will be given. But first, it is necessary to explain HOW this OPTICAL ILLUSION
of the leg take birth in our mind: INTERESTING !!!
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) CHAPTER 7. how does this optical illusion arise in our mind ...
What are the factors that cause this illusion? How to 05 does this illusion be so POWERFUL? Indeed, since 150 years, BILLION people have been misled, including the greatest scholars.
Concentrate on fig 12; WHAT DO YOU SEE? You will answer dre you see ONE box: you see ONLY ONE box and yet there are TWO! You did see -or the TOP box (8), of which you see THE BOTTOM (10) (top part of fig 13) - or the BOTTOM box (9), which you see: z THE TOP (10) (bottom part of fig 13) It is IMPOSSIBLE to see BOTH boxes. AT THE SAME TIME!
It comes from the fact that our mind has LIMITED power!
If it was a computer that would analyze fig 12, it responds -would instantly see that there are TWO boxes, a wonder that our mind is incapable. Our mind treats the two boxes AS
IF they were completely INDEPENDENT of each other; gold, these two boxes DEPEND on each other since the part hatched (10) in fig 12 is, AT THE SAME TIME, the underside of the top box (8) AND the top of the bottom box (9}.
this DEPENDENCE between the two boxes that PREVENTS our mind to see them both AT THE SAME TIME, the hatched part (10) being COMMON to the two boxes. If there are TWO chopped parts rees (10) as in the two SEPARATE boxes of fig 13, there It is obvious that WE CAN see the two boxes AT THE SAME TIME.
WHAT RELATION to the optical illusion of the leg?
This report is DIRECT and REVEALING ...
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUILE 2b) i WU 00 / 27b90 PCT / CA99 / 01020 Fig 24 shows the leg of a seated pedaling cyclist.
Let's do an ANALOGY with fig 22:
-we will say that the thigh plays the role of the upper box (8), 05 -that the part of the leg containing LE 1MOLLET plays the role of the bottom box (9), -and that the knee plays the role of the hatched part (20).
Now back to the interpretation qtze THE WHOLE WORLD does pedaling (chapter 4).
"... the pressure on the pedal comes from TWO
sources, the first being THE THIGH and the second being LE MOLLET, these two forces ADDING ... "
When we ask people (even experts) WHAT MUSCLES
15 the pressure on the pedal comes from, what are these people doing? They LOOK at fig l4 and, AUTOMATICALLY, the minds of these people works EXACTLY as in the case of the two boxes of the fig 12. they are trying to analyze how the thigh works FIRST and THEN the functioning of the calf (or vice 20 versa), but NOT of the thigh AND calf AT THE SAME TIME, because our mind is UNABLE to do it, just as it is UNABLE TO SEE the two boxes in f.ig 12 AT THE SAME TIME!
So our mind SEPARATELY analyzes the: functioning of the thigh and calf, and ADD the two results as if 25 these analysis results were INDEPENDENT of each other!
This is absolutely ANALOGUE to the fact that we do not see at the same time see the two boxes (fig 22) because of the axis -tence of the hatched part (10) which is COMMON to both boxes (which CONNECTS the two boxes). It is the same with the knee 30 which RELATES together thigh and calf, being. a COMMON part.
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUDE 26) i WO 00! 27690 PCT / CA99 / 01020 The knee plays a role ANALOGUE to that of the hatched part (10) connecting the two boxes together (fig 12).
Here is an extraordinary revelation:
05 THE KNEE Empowers us to analyze AT THE SAME TIME
the thigh AND the calf, just like the part hatched {10) EMP ~ CHE to see AT THE SAME TIME
the two boxes (fig 12).
Obviously, this is just a simple ANALC> GIE: in the case of two boxes it is about VISUAL perception, while in the case of the leg it is a question of HOW to analyze it ser operation. But the analogy is good because the r RESULT is the same: in both cases, you cannot SEE
(ANALYZE) the two boxes (thigh AND moilet) AT THE SAME
TIME because the two constituent parts have a COMMON part, the hatched part (the knee), which CONNECTS them together. All of this is very subtle. Further, we will SCIENTIFICALLY PROVE this: that it is THE SAME EXISTENCE of KNEE THAT CAUSES JThe leg's optical illusion! For the ins so much, we're just going to say something very deep, which deserves to be meditated upon (when you have understood taken the whole of this document):
THE KNEE, which yet LINKS the thigh AND THE CALF, WE OBLIGATE TO INDEPENDENTLY analyze them J Each other, AS if the thigh and calf WERE NOT connected together!
THE KNEE fulfills two CONTRADICTORY roles:
a) it PHYSICALLY CONNECTS the thigh and the calf b) he OBLIGATES us to consider the thigh and the calf as being NOT linked, for the purpose of ANALYSIS as explained above!
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) THE KNEE, which LINKS these two parts, forces us to analyze them as if they were NOT connected: really BIZARRE ...
To be more precise, one could say that the knee fills 05 ONLY the role of the PHYSICAL link; the other role is IMAGINARY and is created by the weakness of our human spirit!
It is not the knee that is BIZARRE but rather the function-ment of our mind!
SO, our mind SEPARATELY analyzes how the thigh and calf and ADD the two results, which gives the interpretation that LE MONDE ENTIER makes of pedaling:
"... the pressure on the pedal comes from TWO
sources, the first being the thigh and the second being the calf, these heavens forces ADDING ... "
This interpretation of the WHOLE WORLD therefore presupposes THAT THE
KNEE DOES NOT EXIST, in the sense that it has no influence on the pressure exerted on the pedal 'This. interpretation is also the statement that "THE WHOLE is THE SUM of the parts za constituantes ". this is true of two things totally INDEPENDENT from each other, but FALSE when there is a COMMON part to both things. See figs 15 and 16.
Fig 15. The SUM of the surfaces of circles A and B is equal to the area of circle C, circles A and B do not have no common part;
Fig 16, the surface of the circle C 'is SMALLER than the surface of circle C (fig 15) because lsss circles A and B
have a COMMON PART (hatched).
THE WHOLE EQUALS THE SUM OF THE PARTS only in fig 15 and not on fig 16. The next page is REVEALATRTCE ...
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Interpretation of the WHOLE WORLD presupposes that THE WHOLE IS EQUAL
TO THE SUM OF THE PARTIES, that is to say that; the TOTAL pressure on the pedal is THE SUM of pressure from the thigh 05 PLUS the pressure from the calf (as in fig 15, by analogy): this interpretation therefore presupposes that there is NOT
of common part, THAT THE KNEE DOES NOT EXIST! Like the knee EXISTING, this interpretation of the WHOLE WORLD is FALSE!
CONCLUSION.
The total pressure on the pedal is NOT
equal to the SUM of thigh pressure plus that of the calf.
To get a CORRECT analysis of how the leg works, TAKE INTO ACCOUNT the KNEE joint, which is the COMMON part to the thigh and the calf (which connects them).
A CORRECT analysis will give us a result confirming that the whole is NOT equal to the sum of the parts. Obviously, a correct analysis of the functioning of the lower limb must study it in ONE piece (foot, leg and thigh connected by the ankle and knee joints); such an analysis should not be done VISUALLY. elïe must be THEORETICAL and SCIENTIFIC, and this is what we will do in the next chapter (which is divided into 8 sections).
Note: in the interpretation of THE WHOLE WORLD (therefore the the person making the analysis of the operation of the leg DON'T REALIZE that it (mentally) cuts the lower limb in two separate parts (thigh and calf) by a kind of "intellectual surgery"! This person THINKS to take into account the existence of the knee while, in reality, this person IGNORES the existence of the knee ' SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) WD 00/2? 690 PCT / CA99 / 01020 CHAPTER 8, THEORETICAL analysis of the functioning of the leg in the PARTICULAR CASE of the PEDAL.
(This chapter is divided into 8 SECTIONS) 05 SECTION 1. identification of the PREMTER.E ERROR contained in the interpretation of THE WHOLE WORLD (chapter 4).
This interpretation contains TWO errors. In this section we discuss the FIRST, the SECOND being the subject of the SECTION 2. Back to the interpretation of THE WHOLE WORLD (each -clown 4).
"... the pressure on the pedal comes from TWO
sources, the first being THE THIGH and the second being LE MOLLET, these two forces ADDING ... "
This interpretation of the WHOLE WORLD is therefore THE SUM of forces P1 (fig 6} AND P2 (fig 7}. So that the force P2 (fig 7) ACTUALLY EXISTS, ANKLE (1) should be KEEP IN PLACE, that it does not move: the ankle must be A POINT OF SUPPORT. Only the leg bone (21) can maintain the dowel (1) in place and, for this, there is ONLY ONE possibility te: downward pressure must be exerted along the bone of the leg (12) and this pressure can only be exerted BY THE
THIGH (the knee being the intermediary for the transfer of this pressure). So, fig 7 SUPPOSE necess <~ irement that the pressure from the thigh (so the pressure P1 in fig 6) serves a MAKE THE ANKLE (1) A SUPPORT. this is essential so that the pressure P2 EXISTS. The problem is as follows: EN
SAME TIME, fig 6 indicates that the pressure P1 coming from the "
THIGH is used to PRESS THE PEDAL. So:, the interpretation of DU
WORLDWIDE assigns DUAL USE to pressure from SUBSTITUTES SHEET {RL1LE 26) i THIGH because Fig 6 indicates that P1 is used to PRESS THE
PEDAL and fig 7 implies that P1 is used to MAKE ANKLE
A POINT OF SUPPORT! The DOUBLE RÖLE is obvious. Now, a principle 05 fundamental physics says that GIVEN STRENGTH Can have ONLY ONE use.
The FIRST error in interpreting THE WHOLE WORLD is therefore to attribute a DUAL USE to the force P1 coming from THE
20 THIGH. There are TWO possible scenarios :, and ONLY ONE of these two scenarios is true, the other being necessarily false. And we go find the following weird thing: the ~ scenario that SEEMS wrong VISUALLY is the one that is TRUE, while the scenario that is SEEMS true VISUALLY is one that is FALSE (the world â
Sort of upside down)!
Here are the two possible scenarios:
SCENARIO NO 1.
The pressure P1 coming from the thigh is used to make the hair.
LE A POINT OF SUPPORT, as assumed in fig 7. In this case, 20 as P1 can have ONLY ONE use ,, P1 cannot AT THE SAME
TIME to be used to PRESS THE PEDAL as indicated fig 6. So, this first scenario implies that P2 EXISTS (that fig 7 represents reality) and that 7.a fig 6 is FALSE. This SCENARIO NO I is therefore that 25 TOTAL pressure on the pedal comes ONLY from the contraction of MOLLET, THE THIGH CONTRIBUTION
being ZERO.
SCENARIO NO 2.
30 The pressure P1 from the THIGH is used to PRESS THE
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) WO 00 / 27b90 PCT / CA99 / 01020 PEDAL, as shown in fig 6. In this case, as the pressure P2 can have ONLY ONE use, P1 cannot AT THE SAME TIME
be used to MAKE THE ANKLE A SUPPORT as 05 supposes it fig 7. So this second scenario implies that P2 DOES NOT EXIST (fig 7 is FALSE) and fig 6 is TRUE. This SCENARIO NO 2 is therefore that FULL pressure on the pedal comes ONLY from the contraction OF
THE THIGH, the contribution of the CALF
being ZERO.
THEREFORE, SCENARIO NO 1: if fig 7 is TRUE, then fig 6 is FALSE.
SCENARIO NO 2: if fig 6 is TRUE; then fig 7 is FALSE.
ONLY ONE of these two scenarios is true, but which one?
SUMMARY the intellectual process that we have just carried out so that everything is perfectly clear in your mind:
Interpretation of THE WHOLE WORLD assumes that figs 6 and 7 are ALL TWO TRUE and that fig 6 and 7 ADD.
We have just highlighted the FIRST error in this interpretation of THE WHOLE WORLD, which consists in attributing DOUBLE USE pressure from the thigh. So if we bring A CORRECTION to this interpretation of the WORLD
ENTIRE to ELIMINATE this FIRST error (by assigning ONE
ONLY possible thigh use), we get BOTH
SCENARIOS that we just defined, and ONLY ONE is true.
VISUALLY, fig 7 SEEMS true: it is; t THE OPTTQUE ILLUSION
which we have been talking about from the start. If fig 7 is TRUE, then SCENARIO NO 1 is VRAT. Now, EXPERIMENTALLY, the two first-miers scale tests PROVIDED crane this is the SCENARIO
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) NO 2 which is TRUE. THEREFORE, there is a CONTRADTCTION:
- Scenario # 1 SEEMS true V: ONLY
- Scenario 2 is TRUE EXPERIMENTALLY
05 Now, ONLY ONE scenario may be true, and it's number 2 because it's PROVE experimentally. So scenario # 1 is FALSE well that it SEEMS true VISUALLY: this is the mystery of ILLUSION
OPTICAL which is not yet clarified; this mystery will be solved in the next section ' which will explain the SECOND error in interpretation of THE WHOLE WORLD.
J
SCENARIO NO 1 (the false scenario) seems VISUALLY true;
in addition, ROAD OF SADNESS, it ALSO seems to be true THEORETICAL-MENT, as we will now demonstrate!
We will now follow the following steps.
-do a THEORETICAL demonstration of SCENARIO NO 1. This demons tration will NOT be correct, although e: It will appear to be the hearth;
indeed, this demonstration will INCLUDE the SECOND error.
try to discover for yourself the nature of this 2nd error (... not easy '). This SECOND error is the KEY
MASTER of the whole document ...
-we will EXPLAIN this SECOND error in SECTION NO 2.
This will THEORETICALLY PROVE that SCENARIO NO 1 is FALSE, although it SEEMS true VISUALLY (in addition to sem-very true THERAPICALLY when we IGNORE the SECOND error!).
-Finally, we will THEORETICALLY demonstrate that SCENARIO NO 2 is TRUE by two different methods, to leave no doubt in your mind. We have already demonstrated EXPERIMENTA-LEMENT that SCENARIO NO 2 is the REAL scenario, thanks to first two experiences re-bored with the latch, in the SIT position.
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Here we will simplify things as much as possible r DRAWING the thigh, leg, foot and pedal.
In all the examples given (for ALL the document), we 05 let's assume that the thigh exerts a downward force constant 20 pounds. this is the starting hypothesis. Willing-We always use the crank position such that the thigh and the leg are perpendicular to each other, this particular position being the one that SIMPLIFIES the most demonstrations. The goal here is to SIMPLIFY things MAXIMUM because we want to explain basic PRINCIPLES.
Any scientist will easily understand that what is true for a 90 degree angle between the thigh and the leg is also true for ALL other crank positions (it is useless to demonstrate what is EVIDENT for a scientist}.
THEORETICAL demonstration of SCENARIO NO 1..
IN ADDITION to seemingly VISUALLY true, this. scenario 1 seems ALSO be true THEORETICALLY! The following demonstration will INCLUDE the SECOND error, which you must try to find live by yourself (good luck!}; we will explain the nature of this SECOND error in SECTION NO 2 only.
For this demonstration, we will use fig 17, 18 19 and 20 only.
This SCENARIO N0 1. seems VISUALLY true. When you look at fig 17, what do you see? You start with see a thigh (5} which, by forcing, pushes the thigh bone (6) DOWN; thanks to the knee joint (13), you Because this force (C = 20 lbs) produced by the thigh is trans-put down ALONG THE BONE OF THE JiAMBE (11) up to the dowel (1) to make it a SUPPORT point by holding it in SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) WO 00127b90 PCT / CA99L01020 square; this SUPPORT POINT (1) allows the CALF (4}, by contracting -so much, to pull the bone from the heel {12) TOWARDS THE TOP, which tends to what to rotate the foot around the ankle (1), which 05 pushes the toe joint {2) DOWN, which creates finally press the pedal {P}! THIS is what everyone VISUALIZED world, and it SEEMS to be true!
So let's assume that this is true, and calculate the pressure on pedal thus created by the DCf MOLLET contraction.
Fig 18 resumes Fig 17 in the schea ~ atisant: the bones are represented by lines of lines and muscles are not symbolized. Figs 19 and 20 show the results of our "visualizations" above mentioned. Fig 19 ÔSOLE leg and fig 20 ISOLATES the foot.
-The traction stuffing of the calf on the heel is designated by M, -the pressure of the toe joint (2) on the pedal is designated by P (fig 17}. The REACTION of P is P ', which is the pedal shoots on the toe joint; P is therefore directed DOWN and P 'UP.
-We have A / B = 3 (no unit of measure is used because only the RATIO from A to B interests us), - in figs 18 and 19, the force C of 20: Pounds is the pressure (directed downwards) FROM the thigh bone (6) ON the joint-knee (13); on the f ig 20, the force F = 20 pounds is the push of 20 pounds of leg bone (21) on the ankle 1); in fig 19 the force F 'of 20 pounds is THE REACTION
of the force F, i.e. the growth of the ankle {1) ON the bone of the leg (11). In fig 18, the forces. F and F 'ARE NOT
illustrated because they cancel each other.
Now back to fig 20 ...
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Fig 20: there must be a balance of TRANSLATION and ROTATION with respect to the ankle (1).
TRANSLATION. M + P '_ F = 20 pounds 05 ROTATION. MB = P'.A; as B = 1 and A = 3, naus get M = 15 pounds and P '= 5 pounds.
Let's check these results again, but against the two other reference points, namely a) the heel and b) the axis of the pedal.
10 a) relative to the heel TRANSLATION. M + P '_ F = 20 pounds ROTATION. P '. (A + B) _ FB; as B = 1 and A = 3, we still get M = 15 pounds and P '= 5 pounds as above.
b) relative to the axis of the pedal.
15 TRANSLATION. M + P '_ F = 20 pounds ROTATION. M. (A + B) _ FA; as B = 1 and A = 3, we still get M = 15 pounds and P '= 5 pounds as in the two examples above.
SO, in addition to seeming to be true VISUALLY, 20 SCENARIO NO 1 ALSO seems true IN THEORY
as we have just demonstrated!
So, there is an ERROR somewhere in these 3 demonstrations theoretical since we have proven EXP ~: RIMENTALLY that the SCENARIO NO i is FALSE, thanks to the two pz-emières experiences 25 with the scale '. This error is the SECOND error contained in the interpretation of THE WHOLE WORLD.
SUMMARY. interpretation of THE WHOLE WORLD is "... the pressure on the pedal comes from TWO
sources, the first being THE THIGH, and the 30 second being LE MOLLET, these two forces ADDING ... "
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUILE 26) i WO 00! 27690 PCTlCA99 / 01020 In this interpretation of the WHOLE WORLD, there are 2 errors.
,, -the FIRST error is to give a DOUBLE use to force r directed downward from the thigh, i.e.
05 pretend that this force is used AT THE SAME TIME
2-to press the pedal AND
2- ~ make the ankle a point: of support (which allows CALF TO EXERCISE HIM ALSO A force on the pedal) We explained that DOUBLE use is impossible, 20 since a given force can only have one use.
- the SECOND error is explained in the next section.
SECTION 2. identification of the SECOND error in interpretation of the WHOLE WORLD.
EXPLTCATION OF THE MYSTERY THAT KEEP CYCLING
15 IN SLAVERY FOR 150 YEARS!
Fig 22 is a repeat of Fig 18 with the values numerical P '= 5 pounds and M = 15 pounds as calculated at the SECTION 1; obviously, the 2nd error is present.
Fig 22 is 1a fig 21 CORRECTED to take account of the 2nd 20 error and thus represent REALITY!
Here is the SECOND error contained in fig 21. A FORCE A
HAS BEEN TOTALLY FORGOTTEN, and that is THE FORCE; DIRECTED DOWN
WHO KNEES FROM THE KNEE (this force is illustrated in fig 22)!
A muscle like LE MOLLET is attached to: TWO extremities.
25 2-There is the LOWER attachment point of the calf which connects it to the heel by Achilles tendon: the calf, by contracting, pull the heel UP (this is the force M}.
2-There is the TOP attachment point of the: calf that connects it KNEE: the calf, by contracting, pulls the knee 30 DOWN (this is the forgotten force M '}.
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUDE 26) FUNDAMENTAL QUESTION BETWEEN ALL:
WHY, in our 3 previous calculations (SECTION 1), we have COMPLETELY FORGOTTEN. the point of attachment 05 FROM TOP of calf (force M 'DOWN)?
And notice that NO ONE ON EARTH has heeded this force M '! Indeed, if someone would have already discovered this SECOND error, the pedal would have been abandoned SINCE
LONG and REPLACED by the invention proposed here. there would have NO PEDALS on the roads! Since there is ONLY PEDAL bikes on the road, we're fine OBLIGED to conclude that no one has discovered this SECOND
mistake ... INCREDIBLE BUT TRUE! This gives an idea of the POWER OF THE OPTICAL ILLUSLON that this document explains t WHY, then, has this force been COMPLETELY FORGOTTEN?
IT IS NOT LOGICAL ! Indeed, if, in our 3 calculations before-teeth, we TAKE INTO ACCOUNT the traction of the calf ON THE HEEL, it would then be completely LOGICAL to ALSO TAKE ACCOUNT of the calf traction ON THE KNEE {because the calf is attached to the TWO extremities)! So WHY didn't we do it?
The answer to this simple question is the backbone of everything;
this document ... PRINT THIS RESPONSE IN GOLD LETTERS.
When we WATCH a leg press snzr a ' pedal we we tend to visualize ONLY the forces that tend to create a MOVEMENT, a VISUALLY noticeable movement, If a given force does NOT create movement: visually perceptible-MENT, our mind IGNORATES this force and that is exactly what occurs in the case of the force M 'pointing DOWN and which leaves FROM THE KNEE (fig 22), the force M 'does not create any MOVEMENT
visually noticeable and OUR EYES TOTALLY KNOW ...
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUILE 26) i When you LOOK at fig 17, you visually perceive that the thigh contraction (5) tend to MOVE the thigh bone (6) down: so you visually perceive the contraction 05 of the thigh muscles. You visually perceive the traction calf on the HEEL because it tends to move the heel towards THE TOP (still MOVEMENT). Likewise, we perceive VISUALLY-MENT the pressure of the end of the foot on the pedal for Z reasons:
a) the traction of the calf on the heel tends to MAKE TURN
the foot around the ankle (2), which tends to move the toe joint (2) DOWN I ~ E;
b) the pressure of the toe joint (2) on the pedal tend to MOVE the pedal DOWN, which FORWARDS
the bicycle.
The expressions "MOVE", "MAKE TURN" that we have just to use abundantly are synonymous with MOVEMENT: our eyes ONLY perceive the forces tending to create MOVEMENT
HERE IS THE RESPONSE TO OUR FUNDAMENTAL QUESTTON
TOP traction of the calf on the KNEE (M 'fig 22) creates NO VISUALLY noticeable MOVEMENT; we do not visually perceive cettsa force M ':
OUR EYES TOTALLY KNOW IT
HERE IS THE MYSTERY OF THE 150 YEAR OLD CYCLING.
(fig 22). forces M and M 'CANCEL with each other, which causes the force C (_20 lbs) from the THIGH to have a line DIRECTION DIRECTLY on the axis of the pedal. So the TOTAL pressure on the pedal comes ONLY from the CUTSSE, the contraction of the CALF does not pradu.ise NO pressure ADDITIONAL on the pedal.
Here now is the clear explanation of OPTICAL ILLUSION.
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) If OUR EYES do NOT perceive the force M ', then we believe falsely that the farce M (which we perceive visually) allow to INCREASE the pressure on the pedal by making 05 turn the foot around the ankle: that's the mystery OPTICAL ILLUSION, caused by the SECOND error in interpretation of THE WHOLE WORLD, this second error consisting in NOT visually perceiving the force M '; this SECOND error leads us to believe (falsely) that force C (= 20 lbs) from the thigh has a directed LINE OF ACTION
DIRECTLY along the leg bone to make ankle (1) A SUPPORT point allowing the contraction of the calf! If we ADD the FIRST error to this (false) reason-ment (which is to give a DOUBLE use to force C), we gets exactly the interpretation that LE MONDE ENTTER makes of pedaling, an interpretation which is obviously false and which is details as follows:
"... downward pressure from the thigh (C = 20 lbs) serves TWO uses:
1-CREATE A PRESSURE of 20 lbs on the pedal, AND
2-make the ankle A POINT OF SUPPORT, which allow the CALF to exert ADDITIONAL pressure on the pedal by rotating the feet around the ankle, , the TOTAL pressure on the pedal being equal TO THE SUM
pressure from the thigh PLUS the pressure from calf ... "
This is obviously FALSE, as we clearly have demonstrates THE MYSTERY IS SOLVED!
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Here we will attempt to VISUALLY convince you that the TOTAL pressure on the pedal comes ONLY from CUTSSE, the calf CANNOT contribute to this pressure!
05 Obviously, we are going to assume that the SECOND ME error is corrected, that is to say we will say that you perceive VISUALLY the existence of the force M '(fig 22) pulling TOWARDS
LOW on the knee (force from the contraction of the calf).
For a top scientist, the following will appear 20 elementary to the point of being almost stupid! BUT DON'T FORGET
NOT THIS: these "elementary" things have been TOTALLY FORGOTTEN
by THE WHOLE WORLD! Would it have been completely ignored because it's so simple, so basic? The scientists often tend to seek answers to their questions 15 in COMPLEX things, ASSUMING that there is nothing to discover in elementary things: IN GENERAL this is true, but it is no longer when a FLEMENTARY truth is HIDDEN
by an OPTICAL ILLUSION '.
Figs 23, 24, 25 and 26 make a leg "evolve" in the diagram 20 grazing. Fig 23: the thigh bone is symbolized by the beam (6) which can rotate thanks to the seal (17) which symbolizes the articu-hip lation; the triangular rigid part (14) plays the role of the leg, the small triangle (25) symbolizing the axis of the pedal. When the thigh muscles (5) contract, 25 the thigh bone (6) is pushed down, creating the press the pedal (15). It is VISUALLY evident that the downward push from the thigh (C = P ') has ONE LINE
ACTION directed directly on the axis of the pedal, the forces C (pushed down) and P '(pushed up DE pedal 30 ON part 24) having ONE SAME line of action (C = P ').
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Let's make "evolve" fig 23 so that it looks A LITTLE more r has a real leg: LET'S CUT the triangular rigid piece (14) to make it a rigid L-shaped part (I6, fig 24):
05 this L-shaped part does not have a dowel, being made of a single piece. In this case, it is YET VISUALLY obvious that the push down of the thigh (C) also has ONE LINE
OF ACTION directed DIRECTLY on the axis of the pedal (15), C and P 'having the same line of action (C-P'). Please note that in in the case of fig 24, there is NO MATERIAL between the pedal (25) and the knee (13) because we removed this material by the cutting of the triangular part (14, fig 23). In fig 24 the LINE of ACTION of the forces C and P 'is therefore IN THE VACUUM.
IMPORTANT: put yourself in the skin of the man of the 25 street; FOR HIM, in the case of fig 24 ,, the pressure towards the lower thigh {C) would rather be directed along the part VERTICAL of the L-piece (16) which symbolizes the leg bone because, for the man in the street, a force cannot propagate only in a MATERIAL environment, and not in a vacuum ~ THE EYES
of the man in the street don't realize that a force CAN
propagate in a vacuum, ON CONDITION that the APPLICATION POINTS
forces, be located IN a material medium, the articula -tion of the knee (23) and the axis of the pedal (15) being the points of MATERIAL applications of forces C and P '. By continuing to to make the leg "evolve", we are witnessing BIRTH
GRADUAL of the optical illusion of which we speak since beginning So let's continue to "evolve" our leg by replacing the rigid L-shaped part (16) of fig 24 by a SET of parts EQUIVALENT as in fig 25, i.e.
pieces 1S, 29 and 20.
SHEET SUBSTITUTES (RULE 26}

