CA2325628A1 - Pressurized liquid circulation duct and method for the production thereof - Google Patents

Pressurized liquid circulation duct and method for the production thereof

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Publication number
CA2325628A1
CA2325628A1 CA002325628A CA2325628A CA2325628A1 CA 2325628 A1 CA2325628 A1 CA 2325628A1 CA 002325628 A CA002325628 A CA 002325628A CA 2325628 A CA2325628 A CA 2325628A CA 2325628 A1 CA2325628 A1 CA 2325628A1
Authority
CA
Canada
Prior art keywords
pipe
panel
concrete
fact
previous
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
CA002325628A
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Marcel Matiere
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Societe Civile de Brevets Matiere
Original Assignee
Societe Civile De Brevets Matiere
Marcel Matiere
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to FR99/01050 priority Critical
Priority to FR9901050A priority patent/FR2789096B1/en
Application filed by Societe Civile De Brevets Matiere, Marcel Matiere filed Critical Societe Civile De Brevets Matiere
Priority to PCT/FR2000/000206 priority patent/WO2000044993A1/en
Publication of CA2325628A1 publication Critical patent/CA2325628A1/en
Abandoned legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B9/00Water-power plants; Layout, construction or equipment, methods of, or apparatus for, making same
    • E02B9/02Water-ways
    • E02B9/06Pressure galleries or pressure conduits; Galleries specially adapted to house pressure conduits; Means specially adapted for use therewith, e.g. housings, valves, gates
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D27/00Foundations as substructures
    • E02D27/32Foundations for special purposes
    • E02D27/46Foundations for supply conduits or other canals
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/20Hydro energy
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P70/00Climate change mitigation technologies in the production process for final industrial or consumer products
    • Y02P70/50Manufacturing or production processes characterised by the final manufactured product

Abstract

L'invention a pour objet une conduite de circulation de fluide comprenant un tuyau (A) fixé sur un massif de support rigide (B) formant une base prenant appui sur une surface de pose (C), le tuyau (A) étant constitué d'une paroi mince résistante formant une encinte tubulaire étanche. Conformément à
l'invention, le massif de support (B) comprend, de chaque côté de l'axe longitudinal (O, O') de l'enceinte tubulaire (A), une partie monobloc (31, 31') ayant, en section transversale, un profil en L comprenant une branche sensiblement verticale (32) s'étendant le long du côté correspondant de l'enceinte (A) et une branche sensiblement horizontale (33) s'étendant au-dessous de celle-ci pour former au moins une partie de la base (3) du massif (B) prenant appui sur le sol (C). the invention, the support block (B) comprises, on each side of the longitudinal axis (O, O ') of the tubular enclosure (A), a one-piece part (31, 31') having, in cross section , an L-shaped profile comprising a substantially vertical branch (32) extending along the corresponding side of the enclosure (A) and a substantially horizontal branch (33) extending below it to form at least part of the base (3) of the mass (B) resting on the ground (C). The subject of the invention is a fluid circulation pipe comprising a pipe (A) fixed on a rigid support block (B) forming a base taking support on a laying surface (C), the pipe (A) consisting of a wall thin resistant forming a tight tubular enclosure. The subject of the invention is a fluid circulation pipe comprising a pipe (A) fixed on a rigid support block (B) forming a base taking support on a laying surface (C), the pipe (A) consisting of a wall thin resistant forming a tight tubular enclosure. In accordance with the invention, the support block (B) comprises, on each side of the axis longitudinal (O, O ') of the tubular enclosure (A), a monobloc part (31, 31 ') having, in cross section, an L-shaped profile comprising a branch substantially vertical (32) extending along the corresponding side of the enclosure (A) and a substantially horizontal branch (33) extending over below it to form at least part of the base (3) of the massif (B) resting on the ground (C). In accordance with the invention, the support block (B) included, on each side of the axis longitudinal (O, O ') of the tubular enclosure (A), a monobloc part (31, 31') having, in cross section, an L-shaped profile comprising a branch substantially vertical (32) extending along the corresponding side of the enclosure (A) and a substantially horizontal branch (33) extending over below it to form at least part of the base (3) of the massif (B) resting on the ground (C).

Description

Conduite de circulation de fluide sous pression et procêdé de réalisation d'une telle conduite L'invention a pour objet une conduite de circulation de fluide éventuellement enterrée sous un remblai et plus particuliêrement destinée à la circulation d'un fluide sous une pression importante, de l'ordre de plusieurs bars.
L'invention concerne plus spécialement la réalisation de conduites de très grande section transversale, par exemple supérieure à 2 m2, mais peut aussi être avantageuse pour la réalisation de Ici conduites de dimensions plus courantes.
L'invention couvre également les procédés de réalisation de telles conduites.
Une conduite de transport de fluide peut être réalisée simplement sous forme d'éléments de tuyaux métalliques ou en béton, qui sont placés bout à bout et dont les extrémités sont. A fluid transport line can be made simply in the form of metal or concrete pipe elements, which are placed end to end and whose ends are. enfilées l'une dans l'autre, avec interposition de joints. threaded into one another, with interposed joints. En cas de tassements, certains éléments risquent de se déboiter et c'est pourquoi, pour rësister à des pressions 2o relativement élevées, il est préférable d'utiliser des tuyaux métalliques dont les éléments sont soudés à In the event of settlements, some elements may become dislocated and this is why, to withstand relatively high pressures 2o, it is preferable to use metal pipes whose elements are welded to leurs extrêmités adjacentes, par exemple, dans le cas des conduites forcées pour les installations hydroélectriques. their adjacent ends, for example, in the case of penstocks for hydroelectric installations. Dans ce cas, la conduite est formée d'éléments de tuyaux préfabriqués ou de panneaux incurvés qui sont transportés sur le site et soudés sur place. In this case, the pipeline is formed from prefabricated pipe elements or curved panels which are transported to the site and welded on site. A ce moment, cependant, le tuyau n'est pas sous pression et peut se déformer en s'ovalisant, ce qui rend plus 3c~ difficile la réalisation des soudures, les tôles n'étant pas alignëes. At this time, however, the pipe is not under pressure and can be deformed by becoming oval, which makes it more difficult to achieve 3c ~ welds, the sheets not being aligned. Par ailleurs, de tels tuyaux doivent souvent être enterrés, par exemple dans le cas d'oléoducs ou de gazoducs. Moreover, such pipes often have to be buried, for example in the case of oil or gas pipelines. Lorsque le tuyau est sous pression, il WO 00/44993 PC'T1FR00/00206 Pressurized fluid circulation line and process for carrying out such conduct The subject of the invention is a pipe for fluid circulation possibly buried under a embankment and more particularly intended for circulation of a fluid under high pressure, of the order of several bars. When the pipe is under pressure, it WO 00/44993 PC'T1FR00 / 00206 Pressurized fluid circulation line and process for carrying out such conduct The subject of the invention is a pipe for fluid circulation possibly buried under a embankment and more particularly intended for circulation of a fluid under high pressure, of the order of several bars. The invention relates more particularly to the construction of very large cross-sections transverse, for example greater than 2 m2, but may also be advantageous for achieving Here pipes of more common dimensions. The invention relates more particularly to the construction of very large cross-sections transverse, for example greater than 2 m2, but may also be advantageous for achieving Here pipes of more common dimensions. The invention also covers the methods of realization of such conduits. The invention also covers the methods of realization of such conduits. A fluid transport line can be simply made in the form of pipe elements metal or concrete, which are placed end to end and whose ends are. A fluid transport line can be simply made in the form of pipe elements metal or concrete, which are placed end to end and whose ends are. one strung in the other, with interposition of seals. one strung in the other, with interposition of seals. In case of settlements, some elements may fall out and that is why, to resist pressures 2o relatively high, it is preferable to use metal pipes, the elements of which are welded to their adjacent ends, for example, in the case penstocks for installations hydroelectric. In case of settlements, some elements may fall out and that is why, to resist pressures 2o relatively high, it is preferable to use metal pipes, the elements of which are welded to their adjacent ends, for example, in the case penstocks for installations hydroelectric. In this case, the pipe is made up of elements prefabricated pipes or curved panels that are transported to the site and welded on site. In this case, the pipe is made up of elements prefabricated pipes or curved panels that are transported to the site and welded on site. At this moment, however, the hose is not under pressure and can deform by ovalizing, making it more 3c ~ difficult to make welds, sheets not being aligned. At this moment, however, the hose is not under pressure and can deform by ovalizing, making it more 3c ~ difficult to make welds, sheets not being aligned. Furthermore, such pipes often have to be buried, for example in the case of pipelines or of gas pipelines. Furthermore, such pipes often have to be buried, for example in the case of pipelines or of gas pipelines. When the hose is under pressure, it WO 00/44993 PC'T1FR00 / 00206 When the hose is under pressure, it WO 00/44993 PC'T1FR00 / 00206
2 résiste facilement aux charges appliquées de l'extérieur par le remblai. Mais la pression peut varier et peut méme devenir négative par rapport à
l'extérieur. I1 y a alors un risque important de S déformation par aplatissement du tuyau.
