CA2345197C - Bridge structure with concrete deck having precast slab - Google Patents

Bridge structure with concrete deck having precast slab Download PDF

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Publication number
CA2345197C
CA2345197C CA 2345197 CA2345197A CA2345197C CA 2345197 C CA2345197 C CA 2345197C CA 2345197 CA2345197 CA 2345197 CA 2345197 A CA2345197 A CA 2345197A CA 2345197 C CA2345197 C CA 2345197C
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CA
Canada
Prior art keywords
slabs
deck
support beams
slab
reinforcement bars
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
CA 2345197
Other languages
French (fr)
Other versions
CA2345197A1 (en
Inventor
Steven Robert Bot
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Bot Construction Ltd
Original Assignee
Bot Construction Ltd
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Filing date
Publication date
Priority to CA2,306,295 priority Critical
Priority to CA002306295A priority patent/CA2306295A1/en
Application filed by Bot Construction Ltd filed Critical Bot Construction Ltd
Priority to CA 2345197 priority patent/CA2345197C/en
Publication of CA2345197A1 publication Critical patent/CA2345197A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CA2345197C publication Critical patent/CA2345197C/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B5/00Floors; Floor construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B5/16Load-carrying floor structures wholly or partly cast or similarly formed in situ
    • E04B5/32Floor structures wholly cast in situ with or without form units or reinforcements
    • E04B5/36Floor structures wholly cast in situ with or without form units or reinforcements with form units as part of the floor
    • E04B5/38Floor structures wholly cast in situ with or without form units or reinforcements with form units as part of the floor with slab-shaped form units acting simultaneously as reinforcement; Form slabs with reinforcements extending laterally outside the element
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E01CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, RAILWAYS, OR BRIDGES
    • E01DCONSTRUCTION OF BRIDGES, ELEVATED ROADWAYS OR VIADUCTS; ASSEMBLY OF BRIDGES
    • E01D19/00Structural or constructional details of bridges
    • E01D19/12Grating or flooring for bridges; Fastening railway sleepers or tracks to bridges
    • E01D19/125Grating or flooring for bridges
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B5/00Floors; Floor construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B5/02Load-carrying floor structures formed substantially of prefabricated units
    • E04B5/04Load-carrying floor structures formed substantially of prefabricated units with beams or slabs of concrete or other stone-like material, e.g. asbestos cement
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E01CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, RAILWAYS, OR BRIDGES
    • E01DCONSTRUCTION OF BRIDGES, ELEVATED ROADWAYS OR VIADUCTS; ASSEMBLY OF BRIDGES
    • E01D2101/00Material constitution of bridges
    • E01D2101/20Concrete, stone or stone-like material
    • E01D2101/24Concrete
    • E01D2101/26Concrete reinforced

Abstract

A precast concrete slab for forming a deck in a bridge superstructure has a chamfer on forward and trailing edges so that adjacent slabs can mate. The slab is reinforced with bars which protrude laterally from the slab on opposite sides and which, in use, extend over support beams. Selected bars are formed in a castellated shape of which inverted U-shaped portions extend above the surface of the precast concrete slab. Conveniently, the U-shaped portions anchor a concrete topping which is poured over the slabs at a bridge site and also provide locations for hooking a crane used to transport the slab at a site.