5 2 PCT / CA99 / 01020 The rigid parts (19 and 20) are re: Bonded together by a articulation joint (1} which symbolizes the ankle, the piece (20) symbolizing the foot and the piece {19) symbolizing the bone of 05 the leg; a cord (non-extensible) (18) plays the role of the mol-let, one end of this rope being connected to the heel (like the calf is by the Achill.e} tendon, the other end of the rope being connected to the knee (like the calf). This set of 3 pieces (18, I9 and 20) is therefore absolutely RIGID when the thigh muscles {5) push the thigh bone (6) towards the low, thanks to the NON-extensibility of the cord (18). So the role played by this set of pieces (I8, 19 and 20} is absolute-analogous to the role played by the rigid part in L {1b) of the fig 24. So, for a scientist, it is EVIDENT {as in the case of fig 24} that the LINE OF ACTION of the forces C and P ' is still directed directly on the axis of the pedal passing by the knee joint {13}, as shown in fig 25. I1 also knows that the rope {I8) SUPPORTS 1: 1NE TENSION equal to three flee (approximately) the intensity of the force P '(! C) because of the existence of the articulated joint {1) which plays the role of the che -city. But what will the man in the street (the NON-scientist) think?
he will be EVEN MORE convinced that before the pressure to the bottom exercised by the thigh (C} has a LINE OF ACTION directed di-straight DOWN along the bone, the leg {symbolized by part 19) as in the case of fig 21 because, for the man in the street:
-a force must propagate IN a MATERIAL environment, -it is visually deceived by the presence of the ankle (I), HIS EYES making him believe that force is used to make ankle (1) A POINT OF SUPPORT, his eyes confusing the notion SUBSTtTUTE SHEET (RU1.E 26) of "fulcrum" with the concept of "COMPRESSION force" of ankle.
-However, the man in the street knows very well that the rope (18) 05 cannot INCREASE pressure on: The pedal because a rope cannot exert a CONTRACTION force, a rope does not can't SHORTEN like a muscle that contracts.
Let’s move on to a final “evolution” step in our "leg": replace the cord (18) with a muscle, LE MOLLET {4, fig 26). For a scientist, it should be obvious (a cau-of the numerous proofs given before in this document} that, in the case of fig 26, the LINE OF ACTION of the force C is STILL DIRECTLY directed on the pedal axis (15) as in the case of figs 25, 24 and 23, but with a significant nuance: the calf (4) played exactly THE SAME ROLE as the rope (18, fig 25), i.e. it SUPPORTS A TENSTON equal to three times (approximately} the intensity of the force P '(= C).
fig 25, the rope (18) is used to HOLD the length (K) in such a way â MAINTAIN the 90 degree angle between the foot and the leg: the rope should not stretch as a rubber band would to make the exercise of pressure C on the axis possible of the pedal, this rope used to make the structure RIGID
of all parts 19 and 20, so as to obtain a result state similar to that of fig 24 (or 23). I1 the same with the calf (4) of fig 26. the calf must allow MAINTAIN the length (K) and, for this, the human body must SPENDING ENERGY to simply EVI'PER that the calf EXTENDS (or stretches like a rubber band) to HOLD
the 90 degree angle between the foot and the leg. THIS IS IMPORTED
SO MUCH: as we have already proven before in this docu -SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) the contraction of the calf cannot INCREASE the pressure -sion on the pedal; ie the calf MUST obligatorily spend energy ONLY due to the fact that the heel is not 05 supported, is IN VACUUM: if additional energy is spent during pedaling to SHORTEN the calf a little, this is only a question of comfort, history of stretch your calf a little, but you get more comfort at the expense of an additional energy expenditure UNNECESSARY as INCREASING pressure on the pedal is concerned. A muscle is not a rope; a muscle must consume energy simply for M, INCREASE its length.
At this final stage of the "evolution" of our "leg" {fig 26}, the man in the street is ABSOLUTELY CONVINCED that force (C}
I5 from the thigh has a LINE OF ACTION directed downwards Ie along the LEG BONE to make the ankle A POINT
SUPPORT, which makes him believe (falsely) that, thanks to this point of support, the calf can, by contracting, pull the heel up, rotating the foot bone around the ankle, which INCREASES the pressure on the pedal (we we challenged demonstrated that this is impossible}! THAT IS
THE ILLUSION OF CALF OPTICS. The truth, as we just explain it, is that C's line of action is DIRECT-MENR ON the axis of the pedal and the calf spends ONLY
the energy NECESSARY to HOLD the length K (fig 26} of so as to MAINTAIN at 90 degrees (approximately, depending on the comfort desired} the angle between the foot and: The leg, so make pedaling simply POSSIBLE! Nt3us let's go now explain that the calf CANNOT spend energy SUP ~~ L
MENTARY to SHORTEN (add a length LOWER to K) SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUILE 26d WO 00 / 27b90 PCTICA99 / 01020 INDEPENDENTLY of the INTENSITY of the fort: e C (of the thigh) because, in this case, the thigh SE SOL3LEVERAIT, l.es reflective equilibria tion and translation of the forces no longer maintained.
05 What follows is F ~ NDA, MENTAL; nflus let’s anticipate a little the content of the next SECTIf ~ l3 3, believed we are going to ~ 'show leS c ~. ~ q ~ atiflnS SülvanteS {vflir f ig L ~) 1- C = P ', that is to say that the pressure on the pedal fP') is Tt ~~~ JE3EJRS equal to the push down the thigh tC) (the lt3 TOTAL pressure on the pedal comes from ~~ N1Q (iElviENT from the thigh, The calf can not contribute g);
~ - M = 3. P ', that is to say that the contra-etio-r ~ says ~ co3: Iet is 3 times the intensity of P ', the ratio of the distances P ~~ 1 ~ being ~ J; here, the calf does not do SOPP ~ O-RTER A TENSIOP1, this 15 tensi.fln being D-DETERMINED BY the Lnte ~ tsité -de P '(and not the inv-esse-).
So, 1-es ~ r-eeements pr ~ oc ~ uisent d- ~ r ~ s Order as follows: 1-a contra-ction -de la c ~: isse (C) D-ÉTERMINE 1 'intens it ~ -de P', and ENS-T3¿TE the cor ~ tracti.on of the calf (Mj e-st DETERMIPFÉE P-ï ~ R
1 'ir ~ te-r-rsitée P' (3 times P '). It is ~, ~ r ONLY sequ-e-rrc-e de-s ~ C3 e- ~ r-erreme-nts possi: bl-e. Evudemme-nt, LE MOPFDE E1 ~ TIER do-n: ~ -e F ~ US ~ E-LENT a -a-utr-e sque-nce of-event ~ rents, -so ~: t that 1-a co-ntractio n of ha -cuisee {C) AND the cc-ntractiov of mo-1: 1-and (M) S '~ A-DDITTCI ~ N-ENT
to DETERMINE 1 in-t ~ e-nsi ty of 1 ~ pre-ss.ic. ~ -on the -géda- ~: e (~ P ' In com-b i: na-nt - together these 2 eq-ua t ions (-en. É l im ir an t P ' ) , we 25 obtained M = 3C; -in rewrite-a-nt ce-tt-e- -éq-ua-tic-w ~ en te-rmes D'~ CCROIS-SEM-E-NTS, c'-e-st- ~ -dir-e- M = 3. (~ C), it becomes alor-s-r OBVIOUS that it is IM-POSSIBLE for the soft-to-act S ~ E-UL (iwde ---pend-a ~ mment de- la- v-aleu-r de- C); -in-frame-nt said, if pa-r -e ~ -ample ~
-a- u ~ n momen-t don-ne-C = 2C liv-re-s, a3: ors -M- must 'âtre- de- 6d liv ~ res-:, 30 if you try to ~ AUGM-ENTE-R la v-aleu-r de - M -à 63 1w-r-es SHEET SUBSTITUTES (RULE 26) ss (therefore ~ M = 3 pounds) WITHOUT increasing the value of C to 21 pounds (so keeping C a 20 Pounds, not 21 pounds), it's your thigh THAT WOULD RISE AS SOON AS YOU TRY TO
05 SER the value of 60 pounds for M: IT IS IMPOSSIBLE to increase the value of M beyond 60 pounds if you do not increase the the value of C of the third of this increase in M (AC ~~ M / 3)!
We deduce the LAW LTP: IVERSELLE DU PEDAL.AGE which will be demonstrated experimentally in SECTION 4:
"Each INCREASE in the contraction force of the calf (f ~ M) must (to be POSSIBLE) be MANDATORY MEP7T accom-EPi loin SAME TIME of INCREASE: TATIO :: contraction force-thigh fion (AC) equal to yours of L ~ M. If AC = 0 (if we does NOT increase the value of C), then in this case it is im-possible to INCREASE the force of contraction of the calf (Q M- = 0) to try to INCREASE the pressure on the pedal because, in this case there would be more ROTATION equilibrium as we see in the next section (SECTION 3). SO, THE TOTALITY
pressure on the pedal can only come from the thigh, ' the calf CANNOT fit into it. If we INCREASE the valear de C a 21 ïbs (~ C = 1 lb), then, in this case, ~ MT3 lbs, but AUGMEP; TATION of the pressure ON THE PEDAL (L1P ') comes from U ~: IQUEMEP; T from ~ C (because AC = ~ P '), therefore FROM THE THIGH
and not the calf. "
This TJNIVERSAL PEDALING LAW is quite simply the SCEP: ARIC PJO 2 (the real one) expressed in SCIENTIFIC LAW ...
SECTION 3. THEORETICAL proof that the SCENARIO hT0 2 is TRUE.
Fig 2? resume fig 22 (which illustrates the scenario ro 2).
Obviously, this scenario asserts that the pressure 3D on the g Jale comes from UP: IQUEMEhTT of the THIGH contraction SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUILE 26) and the P: E calf CAN NOT contribute to this pressure.
There must be a balance between TRANSLATION and ROTATIOPJ.
Fig 27. in the case of TRANSLATION, the balance is 05 empty; indeed, C = P 'and M = M' in intensity, and the line force action is the same in both cases.
It only remains to check the ROTATION balance.
We can choose any reference point but, in choosing THE ANKLE (1), the equations are simplified to maximum (the reader could double-check the balance of rotation by doing calculations with OTHER points reference).
Therefore, with respect to the ankle (1), it is necessary:
ROTATION to the left = ROTATION vars 1a right (C.sin ~ C) .L + (M.cosr3) .B - (M'.sin ~) .L t (P'.cosoC) .A EQ-1 As M '= M and P' = C, the equation EQ-1 becomes, by rearranging terms:
C. (L.sin "~ - A.cos ~) _ M. (L.sin ~ - B.cos ~ 3) EQ-2 Now, A / L = tg d = sin ~ t / cos x; therefore, L. sin oC - A. cos d = 0, ce which is the LEFT part of EQ-2.
We also have B / L - tg ~ = sin ~ / cos ~; therefore L.sin ~ - B.cos ~ = 0, which is the RIGHT part of EQ-2.
So, we obtain (equation EQ-2) C.0 = DZ.O, or 0 = 0.
There is therefore indeed a balance of ROTA9'ION.
SCENARIO NO 2 is TRUE.
From fig 27, ~ n ISOLATES the bone of the. leg (fig 28) and we ISOLATE the foot (fig 29}.
The force F (fig 29) is the compression stuffing of the ankle (1); the force F '(fig 28) is the REACTION of the force F (which is the ACTIOPd}; indeed, F is the push OF the bone of the SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) i J
~ 8 leg ON the ankle, and F 'is the pause OF the ankle ON
leg bone (forces F and F 'are NOT illustrated on Ia f ig 2? because they cancel each other out; ~ u tuellenaent).
C5 Fig 28: C. case oC + M '. case. - F '{9'RAr; SLATIO ~:) EQ-3 Fig ~ 9: FA - {M.cas ~). (A + B) (ROTATION around Y) EQ-4 Here it is about something from BTOLOCIQUE, about MUSCLES: So, let's assume something reasonable -ble, that is to say that case d = case ~ - Z (in fact, the precision 1C calculations is obviously not the goal here. we want just explain general principles).
EQ-3 becomes: C + M '- F' and EQ-4 becomes F ==. M / 3 (because A = 3.B);
let's eliminate F {at F ') from EQ-3 and EQ-4 {because F = F') and we get C + M '- 4. M / 3; as M '= M, we finally get:
i5 M = 3.C
This 2q ~ aatian is IDENTICAL to that obtained at the end of the previous section (SECTION 2); please rs: read the end of the SECTTON 2. According to this final equation (M = 3.C), the calf does not cannot contract ALONE, regardless of the prank of 2C Ca. ~. Thigh traction (C). Raa calf makes SUPPORT
the tension (equal to 3.C) which is IMPOSED BY the contraction THIGH. the calf plays an ABSOLUTELY IDEP role: TICK a that of the ROPE of fig 25, EXCEPT that the human body must SPEND H ~ EROIE
so that the calf, stiffening, 25 can HOLD the length K (fig 26), to prevent it stretches like an eiastiqae {pcur MAIP: TENI: R the angle between the foot and leg at the desired value). But the contraction farce tion of the calf {M) CAN be increased ONLY IF the force THIGH contraction (C) is also increased IN
30 SAME TIME in a third of this value (l ~ C =, p M / 3): in this case;
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUL, E 26) W () 00/27690 PCT / CA99 / 01020 5 °
INCREASED pressure on PEI) ALE (/ ~ P ') comes from ONLY the INCREASE in thigh contraction because, as P '= C, we also have ~ P' = ~ C. CALF P: E CANNOT THEREFORE
05 CONTRIBUTE TO THE PRESSURE ON THE PLDALE.
INCREASED MOLLET contraction force (p M) is always CAUSED BY AN INCREASE in the thigh contraction (/ ~ C), and it is this ~ C which CAUSES increased pressure ON THE PEDAL.
1Q THIS IS NOT the, ~ M which CAUSES the increase in press the pedal ...
CONCLUSIOP:. SCENARIO # 2 is the REAL scenario. The totality pressure on the pedal comes from UNIQUEMEP: T from the contrac-tion of the thigh, the calf could not:; t contribute to it. the 15 calf does qSE SUPPORT an equal tension ~ THREE TIMES
press the pedal, simply to MAKE pedaling POSSIBLE (to MAINTAIN the angle between the foot and the leg at the desired value). WHAT WASTE OF HUTERGY, caused by the simple the heel is in the void with a pedal, these pedals 20 continuing to be used because of the optical illusion that "the calf INCREASES the pressure on the pedal by pulling the heel up "...
SECTION 4. UNIVERSAL PEDALING LAW
proven EXPERIMENTALLY.
25 This law is essentially the SCÉrtARIO ro 2, the TRUE.
Here we will deduce this law in xefl chissant in terms INCREASES or mathematical variations {which one denotes by the symbol ~ x); from a very EvP ~ RIENCE
simple, we will make our IT deductions: ÉOR3: QUEMENT assuming 30 (in our mind) that the WEIGHT of the leg is i ~: UL (= 0).
SHEET SUBSTITUTES (RIJLE 26) Some may argue that, from the outset, experience is distorted because the weight of the leg is NOT zero! I say that it doesn't matter since, as we p2dale with TWO
05 legs, leg weights CANCEL (TT analogous to two children of the same weight s2 sway at each end of a board supported in its center - the balan; choir from our childhood).
In the following experiment, we ignore the weight of the leg (in our mind) just because gold. fact 20 our reasoning with ONE leg, not both legs simultaneously.
Exgerience: sit on a bicycle ~ pedals and app quez the brakes to prevent it from moving forward. Card the left foot on the ground and place your right foot on the right pedal, this 15 last being in the raised position, your thigh being at the horizontal zontal (obviously, it is the articulation of the toes which must be on the axis of the p2dale); ignore; in your of the weight of your right leg: imagine that its weight is rul. As we assume that the weight of the leg is 20 ZERO, so there is no pressure ssr: The pedal and the contrac-tion of your calf is ZERO. Now try to CREATE
ONLY press the ONLY pedal force of contraction with LE MOLLET, that is to say that you apply NO pressure with COOK> E (C = 0); it is obviously 25 ment TMPOSSTBLE because, as soon as you try ;, it is the thigh that w tend to RAISE, the pressure on the pedal remaining ~ ZERO!
(In fact, it is impossible to OBTEP: IR a contraction of the calf if you do NOT contract IN TIMES i.e. muscles that grow thigh down!). To successfully create pressure on 30 p2dale, you must OBLICATOIP, EMENT push towards 12 has with SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RLTLE 26) A CONTP, ACTION of the THIGH muscles. COrJCLUSIOr; : the TOTAL pressure on the pedal ONLY
THIGH, PtE POUVAP calf; DO NOT contribute to it.
05 Here, a clever little one could say: "if we want the contrac-the wheel creates a pressure on the pedal, it suffices that the push down the thigh will be ~ ae to do the ankle A POIr; T OF SUPPORT ". This is what we instinctively carry to think because that's it '~
q, .i seems true: it is the SCENAR ~ O no 2, the one that SEEMS true VISUALLY ~: T, being that of ILLUSION
OPTICAL; or we have proven that this soen; r io no 1 is fs.ux}.
Now repeat the same experiment by reflecting in terms of MAT VARIATIONS: ~ ematiq ~, ~ es (~~ x}. Still in the same position on your bike, with the appliques for 25 prevent it from moving forward, suppose you are pressing down with your thigh of 20 livrsa: according to the quations d shown in SECTION J, the pressure on the pedal is pounds ~ P '= 20) and the calf contraction is EO pounds (M = ~ .C}; from this position, try AUGME ~: TER the con 2tJ pull your calf to ~ 3 pounds WITHOUT INCREASING contraction-tion of your thigh (C demeùre at 20 pounds}: it is IMPOSSIBLE
that you can INCREASE the contraction of your calf 63 pounds because it is THE THIGH that LIFTS as soon as you try to iron the figure of 60 pounds with your calf 'To succeed ~ t INCREASE the value of M to 63 pounds, you MUST
AT
dies time INCREASE the value of C to 22 pounds. in that case, the new pressure on the pedal is 22 pounds and the new velvety thigh contraction is ALSO 22 pounds and, therefore, it can be said that the TOTAL pressure on the pedal comes ONLY:; T from the thigh (P '~ C = 22}, the calf not SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUILE 26) WO 00i2? 690 PCT / CA99 / 01020 that SUPPORT a tension (M-63 lbs) which is IMPOSED BY
the push down the thigh.
We deduce the UNIVERSAL PEDALING LAW:
05 "Any AUGMEATTATIOri of calf contraction (~ M) MUST be accompanied by an INCREASE
thigh contraction (~ C) for CAPABLE hearth create an INCREASE in pressure on the pedal (A P ').
So the INCREASE in pressure on the pedal as well produced (p P ') comes ONLY from the INCREASE in the THIGH CONTRACTOR (AC). AUGMEriTATION of the contraction of the calf (j ~ M) is ESSENTIAL to make POSSTBLE pedaling because the pedals maintain UNNECESSARILY heels in a vacuum. It is the IPiTEriSITY of 25 the pressure on the pedal (P ') which determines the intensity contraction of the calf (M) and NC; DO NOT REVERSE.
The contraction of the calf M is a C;) NSÉQUEPiCE
of the preSSlc n û'vlr the pedal and r ~ o ~~ not the CAUSE of this pressure. The total pressure on the pedal is DETERMIPED ONLY by the intensity of the contraction THIGH ... "
SECTION 5: THERICAL EVIDENCE BY THE ABSURDE. that the SCENARIO NO 1 is FALSE.
See f ig 22. you understood that LA, CLDU MYSTERY
consisted in discovering that, VISUELLEMEPiT, we TOTALLY IGNORE
3a force M '(the traction of the calf ON the knee) because this farce does not produce any VISUALLY SMALL MOVEMENT (all this was clearly explained at the start of SECTION 2).
That being clear, we are going to ASSOSE one thing AESURDE: that the TOP of the calf attachment point is OUTSIDE of SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) WO 00/27690 PCT / CA99 / Ot020 the leg, the BOTTOM of the calf remaining attached to the heel! See fig 3C, which is simply a repeat of fig 26, EXCEPT
the point of attachment of the TOP of the calf is the point (y) located AU
05 CEILING (fig 3fl) while this attachment point is 12 knee (I3) in the case of fig Z6. Fig 32 is a diagram of fig 30. (7) is the scale on which the bo ~, zt of the foot. Fig 32 isolates the leg (2I), and Fig 33 isolates the foot.
Fig 33: F is the pressure of the bone of the leg on the ankle IO (I) and F '(fig 32) is the REACTION of F, evening the pressure OF
ankle ON the bone of the leg. Forces F and F 'are NOT
illustrated in fig 32 because they cancel each other out.
THE IMPORTANT POIPJT is as follows: the pulling force DU
calf ON the knee (M ', fig22) PJ'EST PA;> illustrated on the 25 fig 31 and 32 because of our absurd hypothesis: the point of attachment of M 'is located ON THE CEILING (y, fig 30).
NOTE THIS: Figs 3I, 32 and 33 are: EXACTLY THE SAME
as fig 38, 29 and 20, these last 3. ~ having been used to do calculations showing that SC ~ NARIO # 1 SEEMED to be TRUE
20 THEORETICALEPJT in addition to SEEMING to be true VISUELLEMEPiT (it was optical illusion); these were done at the end from SECTIOrJ I of chapter 8: so we don't need to redo these calculations. THIS IS IMPORTANT: IF THE TOP OF THE CALF
was attached to the OUTSIDE leg (to the ceiling), so the 25 calculations performed at the end of SECTIOPJ 1 of chapter 8 would be ACCURATE, would not contain any error. the SCEPJARIC
nc I would then be TRUE! But as the calf is NOT attached OUTSIDE the leg (both connects ~ to ~ v knee, obviously "
it is forced to conclude that it is THE CONTRARY which is true and 30 that, therefore, THE SCE: JARIO NO I is FALSE ' SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) THEN scenario # 1 is FALSE and ie sc, enario # 2 is TRUE.
You should be convinced at this point, after all EXPERIMENTAL and THEORETICAL evidence that has been given.
05 SECTION 6. digital comparison between the pedal and this invention.
THE PEDAL.E THE INVENTION
the error the truth (what the (~ scenario 2) whole world thought) Pressure down (C) exercised by the thigh. 20 lbs 20 lbs 20 lbs Campression on the ankle (F = M + P '). 20 lbs 80 lbs 20 lb Contraction of the.,. Collar (M): 25 lbs 50 lbs 0 lb Pressing the pedal from the thigh. 20 lbs 20 lbs ZO lbs +, +
- calf. 5 lbs 0 lbs 0 lbs 2fl -TOTAL. 25 lbs 20 lbs 20 lbs The first 2 columns above relate to THE PEDAL and 1a 3rd relates to the proposed invention. The second collon is LA
TRUTH ABOUT THE PEDAL, and the PREMIER let's stick CONTAINS
His TWO errors that we have explained; sections 1 and 2 of chap 8) since the first collons is IP: TERPRETATION OF
~ WHOLE IOhtDE (which is FALSE); for given: r a value r: UMERIC
to this false interpretation of the whole world, from the calculations at the end of SECTIOI ': 2, chap 8 (which INCLUDE the SECOND ~ ME error - which consists ~ DO NOT VIEW
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) force M ') and ADD the FIRST error which consists in give a DUAL USE to the force C directed downwards from the thigh. Calculations at the end of SECTIOr: 3 du 05 chapter $ gave. ".: = 15 lbs, P '= 5 lbs and F = 20 lbs, and these calculations assumed that the force C = 20 lbs is directed along leg bone and serve ~ 4 make ankle ONE POINT
SUPPORT (COMPRESSION d2 the ankle being the force F = 20 lbs).
ADD THE FIRST error which consists in supposing that the 10 force C = 20 lbs ALSO is used (the DOUBLE usas,; e) to PRESS THE
PEDAL. So according to this (wrong) IhrTERPRETATIOhT d ~ .x WORLD
ENTIRE, the TOTAL pressure on the pedal is co ~ posed of the force P '= 5 lbs from the calf PLUS that from the thigh (so 20 lbs), for a total of 25.1 lbs (2nd cell).
25 THE WHOLE MOHIDE (first collone) ENORMALLY UNDERVALUES;
damage caused by the use of pedals:
-with the pedal, the ACTUAL compression (cellcne 2) of the ankle is $ 0 pounds compared to 20 lbs (ccllene 2): it's FOUR TIMES MORE '. The invention (collcne 2) brings back this ccm-20 pressure to 20 li ~~ res (thanks to the elimination of the use of calf); so, this ir.vanticn allows to DIVIDE BY FOUR
compression on the ankle, which is great for the elderly.
-THE WORLD E: ~: THIRD heals that the contraction of the CALF is 25 only: ~ t ~: 5 lbs (collcne 1); Well, this compression is da CO lbs, or FOUR TIMES MORE! Fortunately, the invention reduced the contraction of the calf to ZERO, which represents a ~ FABULOUS energy canomy, and this WITHOUT LOSS OF PRESSIO ~:
FOR PROPULSIOhT because the calf CANNOT contribute to the 30 pressure on the pedal, comr; e we have amply demonstrated!
SHEET SUBSTITUTES (RULE z6) ss SECTIOPI 7: THE LAW UI ~ TIVERSELLE DES PÉDALIERS '.
The previously announced pedaling law concerned CALF. The universal law of CRANKSETS that we are going 05 now explain is much more general and allow to understand another SERIOUS ERROR that is going on in cycling, and which completely scrambles the cards, namely that the CRANKSET is often associated (late; with a MOTOR then that it is simply a TRAP: SMISSIO ~: ':; t we will vair that this has serious consequences. tette UNIVERSAL LAW
CRANKSET is associated with a SECOND illusion of p..iqu ~
Currently, there are TWO counting illusions that hold the cycling in slavery; you know the first one, which concerns DO THE CALF. The SECOND is the optical illusion of the CRANKSET
25 which relates to cycling IN GENERAL, and AMPLIFIES the effect devastating optical illusion DU MOLLET, because these two illusions are DEPENDENT on each other and AMPLIFY
MUTUELLEMEriT in an inflationary spiral, which blocks complete-the TRUE comprehensicn of this means REALLY the word PEDALING: Indeed, we will see that, considering the leg WITH the crankset, the PRûMILRE illusion makes fuss too.
believe that the moil ~ t, by contracting, INCREASES the pressure on the pedal and the SECOND illusion is falsely believed that the POWER of the bicycle is INCREASED because the new CRANKSET had an AL1 ~ UNDERDEED crank. this second illusion consists in NOT visualizing q ~ ae ,, if we alfange the crank, the D ~ PLACEMENT of the axis of the pedal is SHORTER, which CANCEL the effect of its lengthening. the POWER of BICYCLE REMAINS THE SAME 'That's what we're going to do now 3fl d show. BE AWARE OF STRONG SURPz: ISES ...
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUDE 26) WO 00! 27690 PCT / CA99 / 01020 wire If we can afford the following analogy, we will say that the universal law of PEDALING is equivalent to theo-rie de la relati °, rité RESTREINTE, and the universal law of 05 CRANKSETS is the equivalent of the theory of relativity G ~ N ~ RALE! Indeed, these 2 laws of cycling will have a POWERFUL impact, as the theory of relativity has had in physics!
INCREDIBLE BUT TRUE: Patent Examiners (scientific back-figs yet very competent) granting patents for STUPID inventions that do NOT improve ANYTHING AT ALL {except IN APPA-RENCE, visually speaking), as we will demonstrate with a characteristic example! The inventor has in his posses-lion of dozens of patents granted 25 cycling and ALL were awarded because the examiners patents HAVE BEEN MISTAKEN (therefore. against their will) by the VERY BIG POWER of this SECOND ME illusion of optics that occurs when you LOOK, a pedal, illusion which makes us falsely believe that the bottom bracket is UP: MOTOR, he can provide anergy BY HIM - EVEN!
Here we will give Uri S ~ UL example. an invention that has has been patented in SEVERAL countries (8 countries;), which means that EIGHT patent examiners were ALL misled, INDEPENDENTLY from each other ' We will see that the two illusions (that of MOLLET and that of the CRANKSET) have a CONTRARY EFFECT ~ .. Indeed, the illusion DU MOLLET makes believe that THE MECHANISM of NOT. °, E invention is UNNECESSARY when you LOOK AT it, and the illusion of P ~ DALIER comes true believe that the invention patented in 8 countries is very USEFUL because it offers a crank handle: LONG.
SUBSTTTUTE SHEET (RIJLE 26) In reality, it is THE CONTRARY that is true. the r: echanism of our invention is VERY useful (although it SEEMS useless tTISU-ELLEMENT), and the crankset at r; aniv211a extended-fig 35-is TOTA-05 LEMEPiT useless although it SEEMS useful: 'ISUALLY! The: ~ cnde upside down in a way ...
Fig 35 is taken from JENTSCHMAhTN DE, A, 3,242,142 (2983). The examiners who granted this patent were misled by the PEDALS optical illusion which made believe that the crankset is THE DRIVER, that it can provide extra energy BY HIMSELF, just by lengthening the crank! The truth is that THE CRANKSET is a part of TRANSMISSIC: T; the pedal ~~ e can only fill ONE
ONLY role is to TRANSMIT the energy received DU
ENGINE, which is HUMAN. The pedal is: oimplement UN INTERME-DIAIRE which TRANSFERS REDUCED energy from the human engine n 1a wheel back. Whether the crankset is round, square: oval, displacement vertical, elongated crank ... whatever you want, it can TRANSMIT to the wheel ONLY 1 hTT 1 ~ energy received it RECEIVES
of the engine! "IT'S ~ EMPTY; T" you would say; AND GOOD: '; 0: d' Ce N'' EST
NOT empty, and here is the proof, which will surprise you at highest point! Fig 35. the pedal is attached to one end of a rigid piece in d2 L shape (the giece H); the other hout of this L-shaped piece slides into a slit along the vertical tube bike frame cal. The result is that the axis of the pedal follows a trajectory (T1) having the shape of a 0 (a bit like an egg or a sort of ellipse), while with a pedal usual circuïaire (therefore in mani ~, relle of: Fixed length), the trajectory is a CIRCLE (T2). L2 hut: 'I; iUEL evident d2 this me-canism is to EXTEND the length EFFECT7: vE of the crank SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUILE 26) ss during the most efficient phase of the pedaling cycle (when the foot descend by 'before) and RACt: OURCIR the crank when the foot goes up from the back. The "reasoning" followed 05 by this inventor is simple: if the mani ~, real is actually LONGER when the foot goes down from the front, then the EFFECT
OF LEVER is INCREASED, which should P, INCREASE POWER
compared to the circular crankset ("leverage" is the LENGTH of the crank MULTIPLIED by the perpendicular FORCE
at this crank). IT IS CORRECT to say that leverage is increased, but it is FALSE to say that POWER INCREASES
because our EYES publish to SEE something else: we do not perceive not VISUALLY that, if you EXTEND the crank, then the MOVEMENT of the pedal axis is SHORTER, which cancels the effect of lengthening the crank: the WORK provided DOES NOT
VARY NOT and, therefore, the POWER does not vary (the WORK being the product of a FORCE by a MOVEMENT in the direction of this force), taking an identical basis of comparison, that is to say that the work provided by LEG does not vary.
Again, the bottom bracket is the TRA: ~ JSMISSIOPi. If the ENGINE
(the leg) PROVIDED ~ to the transmission (the; crankset) some amount of WORK (of energy} in a certain interval of time (therefore a certain POWER), THE ONLY THING that the TRANSMISSION (the p edaZier) can do is TRANSMIT
this power to the rear wheel. the bottom bracket is not a SOURCE of energy: only THE MOTOR (the jam3 ~ e) FOURPdI of energy.
EXTENDING THE CRANK WILL NOT VARY THE POWER
provided BY the leg because a TRANSM: CSSICN cannot ADD grazing. If you want AUGMENTEP, the power of your automobia, you will need to INCREASE its power SUBSTITUTE SHEET (ROULE 26) OF THE ENGINE: MODIFY the TD, âNSMISSION does not mean anything.
In the PARTICULAR case of a HUMAN engine:
a) it may be possible to INCREASE: ° UISSANCE if the 05 MODIFICATIOPt made the TRANSMISSION; (the crankset) allow the use of new muscle; if they were NOT
used BEFORE the MODIFICATION of the itransmissicn. I1 is 2vident çue neither the mechanism of fig 3 ~ nor C21ü1. da la fig 35 do not allow the use of P;
20 compared to the usual circular crankset ~: l. these mechanisms do therefore do not allow an INCREASE in power.
b) on the other hand, it is possible to increase: er YIELD
HUMAN ENGINE ENERGY s ~ ON DEC: OPENS a muscle given (the calf) does not provide AUCUPJ WORK (it does not increase 15 no pressure on the pedal) and, sleeps, he spends the energy UNNECESSARILY in contr actartt: it suffices to ELIMINATE
The use of this useless muscle (what the mechanism of fig 3 ~, and what DOs not that da; fig 35 because the heel remains in a vacuum), this mistletoe INCREASES THE ENERGY YIELD
20 tick of the hamain motor. It is ~ quiya, slow to decrease the fuel consumption of engine (eliminating a leak for example) which develops a given power: the power remains the same, but THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY is increasing.
We will now explain all of this VISUALLY, by 25 explaining THE OPTICAL ILLUSION OF THE PED.ALIER.
ALL the propulsion energy does not come ~, zt come from the engine, and the crankset only TRANSMITS the energy it RE ~ OIfi of this motor, therefore of the leg. However, we have ample evidence that THE CALF IS IPiUTILE. therefore, the TOTALITY of pro-30 drive can only come from the thigh. Fig 35 schematizes SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RLILE 26) a leg pressing on a circular crankset having a crank of length M1. the body (6) (the only engine, the calf being useless) pushes downwards describing the angle 05 ~, passing from position to position. solid line. at position in hatched line. THE ONLY thing that changes = I in fig 37 is THE LENGTH of the crank passing to M2. The pushing force down THIGH (6) is assumed: e THE SAME in both Figures 36 and 37, and the angle C'3 is LE ~ IÉME also; so the 20 WORK (or energy) PROVIDED BY THE THIGH (THE ONLY motor, the calf being useless) is EVENLY THE SAME in both figures. Dorc, each of the two pedals RECEIVES exactly THE
SAME amount of WORK (or energy): each of these two pedals is a TRANSMISSION, and r ~ e so that TRANSMIT to the 15 rear wheel the energy it receives from the thigh, which is the SAME in both cases, by hypothesis.
Do you notice anything special? What makes ADVANCE the bicycle? The MOVEMENT of the pedal axis: if p ~: daie does not move, the bicycle does not advance!
20 i, 'ISUALIZE YOU that the D ~ PLACEMEw; T of the axis of the pedal IS
MORE GRAPID in Caû d2 fig 35 (arc C1) than in the case in fig 37 (arc C2) for THE SAME WORK provided by the motor (thigh only)? EXTENDING the crank DECREASES the MOVEMENT: ~: T of the pedal! (THE ALLOr: GEMENT of the 25 crank in fig 37 was enormously exaggerated so that gold.
can VIEW the difference in length between the arc of circle C2 and C2). IT IS EBACT to say that THE EFFECT OF
LEVER (the force on the pedal multiplies by the length of the crank) is BIGGER in the case of fig 37, but this 30 effect IS AF: NULL by SHORTER displacement of the axis of the SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) pedal so that the work provided to the rear wheel by the two pedals is EXACT: ~; T THE SAME. And it needs necessarily so because the two pedals (which are 05 two TRANSMISSIONS) rec ~ oiver.t EXACTEMErJT the same quantity energy (of work) of the THIGH (which is the only engine, the calf being useless) by hypothesis (a: ngie B and thrust down the thigh being the same in the two figures).
SO, IT DOESN'T MATTER THE LOP7GUEUR OF THE CRANK, the work FOURr;
to the rear wheel DO NOT VARY, and this work PROVIDED ~ the wheel rear is ALWAYS GAL at work that the crankset RECEIVES FROM
ENGINE (thigh only) (ignoring friction losses:
here, we discuss THEORY, of course). IT'S LOGICAL AND
ESSENTIAL ...
The inventor of the mechanism in fig 35 and the examiners of patents which granted this patent committed the error of PROUD TO THEIR EYES ONLY 'When you LOOK ~ donkey, leg press a crank that is ELONGATED, our mind tends to perceive ONLY what is very apparent VISUELLEMEriT, i.e. only the: LONG crank, therefore THE BIGGER LEVERAGE EFFECT. Our eyes perceive the STATIC (which does not move) and not ie DYNAMIC (which MOVE, ie MOVE the pedal): our eyes do not VISUALI-DO NOT FEEL THE MOVEMENT ~ tTHE SHORTER of the a; ~ that of the psdale when the crank is ELONGATED '. THIS IS THE optical illusion of crankset. To take a funny analogy, let's say that our eyes see an apple falling from a tree: c: n concludes that it is the apple which goes towards the earth, but. we do NOT visualize that the earth ALSO moves TOWARD the apple because this displacement 3i3 is infinitesimal (in addition, the observer moves WITH the SHEET SUBSTITUTES (RUl '.. E 26) ? 3 earth, which ~ mp ~ che to perceive when moving). For VISUALIZE the SHORTER movement of the pedal axis when the crank is ELONGATED, the observer should 05 shows DEUM hicycïettes SIMULTANÉMEhTT, the first with a normal length crank, and another with a crank LENGTHENED, and it would be necessary to observe it: ur be EXTREME ...
observer !
Fig 3 ~. the mechanism supporting the rear of the platform (21) is not illustrated (this will be discussed later in detail);
having replaced the pedal with a platform allowing support the heel, the contracture of the calf is eliminated, which INCREASES the energy efficiency of the engine WITHOUT LOSS OF
PRESSIOri since the calf DOES NOT CONTRIBUTE to this pressure:
one expends ME :: S of energy to obtain ONE M ~ ME pressure. Therefore the platform is USEFUL although this useless SEMELE mechanism VISUALLY. indeed, for the man on the street who thought that the calf CONTRIBUTES to the pressure on the gale, the impression first thing it has about this platform is that it PREVENTS
read LE MOLLET and this translates to a LOSS OF
PRESSURE! Er. more, the man in the street does not perceive (false) LEVERAGE EFFECT which is supposed to "increase the power", as in the case of fig 35! So the platform of our invention seems TOTALEMEPJT UNUSABLE and m ~ soul P; UISIELE {sic) for the man in the street (and even the expert) who IGNORES the content of the document you are currently reading.
In the case of fig 35 (elongated crank), the man of the rue VISUELLEMEr; T that this invention is VERY useful then that it is TOTALLY useless. MODIFJLCATIOr; the bottom bracket, q ~ if consists in EXTENDING the: crank, does not ABSOLUTELY modify SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RtULE 26) i, 7 =
the energy efficiency of a human engine because, BEFORE as AFTER the modification, the calf AND thigh continue to 'FORCE' OF THE SAME FACOhT: the calf continues to contract 05 UNNECESSARILY. So this MODIFICATION to the pedal does not bring NO improvement: it is completely UNNECESSARY although it SEEMS VERY useful VISUALLY because of the ILLUSIOP: OPTICAL
CRANKSET. COaCLUSTO: ~:
Fig 3 ~: for those who IGNOREP: T the contents of the current document, 20 this platform which supports the useless SEMELE heel (and even harmful) VISUALLY "cause of ILLUSION
OPTICAL CALF. The truth is that it is EXTREME-USEFUL MENT!
Fig 35: for those who IGNORE the content of the current document, 15 this mechanism SEEMS very useful Vï: SUELLEMEP; T because of THE ILLUSION OF PEDAL OPTICS. The truth is that "genial" mechanism is TOTALEMEhTf UNNECESSARY t A MODIFICATION of a bottom bracket, regardless of the nature of this modification, must, to bring a REAL improvement, 20 MODIFYING THE USE OF the muscles of the human ENGINE; it can be do it in two ways:
1-by allowing the USE of muscles which were NOT used before (BEFORE modifying the crankset): in this case, it would add ADDITIOP: NIELLE energy, or increase 25 ticn of POWER.
2-by ELIMINATING the use of muscles which are LITTLE useful ( low energy) or downright useless (like LE MOL-LET): in this case, there is an increase in RENDEMEP; T ENERGITI-THAT, not ~ a POWER.
30 IT'S LOGICAL AND INCCP: TURNABLE ...
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUILE 26) There is what hunger REALLY think about the experts' And to say that a lot of cycling experts get angry; T to try TO IMPROVE the "yield" of the calf, a yield which is 05 TOTALEMEPiT NONEXISANT, ~ ane pure illusion 'They are trying to AM ~ -LINK something that should be ELIMINATED: Is it dramatic or comical ? It's up to you ... And what about all the efforts deployed to try to create "THE pedal: r of the year 2,000", in falsely believing that the crankset is Utd MOTOR, that it can 20 PROVIDING POWER BY YOURSELF? That, C: 'IS tragic ...
r UNIVERSAL PEDALERS LAW.
"A crankset is not A MOTOR: our crankset is a part of TRANSMISSION, an INTERMEDIATE between the MOTOR (the thigh, which PROVIDES energy) and the rear wheel (which RE ~ CIT this 15 energy). the pedalboard cannot ADD energy BY
HIMSELF. As a result, the energy SUPPLIED BY the motor (the thigh alone) is always EQUAL to the energy RECEIVED BY the wheel back (forgetting about friction losses), and that LITTLE
IMPORTS THE DESIGN OF THE PEDAL TECHNIQUE (transmission) 20 which is only an intermediary which T: RAhTSFERE the energy DU
rear wheel motor.
So to make a REAL improvement, a MODIFICATION
must have a pedalboard MODIFY: CER DIRECTLY use MUSCLES OF THE ENGINE, either:
25 - by allowing the use of muscles which were: NOT or LITTLE
used BEFORE the modification of the gédal9er, which corresponds ~ an increase in available POWER, - by ELIMINATING the use of muscles whose energy yield is LOW cu hrUL (as in the case of the calf, which CANNOT
30 NOT contribute to the pressure on the pedal).
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUDE 26) It does not matter its VISUAL appearance, if ~ this pedal does NOT MODIFY
NOT directly USING the muscles of the motor, IT IS UNNECESSARY "
This UNTVERSAL PEDALERS LAW is extremely practical 05 because it allows, AT THE FIRST GLANCE, to say if a new crankset brings REAL improvement, without having â
do advanced technical analysis! If they had known this UNIVERSAL LAW OF THE CRANKSET, the examiners would have diatly rejected the invention of fig a5 because it would have been OBVIOUS that this invention does NOT MODIFY the use we make leg MUSCLES, COMPARES TO A CIRCULAR crankset conventional: the thigh and calf muscles continue to be used in the same way, there is no ADDITION of muscles that were not used before, or DISPOSAL
useless muscles (like the calf), no obvious improvement of the energy output of the DEJä muscles used '. This invention (fig 35) is useless.
HOWEVER, if we apply this same UNIVERSAL LAW OF
CRANKSET to the mechanism of our invention (fig 34) which makes 2D basically one thing: SUPPORT THE 'HEEL so as to avoid the use of the calf (the mechanism that supports the back of the platform (21) is not illustrated to; simplify the drawing), then IT IS OBVIOUS that the platform EIGIMINATES THE USE of a UNNECESSARY muscle, the calf, which INCREASES the YIELD
motor energy: therefore, our inveni: ion is VERY USEFUL
This LAW is UNIVERSAL; for the demoni: rer, we used the SPECIAL CASE of a crank lengthening; but this LAW applies to all types of crankset: displacement vertical, elliptical, square, triangular ... whatever you will.
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RIJLE 26) WO 00/2 ~ b90 PCT / CA99 / 01020 This LAW applies to ALL organs: OF TRANSMISSION, the crankset being ONLY A PART of it.
The definition of the PEDAL OPTICAL ILLUSION that we 05 have just given, that is to say "... DO NOT VISUALIZE that ELONGATION of the crank produces a SHORTER movement the axis of the pedal ... "was actually l7N SPECIAL CASE of THE ILLUSION OF PEDAL OPTICS. We could GENERALIZE
this definition â ALL types of cranksets (elliptical, vertical, etc.) saying that it is "... being cheated VISUALLY by the APPEARANCE of the pedal which brings us to think that the bottom bracket can be a 50URCE OF ENERGY ... "
CONCLUSION (special case of a CRANK EXTENSION):
When LOOKING at one leg press on a crankset with a handle velle ELONGATED by any mechanism, TWO illusions optics deceive us. the illusion of NfOLLET which makes us believe that the contraction of the calf INCREASES the pressure on ia pedal, and DU PöDALIER's illusion which makes us believe that the ELONGATE crank increases the POWER of the bicycle, while this being TOTALLY FALSE. In addition these two illusions are DEPENDENT on each other and AMPLIFY each other by inflationary spiral! . indeed, the ELONGATION of the velle falsely makes us believe that the "contribution of calf "pressure on the pedal is EVEN MORE effective Because of this EXTENSION of the crank handle ~ ALL THIS
IS TOTALLY FALSE!
Because of these TWO optical illusions, current cycling is held in slavery and FALSE ROAD ' And to say that cycling experts are convinced that cycling current is ALMOST PERFECT! WHAT A TRAGEIDY!
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) SECTION 8. how the optical illusion of the calf is transformed in MUSCULAR illusion (and other subjects).
Why is the optical illusion of the calf so POWERFUL?
05 Before the pedals, it was the balance bike: 2 wheels and a beam horizontal kiss on which we sat, and the machine was powered by walking or running, like a scooter, placing the feet alternately on the ground; Then someone had the idea to use PEDALS. So: the introduction of peda-was considered a MAJOR innovation, and it was true, but IN RELATION TO THE DRAISIENNE ONLY: if they had known our invention AT THIS TIME, the :? pedals would have been considered STUPIDITY (what they are '.). People were EUPHORIC; they were so happy to have of pedals, the change from 7.a balance bike was so RADICAL they never thought that these extraordinary NEVER
pedals couldn't be replaced with something better in the future ! So, FROM THE START, over 100 years ago, ii was accepted by all that the pedals were PERFECT for be used by the human leg; and it's so true that NO ONE, in the following 150 years, had the idea of trying to replace the pedals with something else ... To this euphoria initial, add the optical illusion of the calf itself ..
die that ALREADY EXISTED when the first pedals were used to create the bicycle; indeed, the first pedals were invented THOUSANDS OF YEARS ago: therefore, the illusion optics have been around for THOUSANDS OF YEARS, which explains its great power.
Watch someone walk on the street: he puts down the heels PAR
EARTH at every step, because it's the normal way to walk.
SHEET SUBSTITUTES (RULE 26) We would immediately notice someone walking continuously-easily on the tips of your feet, never putting your heels on earth, and we would not miss the opportunity to point it out 05 that his way of walking is NOT normal! Same thing for climb a staircase: it is NORMAL to put your heels ON
steps and NOT normal to ask only. the tip of the foot on the walk, heel in the air. So WHY people find-they tact to NORMAL to PEDAL the ta.ions IN THE VACUUM?
DO YOU KNOW THE ANSWER...
This IMAGE of someone pedaling in a so-called way "normal" (the tip of the foot on the pedal) has been engraved, incrus-in our mind IN OUR TENDER: CHILDHOOD, because we we all saw cyclists pedaling when we were kids.
When a young child sees something for the first time, it remains deeply etched in his mind for life.
The optical illusion of the calf is an i: Llusi.on that has trans-intact from generation to generation: TIME has a lot contributed to the power of this illusion.
As if all this was not enough to explain the power of this illusion, we must ADD another factor important, a MUSCULAR illusion (cetts ~ expression is my invention), which we will define as follows:
"it is to have the PHYSICAL impression (mmscuiaire) that a given muscle plays a certain role when, in reality, it fulfills ANOTHER ROLE "
In other words, reality contradicts what we feel PHYSICAL-LY when using this muscle. A muscle illusion is not not "thinking": we don't think, we don't think intellectually Really: it is a PHYSICAL, PURE muscular impression.
SUBSTTTUTE SHEET (RULE 26}