Pour toutes ces raisons, les tuyaux réalisés par soudage d'éléments métalliques présentent une section relativement limitée, le plus souvent inférieure à 2 mzz.
lo L'inventeur étudie depuis plusieurs années une nouvelle technique de réalisation de conduites de transport de fluide sous pression ne présentant pas de tels inconvénients.
Dans cette technique, la conduite est IS constituée d'un tuyau étanche en paroi mince, normalement métallique, fixé sur un massif de support rigide, normalement en béton armé ou précontraint.
Ainsi, le tuyau métallique réalise la fonction d'étanchéité et de résistance à 1a pression interne, 20 la paroi mince étant seulement soumise à des efforts de traction, alors que le massif en béton assure la rigidité de la conduite en prenant appui sur la surface de pose par une surface élargie permettant de répartir les charges appliquées et de mieux résister à Thus, the metal pipe performs the function of sealing and resisting internal pressure, the thin wall being only subjected to tensile forces, while the concrete block ensures the rigidity of the pipe by resting on the surface. installation by an enlarged surface making it possible to distribute the applied loads and to better withstand 25 des tassements différentiels. 25 differential settlements. Dans la technique décrite dans le brevet EP-0767881, le massif de support en béton est avantageusement constitué de trois parties, respectivement une base horizontale d'appui sur le sol 3o et deux pièces d'appui latérales qui forment des jambages verticaux le long de chaque côté du tuyau, l'ensemble prësentant un profil en U qui enveloppe toute la partie inférieure du tuyau. In the technique described in patent EP-0767881, the concrete support block is advantageously made up of three parts, respectively a horizontal support base on the ground 3o and two lateral support pieces which form vertical jambs along each side of the pipe, the assembly presenting a U-profile which envelops the entire lower part of the pipe. Celui-ci est donc constituë, en section droite, de quatre panneaux, WO 00/4499 2 easily withstands the applied loads of outside by the embankment. This therefore consists, in cross section, of four panels, WO 00/4499 2 easily withstands the applied loads of outside by the embankment. But the pressure can vary and may even become negative compared to outside. But the pressure can vary and may even become negative compared to outside. There is then a significant risk of Deformation by flattening of the pipe. There is then a significant risk of Deformation by flattening of the pipe. For all these reasons, the pipes produced by welding metallic elements have a relatively small section, most often less than 2 mzz. For all these reasons, the pipes produced by welding metallic elements have a relatively small section, most often less than 2 mzz. lo The inventor has been studying for several years a new technique for making transport of pressurized fluid with no such disadvantages. lo The inventor has been studying for several years a new technique for making transport of pressurized fluid with no such disadvantages. In this technique, driving is IS consisting of a thin wall tight pipe, normally metallic, fixed on a solid support rigid, normally in reinforced or prestressed concrete. In this technique, driving is IS consisting of a thin wall tight pipe, normally metallic, fixed on a solid support rigid, normally in reinforced or prestressed concrete. So the metal pipe performs the function tightness and resistance to internal pressure, 20 the thin wall being only subjected to forces traction, while the concrete block provides the rigidity of the pipe based on the laying surface by an enlarged surface allowing distribute the applied loads and better resist 25 differential settlements. So the metal pipe performs the function tightness and resistance to internal pressure, 20 the thin wall being only subjected to forces traction, while the concrete block provides the rigidity of the pipe based on the laying surface by an enlarged surface allowing distribute the applied loads and better resist 25 differential settlements. In the technique described in the patent EP-0767881, the concrete support block is advantageously made up of three parts, respectively a horizontal base of support on the ground 3o and two lateral support pieces which form vertical legs along each side of the pipe, the assembly having a U-shaped profile which envelops the entire bottom of the pipe. In the technique described in the patent EP-0767881, the concrete support block is advantageously made up of three parts, respectively a horizontal base of support on the ground 3o and two lateral support pieces which form vertical legs along each side of the pipe, the assembly having a U-shaped profile which envelops the entire bottom of the pipe. This is therefore made up, in cross section, of four panels, WO 00/4499 This is therefore made up, in cross section, of four panels, WO 00/4499
3 PCT/FR00/00206 respectivement un panneau inférieur appliqué sur la base, deux panneaux de côté appliqués respectivement sur les deux jambages latéraux et un panneau supérieur ayant deux bords latéraux qui se raccordent tangentiellement aux extrémités correspondantes des deux panneaux de côté. Ces derniers sont maintenus par les deux jambages du massif et leurs bords en regard peuvent ainsi être parfaitement alignés pour la soudure.
It> Une telle conduite peut étre facilement réalisée à partir d'ëléments préfabriquês ayant une longueur compatible avec les capacités de transport et de manutention.
L'inventeur a poursuivi ses études dans le but IS de simplifier encore la technique de réalisation d'une telle conduite, en particulier pour alléger les différents élêments préfabriqués et faciliter leur mise en place, tout en conservant l'ensemble des avantages de la technique. The inventor continued his studies with the aim of further simplifying the technique for producing such a pipe, in particular to lighten the various prefabricated elements and facilitate their installation, while retaining all the advantages of the technique. . 2« L'invention concerne donc d'une façon générale, une conduite de circulation de fluide comprenant un tuyau étanche fixé sur un massif de support rigide formant une base d'appui sur une surface de pose, ledit tuyau ayant un axe longitudinal 25 et étant constitué d'une paroi mince résistante, fermée sur elle-même de façon à former une enceinte tubulaire étanche ayant une partie supérieure et une partie inférieure, qui est appliquée et fixëe sur une face interne du massif de support. 2 “The invention therefore relates generally to a fluid circulation pipe comprising a sealed pipe fixed to a rigid support block forming a support base on a laying surface, said pipe having a longitudinal axis 25 and consisting of a strong thin wall, closed on itself so as to form a sealed tubular enclosure having an upper part and a lower part, which is applied and fixed on an internal face of the support block. 3o Conformément à l'invention, le massif de support comprend, de chaque côté de l'axe longitudinal de l'enceinte, une partie latérale monobloc ayant, en section transversale, un profil en L comprenant une branche sensiblement verticale s'étendant le long du 3 PCT / FR00 / 00206 respectively a lower panel applied on the base, two side panels applied respectively on the two side jambs and an upper panel having two side edges that connect tangentially to the corresponding ends of two side panels. 3o According to the invention, the support block comprises, on each side of the longitudinal axis of the enclosure, a one-piece side part having, in cross section, an L-shaped profile comprising a substantially vertical branch extending along du 3 PCT / FR00 / 00206 respectively a lower panel applied on the base, two side panels applied respectively on the two side jambs and an upper panel having two side edges that connect tangentially to the corresponding ends of two side panels. These are maintained by the two legs of the massif and their facing edges can thus be perfectly aligned for the welding. These are maintained by the two legs of the massif and their facing edges can thus be perfectly aligned for the welding. It> Such conduct can be easily made from prefabricated elements having a length compatible with transport capacities and Handling. It> Such conduct can be easily made from prefabricated elements having a length compatible with transport capacities and Handling. The inventor continued his studies with the aim IS to further simplify the technique of making a such conduct, in particular to alleviate different prefabricated elements and facilitate their implementation, while retaining all of the advantages of the technique. The inventor continued his studies with the aim IS to further simplify the technique of making a such conduct, in particular to alleviate different prefabricated elements and facilitate their implementation, while retaining all of the advantages of the technique. 2 "The invention therefore relates in a way general, a fluid circulation line comprising a waterproof pipe fixed on a mass of rigid support forming a support base on a laying surface, said pipe having a longitudinal axis 25 and consisting of a resistant thin wall, closed on itself so as to form an enclosure waterproof tubular having an upper part and a lower part, which is applied and fixed on a internal face of the support block. 2 "The invention therefore relates in a way general, a fluid circulation line comprising a waterproof pipe fixed on a mass of rigid support forming a support base on a laying surface, said pipe having a longitudinal axis 25 and consisting of a resistant thin wall, closed on itself so as to form an enclosure waterproof tubular having an upper part and a lower part, which is applied and fixed on a internal face of the support block. 3o In accordance with the invention, the massif of support includes, on each side of the longitudinal axis of the enclosure, a monobloc lateral part having, in cross section, an L-profile including a substantially vertical branch extending along the 3o In accordance with the invention, the massif of support includes, on each side of the longitudinal axis of the enclosure, a monobloc lateral part having, in cross section, an L-profile including a substantially vertical branch extending along the
4 côté latéral correspondant du tuyau et une branche sensiblement horizontale s'étendant au-dessous du tuyau pour former au moins une partie de la base d'appui sur le sol.