Description

BRIDGE STRUCTURE WJf'I'H CU~TCRETE
DECK HAV'~1G PRECAST S1~AR
Field of the I»,vention [0001] This invention relates to a bridge superstructure, and more particularly relates to the construction of a concrete deck made of precast concrete slabs and which rest on a series of precast concrete beams or steel girders _Back~roumd of the Invention [0002] Typically, the construction of bridges is a time consuming task where precast concrete support beams or steel girders are erected on location and customized form work is created between the beams in order to support concrete to be poured onto the form work. To sorx~e extent, the form work which is made from Wood beams and plywood may be pre-fabricated but all the components must be trimmed to their final dimensions and assembled on location. After the poured concrete deck has set, the fon~n work is removed.
In order to minimize the danger of ixaaterials falling from scaffolding onto an underlying roadvs~ay and to minimize disruptions to traffic flow, such form work is typically erected and dis~nnantled at night When the roadway is less busy and the roadway may be closed to general circulation.
[0003] A system for building a concrete deck with precast concrete slabs is described in US Patent Number 4,604,841. The slabs are reinforced with prestressed reinforcement rods which must extend throughout the width of the deck across support beams and through adjacent slabs_ Because the precast slabs and prestressed rod system is unwieldy, the inv~ntioz~
described in US Patent Number 4,604,841 proposes a precast slab having a width which corresponds to the width of the bridge and which has prestressed reinforcement rods extending throughout the width of the precast slab. The sheer size of such a slab is in itself a deterrent to its use since it is very heavy and difficult to manipulate.
[0004] Another problem which is encountered with decks constructed with precast slabs occurs at the joint between slabs placed end to end along the length of the bridge.
Because of imperkections inherent in pouring concrete, and the likelihood of slabs becoming dazziaged during transportation, particularly at the bottom edges of slabs having large dizzxensiotls, the forward and trailing edges often do not mate. As a result, some form of sealant must be ~2-applied to the joints between slabs before pouring a concrete topping to build the deck to the reduired thickness.
(0005] An object o~this invention is to sizxiplify the construction of a bridge superstructure in order to minimize the time required for creatazlg a concrete deck and to minimize the safety hazards to both the patrons using the roadway and the personnel who erect such structures, usually at night, when visibility is poor.
Summary of the Invention [0006] In accordance with this invention, there is provided a precast concrete slab which is dimerisioned to locate between beams and which is reinforced with steel rods at predetermined spaced locations, a selected number of said reinforcement bars extending upwardly above the surface of the precast concrete slab to define anchors for securing a concrete topping to be poured onto the precast concrete slab.
[0007] The reinforcement bars comprising said anchors are preferably bezxt ir<to a castellated shape o~ which invented U-shaped portions extend above the sur~aee of the precast coz~erete slab.
[0008] Preferably, the slabs are shaped to abut on each other end tv end and have chamfered bottom edges to ensure mating ofthe upper edges on slabs disposed adjacent tv one another.
[0009] In accordance with another aspect of the invention, a bridge is constructed by first erecting support beams at predetermined spaced locations and by placing screed adjusters comprising high density expanded polystyrene foam strips along opposed lateral edges of the support beams, locating precast slabs made according to the invention oz~ said screed adjusters to bridge the spaces defined between the beams and form a deck, and pouring a fresh concrete toppizxg over said deck to build the deck to a final pre-determined thickz~.ess in accordance with prevailing design considerations. Preferably, the precast slabs are coupled to anchors in the support beams with deck rexziforcement bars and ties securing the deck reinforcement bars to the beam anchors and to the slab reinforcement bars.
Brief Description of Dra~cvinQs [0010] In order that the invention be more clearly understood, a preferred embodiment thereof is described below with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a schematic side elevation view of a prior art bridge construction including Iuznber framework;