It is the MUSCLE HIM-ME who seems to convince us that fulfills a certain definite role when, in reality, it performs another function.
05 When you WATCH another person to pedal, the calf produced an illusion of OPTICS on those who LOOK; for who PEDAL, which "calf strength"
this optical illusion of calf turns into MUSCLE illusion:
-Who's LOOKING: the OPTICAL illusion gives the impression that THE CYCLIST'S CALF IT LOOKS produces pressing the pedal.
-that PEDAL: FORCING THE i! ~ OLLET seems to him indi-quer PHYSICALLY that the calf produces a PRESSURE on the pedal.
15 In both cases, it is EXACTLY THE SAME ILLUSION, but PERCEIVED
in a different way, depending on whether you WATCH or PEDAL!
How important is all of this? This is a MAJOR point per-putting to explain why this illusion of the calf is so powerful. Indeed, we ALL rode on a bicycle and 20 in our youth and we were all strongly influenced by this optical illusion of the calf that turned into MUSCULAR illusion as soon as we tried to CLIMB
our first steep hill, without reaching it and completely breathless: CLIMBING, you were ABSOLUTELY CONVINCED that your 25 calves were used to INCREASE pressure on the pedals since this is the message that your calves i ~ UX-MEMES you SOLD OUT and STRENGTHENING the illusion of OPTI-THAT on the calf you ALREADY had in mind (subconscious) for a long time, since the first time you SEEN anyone 30 than pedaling (so very early in childhood; e) ~
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUILE 26) The MUSCLE illusion of the calf is much more powerful than the OPTICAL illusion of the calf; if, for example, you break a leg (which is very painful: red), you 05 will remember very long, surely much longer that if you saw someone else break a leg:
when you suffer PHYSICALLY (like dan; ~ the case of a big calf effort), the effect on our mind is much more powerful than a simple VISUELhE perception.
We have ALL been VERY STRONGLY influenced: born from our tender childhood by BOTH aspects of THE SAME calf illusion (the OPTICAL aspect and the MUSCULAR aspect), these two aspects AMPLIFYING both in an inflationary spiral.
And here is what explains THE NORMAL POWER of this illusion, and therefore why BILLION people since 150 years have NOT discovered the existence of this illusion After all the seriousness of the previous pages, we have need to relax a bit; which is "funny" but it is ALSO "serious". Mister X wears a one leg prosthesis from the knee; suppose he voluntarily decides to amputate the OTHER leg at knee level and wear a second prosthesis: there would be good news and a bad new. The Bad News: The Would Be He Would difficulty standing upright, having no more calves; the good news would be that it would spend TWICE TIMES less energy to pedal because, as the UNIVERSAL LAW OF P1EDALA says-GE, all the pressure on the pedal comes only from the thigh, the calf not contributing to it. The cycling world for two possible choices faced with this waste of energy: rgie that the UNI LAW -VERSELLE DU PEDALAGE denounces:
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUILE 26) 1-that all cyclists have their voluntarily amputated two legs at knee level and have prostheses, while continuing to use PEDALS, 2-keep our legs intact and simply REPLACE them pedals by our invention (which provides heel support).
The first solution is therefore to get rid of the problem by having the calves removed: this ~ is equivalent to ACCELERATING the Darwin's theory of evolution! If this theory is true, it would be enough to wait a few millian; s years of fagon a what the leg "evolves" by gradually getting rid of the calf in successive stages, so that the leg "gradually adapts to its environment ~ nt" which is the bicy-CLICK ON PEDALS! Isn't it preferable to do THE REVERSE
of that, that is to say to make sure that man ADAPTS SA
OWN CREATION (the pedal bicycle) to YOUR environment which is the CURRENT leg (with calf!), simply by REPLACING-THAT these pedals by our invention (the platforms supporting the heels)? HOMOPLATEFORMUS is therefore the man WITH MOLLETS;
according to DARWIN, it will become, in x million years, a HOMOPEDALUS (a man WITHOUT motets): IT WILL HAVE EVOLVED ...
This is out of context, but ~ a will allow us to change manage ideas in preparation for what follows. Related with this theory of evolution, one can ask questions Weird things like, for example:
- are LIVING organisms influenced in their evolution ONLY by the NATURAL creation which surrounds it or are-they also influenced by the creation of HUMAN HIMSELF?
For example, can an organization adapt to POLLUTION
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (UK: LE 26) created BY MAN? If the bicycle remains unchanged (WITH
pedals) for millions of years. will it have a influence on the evolution of the leg î 'If yes, then there is 05 strong to bet that the "evolution" of the calf will be in the direction a strengthening of the calves (they will become HUGE) rather than in the sense of ELIMINATION of the calves, which will be very little appreciated by these ladies!
-If humanity runs out of fresh water, will it have to wait-dre that our organism "evolves" so that last end up being able to drink SALTY water (POUAH!)?
Or will salsa water "evolve" and eventually become drinking water? (hope it doesn't take too much time!).
It is false to claim that only the LIVING matter evolves;
indeed, the TNERTE material is constantly evolving at the heart of stars by nuclear reactions (the hydrogenic is transformed helium, etc.). There is one thing, however, that does NOT EVOLVE
NOT AT ALL: THE SPIRIT OF MAN (because these last only killing each other: the self-destructing man). We are forced to conclude that, as the human spirit does not evolve, it is NOT material!
ONLY a CREATING GOD can EVOLVE (in a good way) the spirit of man: it is however necessary to ASK!
Let’s leave this discussion which might lead us too far from our invention (but THERE is indeed a connection between the two, and that's why I touched on the subject).
There are NEGATIVE people who do EVERYTHING to discredit the effort inventive. Someone said to me: "... you are wasting your time with your invention; a company has just launched a PEDAL bicycle equipped with a small electric motor SHEET SUBSTITUTES (R1ULE 26) and a battery: when you pedal and do not use not the engine, it turns: into a dynamo to recharge manage the battery. A PART OF THE ENERGY: spent on pedaling 05 is used to recharge the battery. "My answer was.
"If this bicycle uses PEDALS, then EACH Kwatt /
hour of energy stored in the battery requires an expense TWO times higher human energy to PRODUCE this Kwatt /
hour: TWO Kwatt / hour of HUMAN energy is required to pro-duire ONLY Kwatt / hour of stored electrical energy, simple-because PEDALS are used, which forces the Calves to be forced (unnecessarily): IT'S WASTE! And there the same goes for the REST of the pedaling energy used to ADVANCE the bicycle: it is twice as high as it is necessary: STILL WASTE ". The ideal would be to use both concepts at the same time: using the our invention, AND use this engine with its battery:
this baleen, the amount of human energy required to recharge manage the battery would be DIVIDED BY TWO, and the ENERGY EFFICIENCY-TICK of the PEDALING ITSELF would be MULTIPLIED BY TWO also.
Our invention is a BASIC invention which does not prevent COMPLEMENTARY inventions! A go, why not replace pacing this electric motor with a huge gasoline engine?
OR we want to do physical EXERCISE, OR we want to do motorcycle! When a person buys a bicycle, it is that she wants to exercise in silence and a person buys a motorcycle for different reasons: it do not mix concepts to try to discredit an invention! One thing is CERTAIN: as long as the HUMAN powered vehicles are involved, it is STUPID
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) to spend TWICE more human energy than necessary when it could be AVOIDED using the our invention!
05 Another NEGATIVE person put forward the A: WEIGHT REGUMENT.
"..if you replace the pedals with these; platforms and the r _ mechanism which actuates them, it will BE HEAVIER ... ".
Suppose (exaggerating) that the bicycle goes from 20 pounds to 25 pounds if we replace the pedals with our invention: that's 10 an increase in the weight of LA BICYCLET'.PE by 25%; and this is INSIGNIFICANT compared to an increase <energy efficiency 200%; in addition, this 25% HID something! Indeed, the bicy-does clette roll ONLY, WITHOUT THE CYCLI:> TE? No, of course:
take into account the weight of the Erf PLUS cyclist and that of the 15 bicycle; the human energy you spend advance the bicycle AND YOU ALSO! Suppose 9 ~ ue you weigh 150 B-and the bicycle weighed 25 pounds, the TOTAL weight is 175 pounds; so the invention (5 pounds more, overdone-rant) adds ONLY 5/175 or 2.8% only and NOT 25%
20 as calculated above. 2.8% increase in weight is a price INFINITESIMAL â
pay for a "bargain" of 200% increase the energy yield obtained by eliminating the use calf! The reasoning is similar IN SIDE: you go up the coast WITH your bicycle (if you decide to stay at the bottom 25 from the coast and say to your bicycle: "Ride by yourself", I
believe that your mental health is poor)!
Cyclists (except maybe young people) spend 95% of the time ON FLAT GROUND: they flee from the ribs. Now, on flat ground, we don't have to fight against GRAVITATION "but only against 30 MASS INERTIA, according to the NEWTON formula F = ma ou m est SUBSTITUTE SHEET (UK: LE 26) Wt3 00/27690 PCT / CA99 / 01020 the mass and a is the aceration. On flat ground, an increase weight is still LESS significant than in a side; on the dish, weight is a measure of MASS. According to 05 F = m. a, the higher the mass, the lower the acceleration for a given force F. So on flat ground, the increase weight only affects your ACCELERATION level. you take a little more TIME to reach a given speed;
it is the only disadvantage; if the increase in weight is 2.8%, then the additional time required to reach a given speed does NOT notice AT ALL! The only sport or WEIGHT of the bicycle is important, these are in the races OF ACCELERATION of short duration in circuii ~ closed as in Japan!
Contrary to popular belief, THE PO ~ .DS of bikes is WITHOUT
importance for LONG races, such as the TOUR DE
FRANCE ! Indeed, over long distances, the losses of ACCE-LERATION are ELIMINATED thanks to the fact that: ENERGY IS PRESERVED:
the HEAVIER a bike, the more its kinetic energy 1 / 2m.v HIGH because m is larger, so the bicycle can travel a greater distance than a light bicycle before stopping when the two cyclists we compare stop pedaling: when at the AVERAGE SPEED which determines the outcome of the race, the heavy bicycle is NOT AT ALL
disadvantaged if it is a long distance race; and it's same for the hills: the cyclist of the heavier bike spends more energy than the light bicycle cyclist, BUT, once ON TOP of the coast, THE POTENTIAL ENERGY of the heavy bike is HIGHER; energy is RESERVED that the cyclist will use to compensate for its greatest dÉ: think of energy for climb the hill. ENERGY IS PRESERVED
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Therefore, this WEIGHT ARGUMENT is insignificant.
So WHY all the advertising around SUPER bikes light? For 2 reasons: because there is ~~ MONEY to be made and 05 because cycling experts have NOTHING ELSE TO DO!
The general opinion in the industry is that the bicycle current is ALMOST PERFECT, and there are NO LONGER possibilities lity of MAJOR IMPORTANCE prog> ~ es possible (the current docu-will amaze them AT THE HIGHEST POINT!), except in the details like improving aerodynamics, adding suspensions ... and REDUCING WEIGHT with new materials ~ The argument WEIGHT is especially interesting from a commercial point of view.
cial. The first reaction a lady had when she saw the proto type of my invention was: "does your invention LOSE
WEIGHT? "; People care more and more about them body weight as they are pushed there by. ia advertising (the super thin models, the slender man ...) and they make it easy-ment the association of ideas with the term LIGHT bicycle.
everything that is LIGHT interests people. This excessive love people for the L ~ GER allow manufacturers to demand EXTREMELY HIGH prices for their "super light" bikes: ONE
REAL GOLD MINE!
We did a THEORETICAL study together of the leg in the preceding pages by calculations of balance bre of translation and rotation; we have thus demonstrated theoretically the TWO errors contained in the interpretation WORLDWIDE, we've proven that Scenario # 1 is false, and that scenario 2 is true in two ways (one normal proof and absurd proof). A question comes naturally to mind:
SUBSTITUTE SHEET {RU: LE 26) WO fl0 / 2769fl PCT / CA99 / fl102fl $ 8 Such theoretical studies on the functioning of the leg have they not been done in the past by experts in cycling and bi-mechanics? Surely. So there is 05 ONLY ONE possible explanation: they have NOT discovered THE
TRUTH explained in the current document because, if they would have discovered this truth, THERE WOULDN'T BE A SINGLE BICYCLE
"A PEDALS" ON THE ROADS! And there are ONLY bicycles ä PEDALS on the road! So, it PROVIDES the extremely POWERFUL of the COMBINATION of THREE illusians, so be it.
1-the OPTICAL illusion of the calf, 2-the MUSCULAR illusion of the calf, 3-the optical illusion OF THE CRANKSETS, these three types of illusions influence each other in Infiationist spiral. that holds the current cycling EN
SLAVERY; CYCLING IS WRONG!
THE TRANSMISSION (pedal) of bikes ~ i current pedals NE
NOT SUITABLE for the particular type of ENGINE used (the lower limb): WITH A ROLLS-F MOTOR; OYCE IS NOT USED
NOT A WOLKSWAGEN TRANSMISSION!
This document is a source of fresh water and well laughed oxygenated pouring into an ocean polluted by pedals "automatic release", pedals that an for engines, the weight argument which is of importance minor, special techniques "jigging" for climb the ribs, etc ...
YES, the current document is the most important paper on cycling for the past 100 years, and questioning THE SAME FOUNDATIONS of this industry!
GOOD ROUTE to future users of this invention!
~ SHEET UBSTITUTE (RULE 26) WO 00 / 27b90 PCT / CA99 / 01020 As you can see, the explanation of our scientific discovery concerning LE MOLLET involves considerations of all kinds, such as the role played by 05 VISUAL perception, how our SPIRIT works tion, scientific calculations of forces, etc. II
there is also another PSYCHOLOGICAL factor involving HUMAN NATURE which allows us to respond to the question asked on previous page (88), namely: "Such theoretical studies on the functioning of the leg have they have not been done in the past by energy experts cycling and bio-mechanics? "Surely. But our fac-Their PSYCHOLOGICAL nature will allow us to understand why they did NOT discover the truth explained in the current document.
We're going to baptize this Vanity psychological factor Unconscious Intellectual, a disease we will call by VII.
This VII is UNCONSCIOUS because people DON'T KNOW that they are affected, which eliminates the possibility of healing:
it is therefore an INCURABLE disease! The more educated people are, the higher their level of VII; and if you tell these people educated that they have VII they will not believe you not ... because of the disease itself ... which prevents them from find out ... that they're sick. CIRCLE 'VICIEUX INFERNAL!
What does this have to do with inventions in general and ours in particular? IT IS DIRECT! This te VII BLOCK THE
TECHNICAL PROGRESS by erecting a wall of psychological cement (almost impossible to smash) between the inventor and those â
who this inventor is addressing: communication becomes DIFFICULT
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 2b) in the case of inventions in general its (almost) IMPOSSIBLE
in the case of inventions involving OPTICAL ILLUSIONS, as we will see.
05 Normally, a disease of the mind FIRST suffers the sick himself. The problem with this: VII is that IT IS NOT
NOT the one who suffers from the disease that suffers. Those are THE INVENTORS who suffer from this useless vanity!
What is the origin of this disease?
10 Can you calculate the value of X in the following equation in 2 seconds, without a computer, using only your human mind?