De façon particulièrement avantageuse, au moins sur une certaine longueur du tuyau, les deux parties latêrales et la base du massif de support forment une pièce unique â section en U.
Dans un autre mode de réalisation, au moins lo sur une certaine longueur du tuyau, le massif de support est constitué de deux parties à profil en L
dont les branches horizontales se rejoignent de part et d'autre du plan médian du tuyau passant par l'axe longitudinal, pour former une base continue.
Normalement, le massif de support est réalisé
en béton armé et l'armature peut être constituée de façon classique pour résister aux efforts appliqués, en particulier, d'écartement des parties latérales.
Cependant, selon une autre caractéristique 2t~ particulièrement avantageuse, l'armature peut être constituée d'au moins une tôle coudée noyëe dans le massif en béton et ayant deux branches, respectivement horizontale et verticale s'étendant chacune dans la branche correspondante de chaque partie en L du massif . However, according to another particularly advantageous feature 2t ~, the frame may consist of at least one bent sheet embedded in the concrete block and having two branches, respectively horizontal and vertical each extending in the corresponding branch of each part in L of the massif. De préférence, pour assurer la continuité de la transmission des efforts, chaque partie latérale en L du massif de support présente une face interne d'application et de fixation de l'enceinte, dont l'orientation varie progressivement entre une partie inférieure sensiblement horizontale et une partie supérieure sensiblement verticale. Preferably, to ensure the continuity of the transmission of forces, each L-shaped lateral part of the support block has an internal face for application and fixing of the enclosure, the orientation of which varies progressively between a substantially horizontal lower part and a substantially vertical upper part. D'autres caractéristiques avantageuses font l'objet des sous-revendications. Other advantageous characteristics are the subject of the subclaims. Mais l'invention sera mieux comprise par la description suivante de certains modes de réalisation donnés à titre d'exemple et représentés sur les dessins annexés. However, the invention will be better understood from the following description of certain embodiments given by way of example and shown in the accompanying drawings. 4 corresponding side of the pipe and a branch substantially horizontal extending below the pipe to form at least part of the base of support on the ground. 4 corresponding side of the pipe and a branch substantially horizontal extending below the pipe to form at least part of the base of support on the ground. Particularly advantageously, at less over a certain length of the pipe, both lateral parts and the base of the support frame form a single piece with a U-section. Particularly advantageously, at less over a certain length of the pipe, both lateral parts and the base of the support frame form a single piece with a U-section. In another embodiment, at least lo over a certain length of the pipe, the solid mass of support consists of two L-shaped sections whose horizontal branches meet on one side and on the other side of the median plane of the pipe passing through the axis longitudinal, to form a continuous base. In another embodiment, at least lo over a certain length of the pipe, the solid mass of support consists of two L-shaped sections whose horizontal branches meet on one side and on the other side of the median plane of the pipe passing through the axis longitudinal, to form a continuous base. Normally, the support block is made in reinforced concrete and the reinforcement may consist of classic way to resist applied forces, in particular, the spacing of the lateral parts. Normally, the support block is made in reinforced concrete and the reinforcement may consist of classic way to resist applied forces, in particular, the spacing of the lateral parts. However, according to another characteristic 2t ~ particularly advantageous, the frame can be consisting of at least one bent sheet embedded in the solid concrete and having two branches, respectively horizontal and vertical each extending in the corresponding branch of each L-shaped part of the massive. However, according to another characteristic 2t ~ particularly advantageous, the frame can be consisting of at least one bent sheet embedded in the solid concrete and having two branches, respectively horizontal and vertical each extending in the corresponding branch of each L-shaped part of the massive. Preferably, to ensure the continuity of the transmission of forces, each lateral part in L of the support block has an internal face application and fixing of the enclosure, including the orientation gradually varies between a part substantially horizontal lower and part substantially vertical upper. Preferably, to ensure the continuity of the transmission of forces, each lateral part in L of the support block has an internal face application and fixing of the enclosure, including the orientation gradually varies between a part substantially horizontal lower and part substantially vertical upper. Other advantageous features make the subject of the subclaims. Other advantageous features make the subject of the subclaims. But the invention will be better understood by the following description of some embodiments given by way of example and represented on the attached drawings. But the invention will be better understood by the following description of some embodiments given by way of example and represented on the attached drawings.
5 La figure 1 est une vue schématique, en coupe transversale et en perspective, d'une partie d'une conduite selon l'invention.
La figure 2 montre schématiquement les conditions de déformation d'une conduite, en cas de lu dépression par rapport à l'extérieur.
La figure 3 montre une variante de réalisation.
La figure 4 est une vue de détail de la partie latérale du massif.
i, La figure 5 montre, en coupe transversale, une autre variante de réalisation.
La figure 6 est une vue de dëtail d'un moyen de jonction entre le tuyau et le massif.
La figure 7 montre schématiquement la 2~~ réalisation et le transport des éléments préfabriqués.
La figure 8 montre une variante de rëalisation avec traverse de solidarisation.
Les figures 9 et 10 illustrent des modes de réalisation permettant un changement de direction de 25 l'axe de la conduite.