Fig. 2 is a schematic side elevation view of a bridge construction made using a precast concrete slab in accordance with the invention;
Fig. 3 is a perspective view of a precast concrete slab in accordance with the invention spanning a pair of beams to form a deck;
Fig. 4 is a plan view of the precast concrete slab of Fig. 3;
Fig. 5 is a cross-sectional view on line 5-5 of the slab of Fig. 3;
Fig. 6 is a side elevation view of a pair of precast concrete slabs disposed end to end;
Fig. 7 is a detailed view of circled area 7 of Fig. 6 with a concrete topping, waterproof sheeting and asphalt applied to th,e surface of the concrete slabs;.
Fig. 8 is a front elevation view of the deck of Fig. 3 with a concrete topping, waterproof sheeting and asphalt applied to the surface of the concrete slabs;
Fig. 9 is a top plan view of a single span foz a bridge superstructure showing a precast slab layout;
Fig_ 10 is a top plan view of a deck slab of Fig. 9 and drawn to a larger scale;
Fig. 11 is a top plan view of a deck slab of Fig. 9 and drawn to a larger scale;
Fig. I2 is a top plan view of a deck slab of Fig. 9 and dzawn to a larger scale;
Fig. 13 is an end elevation view of a bridge superstructure showing a sidewalk;
Fig. 14 is an isometric view showing the shape of a precast concrete slab in accordance with the invention;
Fig. 15 is a front side view of the slab of Fig. 14;
Fig. 16 is a top plan view of the slab of Fig. I4; and Fig. 17 is a right side elevation view of the slab of Fig. 14.
Descri tion of Preferred )Cxiabodime t wrath Reference to D win [0011] A typical bridge construction made in accordance with the prior art is illustrated in Fig. 1 in which the bridge superstructure is generally indicated by reference numeral 20. The bridge superstructuze 20 comprises a series of support beams 22 which, in this case, are made of precast concrete and which generally have an r-shaped cross-section defining a wide support base 24 and a wide deck platform 26. The support beams 22 are reinforced with reinforcement bars 28 disposed at spaced intervals along the length of the beams 22 and bent into an inverted U-shape witlu a loop 30 extendiung above the surface of the deck platform 26 and defining a beam anck~or.
[0012] Typically form work 32 made in accordance with the prior art spans the separation between the beams 22 and is constructed from lumber in order to provide a platform onto which concrete is poured to form a deck 34. 7"he fi>nn work 32 comprises 2x12 doubled bearers 36 supported at each end by steel hangers 38 spaced at approximately three foot intervals on support beams 22. 1'he 2x 1'? bearers 36 in turn support a plurality of 4x4 beams 40 lying transversely to the 2x12 bearers 36 and spaced a maximum of 400 millimetres apart. The form work 32 is completed by a plywood sheet 42, 17 millimetres in thickness.
[0013] All of this form work 32 is trimmed and assembled on location. Once the concrete to form the deck 34 has been poured onto the form work 36 and over the beams 22, and it has set, the form work 32 is removed. The deck is normally completed by laying waterproof sheeting over the concrete, znd asphalt (not shown).
[0014] In accordance with the invention, the form work 32 is replaced by a precast concrete slab generally indicated by numeral 44 in Fig. 2 of the accompanying drawings.
Other features of the resulting bridge superstructure 46 which are similar to the prior art bridge superstructure 20 of Fig. 1 ~~re identified by like numerals.
(0015] A detailed drawing of the precast slab 44 is shown in Fig. 3 and essentially comprises a rectangular slab which typically will have a length of about 3 metres and a width of 2050 millimetres with a thickness of 90 millimetres. As will be seen more clearly in Figs 14 to 17 the top face 48 of the slab is orthogonal to its sides whereas the bottom face 4R is somewhat recessed to define a 20 millimetre chamfer 50 (shown in more detail in Fig. 7 on forward and trailing edges fi>r the slab). A plurality of slab reinforcement bars 52, 53 extend throughout the width and length respectively of the slab 44 in a grid pattern shown in ghost outline in Fig. 4 of the accompanying drawings. T'he reinforcement bars 52 which extend across the width of the slab 44 have extremities which protrude laterally from both sides of the slab over the deck platform 26 o:f the associated support beams 22. Since the slab reinforcement bars 52 are not pre-stressed, they nmy be trimmed and cut, as necessary, for the slabs 44 to follow the contour of an underlying roadway (see Fig. 9).
[0016] A number of the slab reinforcement bars ~2 extend upwardly above the top face 48 of the precast concrete slab 44 to define slab anchors 54 for securing a concrete topping 55 (Fig.
8) to be poured onto the precast concrete slabs 44 and form the deck 34. The reinforcement bars 52 comprising the slab anchors 54 are preferably bent into a castellated shape of which inverted U-shaped portions extend above the top face 48 of the precast concrete slab 44, as _; _.

will be seen in Figs. 4 to 6, where 'the ghost outline shows portions of the slab reinforcement bars 52 which are imbedded i~t~ the precast slab and the solid lines show slab reinforcement bars which are exposed until the concrete topping 55 is poured.
j0017] The precast concrete slabs 44 are placed end to end adjacent one another to extend along the length of the bridge as shown in Figs. 6 and 9. 'Where the forward and trailing ends of adjacent slabs 44 meet, the upper edges mate as shown in Fig. 7 and operate to provide a flush surface upon which concrete may be poured without having to use sealants 57 or fillers between. adj acent slabs other than in exceptional circumstances in selected locations. When viewed from the bottom, the ehaxn~ers 50 of abutting adjacent slabs 44 give the deck 34 a grooved appearance and architectural appeal.
[0018] The construction of a bridge superstructure 46 is schematically shown in Fig- 8 and comprises erection of the support beams 22 at predetermined spaced locations and placing screed adjusters 56 comprising high density expanded polystyrene foam strips along opposed edges of the suppozt beam deck platform 26. The polystyrene foam bedding material is typically 50 millimetres wide and will have a height of 40 millimetres to 125 millimetres to suit the screed elevations. The precast concrete slab 44 is lowered by crane over the support beams 22 so as to rest on the screed adjusters 56.
Conveniently, the slabs 44 may be transported to a bridge site by hooking into the slab anchors 54.
Once the precast concrete slabs 44 are installed, which can b~ done very quickly and with a miniamum of preparation, wet concrete may be poured to form a concrete topping 55. It will be appreciated that the slab anchors 54 serve to mechanically lock the freshly poured concrete of the concrete topping 55 to the precast concrete slabs 44.
[0019] The concrete topping 55 extends to a greater depth over the support beams 22 where it is locked by the laterally extending slab reinforcement bars 52 and by the beam anchors ox loops 30. Deck reinforcement bars (not shown) are placed over the precast slabs 44 before pouring the concrete topping 55 and will be supported by a number of base structures commonly called a chair and which are placed on the precast slabs 44. Special deck reinforcement bars 58 are used to couple the precast conczete slabs 44 to the beam anchors 30 and comprise leztgths of rod haviung ends which extend horizontally on opposite sides of a support beam 22 over the associated precast slabs 44 and a central poztion which reaches the deck platform 26 of the associated support beam 22. Such deck reinforcement bars 58 are placed to cross the laterally extending slab reinforcement bans 52 and beam anchors 30.