15 X = \ e + r ~ + ~ ~~ ~ r ~, Gt. A
~ = or ~. = c ~
I am personally incapable of that, obviously, as well as you. Why? Because our mind has POWER
20 LIMITED. Our LIMITED mind prevents us from discovering that we have ... a LIMITED spirit. !! The result is that people believe (UNCONSCIOUSLY) that the power of our mind is WITHOUT LIMITS, that is enough ds: to "develop" it somehow by using the cells of the 25 brain ...; it ends up producing VII, it all dripping slowly over the years into a CUMULATIVE process, in a subconscious way: people don't realize it at all! The more a person studies the longer in a given specialty, the more she persuades herself 30 HIMSELF (and UNconsciously) that she is more and more SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RLJLE 2G) PCTlCA99 / 01020 INFAILLIBLE in its specialty (because knowledge ACCU-MULENT), and that, if there was still something to discover in her field, she would manage to do it herself 05 this discovery one day ... This process of "self-conviction"
UNCONSCIOUS "increases in intensity over the years although the person does NOT at all give the impression of taking seriously ", showing absolutely no outward signs of vanity. This VII is like an ILLUSION OF OPTICS. in both cases it is impossible to find out about it BY OURSELVES, that before us to be RE; CALLED by an AGENT
OUTSIDE!
We are ALL affected by this VII to varying degrees (including myself!), WITHOUT REALIZING IT. The perverse result is as follows: if an independent inventor offers a expert to study an invention in his own specialty, this r expert will IMMEDIATELY take a look at the drawings because a picture is worth 10,000 words and that's the way THE FASTEST to satisfy your curiosity; if the drawings include an ILLUSION OF OPTICS, the expert being deceived without know, he's going to tend not to want to READ the explanations WRITTEN from the inventor for TWO puffs:
1-he is convinced that this invention is; t VALUABLE because obviously of the existence of the illusion. optics, AND
2-the perversity of the VII acts: its UNCONSCIOUS indicates to it "that he already knows everything" what it is possible to know in his specialty, and that it is certainly not a "small independent inventor" (who is NOT expert in sound domain) who could TEACH him that: something NEW!
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 2G) wo 00/2 ~ 6 ~ 0 THIS is the INconscious message conveyed by this VII, and this expert is not aware of ANYTHING AT ALL, showing NO
sign of some vanity, seeming CONSCIOUSLY persuaded 05 that it is OPEN ~ any NEW idea! What a paradox! The conscious and the UNCONSCIOUS COUNTERSELF, the conscious being open to novelty and the Unconscious BLOCKING the opening process to progress!
Therefore, the expert DOES NOT READ the WRITTEN explanations of the invention.
automatically rejects an invention that could to advance humanity; thus THE VICTIM (of VII) IS
THE INVENTOR and, by extension, the whole humaniyâ if the inventor is discouraged in the face of this APPARENT failure. This APPARENT failure can transform into a VICTORY if the inventor is ADVANCED
possible reactions of the expert with regard to optical illusions and this famous VI: I; if the inventor is warned, he KNOWS that this apparent failure is actually a victory because the rejection by the expert PROVE THE EXISTENCE of the optical illusion present in the drawings, this CREATING the FABULOUS POTENTIAL associated with this type of invention, inventions based on the discovery of an optical illusion being VERY
RARE! Which implies that the inventor ~ 3SHOULD BREAK IN JOY
by learning the REJECTION of his invention by the expert. situation rather bizarre which seems to defy logic, isn't it?
In the case of inventions (or discoveries) NOT involving optical illusions, rejections by expert legacies seem indicate the existence of a HIDDEN phenomenon, which seems to be our Unconscious Intellectual Vanity! It seems to have been the case with Einstein's RESTRICTED RELATIVITY THEORY:
indeed, ALL the physicists to whom Albert Einstein sent SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUDE 26) his document REJECTED theory (twenty physicists).
The expert's illness, VII, prevents him from understanding that this non-expert independent inventor in his field, although 05 also HIM with a spirit of VERY LIMITED power, possesses the advantage of a FRESH AND AVAILABLE spirit, while the spirit of the expert is DROWNED IN THE SUPERFTCIAL DETAILS; the inventor is rather an ADVENTURER in the expert's specialty and perceives THE FIELD OF STUDY IN ITS GENERALITY, which allows it to 3.0 detecting FAULTS IN STRUCTURES: much easier than the expert. Analogy: if a 100-story skyscraper leans and risk of falling due to slump <~ ment of the ground, a person-do IN the skyscraper busy studying the quality of cement (it is the expert) has little chance of perceiving the inclination of the 15 building, while an AUTHOR person seeing ALL of the skyscraper can perceive the danger of tilting (the person in the distance is the inventor): The inventor MOVES AWAY
of the field studied to see it in ITS TOTALITY, while the expert drowns in the details INSIDE the domain 2ü studied! Here is a practical application of this: in the case of our invention, to REALIZE that something FUNDAMENTA-LEMENT ERRONÉ exists in cycling, it is necessary to move away from cycling to VISUALIZE the situation in general, and it starts with the study of the leg function WITHOUT the 25 bicycle, observing how the gen :; WALK, RUN
and GO UP THE STAIRS. here is what: '' call AWAY
cycling! When cycling experts study cycling WITH bicycle first, which seems logical at first glance: which expert may well have 1 idea 30 "weird" to study cycling WITHOUT the bicycle?
SHEET SUBSTITUTES (RUDE 26) To find out that something is not working in the design of bicycles, you MUST STAY away from the bicycle and focus on THE MOTOR (which is the lower limb) and 05 study it for WHAT IT IS: A UNIVERSAL motor that ALSO serves â walk, run and climb stairs; gold, important fact, only PEDALING involves the use of a TRANSMISSION (pedaling link) and NOT walking, running and stairs; wave-thus covers this transmission has a design flaw (the pedal) which is not suitable for this kind of UNIVER engine-SEL {the lower limb) and that it is: LMPOSSIBLE to do this discovery of the uselessness of the calf if we study ONLY the teraction between the inner member AND 7.e bike (because of optical and muscular illusions) SArfS take into account other aspects of the universality of the engine {running, running and stairs).
It is possible that many cycling specialists, especially those suffering from terminal VII (!), decide NOT to study the lower limb in its universality for the following reasons:
2-the functioning of the lower limb; seems so BASIC and VISUALLY OBVIOUS that, if there were still something FUNDAMENTALLY important to discover, it would JUMP IN THE EYES!
2S 2-as we cannot MODIFY the lower member (jump by surgery!), what is the use of studying it?
So the experts study what they CAN modify, either the bicycle itself, EXCLUDING the lower limb, this which tend to make them believe that THE CRANKSET IS A DRIVER.
THE ILLUMINATION OF PEDAL OPTICS {page 77) has just been born!
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUDE 26) WO 00! 27690 PCT / CA99101020 To complete this SECTION 8, there is THE DESSERT, and it is LIVE: the cherry on the sundea!
Indeed, IN addition to MULTIPLICATION: BY TWO of the yield 05 energetic (at least) that the platform: rme of our invention produced thanks to the elimination of the use of the calf, this same platform ALSO allows to obtain a DOUBLE IISSANCE: a true miracle! We can therefore have an energetic return doubled AND doubled power '. HOW is such a wonder 10 possible? By actively using BOTH phases of the pedaling! Fig 38 symbolizes the DESCENDING phase for a usual circular step: the pedal (15) is PUSHED TOWARDS
DOWN passing from top dead center (HI) TO bottom dead center (LO};
it is this DESCENDING phase which has been our subject since the 25 beginning of the current document, and we have drawn the conclusion that the pedal had to be replaced by a platform supporting the heel so as to avoid the contraction of the calf, which allow to DOUBLE the energy yield. Fig 39 symbolizes 1st ASCENDING phase of the cycle, when the pedal (15) goes FROM point 20 dead from the bottom (LO) TO paint dead from the top (HI); this phase can is ONLY active if the toe is ATTACHED to the peda-the, obviously. See Fig. 40; this figure illustrates the leg a cyclist whose toe (art: icing of the toes on the pedal axle) is attached to the pedal by a strap-25 roie (24), which allows it to PULL THE pedal UP, this propelling force ADDED to the DOWN push of the other leg: BOTH legs are used for propulsion SIMULTANEOUSLY. During this ASCENDING phase (fig 40), the two main muscles used are:
30 1-the PREVIOUS JAMHIER schematized by the item (23), which is SUBSTITUTES SHEET {RUL.E 26) WO 00/27690 PCT / CA99 / Oi020 the flexor of the foot or, if you prefer, the muscle that serves TO RAISE the end of the foot; it is the ANTAGONTSTE musccle of the mol-let (4, fig 41): the calf (4) and the front leg (23) 05 fill opposite roles, the calf being used to push the tip of the foot DOWN and the anterior leg used for move it UP.
2-the PSOAS-ILIAQUE symbolized by the item (22) fig 40 is the one which is used to LIFT the thigh; it is the ANTAGONIST muscle of gluteal muscles (5, fig 41): the glutes (5) and the psoas-iliac (22) fill roles CONTRARY, the glutes used to push the thigh towards LE B, ~ S and the iliac psoas used to move the thigh UP 1TH.
The psoas-iliac (22) is a powerful muscle in two portions, 25 one born from the anterior side of the vertebral neck (pa-posterior king of the abdomen), the other of the anterior pelvis (iliac wing) with common tendon on the femur (the bone thigh); an INTERESTING result is as follows:
IF MAXIMUM psoas-iliac is used for PULL THE PEDAL UP (fig 40), this â
tendency to strengthen the abdominal muscles, therefore DECREASE THE WAIST!
However, there is a HUGE DIFFICULTY with the clas concept Bique of fig 40, that is to say with the use of a strap to attach the foot to the pedal and, to understand the problem we have to remember our conclusions regarding the DESCENDING phase (the USELESS role of the calf) and understanding that, for the ASCENDING phase, the anterior leg (23) is TOTALLY UNNECESSARY to INCREASE traction UP on the pedal, the TOTALITY of this UP TRACTION does not SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RIJLE 26) which can only come from ILIA PSOAS 1,22).
Fig 42 symbolizes a leg depressing a pedal during the DESCENDING phase, only the muscles :. used during this 05 first part of the cycle being symboli: ~ és (calf 4 and glutes 5); we also have A / B = 3 (as shown in f ig 17).
Fig 43 symbolizes a leg pulling up the pedal during the ASCENDING phase, thanks to the. strap (24), only the muscles used during this second part of the cycle being symbolized (the anterior leg 23 and the iliac psoas 22); we also have A / D = 3, A being the distance between the point of rotation of the pin (1) and the axis of the pedal, and D being the distance between the anchor (1) and the average attachment point tendon of the anterior leg (23) on the bone of the foot.
Fig 41 is simply a combination of Fig 42 and 43.
CECT IS IMPORTANT:
-in the case of fig 42, we have amply proved:
i) that the calf (4) was UNNECESSARY to INCREASE
the pressure on the pedal and, therefore, was spending energy unnecessarily; we have solved this problem of losing energy by replacing the pedal by a platform supporting the heel so as to eliminate the use of the calf ii) that the TOTAL pressure on the pedal does not comes only from the thigh (5) -in the case of fig 43, the situation is ABSOLUTELY
SIMILAR, but REVERSE:
i) the front leg (23) is UNNECESSARY to INCREASE
pull UP on the pedal and, therefore, EXPENDITURE OF INUTILEMEIVfT ENERGY.
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (R1JLE 26) wo ao / z ~ 69o $ 9 PCT / CA99 / Ol 020 ii) the TOTAL pull up on the pedal can only come from PSOAS-ILIAQUE (22).
We will not give this proof in the case of fig 43 05 since this' proof has ALREADY been made in the above-mentioned document tooth, but REVERSE (that of the calf, fic_ ~ 42); a little reflection will be enough to make you understand that figs 42 and 43 represent EXACTLY the same phenomenon, but INVERTED.
If we would do THE SAME INVERTED demonstration from the fig 43, we would bet on the ILLUSION OF OPTICAL HAM
PREVIOUS (23) instead of the MOLLET OPTICAL ILLUSION etc.
It is useless to repeat such a demonstration, and it would be too long.
Notice this: the ratio of the distances A / D = 3 in fig 43 is THE SAME as the ratio of the distances A / B = 3 in fig 42, which means that the front leg (23) spends UNNOTLY the HALF (approximately) of the total energy during the ASCEN phase-DANTE, just like the calf (4) of fig 42 spends UNNECESSARILY
HALF (approximately) of the total energy; during the DES- phase CENDANT. In the case of fig 42, the platform supporting the heel is THE SOLUTION to eliminate the energy peri ~ e of calf. We will see later A MIRACLE occur.
we will see that it is possible, thanks to a LIGHT MODIFI-CATION brought to our platform, TO ELIMINATE THE USE OF THE JAM-YESTERDAY, which doubles the energy efficiency that of the ASCENDING phase and, at the same time, TO DOUBLE THE
PUTSSANCE available because BOTH legs work IN M ~ ME
TIME. Before proceeding with this technical explanation, you must mention this: the MAXIMUM tension that the PREVIOUS LEG