Sur la figure 1, on a représenté In Figure 1, there is shown schëmatiquement, en perspective, une partie d'une conduite selon l'invention constituée, d'une façon générale, d'un tuyau A associé à un massif de support en béton B. Le tuyau A est constituë de panneaux métalliques incurvés soudés le long de leurs bords adjacents, le nombre de panneaux dépendant de la section de passage à assurer. schematically, in perspective, part of a pipe according to the invention consisting, in general, of a pipe A associated with a concrete support block B. The pipe A consists of curved metal panels welded along of their adjacent edges, the number of panels depending on the passage section to be provided. Pour une section de passage ayant une largeur de l'ordre de deux mètres, G For a passage section having a width of the order of two meters, G le tuyau A peut être constitué, en section droite, de deux panneaux seulement, respectivement un panneau inférieur 1 et un panneau supérieur 2, qui sont soudés le long de leurs bords longitudinaux adjacents 11, 21, 11', 21' et couvrent, dans le sens de l'axe longitudinal O, O' de la conduite, une longueur L qui dépend des possibilités de transport. the pipe A may consist, in cross section, of only two panels, respectively a lower panel 1 and an upper panel 2, which are welded along their adjacent longitudinal edges 11, 21, 11 ', 21' and cover, in the direction of the longitudinal axis O, O 'of the pipe, a length L which depends on the transport possibilities. Les panneaux la, lb, 2a, 2b de deux tronçons successifs du tuyau, sont soudés le long de leurs bords transversaux en regard Ic> 12a, I2b, 22a, 22b, de façon â constituer une enceinte tubulaire étanche A résistant à une pression interne. The panels la, lb, 2a, 2b of two successive sections of the pipe, are welded along their transverse edges facing Ic> 12a, I2b, 22a, 22b, so as to constitute a sealed tubular enclosure A resistant to internal pressure . L'enceinte tubulaire A est appli-quëe sur un massif de support B qui enveloppe toute sa partie infêrieure et présente donc une forme en U comportant IS une base 3 et deux ailes latërales 31, 31' qui remontent verticalement le long des deux côtés latéraux de l'enceinte A. L'ensemble est symétrique par rapport à un plan médian vertical P1 passant par l'axe longitudinal O, O'. The tubular enclosure A is applied to a support block B which envelops its entire lower part and therefore has a U-shape comprising a base 3 and two lateral wings 31, 31 'which rise vertically along the two lateral sides of enclosure A. The assembly is symmetrical with respect to a vertical median plane P1 passing through the longitudinal axis O, O '. 2o Les deux ailes 31, 31' de la base B remontent sensiblement jusqu'au niveau du plan diamétral horizontal P2 du tuyau, passant par l'axe O, 0' et, même, légèrement au dessus de ce plan dans le mode de réalisation représenté sur la figure 1. 2o The two wings 31, 31 'of the base B go up substantially to the level of the horizontal diametral plane P2 of the pipe, passing through the axis O, 0' and, even, slightly above this plane in the embodiment shown in figure 1. 25 Les deux côtés latéraux 13, 13' du panneau inférieur 1 de l'enceinte A peuvent remonter encore au dessus du plan P2 car ils sont raidis par les deux ailes 31, 31' de la base et leurs bords longitudinaux 11, 11' sont donc maintenus parallèles et alignés avec les bords correspondants de la partie de la conduite déjà réalisée, ce qui facilite la pose et la soudure du panneau supérieur 2. Le panneau inférieur 1 couvre alors un secteur angulaire supërieur à 180°, à angle rentrant, le panneau supérieur 2 couvrant le secteur angulaire complémentaire. 25 The two lateral sides 13, 13 'of the lower panel 1 of the enclosure A can rise again above the plane P2 because they are stiffened by the two wings 31, 31' of the base and their longitudinal edges 11, 11 'are therefore kept parallel and aligned with the corresponding edges of the part of the pipe already produced, which facilitates the installation and welding of the upper panel 2. The lower panel 1 then covers an angular sector greater than 180 °, at a nip point, the upper panel 2 covering the complementary angular sector. La partie supérieure du tuyau 1 constituée du panneau supérieur 2 et des côtés 13, 13' du panneau inférieur 1, qui se raccordent tangentiellement, présente avantageusement la forme d'un cylindre de révolution centré sur l'axe 0, 0', au moins jusqu'au niveau du plan diamétral P2. The upper part of the pipe 1 consisting of the upper panel 2 and the sides 13, 13 'of the lower panel 1, which connect tangentially, advantageously has the shape of a cylinder of revolution centered on the axis 0, 0', at least up to the level of the diametral plane P2. De la sorte, de façon que l'enceinte A résiste dans les meilleures conditions 1a aux contraintes appliquées. In this way, so that the enclosure A withstands the stresses applied under the best conditions 1a. En effet, l'application d'une pression interne détermine uniquement des contraintes de traction dans la paroi métallique qui est facilement calculée et dont l'épaisseur peut être relativement faible. Indeed, the application of an internal pressure only determines tensile stresses in the metal wall which is easily calculated and whose thickness can be relatively small. II est à noter que la forme demi-IS circulaire de la paroi 2, 13, 13' permet à celle-ci de résister dans les meilleures conditions, non-seulement à une pression interne mais également à des charges externes, par exemple, dans le cas d'une conduite enterrée sous un remblai avant la mise en pression du 2o fluide à l'intérieur de l'enceinte A. It should be noted that the circular semi-IS shape of the wall 2, 13, 13 'allows the latter to withstand under the best conditions, not only internal pressure but also external loads, for example, in the case of a pipe buried under an embankment before the pressurization of the 2o fluid inside the enclosure A. La partie inférieure 1 n'est pas nécessairement demi-circulaire et peut même être plane car la base 3 du massif en béton B et ses armatures peuvent être calculés de façon à résister aux efforts 25 de flexion. The lower part 1 is not necessarily semicircular and can even be flat because the base 3 of the concrete block B and its reinforcements can be calculated so as to resist the bending forces. Comme on l'a indiqué, dans le mode de réalisation décrit dans le brevet précédent EP-0767881 du même inventeur, le massif du support était constitué de trois parties, respectivement une base 3~~ s'étendant au dessous de la partie inférieure de l'enceinte et deux pièces d'appui latérales qui soutiennent les côtés de l'enceinte et sont appliquées contre les faces latérales de la base par des tirants prëcontraints. As indicated, in the embodiment described in the previous patent EP-0767881 of the same inventor, the solid support consisted of three parts, respectively a base 3 ~~ extending below the lower part of the enclosure and two lateral support pieces which support the sides of the enclosure and are applied against the lateral faces of the base by pre-stressed tie rods. Dans une telle disposition, la jonction entre les deux pièces d'appui latérales et la base du massif travaille à la manière d'une articulation. In such an arrangement, the junction between the two lateral support pieces and the base of the block works in the manner of an articulation. Dans l'invention, en revanche, au moins la partie latérale 31 du massif de support B placée de chaque côté de l'enceinte A est constituée d'une pièce monobloc ayant, en section transversale, un profil en L qui comprend une branche sensiblement verticale 32 s'êtendent le long du côté correspondant de l'enceinte ici A et une branche sensiblement horizontale 33 s'étendant au dessous du tuyau pour former au moins une partie de la base 3 d'appui sur le sol. In the invention, on the other hand, at least the lateral part 31 of the support block B placed on each side of the enclosure A consists of a single piece having, in cross section, an L-shaped profile which comprises a branch substantially vertical 32 extend along the corresponding side of the enclosure here A and a substantially horizontal branch 33 extending below the pipe to form at least part of the base 3 for bearing on the ground. Cette disposition permet d'assurer la continuitë de la transmission des contraintes, les i5 efforts d'écartement appliqués par les côtés latéraux 13, 13' de l'enceinte A sur les deux ailes 32, 3.2' du massif B étant repris par la base 3 de celui-ci. This arrangement ensures the continuity of the transmission of stresses, the i5 spacing forces applied by the lateral sides 13, 13 'of the enclosure A on the two wings 32, 3.2' of the solid B being taken up by the base 3 of it. Ainsi, il est possible de supprimer les tirants précontraints qui, dans le mode de réalisation Zn précëdent, étaient tendus à l'intérieur de la base et soumettaient celle-ci à des efforts de compression importants. Thus, it is possible to remove the prestressed tie rods which, in the previous Zn embodiment, were stretched inside the base and subjected the latter to significant compressive forces. Dans l'invention, la base est soumise uniquement à des efforts de flexion résultant de la tendance â l'écartement des côtés 32, 32' qui sont 25 d'ailleurs compensés par le poids du tuyau A et l'application de la pression sur sa face inférieure 14. In the invention, the base is subjected only to bending forces resulting from the tendency to spread apart the sides 32, 32 'which are moreover compensated by the weight of the pipe A and the application of the pressure on it. its underside 14. La base 3 du massif de support peut donc étre allégée et il est possible, même pour de très grandes 3« sections, par exemple un diamètre de l'ordre de 3 m, de réaliser un massif de support monobloc tel que représenté sur la figure 1. The base 3 of the support block can therefore be made lighter and it is possible, even for very large 3 “sections, for example a diameter of the order of 3 m, to produce a one-piece support block as shown in the figure. 