Ties (not shown) are provided to secure the deck reinforcement bars 58 to the beam anchors 30 and slab reinforcement bars 52. In this way, the invention vbvnates the need for prestressing the reiz~forcement provided in the pzecast slabs.
[0020] The slab layout for a typical bridge span is shown in Fig. 9 where the support beams 22 are shown in chain dotted lines and compzise eight in number and spanning a pair of oppositely disposed abutmeztts 60 extending across the widih of the bridge. It will be understood that a bridge may cozzaprise a single span as illustrated or a number of spans disposed end to end and supported on a corresponding number of piers in the associated bridge substzucture.
Typically, a single span, as illustrated, is sufficiently Iong to bridge two lanes of highway traffic ruru~ing transversely below the bridge.
[002I] The precast slabs 44 are shown in solid lines disposed end to end with forward and trailing edges abutting one another along the length of the associated support beams 22. The deck slabs 44 identified by the numeral 2 have rectangular upper and lower faces, as shown in Fig. 10 and occupy most of the area of the span. Custom formed deck slabs 44 identified by the numerals 1 and 3 and shown in Fxgs. 11, and 12 are disposed at the ends of the span and have respective forward and trailing edges which are not orthogonal to their lateral edges. This layout would be typical in bridges where the abutments GO are not orthogonal to the support beams 22 as a result of changes in the terrain or topography in the area whew ye bridge is being erected. The deck slabs ide~atified by numerals 1 and 3 could also be cut to the required shape on location, the reinfozcement bars not being prestressed.
[0022] The deck 34 is completed by laying waterproof sheeting 61. over the concrete topping 55, and asphalt 63 (Figs- 7 and 8).
[0023] It will be appreciated that the concrete topping 55 formed on the~outer support beams 22a, 22b is roughened as shown in Fig. 13 on a top surface thereof prior to a second cvnerete pour for forming a sidewalk 62, as is comnnonly dvz~e. The outer edges of the sidewalk 62 support an upwardly extending barriez wall 64 or railings for protecting motorists and pedestrians from falling off the budge.
[0024] Those skilled in the art will appreciate that several variaxions may be made to the invention and that the rights associated with the invention are not limited by the details of the preceding description but are defined by the appended claims. In particular, dimensions which aze provided are typical and it will clearly be understood that these may vary, as required, to suit the applicatioxx and accozding to materials available.

Claims (11)