() can bear is VERY WEAK, compare to CALF.
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) The calf can easily support THREE TIMES your weight (so HUNDREDS of pounds) while the anterior leg has MUCH DIFFICULTY to bear a tension of 30 or 40 05 pounds; to convince yourself, try to lift a weight of 40 pounds with the tip of the foot: VERY DII? FICILE. A conclusion EXTREMELY INTERESTING is as follows:
The PSOAS-ILIAQUE (22), the muscT_e which is used to raise the thigh is VERY POWERFUL. The fact that the 20 PREVIOUS LEG (23) can only support one LOW maximum tension (say 30 pounds) brings A LIMITATION to the MAXIMUM upward force that the PSOAS-ILIAQUE can, exercise 'Clearly, the USE
anterior leg (in the case of the strap, 15 fig 40) PREVENTS the psoas-iliac from being used at AT ITS FULL POWER, and THAT, IN addition to the loss unnecessary energy created by wear; age of the leg laughing himself!
UNDERSTAND THIS: in the case of f: ig 42, if the thrust 20 down the thigh (5) is 100: pounds, the calf MUST
withstand a tension of 300 pounds and the calf IS CAPABLE of bear such tension. In the case of fig 43, if the front leg (23) can withstand a MAXIMUM tension of 30 pounds, this LIMITS TO 10 POUNDS the ter. ~ Sion that the psoas-ili-25 aque (22) can exercise, which is INSIGNIFICANT: the psoas-iliac MAY exert tension of several hundred pounds if there was not this limitation IMPOSED BY
the use of the front leg (23). And this is EXACTLY what will modify our platform: ELIMINATE THE USE of 30 anterior leg, which will allow MAXIMUM use of the SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUL, E 26) WO 00127690 PCTlCA99 / 01020 psoas-iïiac. The modification to our platform, which we will explain soon, will therefore allow:
1- DOUBLE the ENERGY EFFICIENCY of the phase 05 ASCENDING, ELIMINATING THE USE OF the anterior leg (23), 2-this elimination of the use of the anterior leg (23) will allow the PSOAS-ILIAQUE (22) to be used at its POWER
MAXIMUM (which was NOT THE CASE with the belt of the f ig 40).
(NB: Fig 42: as A / B = 3, the contraction of the calf (4) MUST
be THREE TIMES the push towards the thigh arm (5):
as we have demonstrated, this is the push down from the thigh THAT DETERMINES the intensity of: Contact with the calf.
AND NOT THE REVERSE. In the case of fig 43, the situation is similar, but reversed: if the upward pull exerted by the iliac psoas (22) is 10 livrfa, the anterior leg MUST bear a tension of THREE TIMES:> this figure, that is 30 books; this is the intensity of the upward pull exerted by the iliac psoas (22) which determines the intensity of the tension supported by the front leg (23) F: T NOT THE REVERSE, with this difference only if the MAXIMUM that the anterior leg can support is 30 pounds, this LI: MiTE TO 10 POUNDS the upward pull which can be exerted by the psoas-ilia-than !).
THIS IS FABULOUS:
If we consider the TOTALITY of the cycle, i.e. the downward phase AND the ascending phase, we have:
a) downward phase: the ENERGY YIELD is DOUBLED thanks the elimination of the use of the calf; in addition, there is the SAFETY that platforms provide, because the feet can SHEET SUBSTITUTES (RLTLE 26) difficult to slide; in addition, there is the AESTHETIC aspect:
No more big calves for ladies!
b) upward phase: the ENERGY YIELD is DOUBLE thanks 05 a ELIMINATION OF THE USE of the anterior leg; the psoas-iliac can be used at FULL POWER, which allow to REDUCE THE WAIST SIZE '.
The use of TWO legs simultaneously allows to double the POWER AVAILABLE! There is therefore a multiplication by TWO
energy efficiency (energy saving) for BOTH
phases, top-down AND bottom-up, PLUS DOUBLE POWER!
WHO SAYS BETTER ? It remains to be explained WHAT MODIFICATION is necessary bring to the platform to ELIMINATE: THE USE OF the leg anterior (23). IT IS INCREDIBLY SIIKPLE!
See fig 44,45,46. It must first of all be specified that the STOP
of the platform (21) follows a PREDETERMINED trajectory in space, this trajectory being defined: ie BY the mechanism (s)}
(because there are SEVERAL possible mechanisms) which supports the back of the platform; there are also mechanisms ~ u the platform is supported and guided FROM BEFORE. In fig 44, no particular mechanism is illusi: re to simplify the drawing. The RIGHT foot is illustrated.
On the platform (21) of fig 44, 2 pieces have been added:
1-a small axle (26) is fixed horizontally on the side of the platform, this axle can be 'removed by the cyclist if he does not want to use the shoe: special required. This shoe, as shown in figure 9'.5, has a hole in the heel (27}, the opening of this hole being enlarged in funnel to facilitate the insertion of the axle (26) without to have ~ to look at (habit which is acquired with practice}.
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RL1LE 26) WO 00/27690 PCT / CA99 / Ot020 The drawing of the foot section (fig 46) makes it clear understand that the axis of rotation of the pin (1) must hearth on the same line of action as: The axle axis (26), 05 i.e. vertical to the surface of the platform (90 degree angle illustrated); it is obvious that, in this case, the effort of contraction requires the leg anterior (23) is (almost} TOTALLY ELIMINATED during ASCENDING phase, when the psoas-iliaique (22) PULL the piate-form UP! If one hundred axle (26) is used in combination naison with the special shoe (28.) having a hole (27) or the axle penetrates, then, in this case, WE DON'T BE-CARE of room 25.
2-This part (25) can be removed if the cyclist wishes to use only the axle (26) and the special shoe (28).
This part (25) is fixed on the side of the platform (21), and covers the intersection of the foot and the leg as as illustrated; it is well padded (for comfort) and allow to HOLD the TOTALITY of the foot IN CONTACT with the platform (21), which AVOID CONTRACTION of the anterior leg (23) during the ASCENDING phase when the psoas-iliac (22) PULL platform 1; 21) UP. AT
note that the part (25) covers only the LEFT side and the top of the foot (near the leg): the right side is OPEN, which allows easy insertion of the foot, without having to watch (with a little practice}, and the foot is ALWAYS
correctly positioned, AUTOMATICALLY!
On flat ground, the AVERAGE force exerted by the iliac psoas is LOW, for a LONG hike (you don't want to get exhausted) which allows to use these 2 mechanisms IN ANY COMFORT ~ !!!
SHEET SUBSTITUTES (RL ~ LE 26) DESCRIPTION OF THE MECHANISMS.
The series of mechanisms that we will now describe are very different from each other, but they accom 05 fold all the WORKING MMES, that is:.
- eliminate the use of MOLLET (4, fig 42) and or - eliminate the use of the PREVIOUS LEG. (23, fig 43), which allow MAXIMUM use of the PSOAS-ILIAQUE (22, fig 43).
I1 we must start by making a point: we will explain that our mechanisms will IGNORE something; In effect, we are going to IGNORE the HORIZONTAL component of the force on the pedal, and ONLY take into account the component VERTICAL. See figs 47 and 48. In both cases, the calf and the anterior leg are NOT illustrated, since the TOTAL pressure on pedal n <~ can only come from DE
THIGH. Fig 47 illustrates the first part (angle w 1) of the descending phase, when ia pedal: goes from neutral to top In the horizontal crank position. Strength resulting F1 on the pedal comes from .. forces f1 and f2: the HORIZONTAL force f1 comes from the contraction of the quadriceps (QA), and the VERTICAL force f2 comes from the contraction of the buttocks (5). Ideally, IF the cyclist uses his muscles Perfectly, - the VERTICAL f2 component should be ZERO at top dead center, and gradually increase until reaching a MAXIMUM value when the crank is ~ horizontal, - the HORIZONTAL component f1 should be MAXIMUM
at top dead center and gradually decrease SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) up to ZERO when the crank is in the horizontal position.
Similarly, in the second portion of the descending phase 05 (angle U. ~ 2, fig 48), the buttocks (5) play the same role that in the first portion, either create the force VER-TICALE f2. On the other hand, the pedal is pushed BACKWARD (f3) by the contraction of the hock (JA) which is composed of 4 muscles, either the semi-membranous, the semi-tendinous, the crural biceps and fashion designer; the combined effect of f3 and f2 produces the force resulting F2 on the pedal. Ideally, IF the cyclist is uses his muscles to perfection during this second portion of the cycle then - the VERTICAL force f2 should be at its value MAXIMUM when the crank is ~~ horizontal and should gradually decrease in intensity until be at ZERO when the crank is in neutral bottom, - the HORIZONTAL force f3 should be ZERO when the crank is horizontal ~ and increase gradually from intensity to a value MAXIMUM when the crank is in bottom dead center.
Notice that ALL of these forces (f1, f2 and f3 which produce the resultants F1 and F2) come ONLY from the THIGH.
Our invention DOES NOT MODIFY the use of THIGH: therefore we do not need us worry about these forces produced on the pedal BY
THIGH; the ONLY thing we will consider in the description of the mechanisms which will follow is the EFFECT of ELIMINATION of the use of CALF and / or HAM
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) WO 00/27690 PCTlCA99 / 0i020 PRIOR (this effect being especially a VERTICAL effect, because the calf pushes the end of the foot DOWN, and the leg anterior pulls the tip of the foot UP). However, 05 in the case of the mechanism describing a VERTICAL crankset, we SHOULD take into account the HORIZONTAL forces f2 and f3, but this will be THE ONLY exception: for all other mechanics mes, we will ignore the HORIZONTAL forces f1 and f3. Of all our mechanisms, ONLY the a3 VERTICAL movement mechanism of the foot MODIFIES the use of the MOTOR muscles (of the THIGH), r by ELIMINATING the use of the hock (JA) and the QUADRICEPS (QA) Fig 44 has already made it possible to explain two; ways to eliminate the use of the anterior leg (23, fig 4:,.) serious piece (26) and / or the part (25) which allow to HOLD the foot IN CONTACT with the platform (21), which makes ONLY the psoas-iliac (22, fig 43) is used to pull the platform forms upwards when the foot rises backwards during the ascending phase of the cycle.
We will now explain other possible concepts.
Please note TWO important points. PR: FIRSTLY, the mechanics my illustrated are FAR FROM BEING LOOKED from the point of view TECHNICAL; the "technical" concept was limited to the STRICT
MINIMUM so as not to overload the drawings unnecessarily with unnecessary details: rather see these mechanisms as illustrations of GENERAL PRINCIPLES (TECHNICAL designs for a given PRINCIPLE which can vary almost infinitely).
SECOND, a FUNDAMENTAL point: the importance of the current document does NOT come from these mechanisms; angular stone which supports this document, it is THE EVIDENCE (experimental and theoretical) that THE CONTRACT OF THE CALF CANNOT INCREASE
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) our TER THE PRESSURE ON THE PEDAL and, conversely, THAT THE CONTRAC-TION OF THE PREVIOUS LEG CANNOT INCREASE TRACTION TO
UP ON THE PEDAL (with the toe attached by a 05 belt with pedal), during the phas:> es DEScendante and AScen-dantes of the pedaling cycle. THIS IS THE ESSENTIAL OF THE PRESENT
document, NOT the mechanisms; the mechanisms allow only to EFFECTIVELY USE this SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY
(THE UNNECESSARITY of the CALF and the ANTERIOR HAM when using pedals); if someone does NOT KNOW this DISCOVERY
SCIENTIFIC, then, in his eyes, these mechanisms SEEM UNNECESSARY
THE ! It is this scientific discovery that GIVES VALUE
scientifically proven to the mechanisms, NOT THE REVERSE:
mechanisms described have great economic value only because of this scientific discovery on the uselessness of CALF and PREVIOUS LEG (in use of pedals).
Here are these other possible general concepts.
Fig 49 illustrates a simple device ç ~ ui allow to eliminate the use of the anterior leg (23, fig 40) when the psoas-ilia-that (22, fig 40) pulls the pedal up, thanks to the goose (24, fig 40) which attaches the end of the foot to the pedal.
See fig 49; this appliance consists of a rope NOT ex-tensile (obviously) (29} one end of which is fixed to a ring (30) which is fixed on the top of the shoe to the front, this rope (29) separating into two parts, the end will be fixed to two other rings (30) which are located on each side of the knee on the joint; of these two rings leave 3 leather straps, two of them (31,32) placed on top of the knee and the third (33} behind the knee as shown in fig 49; it is obvious that when SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Ia thigh pulls the pedal up, it is THIS ROPE (29) which SUPPORTS THE TENSION instead of the ANTERIOR LEG, or energy saving.
05 Fig 50 illustrates the same device with c ~ the difference that the bottom of the rope (29) is attached by a ring (30) AT THE BACK
shoe; the obvious goal is that 'this rope (29) allows to withstand the tension that should normally be supported by the calf: THE ROPE REPLACES THE CALF, from where ï0 energy saving.
It goes without saying that the use of this device would require the use of a special shoe on which the ring (30) is securely attached to the front and / or rear of the shoe.
One can also doubt the commercial value of such a 15 device, people find it rather bulky! Here, this example of a simple device rather was given just lice make it clear that it is POSSIBLE (theoretically) to decrease CONSIDERABLY energy consumption simply WITH A
ROPE END! (Fig 51 illustrates the isolated device).
20 The next concept (fig 53) looks like a kind of "boot plaster "of the kind we use to make our fractures have time to repair themselves (and everyone is eager to sign!). This concept is therefore a VERY RIGID boot, in two parts (34 and 35) connected by rotation joints (36) and 25 which allows, by closing on the foot and the bottom of the leg (fig 52), to "weld" the ankle (1): ~ i although this latter niera can no longer fulfill its role, that is to say that it is not more possible to MOVE the foot; it is obvious that this "boot" allows {in theory) to avoid the contraction of the mol-30 let during the Descending phase and also allows to avoid the SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RIJLE 26) $ 10 contraction of the anterior leg during the Ascent phase if a belt (24) is used. Obviously, ent, we can doubt the commercial potential of such an ankle boot, just like in the 05 case of our "rope end" device described before! The purpose of the description of this boot is simply to make it clear that it is POSSIBLE (at least in theory} to CONSIDERABLY reduce energy consumption (and double the power available using the; s two legs in the same time) using VERY SIMPLE concepts (although cumbersome), like a "piece of rope" and a rigid boot!
See fig 54; one might think that i7_ is possible to avoid contraction of the calf (4) by placing the foot on the pedal (15) in such a way that the ankle joint (1) is 15 exactly ABOVE (at distance + di) from the pedal axis (15) (90 ° angle}; the problem here is that this posi-tion of the foot is quickly painful (the arch of the foot is very sensitive) and, ESPECIALLY, it is an unstable equilibrium position!
Indeed, if you do NOT use your calf AT ALL (4) nor 20 your front leg (23), it suffices that the ankle (1}
moves A LITTLE to the left of the pedal axis (I5) so that the tip of the foot goes straight to the ground; the angle of 90 ~
no longer maintained, which forces you to contract the anterior leg (23) for straightening the foot; it is the same 25 if the ankle moves A LITTLE to the right: from the pedal axle (15):
the heel stings toward the ground, which forces you to contract the calf (4) to straighten the foot. It is the EXISTENCE of distance (+ di) which CAUSES the problem of UNSTABLE balance, this distance (+ di) being the vertical distance: between the ankle axis 30 (1) and the pedal axle (15); Ie sign + in front of the symbol di (+ di) SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUDE 26) WO 00/27690 PCTlCA99 / 01020 simply means that the ankle axis (1) is ABOVE
the pedal axis (15}, and this is precisely: that which CAUSES the equi-free UNSTABLE. Is it possible, for the Descending phase, 05 to eliminate these two problems, that is to say 1-DO NOT use the arch of the foot (as in the case in fig 54), which is PAINFUL to do, 2-obtain a STABLE balance (+ di equal to ZERO)?
The answer is yes. Regarding problem # 1, it simply use a platform (21) which supports ALL of the foot, as shown in fig 55. For problem 2, it is possible to obtain a balance: STABLE by positioning the platform (21} in such a way that:
a) the axis of rotation of the pin (1} is exactly BELOW the axis of rotation (T_5, where the pedal was on, before it is replaced by the platform); here the distance di is NEGATIVE (-di), cep which allows a STABLE balance (but ONLY for phas e DOWN, when the thigh pushes DOWN):
Ie the fact that the pin (1} is located BELOW the axis of rotation (15) which gives STABLE equilibrium (compared to the situation of fig 54 which was UNSTABLE-because the distance di was positive (+ di)).
b) THE WEIGHT of the platform located on the LEFT of point (15}
should be the same as THE WEIGHT, from the platform located to the RIGHT of point (15}, from f; ~ so that the platform form can MAINTAIN at the clock:, empty vacuum, by gravity.
Obviously, in this design, the platform is NOT
guided in space: it can rotate I; FREEZE around SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) the axis of rotation (15) and is held in place by gravity;
the platform is retained by the rear by the part (37} and from the front by the part (38); parts 37 and 38 are solidai-05 res of the platform (21) and meet at the point of rotation (15). It is difficult to say at this time whether a such FREE movement of the platform is advantageous or not:
only experimentation could answer the question. Also, with such a concept, we would be entitled to ask certain questions like for example "is there any danger that the end of the foot hits the ground? ° '(we could settle this problem by designing a bicycle with a Raised pedal, or in use reading shorter cranks) or "this concept does it TOTALLY eliminate the coni ~ raction of the calf, or only PARTIALLY? ". But one thing is certain: this concept, AS SHOWN IN FIG 55, DOES NOT ALLOW
to effectively use the Ascent phase (when the foot goes back up the rear, using part 26 of fig 44 and using a special shoe (28) with a hole (27) in the heel -fig 45}; indeed, a little. enough thinking to understand that, in the Ascending phase, there is a balance UNSTABLE if the part (26) located in the hole (27) of the shoe (fig 55) is UNDER the axis of rotation (15) when the iliac psoas pulls the thigh UP; to get a STABLE balance during the Ascending phase, that the axis (26) is located ABOVE the a: xe (15) when the cooking pulls up.
The next concept is simply an A3KELIORATION of the mechanics me that we have just described (fig 55): this improvement allow efficient use of the Ascending phase, eliminating SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 2G) WO 00127690 PCT / CA99 / Ot020 nant the use of the previous leg, this Mistletoe allows to use the psoas-iliac to its full potential.
Figs 56 to 60 illustrate the same meca.nisme, Ia fig 56 during 05 the AScendent phase and Ia fig 59 during the DEScendent phase.
Fig 56. the triangular piece (37,38) is fixed on the side of the platform (21); at the top of this triangle is fixed a rod L-shaped (40), the vertical part of this L-shaped part smoothing inside a low compression spring (41) and the horizontal part of this L-shaped part entering in the hole (27) in the heel of the shoe (see fig 44; 45).
The vertical part of the part 40 slides inside the part hole (39) which is fixed to the end of the crank where the pedal was removed (15) (fig 58 shows piece 39 isolated). The operation is basic:
- during the ASCENDING phase (fig 56), the spring IS NOT
compressed so that the axis of the horizontal portion of the part (40) EXACTLY COORDINATES with the axis of rotation the end of the crank (15) into which the axis of the the part (39); so there is STABLE balance and the psoas-iliac (which pulls the thigh upwards) can be used at its full potential since the STABLE equilibrium thus obtained allow the elimination of the use of the previous jannbier (if the horizontal axis of part 40 was: located UNDER the axis of ex-pedal l5, the balance would be INSt: able, which requires-r a certain contraction of the leg: r anterior and / or calf to keep the foot in the required position because Ia pulling upward through the iliac psoas would tend to MOVE the 40 axis to the left or right of the 15 axis, because INStable balance);
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 2b) -during the descending phase (fig 59;), the spring (41) is compresses completely (being of f target resistance) immediately let the thigh begin to push down. See fig 60:
05 year clearly sees that the axis of rotation OF THE ANKLE (1) is located UNDER the axis of rotation of the end of the crank (15), which gives a STABLE balance for this Descending phase, ., -which allows to ELIMINATE THE USE OF THE CALF because the axis of ia dowel (1) is ALWAYS held exactly UNDER the axle (15) BY pressing down HIMSELF (if the axis of the ankle (1) was ABOVE axis (15) during the Descending phase, then the DOWN push of the thigh would tend to deflect the axis (1) to the left or right of the axis (15), this which would require a contraction of the anterior leg or calf to bring the foot back to the required position, like this has been clearly explained in fig 54; 1.
The mechanism we have just described explains only one ir GENERAL concept, the technique illustrated being more than elementary to hush up. Our intention here is to illustrate concepts of na torus GENERAL and keep the TECHNIQUE at its simplest express sion, so as not to unnecessarily complicate the drawings (com-you know, the SELF technique may be improved almost Ä INFINITE, for a given general concept: better stick to the PRINCIPLES and forget the TECHNIQUE ').
The next concept involves a VERTICAL displacement of the foot, that is to say that the foot descends to the verti-stalls and follows EXACTLY THE SAME trajectory to ascend, unlike the usual circular crankset or trajectory foot ascent from the rear (the Ascending phase) is not obviously NOT THE SAME as the descent trajectory by the a-SUBSTITUTE SHEET (UK: LE 26) before (the Descending phase). Again, the TECHNIQUE goes be limited to its simplest expression.
IMPORTANT: we ask you for a special concentration effort 05 tion on what will follow because this discussion of the pedal VERTICAL (versus the usual CIRCULAR) is perhaps ONE
fundamental key which will allow CHOOSING the final concept to be marketed.
In the following explanation, we will consider that a) the use of the CALF has been ELIMINATED thanks to the use of a PLATFORM instead of a PEDAL, b) that the use of the PREVIOUS JAMMER has been ELIMINATED thanks to the concept of fig 44, by the use of parts 25 and / or 26, which allows to use the PSOAS-I3 ~ IAQUE (the muscle that raises the thigh) to its full power.
So we will assume that the TWO phases are of the pedal cycle-ge, ie the Descending and AScending phase, are used effectively in the following explanation; we will not have more to worry about the CALF or the: TAMBIER ANTERIEUR because our discussion will relate ONLY to the MOTOR muscles, either those of the thigh (there are several, but we will worry about the 4 main ones, the FESSIER, the QUADRI-CEPS JARRET and PSOAS-ILIAQUE).
Fig 61 illustrates the 4 motor muscles. of the thigh that we let's go to study, knows the BUTTLE (5) which is used to push the cook-go DOWN, the PSOAS-TLIAQUE (22) that ~, e we see partial-only for lifting the thigh (see fig 40 for better vision of the iliac psoas, which is in two parts), the QUADRICEPS (QA) which pushes the foot FORWARD
(therefore a leg expander). and the JARRET (JA) which grows SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RIJLE 26) i, 11 ~
the foot to the REAR (therefore a flexor of the leg). The fig 62 is an enlargement of the knee, and fig 63 explains visually how the quadriceps, by contracting, does 05 TURN the leg bone (11} around ds; the joint of the knee (13), what pushes the foot forward, and how the hock does the same thing but backwards.
To SIMPLIFY things, like ON IGNORE the calf and the anterior leg, these muscles are NOT shown 20 on ie 4 figures 64, 65, 66 and 67, and LE PIED no longer has need to be illustrated: on these 4 figures, we will consider so that the pin (1) coincides with the axis of rotation of the pedal (25) (where it was before it was removed).
(Here, we have a vocabulary problem:: The word PEDALIER implies 15 the use of PEDALS, by definition; however, we do not have still called this "thing" consisting of a PLATFORM
move in a circle at the end of a crank (the word PLATE-FORMIER is ridiculous); therefore, for want of anything better, we will employ the word PEDALTER to designate it, even if the pedals have been 20 removed to make room for platforms).
What we are going to study here, is the EFFECT on USE
THIGH MOTORS muscles (gluteus, quadriceps, hock, and psoas-iliac) of a MODIFICATION of the TRAJECTORY followed by the ankle, passing from a CTRCULAR trajectory (the 25 usual crankset) to a VERTICAL trajectory (the new technical concept that we are going to introduce}. For it, we will take into account a CHARACTERI; STIC TMPORTANTE
specific to muscles, that is to SPEND energy even if this energy expenditure is not accompanied by a JOB IPAS
30 mechanical actually PRODUCED, i.e. a MOVEMENT in LA
SHEET SUBSTITUTES (RULE 26) WO 00/27690 PCT% CA99 / 01020.
tt5 DIRECTION of this force (a WORK in the Newtonian sense is the product of a FORCE by a MOVEMENT in the direction of this force); for example, if you press very hard on the 05 above a table with your hand, there is production of HEAT (your muscles heat up as well as the top of the table), but there is no mechanical TRAVATL produced because the table does not roll. What interests us first, is that the bicycle ADVANCES, which implies that the crankset must TURN; therefore, FOR US, any expenditure of muscular energy wool which is not accompanied by a MOVEMENT of the handle it is a PURE LOSS of energy. So if by studying the 4 figures 64, 65, 66 and 67, we discover situations where certain muscles expend energy WITHOUT GENERATING DISPLA-CEMENT, and if we can ELIMINATE these situations by going from one CIRCULAR trajectory to a VERTTCAL trajectory, then we INCREASE the ENERGY EFFICIENCY of the engine; and this is perfect land in accordance with the UNIVERSELL7E PEDAL LOTTER SET (section 7, chapter 8) which states (among other things) "... that MODIFICATION to a crankset-here is the transition from circular to vertical - to bring REAL improvement, must MODIFY
THE USE of the ENGINE muscles .... by INCREASING THE PERFORMANCE
ENERGY of the D ~ JA muscles used ..,. "
In the 4 figures 64, 65, 66 and 67, ONLY the muscles which are ACTUALLY used are schemai: ises, for EACH
4 portions (90 degrees each) of the full cycle (here, remember that we use platforms WITH
parts 25 and / or 26 of fig 44, which eliminates the use of the front wheel and leg and make it effective the full cycle, INCLI Ascending phase: ISE).
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (R1JLE 26) Fig 64 illustrates the first 90 degrees of the cycle, when the axis 15 (where the pedal was before) goes from neutral up to the horizontal position of: the crank. The QUA-05 DRIGEPS (QA), by contracting, rotates the leg bone (11) around the knee joint (13), which pushes the the foot forward and produces strength; HORIZONTAL f1. In dies time, the BUTTLE (5), by contracting, pushes the bone of the thigh (6) down, which produces the VERTICAL force f2.
The force F1 is the RESULTING force (of the components fl and f2).
PLEASE PAY SPECIAL ATTENTION TO WHAT WILL HAPPEN:
Let’s study this first 90 degree angle carefully and consider let's start from the starting position, i.e. the crank in position VERTICAL in top dead center: in this position, the force VERTICAL f2, IF IT IS PRODUCED, IS OF NO USE because its line of action goes through the center of the crankset: this force cannot produce any leverage; so, IDEALLY, at TOP DEATH, cyclist DOES NOT DEVRACT attempt to press down with the BUTTLE (5) because it would be dependent energy uselessly since the force f2 which E: n would result cannot would not produce MOVEMENT. So, always IDEALLY, that is to say in the case of a cyclist with PERFECT control of his musculature, this cyclist SHOULD pass the force FESSIER (5) contraction of a Z ~ RO value in neutral from the top to a MAXIMUM value when. the crank is â
horizontal: therefore, GRADUAL increase in the force of gluteus contraction (5) as the foot descends, starting from ZERO at top dead center. ALWAYS IDEALLY, the perfect cyclist SHOULD contract the QUADRICEPS (QA) at MAXIMUM when the crank is VERTICAL (at the starting point) SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUDE 26}