1. Le massif B sera, normalement, réalisé en béton armé, par exemple de la façon indiquée en coupe c) partielle sur la figure 1. L'armature 5 doit alors présenter la forme en U souhaitée et peut être constituée, de façon classique, de fers longitudinaux 51 associés à des armatures transversales 52. The block B will normally be made of reinforced concrete, for example in the manner indicated in partial section c) in FIG. 1. The reinforcement 5 must then have the desired U-shape and can be constituted, in a conventional manner, of longitudinal bars 51 associated with transverse reinforcements 52. La partie inférieure 1 de l'enceinte tubulaire peut avoir un rayon de courbure plus grand que celui de la partie supérieure 2 et peut même âtre plane. The lower part 1 of the tubular enclosure can have a greater radius of curvature than that of the upper part 2 and can even be flat. I1 est cependant préférable d'assurer un raccordement progressif entre le fond du tuyau A et la partie to supérieure 2 extërieure au massif B, de façon à However, it is preferable to ensure a progressive connection between the bottom of the pipe A and the upper part 2 outside the mass B, so as to assurer la continuité de la transmission des efforts sans aucun point anguleux. ensure the continuity of the transmission of forces without any angular point. A titre d'exemple, sur la figure 2, on a représenté schématiquement, en trait plein une conduite selon l'invention comprenant un tuyau mëtallique A associé à une base en bêton B et, en trait mixte, la déformée A', B', déterminée par le calcul dans le cas d'une surpression de l'extérieur par rapport à l'intérieur de la conduite, par exemple 2c~ sous le poids d'un remblai. For example, in Figure 2, there is schematically shown in solid lines a pipe according to the invention comprising a metal pipe A associated with a concrete base B and, in phantom, the deformation A ', B' , determined by calculation in the case of an overpressure from the outside relative to the inside of the pipe, for example 2c ~ under the weight of an embankment. Bien entendu, l'échelle des déformations a été Of course, the scale of the deformations was amplifiée pour les rendre plus visibles mais l'on voit que, grâce à la transmission continue à la base 3, 33, 33' des efforts d'ëcartement appliqués sur les ailes 32, 32', du massif en béton B, celui-ci se déforme de façon progressive, les deux ailes 32, 32' maintenant la rigidité de l'enceinte tubulaire au niveau des côtés 13, 13' de celle-ci sans risque de cassure â la jonction avec le massif en béton B. amplified to make them more visible but we see that, thanks to the continuous transmission at the base 3, 33, 33 'of the spacing forces applied to the wings 32, 32', of the concrete block B, this one deforms progressively, the two wings 32, 32 'maintaining the rigidity of the tubular enclosure at the level of the sides 13, 13' thereof without risk of breakage at the junction with the concrete block B. Grâce à l'excellente répartition des efforts dans tout le volume du massif en béton monobloc B, la masse de celui-ci peut être :considérablement réduite par rapport aux dispositions connues précëdemment. Thanks to the excellent distribution of forces throughout the volume of the monobloc concrete block B, the mass of the latter can be: considerably reduced compared to the previously known arrangements. Pour alléger encore Ia structure, on pourra avantageusement utiliser un béton dit "à haute performance BHP" ayant une résistance à la compression et à la traction bien supêrieure à celle du béton 5 ordinaire, par exemple au-delà de 40 MPa. To further lighten the structure, one can advantageously use a so-called "high performance BHP" concrete having a compressive and tensile strength much greater than that of ordinary concrete, for example above 40 MPa. Une telle résistance favorise la solidarisation et la coopération entre le tuyau A en métal et le massif en béton B. D'autre part, l'augmentation des performances du béton permet l'utilisation d'un acier à haute 10 résistance. Such resistance promotes the joining and cooperation between the metal pipe A and the concrete block B. On the other hand, the increase in the performance of the concrete allows the use of a high resistance steel. On peut ainsi diminuer l'épaisseur de la paroi métallique et, par conséquent, le poids global des éléments. It is thus possible to reduce the thickness of the metal wall and, consequently, the overall weight of the elements. En outre, comme indiqué sur les figures 3 et 4, il est possible d'améliorer la jonction entre la paroi métallique A et le massif de support B au moyen de cornières 7, 7' formant chacune au moins un angle rentrant ayant un côté 71 recouvrant la face supérieure 30' de chaque aile 32, 32' du massif de support B et un côté 72 s'étendant vers le haut et 2~~ tangent à la face extérieure du côté latéral correspondant 13, 13' de la paroi mince A, à la sortie du massif B. Le côté 71 est scellé dans le béton et le côtê 72 est soudé sur la face externe du côtê latéral 13, 13' qui est ainsi raidi et maintenu appliqué In addition, as indicated in Figures 3 and 4, it is possible to improve the junction between the metal wall A and the support block B by means of angles 7, 7 'each forming at least one re-entrant angle having a side 71 covering the upper face 30 'of each wing 32, 32' of the support block B and a side 72 extending upwards and 2 ~~ tangent to the outer face of the corresponding lateral side 13, 13 'of the thin wall A , at the exit of the block B. The side 71 is sealed in the concrete and the side 72 is welded to the external face of the lateral side 13, 13 'which is thus stiffened and kept applied contre l'aile 32, 32' du massif H, ce qui permet d'éviter tout risque de décollement pouvant entrainer, par exemple, une entrée d'eau. against the wing 32, 32 ′ of the solid mass H, which makes it possible to avoid any risk of detachment which could lead, for example, to ingress of water. La cornière 7, 7' est munie de parties de scellement 73 et peut avantageusement recouvrir le 3u bord externe de la face supérieure 30' du massif B The angle bar 7, 7 'is provided with sealing parts 73 and can advantageously cover the external edge of the upper face 30' of the block B pour réduire les risques de fissuration du béton. to reduce the risk of concrete cracking. De préfërence, les cornières 7, 7' s'étendent tout le long de la face 30' du massif B, mais elles peuvent aussi constituer de simples pattes de scellement écartées les unes des autres. Preferably, the angles 7, 7 'extend all along the face 30' of the solid B, but they can also constitute simple sealing tabs spaced from each other. Selon une autre caractéristique particulièrement avantageuse, la transmission continue des efforts dans le massif de support B permet de simplifier la réalisation de l'armature, de la façon représentée sur les figures 3 et 4. According to another particularly advantageous characteristic, the continuous transmission of forces in the support block B makes it possible to simplify the production of the reinforcement, as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4. Dans ce cas, en effet, l'armature peut être constituée essentiellement d'une simple tôle 54 qui 1o est cintrée avec la même courbure que la paroi 1 de l'enceinte A et noyée dans le bëton 30. Des perforations 55 ménagées sur toutes la surface de la tôle 54 assurent la pénétration du béton pour une meilleure solidarisation. In this case, in fact, the frame may consist essentially of a simple sheet 54 which 1o is bent with the same curvature as the wall 1 of the enclosure A and embedded in the concrete 30. Perforations 55 formed on all the surface of the sheet 54 ensure the penetration of the concrete for better bonding. De plus, comme l'indique la figure 4, la tôle 54 peut aussi être munie, sur ses deux faces, d'éléments en saillie 56 pour assurer une solidarisation complète. In addition, as shown in Figure 4, the sheet 54 can also be provided, on its two faces, with projecting elements 56 to ensure complete connection. Les deux tôles parallèles 1 et 54 reliées par le béton 30 coopèrent, entre elles à la manière d'une 2o poutre courbe pour encaisser les efforts d'écartement des côtés latéraux 32, 32'. The two parallel sheets 1 and 54 connected by concrete 30 cooperate with each other in the manner of a curved beam 2o to withstand the separation forces of the lateral sides 32, 32 '. I1 suffit, pour éviter les fissurations, de placer dans les angles du massif B une armature légère 5', par exemple un treillis soudé, en particulier le long des faces externes du massif. It suffices, to avoid cracking, to place in the corners of the block B a light reinforcement 5 ', for example a welded mesh, in particular along the external faces of the block. Grâce à la simplification de l'armature, comme le montre la figure 4, il est possible de ménager, à Thanks to the simplification of the reinforcement, as shown in Figure 4, it is possible to spare, chaque angle du massif, un emplacement libre dans lequel sont placés des tubes 58 mis bout à bout qui 3o peuvent