1. ~A deck system for building a bridge superstructure, the deck system having a plurality of support beams extending longitudinally along the length of the bridge, and erected at predetermined spaced locations across the width of the bridge to define a separation, the support beams each having a plurality of beam anchors secured to the support beams;
screed adjustors provided in pairs for disposing on opposed lateral edges of the support beams;
precast concrete slabs having a width for spanning said separation between the support beams and being disposed end to end in abutting relationship, the slabs having a plurality of slab reinforcement bars disposed within the slabs at spaced intervals along the lengths of the slabs, the slab reinforcement bars having free extremities which protrude from the slabs on opposite lateral sides thereof to lie over said support beams, and a selected number of said slab reinforcement bars additionally having portions which extend upwardly above an operatively upper surface of the slabs at regular spaced intervals to define slab anchors for securing a concrete topping to be poured onto the precast concrete slabs;
deck reinforcement bars for coupling the precast concrete slabs to the beam anchors;
and ties for securing the deck reinforcement bars to the beam anchors and to free extremities of the slab reinforcement bars.
2. ~A deck system according to claim 1 in which the slab anchors are defined by a plurality of inverted U-shaped portions formed by bending slab reinforcement bars into a castellated shape.
3. ~A deck system according to claim 1 having a plurality of precast concrete slabs each having rectangular upper and lower faces defining a pair of long sides and a pair of short sides, the short sides being somewhat recessed to define a chamfer on forward and trailing edges extending between the support beams for the precast concrete slabs to abut one another when placed end to end and provide a flush upper surface to support a concrete topping.
4. ~A deck for a bridge superstructure having a plurality of support beams extending longitudinally along the length of the bridge, and erected at predetermined spaced locations across the width of the bridge to define a separation, the support beams each having a plurality of beam anchors secured to the support beams and screed adjustors disposed in pairs on opposed lateral edges of the support beams, the deck having:
a plurality of precast concrete slabs disposed with forward and trailing edges abutting one another along the length of the associated support beams, the precast concrete slabs having a width for spanning said separation between the support beams, the slabs having a plurality of slab reinforcement bars disposed within the slabs at spaced intervals along the lengths of the slabs, the slab reinforcement bars having free extremities which protrude from the slabs on opposite lateral sides thereof to lie over said support beams, and a selected number of said slab reinforcement bars additionally having portions which extend upwardly above an operatively upper surface of the slabs at regular spaced intervals to define slab anchors for securing a concrete topping formed in situ on the precast concrete slabs;
deck reinforcement bars coupling the precast concrete slabs to the beam anchors;
ties securing the deck reinforcement bars to the beam anchors and to free extremities of the slab reinforcement bars; and a concrete topping formed in situ on the precast concrete slabs.
5. A deck according to claim 4 in which the slab anchors are defined by a plurality of inverted U-shaped portions formed by bending reinforcement bars into a castellated shape.
6. A deck according to claim 4 in which the precast concrete slabs each have rectangular upper and lower faces defining a pair of long sides and a pair of short sides, the short sides being somewhat recessed to define a chamfer on forward and trailing edges extending between the support beams for the precast concrete slabs to provide a flush upper surface to support the concrete topping.
7. A deck according to claim 4 having additional reinforcement bars disposed in said concrete topping.
8. A deck according to claim 4 having a waterproof sheeting disposed above the concrete topping.
9. A deck according to claim 4 having asphalt disposed above the concrete topping.
10. A deck according to claim 8 having asphalt disposed above the waterproof sheeting.
11. A deck for a bridge superstructure having a plurality of support beams extending longitudinally along the length of the bridge, and erected at predetermined spaced locations across the width of the bridge to define a separation, the support beams each having a plurality of beam anchors secured to the support beams and screed adjustors disposed in pairs on opposed lateral edges of the support beams, the deck having:
a plurality of precast concrete slabs disposed end to end with forward and trailing edges abutting one another along the length of the associated support beams, the precast concrete slabs having a width for spanning said separation between the support beams, the slabs having a plurality of slab reinforcement bars disposed within the slabs at spaced intervals along the lengths of the slabs, the slab reinforcement bars having free extremities which protrude from the slabs on opposite lateral sides thereof to lie over said support beams, and a selected number of said slab reinforcement bars additionally having portions which extend upwardly above an operatively upper surface of the slabs at regular spaced intervals to define slab anchors for securing a concrete topping formed in situ on the precast concrete slabs;
the precast concrete slabs each having oppositely disposed upper and lower faces and side walls coupling the upper and lower faces, the side wall adjacent to the upper face being orthogonal thereto and the side wall adjacent to the lower face on two opposite sides of the slab being somewhat recessed to define a chamfer on said forward and trailing edges extending between the support beams to provide a flush upper surface;
deck reinforcement bars coupling the precast concrete slabs to the beam anchors;
ties securing the deck reinforcement bars to the beam anchors and to free extremities of the slab reinforcement bars; and a concrete topping formed in situ on the precast concrete slabs.
CA 2345197 2000-04-20 2001-04-19 Bridge structure with concrete deck having precast slab Expired - Fee Related CA2345197C (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CA2,306,295 2000-04-20
CA002306295A CA2306295A1 (en) 2000-04-20 2000-04-20 Bridge structure with concrete deck having pre-cast slab
CA 2345197 CA2345197C (en) 2000-04-20 2001-04-19 Bridge structure with concrete deck having precast slab

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CA 2345197 CA2345197C (en) 2000-04-20 2001-04-19 Bridge structure with concrete deck having precast slab

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
CA2345197A1 CA2345197A1 (en) 2001-08-22
CA2345197C true CA2345197C (en) 2005-12-06

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2973407B1 (en) * 2011-03-30 2014-02-14 Capremib THIN FIBER CONCRETE PLATE COMPRISING MEANS FOR CONNECTING WITH A CONCRETE WORKPIECE, AND CONSTRUCTION MEMBER COMPRISING SUCH A THIN PLATE

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