12?
because, in this position, the leverage of the QUADRICEPS is MAXIMUM because the line of action of the HORIZONTAL force f1 (pro-quadriceps) is PERPENDENT: GAIRE in the crank, this 05 which produces a MOVEMENT of the latter and, therefore, the energy quadriceps contraction is USEFUL. So, IDEALLY, the contraction force of the QUADRICEPS should be at its MAXIMUM
in neutral from the top and GRADUALLY DTMINUTE as the foot go down to a value of ZERO when the crank is horizontally. To sum up, IDEALEMEPtT:
a) the BUTT (5) should have a contraction force ZERO at top dead center (vertical crank) and GRADUALLY reach a MAXIMUM value when the crank is horizontal;
b) the QUADRICEPS (QA), during this time, should do THE OPPOSITE of what the BUTTLE does, that is to say have a MAXIMUM contraction force in neutral from the top (vertical crank) and GRADUALLY decrease intensity to reach the ZERO value when the crank is horizontal.
These two IDEAL situations are represented by fig 68 and 69, where ONLY the muscles that SHOULD be used are schematized. This is L ° IDEAL, PERFIECTION, assuming that the cyclist PERFECTLY CONTROLS the use of the muscles of his body ! For that, it would be necessary that the spirit of the cyclist either CAPABLE, in neutral from the top, to command the gluteus NOT to contract, and, AT THE SAME TIME, order at quadriceps to contract to the maximum; Then the spirit of cyclist should command the quadriceps to DECREASE gradually lie its contraction as the feet: descend and, AT THE SAME
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUILE 26) TIME, order at the glutum of AUGMENTE; R gradually its contraction as the foot descends. THE HUMAN SPIRIT IS
UNABLE TO COMPLETE SUCH A WONDER. we should replace Q5 the human mind through a computer!
The PRACTICAL conclusion is as follows:
i) people (even runners, but to a lesser extent measure) PUSH DOWN with the BUTTLE when the crank is in neutral from the top {À LA VERTI-CALE), which represents AN UNNECESSARY EXPENDITURE
ENERGY because it produces NO DISPLACEMENT
the crank (no mechanical WORK), ii) similarly, when the crank is HORIZONTAL, people (even runners, but with a baleen less accentuated) CONTINUE to push the foot FORWARD by contracting: QUADRICEPS: that is also a PURE LOSS OF ENERGY because it does not r produces no MOVEMENT of the crank.
THIS IS THE REALITY. The good news is that the concept simple VERTICAL displacement crankset, which will be explained that soon, ELIMINATE these energy losses ~ .e ' Fig 65 illustrates the muscles used: c during the 2nd 90 degree angle (~ u 2) when the crank goes FROM
horizontal position vertically, at bottom dead center.
The gluteus (5), by contracting, produces the VERTI-CALE f2, and the hock (JA), by contracting produces the HORIZONTAL force f3 directed towards the rear. IDEALLY, if our cyclist has perfect control of his muscles:
a) f2 (produced by the gluteus 5) should be MAXIMUM
when the crank is horizontal, and should SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RLILE 26) i gradually decrease in intensity until the ZERO at bottom dead center, b) conversely, f3 (produced by the haunch JA) should 06 ZERO hearth when the crank is horizontal and gradually increase in intensity to a MAXIMUM at bottom dead center.
This IDEAL is represented by figs 69 and 70.
This is THE IDEAL; in reality the cyclists continue to contract the hock when the crank is horizontal and keep pushing down with the buttocks when the crank is in neutral at the bottom: this is a few UNNECESSARY expenditure of energy because it does NOT produce a MOVE
CEMENT of the crank! The VEF; TICAL crankset eliminates this l5 loss of energy!
Fig 66 illustrates the 3rd angle of 90 degrees (w 3}. Here, it is the PSOAS-ILIAQUE {22) which produces the VERTICAL force f4 directed UP, and the hock (JA) produces the force HORIZONTAL f3 directed towards the rear, the force F3 being the r RESULT of the two components f3 and f4. IDEALLY, a) f4 SHOULD go from ZERO to bottom dead center to a MAXIMUM value when the crank is horizontal, and b) f3 SHOULD ideally pass a value 26 MAXIMUM at bottom point ~ at a value of ZERO
when the crank is horizontal.
This IDEAL is represented by fig 70 is 72.
This is THE IDEAL, and you know, of course, that it is NOT
that way cyclists use their muscles in reality, which causes an UNNECESSARY expenditure of energy.
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) i, WO 00/27690 PCT / CA99 / Oi020 Finally, fig 67 ii shows the 4th angle of 90 degrees (u = 4).
The upwardly directed force f4 is produced by the psoas-iliac (22) and the horizontal force fl, directed forward, 05 is produced by the quadriceps (QA). IDEALLY always, a) f4 should be MAXIMUM when the crank is horizontal, and should gradually decrease until ZERO at top dead center, and b) f1 should be ZERO when the crank is horizontal and reach a MAXIMUM value at top dead center.
Figs 71 and 68 represent this IDEAL in use muscles, this ideal being obviously IMPOSSIBLE
â reach (at least for a pedal board t: IRCULAR)! This IDEAL, for a circular crankset, is summarized as follows:
-fig 68 (top dead center): only the quadriceps (QA) is used (adding the other muscles that GROW IT
FORWARD, if there is a) to produce the force f1;
in such a case, the foot should be ATTACHED to the pedal by a strap or something, what the cyclist everyday dislikes because it can be cumbersome and dangerous: you have to be able to put your foot down earth QUICKLY in the event of a sudden stop and the REPOSITION
It is difficult to set foot to leave (without looking).
-fig 69 (crank horizontal to the front): only the gluteus (5) is used (adding the :, other muscles which push the thigh down, if there is a) to produce the force f2;
-fig 70 (bottom dead center): only the haunch (JA) is used (adding the other muscles that push the foot TOWARDS
SUBSTTTUTE SHEET (RUILE 26) WO 00/27690 PCTlCA99 / 01020 THE BACK, if there is} to produce the force f3; that implies that the foot must be attached to the pedal of a whatever f aon, with the disadvantages that this entails.
05 -fig 71 (horizontal crank to the rear): only psoas-iliac muscle (22) is used (adding the other muscles used to lift the thigh, if any) to produce the force f4. Obviously the foot be attached to the pedal.
These 4 figures therefore represent an IDEAL to achieve in the use of muscles, which is impossible because no cyclist is not capable of such a prodigy of muscle control.
Again, cyclists do NOT use their muscles according to IDEAL explained, which causes huge losses of energy (because no DISPLACEMENT is produced), this being a fundamental characteristic of MUfiCLES, that is to spend sometimes energy WITHOUT producing MECHANICAL MOVEMENT, which is of NO USE to ADVANCE the bike! Our VERTICAL crankset will ELIMINATE this loss of ~~ energy, which will INCREASE the energy efficiency of the whole ENGINE (thigh ONLY), this ADDING
the energy savings ALREADY made thanks to the elimination muscles NOT part of the MOTOR, i.e. the CALF
and the PREVIOUS LEG through the use of PLATFORMS (instead pedals) and the concept of fig 44 (parts 25 and 26) which allow to use the iliac psoas at its full power, hence a DOUBLE potential POWER, BOTH legs used SIMULTANEOUSLY (Descending AND AScenting phase)!
Before describing our VERTICAL displacement mechanism, it first discuss the concept of LEVERAGE DEGREE.
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) See fig hz ~, L ~ G, rt C ~ and r1 1; the degree of leverage of the FESSIER
(5, fig (~~) is 3, that of PSOAS-ILIAQUE {22, fig '~ t) is also of 3, that of QUADRICEPS (QA, fig ~~) is 15 and that 05 of the JARRET (JA, fig ~ 'io) is also 15 (the numbers 3 and 15 represent only an APPROXIMATE VISUAL ESTIMATE, but the fact remains that the degree of QA and JA leverage is MUCH greater than the degree of gluteus maximus and psoas-iliac). Fig fc ~ j: the arrow F5 represents both 20 THE INTENSITY and DIRECTION of the contraction force of the buttocks (5); this force F5 has two components:
- the HORIZONTAL force (fh) which is a compression force hip, -the VERTICAL force (f2) which is used to press the pedal:
15 VISUALLY, this force is approximately ONE THIRD of the intensity of F5; we say that the i) LEGRESS OF LEVER
gluteal region (5) is 3; in other words, to GET
a force f2 of 1 pound, F5 must be 3 pounds.
Fig '' j ~: by a similar reasoning, we say that the DEGREE
20 OF LEVER of the iliac psoas (22) is also 3.
Fig (~ g. Quadriceps (QA), by contracting, rotates the leg bone (12) around the point of rotation of the knee (13), which creates the forward pushing force of the foot (f1);
as the ratio of the distances D11 / dq is approximately 25, the 25 force of contraction of the quadriceps (fq) must be 15 TIMES
the force f1 that we want to obtain: if we want to obtain a intensity of f1 by 2 pounds, fq must be 15 pounds;
we say that the LEVER DEGREE of the quadriceps is about 15.
Fig "" jp: by a similar reasoning, ~ we say that the DEGREE
30 LEVER Hock (JA) is also 15 because the ratio of SHEET SUBSTITUTES (RULE 26) WO 00/27690 PCTlCA99 / 01020 distances D11 / dj is also 15.
Vair fig (o ~ Z, 'l O °
-D11 is the distance between the pin's point of rotation 05 (1) and the knee rotation point (1; 3), -dq is the distance between point (13) and the attachment point {Q) of the quadriceps tendon (QA) on the: knee, -dj is the distance between point (13) and the attachment point (J) the hamstring (JA) on the leg bone.
THIS IS IMPORTANT: experience has shown that energy TOTAL spent by a muscle is made up of TWO portions:
a) a portion which depends on the VOLTAGE 'supported by the muscle, regardless of the degree of contraction of the muscle (its shortening), b) a portion which depends on the SHORTENING of the muscle, that is to say the degree of MECA: KIQUE WORK (displacement) that it produces.
Part a) is by far the most important; at the very end practical, we can say that the amount of energy expended by a muscle is proportional to the TENSION it supports, no matter how short it is (displacement);
and a little reasoning will make you easily understand this: if we have a certain amount of energy to spend, better MAXIMIZE the use of muscles with weak DEGREE OF LEVER (the gluteus (5) and the psoas-iliac (22) which a degree of leverage of TROTS), and MINIMIZE the use of muscles who have a high LEVERAGE DEGREE (the quadriceps (QA) and the hock {JA) who have a leverage of 15). In doing so, we increase the ENERGY EFFICIENCY of the engine! The VERTICAL crankset allows to do this by MINIMIZING the use of the hock and the quadriceps, SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUL, E 26) this energy saving ADDED to that explained above.
Here is what this â crankset consists of. VERTICAL displacement.
The concept that we are going to explain is one of the simplest 05 as one can imagine and, once again, the aim aimed here is not to have the perfect TECHNIQUE (which in itself can be infinitely improved), but only to explain that it is POSSIBLE to obtain, thanks to a VERTICAL movement of the foot, a CONTINUOUS ROTATION movement, i.e. not involving no DEAD POINTS (as in the case of the CIRCULAR crankset), using the TWO phases (when the foot goes down AND when the foot goes up). After the description of the mechanism himself dies, we are going to explain energy savings again.
Figs "~ ° ~, '- l 3," (~ and'"1 ~ illustrate a mechanism rudimen-shut up, operated by a single foot, and which allows to shut up turn a wheel (49} ALWAYS IN THE SAME WAY, whatever whether the foot goes up or down; fig '1''~, illustrates the phase down (when the foot goes down), fig '"1 3 illustrates the fig "j ° ~ ..but seen from above, fig '1 ~ illustrates the phase ascending (when the foot goes up): the ascending phase is active thanks to the parts 25 and / or 26 added to the platform, as already explained in fig 44. Figtl ~ illustrates the special platform (21) which is used: the illustrated part z-shaped under the platform itself is made of a single piece and is integral with the platform, this piece in z inserting into part 42, fig ~~. . Fig ~ °; ~: the z-piece carries 2 springs (r1 and r2), the spring .r2 compressing when the foot pushes down; when the foot pulls up (fig '1 ~), the spring r2 relaxes and the spring r1 becomes 3L3 me. Piece 42 goes from top to bottom when: The foot goes down (figi ~,}
, ~ ..;, .. ~, ~:; . at sd bt ~ ~ ti ~. 9r: ~ â ~ ': ti L_ ,. . ~ .J s ~ r ~. ...
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) and from bottom to top when the foot goes up (fig 1 ~): when the foot go down, the T-shaped piece (45) is pushed to the right by the inclined portion of the Z-shaped part; the teeth of 05 the part 45 clutches with the teeth of the wheel 46, which makes turn the wheel 46 in the direction indicated; a wheel 48 carrying a chain (ch 48) is integral with the wheel 46 and turns with it, which drives the wheel 49. The part 42 slides downhill and going up along 4 rods (t1, t2, t3 and t4) which are attached to base 50 (see fig'l3).
Fig '1 5 illustrates what happens when the foot pulls towards the high thanks to parts 25 and / or 26 added to the platform (21) according to the concept of fig 44: the spring r1 compresses, the spring r2 relaxes, which pulls up the room Z-shaped fixed under the platform, pushing the room T-shaped (43) LEFT, the clutch is then made with the gear 44; as piece 42 moves TOWARDS
UP along the 4 rods (t1 to t4), this turns the wheel 44 in the direction indicated, which turns the wheel 47 (which is integral with the wheel 44), the drain (ch 47) then making turn the wheel 52 (see fig'l'3), which drives the wheel 49 in the direction indicated. The springs 43 and r4 serve to keep the parts 43 and 45 in contact with part 42 when they are not not engaged with the corresponding wheel (44 or 46).
Notice this:
-that the foot PUSHES DOWN (fig "~~.) or PULL UP
(fig "15), the rear wheel 49 (which symbolizes the rear wheel ~ re of a bicycle) ALWAYS turns IN THE SAME ME, -in the case of a CIRCULAR crankset, there are 2 DEAD POINTS, that of the top and that of the bottom; in neutral from above, the SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUILE 26) Gluteus contraction is an unnecessary energy expenditure because the force line of action passes through the center of the pedal link, which produces NO leverage on the crank-05 on. Similarly, at the bottom dead center, the contraction of the psoas-iliac (which pulls the foot up) has NO effect lever on the crank. The VERTICAL crankset described here has NO DEATH POINTS '. Indeed, the LEVERAGE EFFECT is ALWAYS MAXIMUM because the force directed DOWN (fig'1 ~) or UP (fig '~ 5) is ALWAYS PERPENDICULAR (tangent) on wheels 44 and 46. So the BUTTLE (for pushing towards the bottom and PSOAS-ILIAQUE (for upward traction) have both a perfect ENERGY EFFICIENCY: there is NO MORE
muscle contraction WITHOUT mechanical displacement, as it is the case with a circular crankset!
-the use of muscles moving the foot, i4 THE HORIZONTAL, the JARRET and the QUADRICEPS, is totally eliminated, which is excellent because these muscles have a LEVERAGE DEGREE of 15;
the energy saved in this way can be used to operate the FESSIER and the PSOAS-ILIAQUE which have a LEVERAGE DEGREE
only 3, hence an increase in yield '.
(this obviously adding to the savings: ie energy already achieved by eliminating the use of MOLLET and PREVIOUS LEG, as explained at the beginning}.
So much for the VI ~ RTICAL movement mechanism of the foot.
The aim which was aimed here was not to describe THE concept PERFECT MECHANISM ~ vertical displacement, that is to say the one with the perfect TECHNIQUE; we could indeed describe almost an infinity of concept :; TECHNIQUES that would accomplish the same result as the one we just SUBSTITUTE SHEET (Ri: JLE 26) to describe. We just wanted to explain a PRINCIPLE, to the effect that it is (technically) POSSIBLE to obtain a CONTINUOUS rotation movement of the wheel (49) always IN
05 THE SAME SENSE, it doesn't matter if the foot goes up or down, and WITHOUT DEAD POINTS.
It seems that the VERTICAL movement mechanism is not for the immediate future for the simple reason that people LOVE (or are used to) the CIRCULAR crankset. The series of 1Q mechanisms that we will now describe use the principle of CIRCULATORY movement of the foot, the drawings of these mechanisms being self-explanatory.
Fig 76 illustrates the usual circular crankset, 1st cyclis pedaling in the way recommended by the experts is 15 ie with the toe joint placed on the axis of the pedaie. The angle ~ is the angle of inclination of the underside of the foot relative to the ground; we notice that this angle INCREASES
CONSIDERALLY when the foot goes up from the back. The 8 mechanisms that we will now describe support the 20 platform and guide it so that this angle INCREASES when the foot rises from behind, exactly as for the usual circular crankset; so the user of this invention will notice NO DIF7FERENCE compared to circular crankset, except for one thing: he will no longer have 25 "forcing calves" since the heel is continuously contact with the back of the platform, which is supported!
Fig 78 illustrates the entire mechanism (Ies 2 feet); the fig 79 illustrates only the left foot; fig 80 illustrates the mechanism of fig 79 DECOMPOSES, and 3.a fig 77 illustrates 30 MOVING the different parts for a full turn SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUILE 26) 360 degrees: we can see very clearly that the angle ~ INCREASES when the foot goes up from the back.
Fig 80: part 57 can be placed in the desired position at 05 inside the slot in room 55, so that the combined part 57 AND 55 is of adjustable length; He is leaving similarly of parts 58 and 56. Fig 79: parts 55 + 57 and 58 + 56 are joined by the free axis of rotation 61; but the axis of rotation 60 is FIXED. indeed, the hole-shaped axis star of part 55 (fig 80) is inserted in the desired position in the star of axis 60, which allows you to control the angle between room 53 and room 55 + 57, and this angle REMAINS CONSTANT
once chosen. The goal of the ADJUSTABLE length of the pieces these 56 + 58 and 55 + 57, as well as by controlling the angle between parts 53 and 55 + 57 is to CHOOSE the angle of the bottom of the foot relative to the ground that the cyclist WISH TO HAVE (for comfort) depending on the size of the person. Note that the length of the horizontal part 54 is chosen so that part 53 is always PARALLEL to the pedal crank; the axis of rotation of the bottom of piece 53, knows 59, is done thanks to a fixed support to the bottom tube of the frame (fig 79).
Fig 81: in this concept, the 2: 1 platform is fixed from the front at the axis of rotation 15, where was the pedal before. A
piece 64 is fixed to the bottom tube of the frame and constitutes an axis free rotation for axle 65 which connects the velle 66 and the toothed cam 67: this cam 67 rotates WITH the crank 66; this cam 67 is DE M ~ ME C; IRCONFERENCE that the wheel 62 which is SOLIDARITY of the crank: front.
the wheel 62 and the cam 67 have the same number of teeth and are SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUILE 26) WO 00 / 2'7690 PCT / CA99 / 01020 connected by chain 63; the top of the crank 66 is connected â the rod 68 by a free point of rotation 69, and the front of rod 68 is connected to the rear of the platform by a point of 05 free rotation 70. TENSION TENSION is ALWAYS in the HAS of the chain: the tensile tension in the DU portion TOP of the chain is always ZERO; in the position of crank illustrated, the top portion of the chain is not hanging due to the position of cam 67, but for other crank positions, the top portion of the chain becomes hanging. The shape of the cam, its position (relative at the piece 66), and the length of the rod 68 are chosen from so as to obtain an angle of inclination of the foot relative to the ground (the angle (~, fig 76) which INCREASES when the foot goes up rear.
Fig 82: the platform 22 is fixed to the top of the crank of the crankset 15 () from the front. The rear crank 73 is fixed by an axis of free rotation 72 to the part 72 which is fixed to the tube from the bottom of the frame. Crankset crank and crank 73 are always PARALLEL and linked from above thanks to the horizontal part 74 and to the two free axes of rotation 15 and 75. IMPORTANT: the cam 76 is integral with the crank 73 (? 6 and 73 are in fact like ONE PIECE}. A small wheel 77 is fixed on the side of the platform, at the rear, and this wheel 77 turns ON THE CIRCUMFERENCE (the border) of the cam 76 when the crank 73 moves. The shape of the cam 76, its FIXED position (relative to crank 73) are choose to get a tilt angle of the foot by relative to the ground (angle Ct3, fig 76) which INCREASES when the foot goes up from the back.
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Fig 83: the cam 78 is (fixed to the bottom tube of the frame by the support 83: this cam DOES NOT MOVE and contains a groove inlaid on its circumference in laçue7.le is walking the 05 small wheel 82 when the crankset turns. The 79 piece comes off ALWAYS place ALWAYS on the crank, free axis of rotation being 80; a small bent rod with two ends (in reverse) 82 swings back and forth at P inte laughter of the tube which is fixed to the top of piece 79: piece 81 carry the small wheel 82 on the lower elbow, the upper elbow fitting into the rear of the platform by the axis of rotation 84. The shape of the cam groove 78 and its posi-tion on the bottom tube of the frame are chosen from Tacon â ob-maintain an angle of inclination of the foot relative to the ground (the an-gle l ~, fig 76) which INCREASES when the foot goes up by the back re.
Fig 84: a rod 85 has a FREE axis of rotation 86 located on the axis of rotation of the rear wheel. IMPORTANT: this rod 85 NEVER does a full rotation (: 360 degrees) because it swings back and forth at angles o (1 and o ~ ° ~ relative to the vertical V: its MAXIMUM displacement is therefore oC t + cX ~ '~,, The rod 87 is fixed to the bottom tube of the frame by the 1st point free rotation 88: this rod 87 does a: complete rotation of 360 degrees for a full turn of the bottom bracket. Rod 87 is always PARALLEL to the crank, but not the rod 85. The top of rods 85 and 87 are connected to the part angled 89 by free rotation points 90 and 91. The third point of rotation 92 of the angled part 89 is fixed at the back of the platform 21. The length of the rods 85 and 87 as well as the shape of the bent piece 89 are chosen from SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RUILE 26) so that the angle of inclination of the foot relative to the floor (angle ~, fig 76) INCREASES when the foot goes up from the back.
Fig 85: a part 93 having a groove is fixed to the tube of the 05 bottom of the frame; inside this groove, a wheel 94 makes back and forth; to this wheel 94 is fixed a rod 95 of which the other end is fixed to the rear of the platform 21 by the free rotation point 99; roughly in the center of this stem 95 is fixed the point of rotation of the top 98 of the rod 96, the 20 bottom of this rod 96 being fixed to the front of the piece 93 by the free rotation point 97. The rod 96, being always parallel the ~ to the crank of the crankset, describes a full revolution of 360 degrees per pedal turn. The length of the rod 95 as well that the location (on the rod 95) of the point of rotation 98 are 25 chosen so that the angle of inc: lineage of the foot by relative to the ground (angle B, fig 76) INCREASES when the foot goes back up.
Fig 86: the rigid curved part 100 is fixed to the platform 21, 21 and 200 making as a single piece, the front of the 20 platform being attached to the axis of the crank, where it was the pedal before (15). The curved portion of the top of the 100 fits between two wheels 102 which come to rest on the sides of the part 100, these two wheels 102 rotating around of two axes w which hold the 2 parallel pieces together 25 and rectangular I01; piece 101, located between the tube of the bicycle frame and two wheels 102, turns freely (by its center) around the z axis which crosses the frame tube (on the drawing at the top left, only the right side is illustrated, while in the drawing on the right, the two sides are illus-30 very, the z axis connecting at the same time the two sides). On the SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 2G) two other drawings, it is obvious that the angle of inclination of the foot relative to the ground (the angle ~ i) INCREASES when the foot goes back up, which is the goal, according to fig 76.
05 Fïg 87-88: the left side only is illustrated. A wheel 103 is FIXED, stationary (welded) on the housing of the bottom bracket axle. this wheel DOES NOT DRIVE because it is the chain 105 which goes around this wheel when the crankset turned. The SQUARE portion of axle 109 fits into the SQUARE hole 109 located at the front of the platform 21, the portion (b) of the same axle fitting into the portion (b) of the end the crank (which contains cylindrical bearings);
the portion (a) of the same axle fits into the portion (a) of cam 104 and, thanks to the GROOVES of portion (a), this axle is SOLIDARITY of cam 104; therefore, cam 104, the axle and platform 21 ARE ALL SOLIDARITY and form LIKE ONE
ONLY ONE PIECE, the grooves in the portion (a) of the axle allow so much TO CHOOSE the RELATIVE position of platform 21 by compared to cam 104, which allows to CHOOSE the value digital angle (~ when the foot goes up from the back (according to fig 76); it is obvious that the circumference of the cam 104 must be the same as the circumference: ~ erence of the wheel FIXED 103, both having the same number of teeth. Pressure on the platform being made in the REAR by the heel, it is obvious that TENSION (traction) on chain 105 is ALWAYS in the BOTTOM portion of the chain, the tension in ia portion of the top of the chain 105 being: always NULL:
this is the reason for the existence of the chain tensor 106 a spring 107. THE SHAPE of cam 104 as well as its position RELATIVE to platform 21 (controlled by SHEET SUBSTITUTES (RUILE 26) grooves of the portion (a) of the axle) make it possible to obtain an increase in the angle (j when the foot goes up by 05 the rear (as explained in fig 76).
We used the PARTICULAR CASE of CYCLING to r explain the uselessness of the CALF and the PREVIOUS LEG
when using PEDALS; it is obvious that can APPLY these results in a UNIVERSAL way to EVERYTHING
which uses PEDALS (pedal boat, stationary exerciser, pedal plane! etc ...), by replacing these pedals by one mechanism appropriate to each particular case.
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (UK: LE 26)

Claims

1- A PEDAL DEVICE comprising:
A) a platform (21, fig 44 and 46) supporting the entire underside of the shoe (therefore the foot), an axle (15, fig 44 and 46) being mounted under the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), (end of this axle fitting at the end of the crank of the crankset (112, fig 44 and 46), where the pedal that was removed was previously, said axle (15, fig 44 and 46) being mounted under the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) in position such that when the shoe (and therefore the foot) is placed on the platform (21 fig46), the axis of said axle (15 fig 46) is directly below the articulation of the large toe (2, fig 46) just like it is also the case with a pedal conventional, the joint of the big toe (2, fig 7) to be placed normally directly at above the axis of rotation (the axle) of the pedal, when the foot is in position horizontal to the ground, B) a mechanism for controlling the degree of inclination of the platform (21 fig 44) by relative to the ground (variable angle 8, fig 76, 77 and 86), which allows a displacement of the platform (therefore of the foot) identical to the normal movement of the foot (angle .theta.
variable fig 76) when a pedal is used correctly (the articulation of the large toe (2, fig 7) being directly above the axis of rotation (the axle) pedal), said mechanism for controlling the degree of inclination of the platform (21, fig 44) allowing to choose the variable numerical values of the angle .theta. (fig 76, 77 and 86) in such a way that the heel of the shoe is continuously in contact with the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) during a full 360 degree rotation of the crankset, which involves:
a) that the platform (21 fig 44) automatically provides support for the heel of the shoe during the Descending phase of the pedaling cycle, when the cyclist press on the platform (21 fig 44) when his foot descends from the front, go from a crank position (112 fig 44 and 46) vertical upwards a crank position (112 fig 44 and 46) vertical down (fig 38) b) the platform automatically provides the possibility of pulling the platform to the high during the ascending phase of the pedaling cycle, when the crank (112 fig 44 and 46) changes from a vertical position down to a position vertical upwards when the shoe (the foot) goes up by (rear (fig 39), to condition the shoe is connected to the platform by technical elements appropriate, so as to make it possible to pull upwards on the crank (112 fig 44 and 46) ,.
said PEDAL DEVICE being CHARACTERIZED in this:

1-IT INCLUDES a rear positioning guide for the foot (111, fig 78) of 3 centimeters tall located on the inner side (the side of the platform closest to of the framework of bike) from the platform (21, fig 78) a few centimeters from the rear, mounted of such so that the heel of the shoe can touch it, the foot being removed by a withdrawal from outer side of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), like; in the case of a pedal, 2-IT INCLUDES a positioning guide before the foot (110, fig 78) of 3 centimeters height located on the inside front side of the platform (21, fig 78), having a curved shape and mounted in such a way that the part of the shoe containing the big toe touches this guide a few inches to the side interior front of the shoe and a distance of a few centimeters on the front of the shoe, just in front of the part of the shoe containing the big toe, 3-IT INCLUDES a rigid piece (25, fig 44 and 46), fitting the outline of the shoe (fig 44 and 46), mounted on the inside of the platform in position fixed, curvature of this part (25, fig 44 and 46) being the same as the curvature of the shoe so that the shoe, once in place on the platform; (21, fig 44 and 46), or held in a fixed position (the heel touching the platform), the portion of the shoe (28, fig 45) which is in contact with the part (2.5, fig 44 and 46) being that near the intersection of the shoe and the leg for a distance of 5 centimeters, the part (25, fig 44 and 46) being slightly curved upwards at its end upper to facilitate the insertion of the shoe (28), the part (25, fig 44 and 45) do not covering the outside of the foot so that the removal of the foot either too easy to perform as removing the foot from the outside of on a pedal, 4-IT INCLUDES an axle (26, fig 44) AND a shoe (28, fig 45) with a hole (27, fig 45) in the heel, said axle (26, fig 44) having 5 centimeters of length, being mounted in a fixed position on the rear positioning guide foot (111, fig 78) parallel to the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) and parallel to the axle (15, fig 44 and 46) mounted under the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), said axle (26, fig 44) being mounted at a height from the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) chosen in such a way that when the cyclist position its shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), said axle (26, fig 44 and 46) can be inserted into the hole (27, fig 45) of the heel of the shoe (28, fig 45), the heel of the shoe (28, fig 45) being in contact with the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) when the positioning of the shoe (28, fig 45) is completed, that is to say when the axle (26, fig 46) is fully inserted into the hole (27, fig 45) of the shoe (28, fig 45), the axis of said axle (26, fig 46) being located exactly in below the ankle rotation joint (1, fig 46) when the foot is in position horizontal (fig 46), this hole (27, fig 45) in the shoe (28, fig 45) being him too parallel to the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) and parallel to the axle (15, fig 44 and 46 when the positioning of the shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) is completed (the axle (26, fig 46) being fully inserted in the hole (27, fig 45)), said hole (27, fig 45) having the same dimensions as the axle (26, fig 44), or the same length and the same diameter (except for the opening of the hole), the opening of the hole (27, fig 45) being enlarged in the form of a funnel so to facilitate inserting the axle (26, fig 44 and 46) into the hole (27, fig 45) when the cyclist places his shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), 5-the mechanism for controlling the degree of inclination of the platform (21 fig 88) INCLUDED the following technical elements:
T1- an axle (109, fig 87) which is made up as follows:
a) the circular part (b, fig 87) of the axle (109, fig 87) turns freely in the part (b, fig 87) at the end of the crank which contains cylinders rolling (108, fig 87) (commonly called roller bearing) b) the square part of the axle (109, fig 87) is introduced into the square hole at the front of the platform (21) located under the platform;
c) the grooved part (a) of the axle (109 fig 87) is introduced into the part grooved (a) of the toothed cam (104 fig 87), allowing:
i) choose the degree of inclination of the platform (21 fig 87) in relation to to the toothed cam (104 fig 87), and ii) joining the toothed cam (104 fig 87), the axle (109 fig 87) and the platform (21 fig 87) as if it were a single rigid part, T2- a circular toothed wheel (103 fig 87 and 88) welded to the housing of the bottom bracket, this wheel that cannot turn: it is the chain (105 fig 87 and 88) which makes the tower of this wheel (103 fig 87 and 88) when the crankset turns;
T3- a cam (104 fig 87 and 88) (obviously not circular) having the same number of teeth (therefore same circumference) as the circular toothed wheel (103 fig 87 and 88), the cam (104 fig 87 and 88) and the circular toothed wheel (103 fig 87 and 88) being connected between them by a traction chain (105 fig 87 and 88) equipped with a tensor of spring chain (106, 107 fig 87 and 88), the relative position of the cam (104 fig 87 and 88) relative to the axle (109 fig 87 and 88) being chosen so as to get them desired numerical values for the variable angle (.theta., fig 76, 77 and 86);
2- A CRANKSET DEVICE comprising:
A) a platform (21, fig 44 and 46) supporting the entire underside of the shoe (therefore the foot), an axle (15, fig 44 and 46) being mounted under the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), the end of this axle being inserted at the end of the crank of the crankset (112, fig 44 and 46), where the pedal that was removed was previously, said axle (15, fig 44 and 46) being mounted under the platform (2l, fig 44 and 46) in position such that when the shoe (and therefore the foot) is placed on the platform (21fig46), the axis of said axle (15 fig 46) is directly below the articulation of the large toe (2, fig 46) just like it is also the case with a pedal conventional, the joint of the big toe (2, fig 7) to be placed normally directly at above the axis of rotation (the axle) of the pedal, when the foot is in position horizontal to the ground, B) a mechanism for controlling the degree of inclination of the platform (21 fig 44) by relation to the ground (angle .theta. variable, fig 76, 77 and 86), which allows to get a move of the platform (therefore of the foot) identical to the normal movement of the foot (angle .theta.
variable fig 76) when a pedal is used correctly the articulation of the large toe (2, fig 7) being directly above the axis of rotation (the axle) pedal), said mechanism for controlling the degree of inclination of the platform (21, fig 44) allowing to choose the variable numerical values of the angle .theta. (fig 76, 77 and 86) in such a way that the heel of the shoe is continuously in contact with the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) during a full 360 degree rotation of the crankset, which involves:
a) that the platform (21 fig 44) automatically provides support for the heel of the shoe during the Descending phase of the pedaling cycle, when the cyclist press on the platform (21 fig 44) when his foot descends from the front, go from a crank position (112 fig 44 and 46) vertical upwards a crank position (112 fig 44 and 46) vertical down (fig 38) b) the platform automatically provides the possibility of pulling the platform to the high during the ascending phase of the pedaling cycle, when the crank (112 fig 44 and 46) changes from a vertical position down to a position vertical upwards when the shoe (the foot) rises from the rear (fig 39), condition the shoe is connected to the platform by technical elements appropriate, so as to make it possible to pull upwards on the crank (112 fig 44 and 46) ,.
said PEDAL DEVICE being CHARACTERIZED in this:
1-IT INCLUDES a rear positioning guide for the foot (111, fig 78) of 3 centimeters tall located on the inner side (the side of the platform closest to of the framework of bike) from the platform (21, fig 78) a few centimeters from the rear, mounted of such so that the heel of the shoe can touch it, the foot being removed by a withdrawal from outer side of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), as in the case of a pedal, 2-IT INCLUDES a positioning guide before the foot (110, fig 78) of 3 centimeters height located on the inside front side of the platform (21, fig 78), having a curved shape and mounted in such a way that the part of the shoe containing the big toe touches this guide a few inches to the side interior front of the shoe and a distance of a few centimeters on the front of the shoe, just in front of the part of the shoe containing the big toe, 3-IT INCLUDES a rigid piece (25, fig 44 and 46), fitting the outline of the shoe (fig 44 and 46), mounted on the inside of the platform in position fixed, curvature of this part (25, fig 44 and 46) being the same as the curvature of the shoe so that the shoe, once in place on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), is held in a fixed position (the heel touching the platform), the portion of the shoe (28, fig 45) which is in contact with the part (25, fig 44 and 46) being that near the intersection of the shoe and the leg for a distance of 5 centimeters, the part (25, fig 44 and 46) being slightly curved upwards at its end upper to facilitate the insertion of the shoe (28), the part (25, fig 44 and 45) do not covering the outside of the foot so that the removal of the foot either too easy to perform as removing the foot from the outside of on a pedal, 4-IT INCLUDES an axle (26, fig 44) AND a shoe (28, fig 45) with a hole (27, fig 45) in the heel, said axle (26, fig 44) having 5 centimeters of length, being mounted in a fixed position on the rear positioning guide foot (111, fig 78) parallel to the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) and parallel to the axle (15, fig 44 and 46) mounted under the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), said axle (26, fig 44) being mounted at a height from the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) chosen in such a way that when the cyclist position its shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), said axle (26, fig 44 and 46) can be inserted into the hole (27, fig 45) of the heel of the shoe (28, fig 45), the heel of the shoe (28, fig 45) being in contact with the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) when the positioning of the shoe (28, fig 45) is completed, that is to say when the axle (26, fig 46) is fully inserted into the hole (27, fig 45) of the shoe (28, fig 45), the axis of said axle (26, fig 46) being located exactly in below the ankle rotation joint (1, fig 46) when the foot is in position horizontal (fig 46), this hole (27, fig 45) in the shoe (28, fig 45) being him too parallel to the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) and parallel to the axle (15, fig 44 and 46 when the positioning of the shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) is completed (the axle (26, fig 46) being fully inserted in the hole (27, fig 45)), said hole (27, fig 45) having the same dimensions as the axle (26, fig 44), or the same length and the same diameter (except for the opening of the hole), the opening of the hole (27, fig 45) being enlarged in the form of a funnel so to facilitate inserting the axle (26, fig 44 and 46) into the hole (27, fig 45) when the cyclist place his shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), 5-the mechanism for controlling the degree of inclination of the platform (21 fig 86) INCLUDED the following technical elements:
T1-of an irregularly curved piece (100 fig 86) forming part integral to the platform (21 fig 86), the bottom part of this part (100 fig 86) being mounted on the inner side of the platform (21 fig 86) in fixed position; the part of top of this part (100 fig 86) having a curvature such that, when the part of the high goes back and forth between the wheels (102 fig 86), we get the degree tilt variable of the platform that one wishes to have (angle .THETA. fig 86 and fig 76);
as the top part of the room (100 fig 86) always touches both wheels at the same time time it is obvious that it is of uniform width with regard to the portion the part (100 fig 86) which goes back and forth between the wheels (102 fig 86);
T2-two 3 cm radius wheels (102 fig 86) which come to rest on the two edges of the part (100 fig 86), these two small wheels (102 fig 86) being held together by two rectangular pieces (101 fig 86) located each side of the two wheels (102 fig 86) thanks to four axes of rotation (W fig 86, two of each side)), the rectangular piece (101 fig 86) located between the tube of the framework of bike and the two wheels (102 fig 86) being mounted by its center to the tube of the bike thanks to an axis of rotation (Z fig 86), which allows the combined part (101 and 102 fig 86) turn around the axis (Z fig 86) when the crankset turned, this allows to keep the tangent contact (90 degrees) between the of them wheels (102 fig 86) and the two edges of the part (100 fig 86) on which spin the wheels (102 fig 86).
3- A CRANKSET DEVICE comprising:
A) a platform (21, fig 44 and 46) supporting the entire underside of the shoe (therefore the foot), an axle (15, fig 44 and 46) being mounted under the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), the end of this axle being inserted at the end of the crank of the crankset (112, fig 44 and 46), where the pedal that was removed was previously, said axle (15, fig 44 and 46) being mounted under the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) in position such that when the shoe (and therefore the foot) is placed on the platform (21 fig46), the axis of said axle (15 fig 46) is directly below the articulation of the large toe (2, fig 46) just like it is also the case with a pedal conventional, the joint of the big toe (2, fig 7) to be placed normally directly at above the axis of rotation (the axle) of the pedal, when the foot is in position horizontal to the ground, B) a mechanism for controlling the degree of inclination of the platform (21 fig 44) by relation to the ground (angle .theta. variable, fig 76, 77 and 86), which allows to get a move of the platform (therefore of the foot) identical to the normal movement of the foot (angle .theta.
variable fig 76) when a pedal is used correctly (the articulation of the large toe (2, fig 7) being directly above the axis of rotation (the axle) pedal), said mechanism for controlling the degree of inclination of the platform (21, fig 44) allowing to choose the variable numerical values of the angle .theta. (fig 76, 77 and 86) in such a way that the heel of the shoe is continuously in contact with the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) during a full 360 degree rotation of the crankset, which involves:
a) that the platform (21 fig 44) automatically provides support for the heel of the shoe during the Descending phase of the pedaling cycle, when the cyclist press on the platform (21 fig 44) when his foot descends from the front, go from a crank position (112 fig 44 and 46) vertical upwards a crank position (112 fig 44 and 46) vertical down (fig 38) b) the platform automatically provides the possibility of pulling the platform to the high during the ascending phase of the pedaling cycle, when the crank (112 fig 44 and 46) changes from a vertical position down to a position vertical upwards when the shoe (the foot) rises from the rear (fig 39), condition the shoe is connected to the platform by technical elements appropriate, so as to make it possible to pull upwards on the crank (112 fig 44 and 46) ,.
this mechanism for controlling the degree of inclination of the platform (21, fig 44) including:
i) an axis of rotation (59, fig 80) mounted on a collar installed in position fixed around the horizontal tube from the bottom of the frame supporting the rear wheel;
ii) a crank (53, fig 79 and 80), the same length as the crank of the crankset (112 fig 78) always moving in parallel with the crank of the crankset (112 fig 78), this crank (53, fig 79 and 80)) freely rotating on the rotation (59 fig 80);
said PEDAL DEVICE being CHARACTERIZED in this:
1-IT INCLUDES a rear positioning guide for the foot (111, fig 78) of 3 centimeters tall located on the inner side (the side of the platform closest to of the framework of bike) from the platform (21, fig 78) a few centimeters from the rear, mounted of such so that the heel of the shoe can touch it, the foot being removed by a withdrawal from outer side of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), as in the case of a pedal, 2-IT INCLUDES a positioning guide before the foot (110, fig 78) of 3 centimeters height located on the inside front side of the platform (21, fig 78), having a curved shape and mounted in such a way that the part of the shoe containing the big toe touches this guide a few inches to the side interior front of the shoe and a distance of a few centimeters on the front of the shoe, just in front of the part of the shoe containing the big toe, 3-IT INCLUDES a rigid piece (25, fig 44 and 46), fitting the outline of the shoe (fig 44 and 46), mounted on the inside of the platform in position fixed, curvature of this part (25, fig 44 and 46) being the same as the curvature of the shoe so that the shoe, once in place on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), is held in a fixed position (the heel touching the platform), the portion of the shoe (28, fig 45) which is in contact with the part (25, fig 44 and 46) being that near the intersection of the shoe and the leg for a distance of 5 centimeters, the part (25, fig 44 and 46) being slightly curved upwards at its end upper to facilitate (insertion of the shoe (28), the part (25, fig 44 and 45) do not covering the outside of the foot so that the removal of the foot either too easy to perform as removing the foot from the outside of on a pedal, 4-IT INCLUDES an axle (26, fig 44) AND a shoe (28, fig 45) with a hole (27, fig 45) in the heel, said axle (26, fig 44) having 5 centimeters of length, being mounted in a fixed position on the rear positioning guide foot (111, fig 78) parallel to the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) and parallel to the axle (15, fig 44 and 46) mounted under the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), said axle (26, fig 44) being mounted at a height from the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) chosen in such a way that when the cyclist position its shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), said axle (26, fig 44 and 46) can be inserted into the hole (27, fig 45) of the heel of the shoe (28, fig 45), the heel of the shoe (28, fig 45) being in contact with the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) when the positioning of the shoe (28, fig 45) is completed, that is to say when (axle (26, fig 46) is fully inserted into the hole (27, fig 45) of the shoe (28, fig 45), the axis of said axle (26, fig 46) being located exactly in below the ankle rotation joint (1, fig 46) when the foot is in position horizontal (fig 46), this hole (27, fig 45) in the shoe (28, fig 45) being him too parallel to the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) and parallel to the axle (15, fig 44 and 46 when the positioning of the shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) is completed (the axle (26, fig 46) being fully inserted in the hole (27, fig 45)), said hole (27, fig 45) having the same dimensions as the axle (26, fig 44), or the same length and the same diameter (except for (opening of the hole), the opening of the hole (27, fig 45) being enlarged in the form of a funnel so to facilitate inserting the axle (26, fig 44 and 46) into the hole (27, fig 45) when the cyclist place his shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), 5-the mechanism for controlling the degree of inclination of the platform (21 fig 79) INCLUDED the following technical elements:
T1- a horizontal piece (54 fig 78, 79) connecting the ends of the top of the crank (53 fig 79 and 80) and the crank of the crankset, T2- a part (55 fig 80) comprising a hole with teeth fitting into the axis (60 fig 80) with similar teeth at the rotating end of the crank (53 fig 80); this part (55 fig 80) is therefore integral with the crank (53 fig 80) and the hole with teeth (55 fig 80) allows you to choose the angle between the parts (55 fig 80) and (53 fig 80), this angle remaining the same during the rotation of the mechanism;
T3- a straight piece (57 fig 80) which can be adjusted to the desired position in the slot (or groove) of the part (55, fig 80) by means of a small nut which crosses the element slide (57 fig 80) and the part (55 fig 80), which allows you to choose the length the combined part (55 plus 57 fig 80);
T4- a fixed axis of rotation at the end of the part (57 fig 80) which fits into the hole of the part (56, fig 80);
T5- a piece (58) which can be adjusted to the desired length in one way similar to the part (55 fig 80) in the slot (or groove) of the part (56, fig 80), which allow to choose the length of the combined part (56 plus 58 fig 80);
T6- a fixed axis of rotation at the end of the part (58 fig 80) which fits into a hole of fixed rotation located at the rear of the platform (21 fig 80).
4- A CRANKSET DEVICE comprising:
A) a platform (21, fig 44 and 46) supporting the entire underside of the shoe (therefore the foot), an axle (15, fig 44 and 46) being mounted under the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), (end of this axle fitting at the end of the crank of the crankset (112, fig 44 and 46), where the pedal that was removed was previously, said axle (15, fig 44 and 46) being mounted under the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) in position such that when the shoe (therefore the foot) is placed on the platform (21 fig46), the axis of said axle (15 fig 46) is directly below the articulation of the large toe (2, fig 46) just like it is also the case with a pedal conventional, the joint of the big toe (2, fig 7) to be placed normally directly at above the axis of rotation (the axle) of the pedal, when the foot is in position horizontal to the ground, B) a mechanism for controlling the degree of inclination of the platform (21 fig 44) by relative to the ground (angle .theta. variable, fig 76, 77 and 86), which allows to get a move of the platform (therefore of the foot) identical to the normal movement of the foot (angle .theta.
variable fig 76) when a pedal is used correctly (the articulation of the large toe (2, fig 7) being directly above the axis of rotation (the axle) pedal), said mechanism for controlling the degree of inclination of the platform (21, fig 44) allowing to choose the variable numerical values of the angle 8 (fig 76, 77 and 86) in such a way that the heel of the shoe continuously knows in contact with the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) during a full 360 degree rotation of the crankset, which involves:
a) that the platform (21 fig 44) automatically provides support for the heel of the shoe during the Descending phase of the pedaling cycle, when the cyclist press on the platform (21 fig 44) when his foot descends from the front, go from a crank position (112 fig 44 and 46) vertical upwards a crank position (112 fig 44 and 46) vertical down (fig 38) b) the platform automatically provides the possibility of pulling the platform to the high during the ascending phase of the pedaling cycle, when the crank (112 fig 44 and 46) changes from a vertical position down to a position vertical upwards when the shoe (the foot) rises from the back (fig 39), condition the shoe is connected to the platform by technical elements appropriate, so as to make it possible to pull upwards on the crank (112 fig 44 and 46) ,.
this mechanism for controlling the degree of inclination of the platform (21, fig 44) including:
a) an axis of rotation (65, fig 81) mounted on a collar (64 fig 81) installed in position fixed around the horizontal tube at the bottom of the frame supporting the rear wheel;
b) a crank (66, fig 81), the same length as the crank (112 fig 78) which rotates freely around the axis of rotation (65 fig 81), said PEDAL DEVICE being CHARACTERIZED in this:

1-IT INCLUDES a rear positioning guide for the foot (111, fig 78) of 3 centimeters tall located on the inner side (the side of the platform closest to of the framework of bike) from the platform (21, fig 78) a few centimeters from the rear, mounted of such so that the heel of the shoe can touch it, the foot being removed by a withdrawal from outer side of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), like; in the case of a pedal, 2-IT INCLUDES a positioning guide before the foot (110, fig 78) of 3 centimeters height located on the inside front side of the platform (21, fig 78), having a curved shape and mounted in such a way that the part of the shoe containing the big toe touches this guide a few inches to the side interior front of the shoe and a distance of a few centimeters on the front of the shoe, just in front of the part of the shoe containing the big toe, 3-IT INCLUDES a rigid piece (25, fig 44 and 46), fitting the outline of the shoe (fig 44 and 46), mounted on the inside of the platform in position fixed, curvature of this part (25, fig 44 and 46) being the same as the curvature of the shoe so that the shoe, once in place on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), is held in a fixed position (the heel touching the platform), the portion of the shoe (28, fig 45) which is in contact with the part (25, fig 44 and 46) being that near the intersection of the shoe and the leg for a distance of 5 centimeters, the part (25, fig 44 and 46) being slightly curved upwards at its end upper to facilitate the insertion of the shoe (28), the part (25, fig 44 and 45) do not covering the outside of the foot so that the removal of the foot either too easy to perform as removing the foot from the outside of on a pedal, 4-IT INCLUDES an axle (26, fig 44) AND a shoe (28, fig 45) with a hole (27, fig 45) in the heel, said axle (26, fig 44) having 5 centimeters of length, being mounted in a fixed position on the rear positioning guide foot (111, fig 78) parallel to the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) and parallel to the axle (15, fig 44 and 46) mounted under the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), said axle (26, fig 44) being mounted at a height from the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) chosen in such a way that when the cyclist position its shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), said axle (26, fig 44 and 46) can be inserted into the hole (27, fig 45) of the heel of the shoe (28, fig 45), 1st heel of the shoe (28, fig 45) being in contact with the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) when the positioning of the shoe (28, fig 45) is completed, that is to say when the axle (26, fig 46) is fully inserted into the hole (27, fig 45) of the shoe (28, fig 45), the axis of said axle (26, fig 46) being located exactly in below the ankle rotation joint (1, fig 46) when the foot is in position horizontal (fig 46), this hole (27, fig 45) in the shoe (28, fig 45) being him too parallel to the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) and parallel to the axle (15, fig 44 and 46 when the positioning of the shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) is completed (the axle (26, fig 46) being fully inserted in the hole (27, fig 45)), said hole (27, fig 45) having the same dimensions as the axle (26, fig 44), or the same length and the same diameter (except for the opening of the hole), the opening of the hole (27, fig 45) being enlarged in the form of a funnel so to facilitate inserting the axle (26, fig 44 and 46) into the hole (27, fig 45) when the cyclist place his shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), 5-the mechanism for controlling the degree of inclination of the platform (21 fig 81) INCLUDED the following technical elements:

T1- a toothed cam (67 fig 81), therefore non-circular, which is the same circumference as the circular gear (62 fig 81), both having the same number of teeth, said cam (67 fig 81) being welded to the inner end of the axle (65fig 81), the fixed end of the crank (66 fig 81) being welded to the end exterior of the axle (65 fig 81) so that the cam (67 fig 81), the axle (65 fig 81) and the crank (66 fig 81) are integral: when the crank (66 fig 81) turns, the cam (67 fig 81) rotates with the crank (66 fig 81), the axle (65 fig 81) who connect freely rotating in the top of the collar (64 fig 81);

T2- a toothed wheel (62) whose center coincides with the axis of rotation of the crankset, and which is integral (welded to) the crank,. the wheel (62 fig 81) turning with the pedal crank (112 fig 78); the toothed cam (67 fig 81) and the wheel toothed (62 fig 81) are activated in rotation by a traction chain (63 fig 81) who connects them;