participer à la résistance et limitent un espace longitudinal pour le passage, par exemple, de câbles électriques, de canalisations, ou bien de barres de précontrainte longitudinale. each corner of the block, a free location in which are placed tubes 58 placed end to end which 3o can participate in the resistance and limit a longitudinal space for the passage, for example, of electric cables, pipes, or bars of longitudinal prestressing. Selon une autre caractéristique avantageuse reprêsentée sur la figure 4, le béton 30 peut étre un béton de fibres comportant, de façon connue, une multitude de fibres métalliques 57 réparties régulièrement dans la masse du béton et orientées de façon aléatoire. According to another advantageous characteristic shown in FIG. 4, the concrete 30 may be a fiber concrete comprising, in a known manner, a multitude of metal fibers 57 distributed regularly in the mass of the concrete and oriented randomly. Ainsi, le massif en béton B peut encore être allégë. Thus, the concrete block B can still be lightened. Gênéralement, pour permettre la rëpartition alëatoire des fibres métalliques 57, un béton de lo fibres est réalisé à partir d'agrégats de faibles dimensions, les plus gros morceaux ne dëpassant pas, en pratique, 8 mm. Generally, to allow the random distribution of the metal fibers 57, a concrete of lo fibers is made from aggregates of small dimensions, the largest pieces not exceeding, in practice, 8 mm. De plus, on utilise souvent, en particulier pour les bétons à haute performance, des adjuvants qui améliorent la fluidité. In addition, admixtures which improve fluidity are often used, in particular for high performance concretes. Un tel béton peut donc, lors de la coulêe, se répandre facilement dans les armatures, à tel point qu'il n'est souvent pas nécessaire de vibrer. Such concrete can therefore, during casting, easily spread in the reinforcements, to such an extent that it is often not necessary to vibrate. Selon une autre caractéristique très avantageuse de l'invention, il est prévu, pour assurer la solidarisation du massif en béton avec l'enveloppe métallique A, de fixer sur la face externe de celle-ci un organe de jonction ondulé qui, de préférence, est constitué d'un treillis métallique 8 ayant des fers longitudinaux 81 et des fers transversaux 82. De tels treillis. According to another very advantageous characteristic of the invention, provision is made, in order to ensure the solidarisation of the concrete block with the metal casing A, to fix on the external face of the latter a corrugated junction member which, preferably, consists of a metal mesh 8 having longitudinal bars 81 and transverse bars 82. Such lattices. existent dans le commerce et peuvent être ondulés, par exemple en les faisant passer entre des rouleaux munis de cannelures imbriquées, les ondulations étant parallèles aux fers longitudinaux 81. Un tel treillis ondulé se déforme facilement dans le sens transversal et peut donc être appliqué sur le secteur 14 de la face externe de l'enveloppe A, sur lequel est appliqué le massif en béton. exist commercially and can be corrugated, for example by passing them between rollers provided with interlocking grooves, the corrugations being parallel to the longitudinal bars 81. Such a corrugated mesh is easily deformed in the transverse direction and can therefore be applied on the sector 14 of the external face of the envelope A, on which the concrete block is applied. Les sommets 83 des ondulations peuvent alors être soudés électriquement, de façon connue, sur la face externe 14 de la paroi 1 qui forme un coffrage perdu, de la façon indiquée sur la façon indiquée sur la figure 6. The tops 83 of the corrugations can then be electrically welded, in a known manner, to the external face 14 of the wall 1 which forms a permanent shuttering, in the manner indicated in the manner indicated in FIG. 6. Si l'on utilise un béton de fine granulométrie, en particulier, un béton de fibres à haute performance, celui-ci peut pénétrer dans les parties 84 du treillis qui s'étendent en saillie entre les sommets 83 de telle sorte que le treillis est entièrement noyé dans le béton et réalise, après durcissement, une parfaite solidarisation entre l'enveloppe A et le massif en lo béton B. Comme on l'a représenté sur la figure 6, la jonction au niveau supérieur du massif en béton B peut encore étre améliorée par un prolongement 85 du treillis 8 ayant un profil adéquat. If fine-grained concrete is used, in particular high performance fiber concrete, this can penetrate into the portions 84 of the mesh which protrude between the vertices 83 so that the mesh is completely embedded in the concrete and achieves, after hardening, a perfect connection between the envelope A and the concrete block B. As shown in Figure 6, the junction at the upper level of the concrete block B can still be improved by an extension 85 of the mesh 8 having an adequate profile. On évite ainsi tout risque de pénétration d'eau entre l'enveloppe A This avoids any risk of water penetrating between the envelope A et le massif en béton B et l'on peut même supprimer les cornières 7 décrites prêcédemment. and the concrete block B and we can even remove the angles 7 described previously. De même, l'utilisation d'un béton de fibres peut permettre de supprimer les autres armatures 52, 54' décrites précédemment. Likewise, the use of a fiber concrete can make it possible to eliminate the other reinforcements 52, 54 'described above. Une telle réalisation 2o améliore encore la souplesse de la structure. Such an embodiment 2o further improves the flexibility of the structure. L'invention permet de simplifier la réalisation des éléments préfabriqués et leur mise en place pour la construction d'une conduite. The invention makes it possible to simplify the production of prefabricated elements and their installation for the construction of a pipe. La partie inférieure 1 de l'enceinte tubulaire A peut être constituée, méme pour de grandes dimensions, de plaques de tôle qui sont cintrées à la presse ou sur des rouleaux de façon à présenter la courbure souhaitée. The lower part 1 of the tubular enclosure A can consist, even for large dimensions, of sheet metal plates which are bent in the press or on rollers so as to present the desired curvature. Comme le montre schématiquement la figure 7, pour rêaliser un élément préfabriqué de la 3u conduite, la plaque 1 est retournée et placée dans le fond d'un moule 6 de façon à constituer un coffrage perdu. As shown schematically in Figure 7, to achieve a prefabricated element of the 3u pipe, the plate 1 is turned over and placed in the bottom of a mold 6 so as to constitute a lost formwork. Le panneau 1 a été muni auparavant, sur l'extrados, d'éléments de solidarisation 53 tels que des profilés soudés ou bien d'un treillis ondulé 8, dans le cas de la f figure 6 . The panel 1 was previously provided, on the upper surface, with securing elements 53 such as welded sections or else with a corrugated mesh 8, in the case of FIG. 6. Aprês avoir mis en place les faces latérales 61 du moule et l'armature 5, on pose l'armature et l'on coule le béton jusqu'au niveau voulu pour donner à la base B l'épaisseur nécessaire. After having put in place the side faces 61 of the mold and the frame 5, the frame is placed and the concrete is poured to the desired level to give the base B the necessary thickness. I1 est à noter que l'armature en forme de tôle des figures 3 et 4 peut être fixée à l'avance, à It should be noted that the reinforcement in the form of a sheet of FIGS. 3 and 4 can be fixed in advance, to l'écartement voulu, sur le panneau 1. the required spacing, on panel 1. Après la prise, l'ensemble est décoffré et retourné. After setting, the whole is unsheathed and turned over. it~ Pour la manutention de l'élément préfabriqué it ~ For handling the precast element ainsi réalisé, celui-ci doit évidemment être muni de points d'ancrage tels que des anneaux 40 scellés dans le béton à la partie supérieure des ailes 32, 32' et pouvant servir à l'accrochage d'élingues. thus produced, the latter must obviously be provided with anchoring points such as rings 40 sealed in the concrete at the upper part of the wings 32, 32 'and which can be used for hooking up slings. Le cas IS échëant, les anneaux 40 peuvent aussi être soudés sur les cornières 7 scellées sur la face supérieure 30' du massif B. If the case IS expires, the rings 40 can also be welded to the angles 7 sealed on the upper face 30 'of the solid B. De tels éléments préfabriqués peuvent être facilement transportés sur le site de construction, 2c~ par exemple sur une remorque 62, de la façon indiquée sur la figure 6. I1 est ainsi possible de transporter par la route des éléments de très grandes dimensions si la hauteur h de l'élément augmentée de celle de la remorque reste compatible avec le gabarit routier. Such prefabricated elements can be easily transported to the construction site, 2c ~ for example on a trailer 62, as shown in Figure 6. It is thus possible to transport very large elements by road if the height h of the element increased by that of the trailer remains compatible with the road gauge. En 25 effet, i1 suffit de limiter la longueur L de l'élément préfabriqué pour que, celui-ci étant placé en travers sur la remorque, l'ens,emble ne dépasse pas la largeur autorisée. In fact, it suffices to limit the length L of the prefabricated element so that, the latter being placed across the trailer, the assembly does not exceed the authorized width. Les panneaux supérieurs 2 du tuyau, constitués aei de tôles cintrées, peuvent être simplement empilées pour leur transport sur le site. The upper panels 2 of the pipe, made up of bent sheets, can simply be stacked for transport to the site. Pour la réalisation de la conduite, après avoir préparé la surface de pose C, les éléments préfabriqués sont placés l'un à la suite de l'autre le IS For the realization of the pipe, after having prepared the laying surface C, the prefabricated elements are placed one after the other on the IS long de T axe longitudinal O, O' en réglant les niveaux et le positionnement de façon que les bords latéraux lla, llb des panneaux la, lb de l'élément B1 à mettre en place et de l'élément B déjà posé, soient dans le prolongement les uns des autres, les bords transversaux 12a, 12b correspondants étant en contact. along T longitudinal axis O, O 'by adjusting the levels and the positioning so that the side edges lla, llb of the panels la, lb of the element B1 to be put in place and of the element B already installed, are in the extension of each other, the corresponding transverse edges 12a, 12b being in contact. On peut alors placer le panneau supérieur 2a et procéder au soudage de l'ensemble le long des joints longitudinaux 11, 21 et transversaux 12, 22. The upper panel 2a can then be placed and the assembly can be welded along the longitudinal 11, 21 and transverse 12, 22 joints. A chaque extrémité longitudinale de l'élément préfabriqué, le massif en béton B est arrêté At each longitudinal end of the prefabricated element, the concrete block B is stopped légèrement en retrait de la tôle 1 de façon à laisser entre deux éléments consëcutifs B1, B2, un espace 34 qui facilite la mise en place des éléments et la soudure des tôles. slightly set back from the sheet 1 so as to leave between two consecutive elements B1, B2, a space 34 which facilitates the establishment of the elements and the welding of the sheets. Les armatures longitudinales 51 et/ou les moyens de solidarisation 8 sont munis de parties en attente qui s'entrecroisent dans cet espace 34 et sont ensuite noyées dans un mortier de scellement. The longitudinal reinforcements 51 and / or the securing means 8 are provided with waiting parts which intersect in this space 34 and are then embedded in a sealing mortar. La réalisation de la conduite est donc particulièrement facile, les éléments pouvant être préfabriqués en usine et transportés ensuite sur le chantier. The production of the pipe is therefore particularly easy, the elements can be prefabricated in the factory and then transported to the site. Cependant, pour de très grandes dimensions, il 2, est possible également de réaliser les éléments sur le site. However, for very large dimensions, it is also possible to produce the elements on the site. Les tôles 1, 2 peuvent en effet être formées en atelier et empilées sur une remorque poux être livrées sur le chantier qui peut être simplement équipé des moules 6 nécessaires, ceux-ci étant particulièrement 3o simples. The sheets 1, 2 can in fact be formed in the workshop and stacked on a lice trailer to be delivered to the site which can simply be fitted with the necessary molds 6, these being particularly simple. Par ailleurs, les éléments prëfabriqués peuvent aussi être réalisës à proximité du chantier sur des installations foraines de prêfabrication. In addition, the prefabricated elements can also be produced near the site on fairground prefabrication installations. Bien entendu, si le massif de support B peut être allégé, il doit, cependant, être calculé en fonction des circonstances d'utilisation. Of course, if the support block B can be lightened, it must, however, be calculated according to the circumstances of use. Par exemple, lorsque la conduite se trouve placée à l'intérieur de la nappe phréatique, le massif en béton assure avantageusement un rôle de lest et sa masse est donc déterminée en conséquence. For example, when the pipe is placed inside the water table, the concrete block advantageously acts as a ballast and its mass is therefore determined accordingly. Mais l'invention ne se limite évidemment pas aux détails des modes de réalisation qui viennent d'être dëcrits, d'autres variantes pouvant être imaginées sans s'ëcarter du cadre de protection défini lo par les revendications. But the invention is obviously not limited to the details of the embodiments which have just been described, other variants can be imagined without departing from the framework of protection defined lo by the claims. Par exemple, il est possible d'alléger encore le massif en béton, de la façon indiquée sur la figure 3, en donnant un profil circulaire à l'enceinte tubulaire A qui résiste alors par elle méme à la IS pression interne, sans appliquer d'efforts de flexion sur la base 3 qui sert essentiellement à assurer la rigidité de l'enceinte, en particulier lors du montage, et à répartir la charge sur une grande surface. For example, it is possible to further lighten the concrete block, as shown in Figure 3, by giving a circular profile to the tubular enclosure A which then by itself resists the internal pressure IS, without applying d 'Bending forces on the base 3 which essentially serves to ensure the rigidity of the enclosure, in particular during assembly, and to distribute the load over a large area. I1 en résulte, cependant, une augmentation de 2n la hauteur totale H de l'élément et, pour une grande section de passage, le mode de réalisation à base aplatie de la figure 1 sera, généralement, préférable. This results, however, in an increase of the total height H of the element by 2n and, for a large passage section, the flattened base embodiment of Figure 1 will generally be preferable. Par ailleurs, le mode de construction, selon la figure 7, d'une enceinte tubulaire en deux parties, 25 est particulièrement intéressant pour des conduites de très grandes sections mais, en raison des avantages obtenus, l'invention peut s'appliquer êgalement à des conduites de dimensions plus courantes, par exemple à Furthermore, the method of construction, according to FIG. 7, of a tubular enclosure in two parts, is particularly advantageous for pipes of very large sections but, because of the advantages obtained, the invention can also be applied to pipes of more common dimensions, for example at partir d'un diamètre de 0,5 m. from a diameter of 0.5 m. Dans ce cas, il est 3o plus avantageux de réaliser directement des tuyaux fermés. In this case, it is 3o more advantageous to directly produce closed pipes. Par exemple, de façon. For example, so. connue, on peut enrouler en biais une tôle mince de grande longueur en soudant les bords adjacents en hélice pour constituer une enceinte tubulaire fermée que l'on coupe en tronçons de longueur compatible avec les possibilités de manipulation et de transport. Known, it is possible to wind a thin sheet of great length at an angle by welding the adjacent edges in a helix to form a closed tubular enclosure which is cut into lengths of length compatible with the possibilities of handling and transport. Un tel tronçon tubulaire peut être posé entre deux parois latérales d'un moule ayant, de part et d'autre du tuyau, deux fonds placés au niveau voulu, par exemple à mi-hauteur du tuyau. Such a tubular section can be placed between two side walls of a mold having, on either side of the pipe, two bottoms placed at the desired level, for example halfway up the pipe. On fixe alors sur la partie supérieure convexe du tuyau des moyens de solidarisation, par exemple, un treillis ondulé 8. On 1n peut alors, comme indiqué précédemment, couler du béton dans le moule ainsi constitué jusqu'à un niveau qui dépasse la partie supérieure du tuyau de façon à Is then fixed on the upper convex part of the pipe securing means, for example, a corrugated lattice 8. We can then, as indicated above, pour concrete in the mold thus formed up to a level which exceeds the upper part. of the pipe so that donner au massif en béton l'épaisseur voulue. give the concrete base the desired thickness. D'autre part, il est particulièrement i5 avantageux de réaliser un massif en béton monobloc en forme de U mais il serait possible, également, comme on l'a reprësenté sur la figure 5, de réaliser deux parties en L 36, 36' présentant des branches horizontales 33, 33' qui se raccordent dans le plan 2n médian P1 de la conduite. On the other hand, it is particularly advantageous i5 to make a solid U-shaped one-piece concrete, but it would also be possible, as has been shown in Figure 5, to make two L-shaped parts 36, 36 'having horizontal branches 33, 33 'which connect in the median plane 2n P1 of the pipe. Le coffrage serait alors réalisé de façon à laisser entre les faces en regard des deux branches 33, 33' un espace libre 37 dans lequel s'entrecroisent des armatures en attente des deux éléments qui coopèrent avec des armatures 2, longitudinales, l'ensemble étant noyé dans un mortier de scellement pour assurer la continuité de la base. The formwork would then be produced so as to leave between the opposite faces of the two branches 33, 33 'a free space 37 in which the reinforcements intersect waiting for the two elements which cooperate with the longitudinal reinforcements 2, the whole being embedded in a sealing mortar to ensure the continuity of the base. Bien entendu, on peut faire varier le niveau des joints longitudinaux 11, 21 et la hauteur (h') des côtés latéraux 32, 32', mais celle-ci doit rester 3n suffisante pour maintenir la rigidité des côtés I3, 13' et résister à un effort d'écrasement de la conduite en cas de mise en dépression par rapport à Of course, we can vary the level of the longitudinal joints 11, 21 and the height (h ') of the lateral sides 32, 32', but this must remain 3n