T3- a rigid rod (68 fig 81), one end of which has a gasket rotation (70 fig 81) located at the rear of the platform (21 fig 81) and on the inside and which the other end has another rotation joint (69 fig 81) located at the end crank handle (66 fig 81).
5- A CRANKSET DEVICE comprising:
A) a platform (21, fig 44 and 46) supporting the entire underside of the shoe (therefore the foot), an axle (15, fig 44 and 46) being mounted under the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), the end of this axle being inserted at the end of the crank of the crankset (112, fig 44 and 46), where the pedal that was removed was previously, said axle (15, fig 44 and 46) being mounted under the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) in position such that when the shoe (and therefore the foot) is placed on the platform (21 fig46), the axis of said axle (15 fig 46) is directly below (articulation of the large toe (2, fig 46) just like it is also the case with a pedal conventional, the joint of the big toe (2, fig 7) to be placed normally directly at above the axis of rotation (the axle) of the pedal, when the foot is in position horizontal to the ground, B) a mechanism for controlling the degree of inclination of the platform (21 fig 44) by relative to the ground (angle .THETA. variable, fig 76, 77 and 86), which allows to get a move of the platform (therefore of the foot) identical to the normal movement of the foot (angle .THETA.
variable fig 76) when a pedal is used correctly (the articulation of the large toe (2, fig 7) being directly above the axis of rotation (the axle) pedal), said mechanism for controlling the degree of inclination of the platform (21, fig 44) allowing to choose the variable numerical values of the angle .THETA. (fig 76, 77 and 86) in such a way that the heel of the shoe is continuously in contact with the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) during a full 360 degree rotation of the crankset, which involves:
a) that the platform (21 fig 44) automatically provides support for the heel of the shoe during the Descending phase of the pedaling cycle, when the cyclist press on the platform (21 fig 44) when his foot descends from the front, go from a crank position (112 fig 44 and 46) vertical upwards a crank position (112 fig 44 and 46) vertical down (fig 38), b) the platform automatically provides the possibility of pulling the platform to the high during the ascending phase of the pedaling cycle, when the crank (112 fig 44 and 46) changes from a vertical position down to a position vertical upwards when the shoe (the foot) goes up by (rear (fig 39), to condition the shoe is connected to the platform by technical elements appropriate, so as to make it possible to pull upwards on the crank (112 fig 44 and 46) ,.
this mechanism for controlling the degree of inclination of the platform (21, fig 44) including:
a) an axis of rotation (88 fig 84) mounted on a collar installed in position fixed around the horizontal tube at the bottom of the frame supporting the rear wheel;
b) a crank (87, fig 84), the same length as the crank of the crankset (112 fig 78) which rotates freely around the axis of: rotation (88 fig 84), said PEDAL DEVICE being CHARACTERIZED in this:
1-IT INCLUDES a rear positioning guide for the foot (111, fig 78) of 3 centimeters tall located on the inside the closest side of the platform of the framework of bike) from the platform (21, fig 78) a few centimeters. from the back, mounted such so that the heel of the shoe can touch him, the pled being removed by a withdrawal from outer side of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), as in the case of a pedal, 2-IT INCLUDES a positioning guide before the foot (110, fig 78) of 3 centimeters height located on the inside front side of the platform (21, fig 78), having a curved shape and mounted in such a way that the part of the shoe containing the big toe touches this guide a few inches to the side interior front of the shoe and a distance of a few centimeters on the front of the shoe, just in front of the part of the shoe containing the big toe, 3-IT INCLUDES a rigid piece (25, fig 44 and 46), fitting the outline of the shoe (fig 44 and 46), mounted on the inside of the platform in position fixed, curvature of this part (25, fig 44 and 46) being the same as the curvature of the shoe so that the shoe, once in place on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), is held in a fixed position with the heel touching the platform), the portion of the shoe (28, fig 45) which is in contact with the part (25, fig 44 and 46) being that near the intersection of the shoe and the leg for a distance of 5 centimeters, the part (25, fig 44 and 46) being slightly curved upwards at its end upper to facilitate the insertion of the shoe (28), the part (25, fig 44 and 45) do not covering the outside of the foot so that the removal of the foot either too easy to perform as removing the foot from the outside of on a pedal, 4-IT INCLUDES an axle (26, fig 44) AND a shoe (28, fig 45) with a hole (27, fig 45) in the heel, said axle (26, fig 44) having 5 centimeters of length, being mounted in a fixed position on the rear positioning guide foot (111, fig 78) parallel to the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) and parallel to the axle (15, fig 44 and 46) mounted under the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), said axle (26, fig 44) being mounted at a height from the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) chosen in such a way that when the cyclist position its shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), said axle (26, fig 44 and 46) can be inserted into the hole (27, fig 45) of the heel of the shoe (28, fig 45), the heel of the shoe (28, fig 45) being in contact with the surface of the platform (21, fig44 and 46) when the positioning of the shoe (28, fig 45) is completed, that is to say when the axle (26, fig 46) is fully inserted into the hole (27, fig 45) of the shoe (28, fig 45), the axis of said axle (26, fig 46) being located exactly in below the ankle rotation joint (1, fig 46) when the foot is in position horizontal (fig 46), this hole (27, fig 45) in the shoe (28, fig 45) being him too parallel to the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) and parallel to the axle (15, fig 44 and 46 when the positioning of the shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) is completed the axle (26, fig 46) being fully inserted in the hole (27, fig 45)), said hole (27, fig 45) having the same dimensions as the axle (26, fig 44), or the same length and the same diameter (except for the opening of the hole), the opening of the hole (27, fig 45) being enlarged in the form of a funnel so to facilitate inserting the axle (26, fig 44 and 46) into the hole (27, fig 45) when the cyclist place his shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), 5-the mechanism for controlling the degree of inclination of the platform (21 fig 84) INCLUDED the following technical elements:
T1- a rigid part (89 fig 84) comprising a bend (in the shape of an inverted L
), the so-called part (89 fig 84) comprising 3 rotation seals (90, 91 and 92 fig 84), T2- a crank (85 fig 84) one end of which turns freely around a seal of rotation (86 fig 84) coinciding with the axis of the bitter wheel of the bicycle, but regardless of this axis of rotation of the rear wheel of the bicycle (the rotation of the rear wheel of the bicycle having no influence on the free movement of the crank (85 fig 84)), T3- the rotation joint (90 fig 84) located at the end of the part (89 fig 84) is mounted on an axis of rotation located at the movable end of the crank (85 fig 84), T4- the rotation joint (92 fig 84) located at the other end of the part (89 fig 84) is mounted on an axis of rotation located at the rear of the platform (21 fig 84) on the side inside the platform (21 fig 84), T5- the rotation joint (91 fig 84) located on the elbow of the part (89 fig 84} is mounted on a rotation axis located on the movable end of the crank (87 fig 84) T6- the exact triangular position of the 3 rotation joints (90, 91 and 92 fig 84) on the part (89 fig 84) and the length of the crank (85 fig 84) being chosen of such so that when the crank (87 fig 84) makes a full turn, the crank (85 fig84) do not do a full turn but rather back and forth (the angles .alpha.1 and .alpha.2 fig 84) with respect to the imaginary vertical line (V fig 84).
6- A CRANKSET DEVICE comprising:
A) a platform (21, fig 44 and 46) supporting the entire underside of the shoe (therefore the foot), an axle (15, fig 44 and 46) being mounted under the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), the end of this axle being inserted at the end of the crank of the crankset (112, fig 44 and 46), where the pedal that was removed was previously, said axle (15, fig 44 and 46) being mounted under the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) in position such that when the shoe (and therefore the foot) is placed on the platform (21fig46), the axis of said axle (15 fig 46) is directly below the articulation of the large toe (2, fig 46) just like it is also the case with a pedal conventional, the joint of the big toe (2, fig 7) to be placed normally directly at above the axis of rotation (the axle) of the pedal, when the foot is in position horizontal to the ground, B) a mechanism for controlling the degree of inclination of the platform (21 fig 44) by relation to the ground (angle .theta. variable, fig 76, 77 and 86), which allows to get a move of the platform (therefore of the foot) identical to the normal movement of the foot (angle .theta.
variable fig 76) when a pedal is used correctly (the articulation of the large toe (2, fig 7) being directly above the axis of rotation (the axle) pedal), said mechanism for controlling the degree of inclination of the platform (21, fig 44) allowing to choose the variable numerical values of the angle .theta. (fig 76, 77 and 86) in such a way that the heel of the shoe is continuously in contact with the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) during a full 360 degree rotation of the crankset, which involves:
a) that the platform (21 fig 44) automatically provides support for the heel of the shoe during the Descending phase of the pedaling cycle, when the cyclist press on the platform (21 fig 44) when his foot descends from the front, go from a crank position (112 fig 44 and 46) vertical upwards a crank position (112 fig 44 and 46) vertical down (fig 38) b) the platform automatically provides the possibility of pulling the platform to the high during the Ascending phase of the pedaling cycle, when the crank (112 fig 44 and 46) changes from a vertical position down to a position vertical upwards when the shoe (the foot) rises from the rear (fig 39), condition the shoe is connected to the platform by technical elements appropriate, so as to make it possible to pull upwards on the crank (112 fig 44 and 46) ,.
said PEDAL DEVICE being CHARACTERIZED in this:
1-IT INCLUDES a rear positioning guide for the foot (111, fig 78) of 3 centimeters tall located on the inner side (the side of the platform closest to of the framework of bike) from the platform (21, fig 78) a few centimeters from the rear, mounted of such so that the heel of the shoe can touch it, the foot being removed by a withdrawal from outer side of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), as in the case of a pedal, 2-IT INCLUDES a positioning guide before the foot (110, fig 78) of 3 centimeters height located on the inside front side of the platform (21, fig 78), having a curved shape and mounted in such a way that the part of the shoe containing the big toe touches this guide a few inches to the side interior front of the shoe and a distance of a few centimeters on the front of the shoe, just in front of the part of the shoe containing the big toe, 3-IT INCLUDES a rigid piece (25, fig 44 and 46), fitting the outline of the shoe (fig 44 and 46), mounted on the inside of the platform in position fixed, curvature of this part (25, fig 44 and 46) being the same as the curvature of the shoe so what the shoe, once in place on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), is held in a fixed position (the heel touching the platform), the portion of the shoe (28, fig 45) which is in contact with the part (25, fig 44 and 46) being that near the intersection of the shoe and the leg for a distance of 5 centimeters, the part (25, fig 44 and 46) being slightly curved upwards at its end upper to facilitate the insertion of the shoe (28), the part (25, fig 44 and 45) do not covering the outside of the foot so that the removal of the foot either too easy to perform as removing the foot from the outside of on a pedal, 4-IT INCLUDES an axle (26, fig 44) AND a shoe (28, fig 45) with a hole (27, fig 45) in the heel, said axle (26, fig 44) having 5 centimeters of length, being mounted in a fixed position on the rear positioning guide foot (111, fig 78) parallel to the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) and parallel to the axle (15, fig 44 and 46) mounted under the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), said axle (26, fig 44) being mounted at a height from the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) chosen in such a way that when the cyclist position its shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), said axle (26, fig 44 and 46) can be inserted into the hole (27, fig 45) of the heel of the shoe (28, fig 45), the heel of the shoe (28, fig 45) being in contact with the surface of the platform (21, fig44 and 46) when the positioning of the shoe (28, fig 45) is completed, that is to say when the axle (26, fig 46) is fully inserted into the hole (27, fig 45) of the shoe (28, fig 45), the axis of said axle (26, fig 46) being located exactly in below the ankle rotation joint (1, fig 46) when the foot is in position horizontal (fig 46), this hole (27, fig 45) in the shoe. (28, fig 45) being him too parallel to the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) and parallel to (axle (15, fig44 and 46) when the positioning of the shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) is completed (the axle (26, fig 46) being fully inserted in the hole (27, fig 45)), said hole (27, fig 45) having the same dimensions as the axle (26, fig 44), or the same length and the same diameter (except for the opening of the hole), the opening of the hole (27, fig 45) being enlarged in the form of a funnel so to facilitate inserting the axle (26, fig 44 and 46) into the hole (27, fig 45) when the cyclist place his shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), 5-the mechanism for controlling the degree of inclination of the platform (21 fig 85) INCLUDED the following technical elements:
T1- a part (93 fig 85) mounted in a fixed position along the bottom tube of the frame supporting the rear wheel, this part (93 fig 85) having a groove the interior of which a wheel (94 fig 85) can turn while going and come along the groove, said groove being in a straight line, T2- a rigid rod (95 fig 85), one end of this rigid rod (95 fig 85) carrying a rotation joint mounted on the axis of rotation of the wheel (94 fig 85), the other end rigid rod (95 fig 85) carrying a rotation joint mounted on an axis of rotation (99 fig 85) located at the rear of the platform (21 fig 85) on the inside, T3- another rigid rod (96 fig 85), one end of which carries a gasket rotation (97 fig 85) mounted on a fixed axis of rotation located at the front of the piece (93 fig 85) just before the start of the groove, the other end (mobile) of the rigid rod (96 fig 85) also carrying a rotation joint (98 fig 85) mounted on a axis of rotation located in a fixed position on the rigid rod (95 fig 85) at center rigid rod (95 fig 85).

7- A CRANKSET DEVICE comprising:
A) a platform (21, fig 44 and 46) supporting the entire underside of the shoe (therefore the foot), an axle (15, fig 44 and 46) being mounted under the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), the end of this axle being inserted at the end of the crank of the crankset (112, fig 44 and 46), where the pedal that was removed was previously, said axle (15, fig 44 and 46) being mounted under the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) in position such that when the shoe (and therefore the foot) is placed on the platform (21fig46), the axis of said axle (15 fig 46) is directly below the articulation of the large toe (2, fig 46) just like it is also the case with a pedal conventional, the joint of the big toe (2, fig 7) to be placed normally directly at above the axis of rotation (the axle) of the pedal, when the foot is in position horizontal to the ground, B) a mechanism for controlling the degree of inclination of the platform (21 fig 44) by relation to the ground (angle .theta. variable, fig 76, 77 and 86), which allows to get a move of the platform (therefore of the foot) identical to the normal movement of the foot (angle .theta.
variable fig 76) when a pedal is used correctly (the articulation of the large toe (2, fig 7) being directly above the axis of rotation (the axle) pedal), said mechanism for controlling the degree of inclination of the platform (21, fig 44) allowing to choose the variable numerical values of the angle .THETA. (fig 76, 77 and 86) in such a way that the heel of the shoe is continuously in contact with the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) during a full 360 degree rotation of the crankset, which involves:
a) that the platform (21 fig 44) automatically provides support for the heel of the shoe during the Descending phase of the pedaling cycle, when the cyclist press on the platform (21 fig 44) when his foot descends from the front, go from a crank position (112 fig 44 and 46) vertical upwards a crank position (112 fig 44 and 46) vertical down (fig 38) b) the platform automatically provides the possibility of pulling the platform to the high during the ascending phase of the pedaling cycle, when the crank (112 fig 44 and 46) changes from a vertical position down to a position vertical upwards when the shoe (the foot) goes up by the rear (fig 39), condition the shoe is connected to the platform by technical elements appropriate, so as to make it possible to pull upwards on the crank (112 fig 44 and 46) ,.
said PEDAL DEVICE being CHARACTERIZED in this:
1-IT INCLUDES a rear positioning guide for the foot (111, fig 78) of 3 centimeters tall located on the inner side (the side of the platform closest to of the framework of bike) from the platform (21, fig 78) a few centimeters from the rear, mounted of such so that the heel of the shoe can touch it, the foot being removed by a withdrawal from outer side of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), as in the case of a pedal, 2-IT INCLUDES a positioning guide before the foot (110, fig 78) of 3 centimeters height located on the inside front side of the platform (21, fig 78), having a curved shape and mounted in such a way that the part of the shoe containing the big toe touches this guide a few inches to the side interior front of the shoe and a distance of a few centimeters on the front of the shoe, just in front of the part of the shoe containing the big toe, 3-IT INCLUDES a rigid piece (25, fig 44 and 46), fitting the outline of the shoe (fig 44 and 46), mounted on the inside of the platform in position fixed, curvature of this part (25, fig 44 and 46) being the same as the curvature of the shoe so what the shoe, once in place on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), is held in a fixed position (the heel touching the platform), the portion of the shoe (28, fig 45) which is in contact with the part (25, fig 44 and 46) being that near (intersection of shoe and leg over a distance of 5 centimeters, the part (25, fig 44 and 46) being slightly curved upwards at its end upper to facilitate the insertion of the shoe (28), the part (25, fig 44 and 45) do not covering the outside of the foot so that the removal of the foot either too easy to perform as removing the foot from the outside of on a pedal, 4-IT INCLUDES an axle (26, fig 44) AND a shoe (28, fig 45) with a hole (27, fig 45) in the heel, said axle (26, fig 44) having 5 centimeters of length; being mounted in a fixed position on the rear positioning guide foot (111, fig 78) parallel to the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) and parallel to the axle (15, fig 44 and 46) mounted under the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), said axle (26, fig 44) being mounted at a height of the. surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) chosen in such a way that when the cyclist position its shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), said axle (26, fig 44 and 46) can be inserted into the hole (27, fig 45) of the heel of the shoe (28, fig 45), the heel of the shoe (28, fig 45) being in contact with the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) when the positioning of the shoe (28, fig 45) is completed, that is to say when the axle (26, fig 46) is fully inserted into the hole (27, fig 45) of the shoe (28, fig 45), the axis of said axle (26, fig 46) being located exactly in below the ankle rotation joint (1, fig 46) when the foot is in position horizontal (fig 46), this hole (27, fig 45) in the shoe (28, fig 45) being him too parallel to the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) and parallel to the axle (15, fig 44 and 46 when the positioning of the shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) is completed (the axle (26, fig 46) being fully inserted in the hole (27, fig 45)), said hole (27, fig 45) having the same dimensions as the axle (26, fig 44), or the same length and the same diameter (except for the opening of the hole), the opening of the hole (27, fig 45) being enlarged in the form of a funnel so to facilitate inserting the axle (26, fig 44 and 46) into the hole (27, fig 45) when the cyclist place his shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), 5-the mechanism for controlling the degree of inclination of the platform (21 fig 83) INCLUDED the following technical elements:
T1- a collar (83 fig 83) surrounds the tube at the bottom of the frame in a fixed position, this collar (83 fig 83) being of a length equal to the width of the cam (78 fig 83) such that measured along the bottom tube of the frame, T2- a cam (non-circular) (78 fig 83) carrying a groove on its circumference at the interior of which rotates a wheel (82 fig 83); this cam (78 fig 83) being mounted in a fixed position on the collar (83 fig 83), T3- the wheel (82 fig 83) turns on an axis formed by the bent part of the down the rod (81 fig 83), the bent part of the top of the rod (81 fig 83) being meaning reverse of the bent part at the bottom (which carries the wheel (82 fig 83)), the part cubit from the top of the rod (81 fig 83) fitting into an axis of rotation (84 fig 83) located at the back of the platform (21 fig 83), the angled piece at both ends (81 fig 83) back and forth inside a cylindrical hole on the top of the part (79 fig 83), this cylindrical hole being integral with the part (79 fig 83), this part (79 fig 83) revolving around a fixed turnover tax (80 fig 83) located in the appropriate place on the cam (78 fig 83), so as to obtain the values numerical values desired for the variable angle .THETA. (fig 76, 77 and 86).

8- A CRANKSET DEVICE comprising a platform (21, fig 56) supporting the entire bottom of the shoe, said PEDAL DEVICE being CHARACTERIZED in this:
1-IT INCLUDES a rear positioning guide for the foot (111, fig 78) of 3 centimeters tall located on the inner side (the side of the platform closest to of the framework of bike) from the platform (21, fig 78) a few centimeters from the rear, mounted of such so that the heel of the shoe can touch it, the foot being removed by a withdrawal from outer side of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), as in the case of a pedal, 2-IT INCLUDES a positioning guide before the foot (110, fig 78) of 3 centimeters height located on the inside front side of the platform (21, fig 78), having a curved shape and mounted in such a way that the part of the shoe containing the big toe touches this guide a few inches to the side interior front of the shoe and a distance of a few centimeters on the front of the shoe, just in front of the part of the shoe containing the big toe, 3-IT INCLUDES a rigid piece (25, fig 44 and 46), fitting the outline of the shoe (fig 44 and 46), mounted on the inside of the platform in position fixed, curvature of this part (25, fig 44 and 46) being the same as the curvature of the shoe so that the shoe, once in place on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), is held in a fixed position (the heel touching the platform), the portion of the shoe (28, fig 45) which is in contact with the part (25, fig 44 and 46) being that near the intersection of the shoe and the leg for a distance of 5 centimeters, the part (25, fig 44 and 46) being slightly curved upwards at its end upper to facilitate the insertion of the shoe (28), the part (25, fig 44 and 45) do not covering the outside of the foot so that the removal of the foot either too easy to perform as removing the foot from the outside of on a pedal, 4-IT INCLUDES a rigid triangle with one side (37, fig 56) mounted in position fixed at the back of the platform (21, fig 56) on the inside, the other side (38, fig 56) of rigid triangle being mounted in a fixed position in the center of the interior side of the platform, 5-IT INCLUDES a rigid piece (40, fig 56) in the shape of L whose part vertical east mounted in a fixed position at the intersection of the sides of the rigid triangle (37, 38-fig 56), 6-IT INCLUDES a part (39, fig 58) with a hole, said part (39) rotating freely in the axis (15, fig 59)) of the crank end of the crankset, where it was before the pedal that has been removed, the vertical part of the rigid part (40, fig 56) fit L fitting into the hole of said part (39, fig58), 7-IT INCLUDES a low compression spring (41, fig 56) inserted along the part vertical of the L-shaped rigid part (40, fig 56), between the intersection of sides (37, 38 fig 59) and the top of the hole in the part (39, fig 59), the piece (39, fig 58) going back and forth by sliding along the vertical part of the room rigid (40, fig 59) L-shaped, depending on whether the spring compresses (41, fig 59) during the downward phase (fig 38) or relax (41, fig 56) during the phase during the ascending phase (fig 39), 8-IT INCLUDES a shoe (28, fig 45) with a hole (27, fig 45) in the heel, the horizontal part of the rigid part (40, fig 56) being inserted in the the hole (27, fig 45) of said shoe (28, fig 45), in such a way that the heel of the shoe (28, fig 45) is continuously in contact with the platform (21, fig 56) during the descending phase (fig 38, 59 and 60) AND ascending (fig 39, 56 and 57), said hole (27, fig 45) having the same dimensions as the horizontal part of the room rigid (40, fig 56) L-shaped, the same length and the same diameter (except in regarding the opening of the hole), the opening of said hole (27, fig 45) being enlarged funnel-shaped to facilitate the insertion of the horizontal part of the room rigid (40, fig 56) in the hole (27, fig 45) when the cyclist places his shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 56).

9- A CRANKSET DEVICE comprising a platform (21, fig 72, 73, 74 and 75) supporting the entire bottom of the shoe (and therefore the foot), said PEDAL DEVICE being CHARACTERIZED in this:
1-IT INCLUDES a rear positioning guide for the foot (111, fig 78) of 3 centimeters tall located on the inner side (the side of the platform closest to of the framework of bike) from the platform (21, fig 78) a few centimeters from the rear, mounted of such so that the heel of the shoe can touch it, the foot being removed by a withdrawal from outer side of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), as in the case of a pedal, 2-IT INCLUDES a positioning guide before the foot (110, fig 78) of 3 centimeters height located on the inside front side of the platform (21, fig 78), having a curved shape and mounted in such a way that the part of the shoe containing the big toe touches this guide a few inches to the side interior front of the shoe and a distance of a few centimeters on the front of the shoe, just in front of the part of the shoe containing the big toe, 3-IT INCLUDES a rigid piece (25, fig 44 and 46 and 25, fig 75), fitting the outline of the shoe (fig 44 and 46), mounted on the inside of the platform position fixed, the curvature of this part (25, fig 44 and 46) being the same as the curvature of the shoe so that the shoe, once in place on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), either kept in a fixed position (the heel touching the platform), the portion of the shoe (28, fig 45) which is in contact with the part (25, fig 44 and 46) being that near the intersection of the shoe and the leg for a distance of 5 centimeters, the part (25, fig 44 and 46) being slightly curved upwards at its end upper to facilitate the insertion of the shoe (28), the part (25, fig 44 and 45) do not covering the outside of the foot so that the removal of the foot either too easy to perform as removing the foot from the outside of on a pedal, 4-IT INCLUDES an axle (26, fig 44) AND a shoe (28, fig 45) with a hole (27, fig 45) in the heel, said axle (26, fig 44) having 5 centimeters of length, being mounted in a fixed position on the rear positioning guide foot (111, fig 78) parallel to the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) and parallel to the axle (15, fig 44 and 46) mounted under the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), said axle (26, fig 44) being mounted at a height from the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) chosen in such a way that when the cyclist position its shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), said axle (26, fig 44 and 46) can be inserted into the hole (27, fig 45) of the heel of the shoe (28, fig 45), the heel of the shoe (28, fig 45) being in contact with the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) when the positioning of the shoe (28, fig 45) is completed, that is to say when the axle (26, fig 46) is fully inserted into the hole (27, fig 45) of the shoe (28, fig 45), the axis of said axle (26, fig 46) being located exactly in below the ankle rotation joint (1, fig 46) when the foot is in position horizontal (fig 46), this hole (27, fig 45) in the shoe (28, fig 45) being him too parallel to the surface of the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) and parallel to the axle (15, fig 44 and 46 when the positioning of the shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46) is completed (the axle (26, fig 46) being fully inserted in the hole (27, fig 45)), said hole (27, fig 45) having the same dimensions as the axle (26, fig 44), or the same length and the same diameter (except for the opening of the hole), the opening of the hole (27, fig 45) being enlarged in the form of a funnel so to facilitate inserting the axle (26, fig 44 and 46) into the hole (27, fig 45) when the cyclist place his shoe (28, fig 45) on the platform (21, fig 44 and 46), 5-IT INCLUDES a rigid piece in the shape of a deformed Z (fig 74) which is mounted in fixed position under the platform (21, fig 74) and is therefore integral with the platform, 6-It INCLUDES a rectangular base (50, fig 72 and 73), said base rectangular with 2 vertical rigid rods (s1 and s2, fig 72 and 73) mounted in position fixed at the front of the rectangular base (50, fig 72 and 73), two other rods rigid vertical (s3 and s4, fig 72 and 73) being mounted similarly at once at the rear of the platform, and two more (s5 and s6, fig 72 and 73) being mounted again similarly to the back of the rectangular base (50, fig 72 and 73), each of these pairs of vertical rods (s1 + s2, s3 + s4, s5 + s6) bearing at their end from the top a horizontal axis of rotation on which 2 wheels are mounted gear in fixed position (44 and 47 for s1 + s2, 46 and 48 for s3 + s4, 51 and 52 for s5 + s6, fig 73), each of these pairs of gear wheels being integral with one of the other (they rotate together), a traction chain (ch47, fig 73) connecting together the gear wheels (47 and 52, fig 73), another traction chain (ch48, fig 73) connecting together the gear wheels (48 and 51, fig 73), the wheel back of bicycle (symbolized by wheel 49) turning (always in the same direction) when a either of the two gear wheels (51 or 52, fig 72 and 73) turns, the wheels gears (51 and 52, fig 72 and 73) always rotating in the same direction, 7-IT INCLUDES four steel rods (t1, t2, t3 and t4, fig 72 and 73) mounted vertically on the base (50, fig 72 and 73) in fixed position (in position rectangular seen from above, a rod at each corner of a rectangle) 8-IN INCLUDED a cubic steel shape (empty inside) (42, fig 72 and 73), said cubic shape comprising 4 rectangular holes (one at the top, the other at low, another on the front and one on the back) as well as 4 vertical holes of the 4 corners going from top to bottom vertically, in these 4 holes fitting the 4 stems of steel (t1, t2, t3 and t4, fig 72 and 73), the cubic shape of steel (42, fig 72 and 73) can slide freely (from top to bottom and from bottom to top) along the four steel rods (t1, t2, t3 and t4, fig 72 and 73), the deformed Z-shaped part fixed under the platform (21, fig 74) moving back and forth (from top to bottom and from bottom to high) inside the steel cubic shape (42, fig 72 and 73) thanks to the 2 holes rectangular drilled at the top and bottom of the steel cubic shape (42, fig 73), two springs (r1 and r2, fig 72) being inserted in the two vertical parts of the room in the shape of a deformed Z fixed under the platform (fig 74), these two springs (r1 and r2) alternately compressing and relaxing while the Z-shaped part deformed fixed under the platform swings back and forth from bottom to top and from top down at the inside of the steel cubic shape (42, fig 72 and 73), 9-IT INCLUDES a T-shaped piece (43, fig 72) whose vertical part door clutch teeth which can be inserted into those of the wheel (44, fig 73), the horizontal part of the part (43, fig 72) which can slide in one movement back and forth in the hole on the front side of the cubic shape (42, fig 72) and wears a compression spring (r3, fig 72) which holds the vertical part of the part (43, fig 72) supported on the side of the cubic shape (42, fig 72) when the end inclined of this part (43, fig 72) is not in contact with the portion tilted from the deformed Z-shaped part fixed under the platform (fig 74), 10-IT INCLUDES a T-shaped piece (45, fig 72) whose vertical part door clutch teeth which can be inserted into those of the wheel (46, fig 73), the horizontal part of the part (45, fig 72) which can slide in one movement back and forth in the hole on the back side of the cubic shape (42, fig 72) and door a compression spring (r4, fig 72) which holds the vertical part of the piece (45, fig 72) supported on the side of the cubic shape (42, fig 72) when the end inclined of this part (45, fig 72) is not in contact with the portion tilted from the deformed Z-shaped part fixed under the platform (fig 74).
CA002352977A 1998-11-10 1999-11-03 Crankset device Withdrawn CA2352977A1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CA2,253,014 1998-11-10
CA002253014A CA2253014A1 (en) 1998-11-10 1998-11-10 Proof that the contraction of the calf cannot increase pressure on the pedal and mechanisms capitalizing on this fundamental discovery
PCT/CA1999/001020 WO2000027690A1 (en) 1998-11-10 1999-11-03 Crankset device
CA002352977A CA2352977A1 (en) 1998-11-10 1999-11-03 Crankset device

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CA002352977A CA2352977A1 (en) 1998-11-10 1999-11-03 Crankset device

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
CA2352977A1 true CA2352977A1 (en) 2000-05-18

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CA002352977A Withdrawn CA2352977A1 (en) 1998-11-10 1999-11-03 Crankset device

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CA (1) CA2352977A1 (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2014094174A1 (en) 2012-12-21 2014-06-26 Proto Fab Inc. Crankset and method for transfering power in a crankset

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2014094174A1 (en) 2012-12-21 2014-06-26 Proto Fab Inc. Crankset and method for transfering power in a crankset
EP2934996B1 (en) * 2012-12-21 2020-05-06 Proto Fab Inc. Crankset and method for transfering power in a crankset
US10710673B2 (en) 2012-12-21 2020-07-14 Proto Fab Inc. Crankset and method for transfering power in a crankset

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