sufficient to maintain the rigidity of the sides I3, 13 'and resist to a crushing force of the pipe in the event of depressurization in relation to l'extérieur. outside. Le massif en béton B doit évidemment être assez résistant pour permettre la manutention, le transport et la mise en place des éléments préfabriqués. The concrete block B must obviously be strong enough to allow handling, transport and installation of the prefabricated elements. Certes, grâce à la solidarisation entre la paroi métallique A et le massif en bëton B, la rigiditë de l'ensemble est amëliorée. Certainly, thanks to the connection between the metal wall A and the concrete block B, the rigidity of the whole is improved. Cependant, pour alléger autant que possible l'élément, il sera, parfois, plus intéressant de renforcer le massif de support B au moyen d'une traverse de liaison fixée sur les extrémités supërieures des deux ailes 32, 32' de façon à assurer la rigidité des parties latérales du massif B lors des manutentions. However, to lighten the element as much as possible, it will sometimes be more advantageous to reinforce the support block B by means of a connecting cross member fixed to the upper ends of the two wings 32, 32 'so as to ensure the rigidity of the lateral parts of the block B during handling. Cette traverse de maintien peut être fixêe de façon amovible, de façon à This retaining crosspiece can be fixed in a removable manner, so as to étre retirée après la mise en place de l'élément inférieur, pour poser le panneau supérieur 2. be removed after installing the lower element, to fit the upper panel 2. Cependant, une telle traverse de liaison peut encore présenter des avantages après la réalisation de la conduite. However, such a connecting cross member can still have advantages after the completion of the pipe. En effet, comme on l'a indiqué sur la figure 8, on peut lui donner la forme d'un arceau 41 en 2« construction mëcano-soudée, qui enjambe la conduite et présente un profil intérieur 42 identique à celui de la paroi supérieure 2. Un tel arceau 41 peut aussi être fixé à l'avance sur le panneau supërieur 2 si le massif B est suffisamment résistant pour les manutentions. Indeed, as indicated in Figure 8, it can be given the shape of a hoop 41 in 2 "mechanically welded construction, which spans the pipe and has an internal profile 42 identical to that of the upper wall. 2. Such a hoop 41 can also be fixed in advance on the upper panel 2 if the solid B is strong enough for handling. L'arceau 4I assure alors la protection extérieure et le renforcement du panneau 2 dont on pourra diminuer l'épaisseur, celle-ci étant calculée uniquement en fonction des contraintes de traction dues à la pression interne. The hoop 4I then provides external protection and reinforcement of the panel 2, the thickness of which can be reduced, the latter being calculated only as a function of the tensile stresses due to the internal pressure. Le panneau 2 ainsi 3c~ renforcé par un ou plusieurs arceaux 41, rêsistera mieux à l'écrasement lorsque la conduite est en dépression par rapport à l'extérieur. The panel 2 and 3c ~ reinforced by one or more arches 41, will resist crushing better when the pipe is in depression with respect to the outside. Une conduite selon l'invention présente encore d'autres avantages. A pipe according to the invention has yet other advantages. Par exemple, dans des parties courbes de la conduite, les élêments successifs en bëton peuvent être reliés entre eux de façon à éviter le ripage de la conduite. For example, in curved parts of the pipe, the successive concrete elements can be interconnected so as to prevent the pipe from slipping. Comme on l'a indiqué sur la figure 9, les éléments préfabriqués peuvent facilement être réalisés de façon que le plan de joint transversal Q dans lequel sont placés les bords transversaux 12, 22 de l'enceinte A soit incliné par rapport au plan médian longitudinal P1 de chaque élément préfabriquë de façon lo à réaliser progressivement un changement de direction. As indicated in figure 9, the prefabricated elements can easily be made so that the transverse joint plane Q in which the transverse edges 12, 22 of the enclosure A are placed is inclined with respect to the longitudinal median plane P1 of each prefabricated element so lo to progressively achieve a change of direction. Les élëments successifs peuvent alors être solidarisés par des tirants 43 mis sous tension qui peuvent avantageusement être enfilés dans les tubes 58 décrits précédemment en se référant à la figure 4, et dont les IS extrémités prennent appui sur des bossages 35 ménagés, du côté extérieur, aux extrêmités de chaque élément Bl, B2. The successive elements can then be joined together by tensioned tie rods 43 which can advantageously be threaded into the tubes 58 described above with reference to FIG. 4, and the ends of which rest on bosses 35 provided on the outside, at the ends of each element B1, B2. D'une façon analogue, comme l'indique la figure 10, le plan de joint Q peut être incliné par 2t1 rapport à l'horizontale de façon à s'adapter à une variation de la pente de la surface de pose C. Similarly, as shown in Figure 10, the joint plane Q can be inclined by 2t1 relative to the horizontal so as to adapt to a variation in the slope of the laying surface C. Comme on l'a exposé en se référant à la figure 5 Figure 1 is a schematic view, in section transverse and in perspective, of part of a conduct according to the invention. As discussed with reference to Figure 5 Figure 1 is a schematic view, in section transverse and in perspective, of part of a conduct according to the invention. Figure 2 schematically shows the conditions of deformation of a pipe, in case of read depression compared to the outside. Figure 2 schematically shows the conditions of deformation of a pipe, in case of read depression compared to the outside. Figure 3 shows a variant of production. Figure 3 shows a variant of production. Figure 4 is a detail view of the part side of the massif. Figure 4 is a detail view of the part side of the massif. i, Figure 5 shows, in cross section, a another alternative embodiment. i, Figure 5 shows, in cross section, a another alternative embodiment. Figure 6 is a detail view of a means between the pipe and the solid. Figure 6 is a detail view of a means between the pipe and the solid. Figure 7 schematically shows the 2 ~~ realization and transport of the prefabricated elements. Figure 7 schematically shows the 2 ~~ realization and transport of the prefabricated elements. Figure 8 shows an alternative embodiment with fastening crosspiece. Figure 8 shows an alternative embodiment with fastening crosspiece. Figures 9 and 10 illustrate modes of realization allowing a change of direction of 25 the axis of the pipe. Figures 9 and 10 illustrate modes of realization allowing a change of direction of 25 the axis of the pipe. In Figure 1, there is shown schematically, in perspective, part of a conduct according to the invention constituted, in a way general, of a pipe A associated with a support block made of concrete B. Pipe A consists of panels curved metal welded along their edges adjacent, the number of panels depending on the passage section to ensure. In Figure 1, there is shown schematically, in perspective, part of a conduct according to the invention constituted, in a way general, of a pipe A associated with a support block made of concrete B. Pipe A consists of panels curved metal welded along their adjacent edges, the number of panels depending on the passage section to ensure. For a section of passage having a width of the order of two meters, G For a section of passage having a width of the order of two meters, G pipe A can consist, in cross section, of only two panels, respectively one panel lower 1 and upper panel 2, which are welded along their adjacent longitudinal edges 11, 21, 11 ', 21' and cover, in the direction of the axis longitudinal O, O 'of the pipe, a length L which depends on the transport possibilities. pipe A can consist, in cross section, of only two panels, respectively one panel lower 1 and upper panel 2, which are welded along their adjacent longitudinal edges 11, 21, 11 ', 21' and cover, in the direction of the axis longitudinal O, O 'of the pipe, a length L which depends on the transport possibilities. The panels, lb, 2a, 2b of two successive sections of the pipe, are welded along their opposite transverse edges Ic> 12a, I2b, 22a, 22b, so as to constitute an enclosure waterproof tubular A resistant to internal pressure. The panels, lb, 2a, 2b of two successive sections of the pipe, are welded along their opposite transverse edges Ic> 12a, I2b, 22a, 22b, so as to constitute an enclosure waterproof tubular A resistant to internal pressure. The tubular enclosure A is applied to a support bed B which covers all of its part lower and therefore has a U shape with IS a base 3 and two lateral wings 31, 31 'which go up vertically along both sides sides of enclosure A. The assembly is symmetrical with respect to a vertical median plane P1 passing through the longitudinal axis O, O '. The tubular enclosure A is applied to a support bed B which covers all of its part lower and therefore has a U shape with IS a base 3 and two lateral wings 31, 31 'which go up vertically along both sides sides of enclosure A. The assembly is symmetrical with respect to a vertical median plane P1 passing through the longitudinal axis O, O '. 2o The two wings 31, 31 'of the base B rise substantially to the level of the diametrical plane horizontal P2 of the pipe, passing through the axis O, 0 'and, even, slightly above this plane in the mode of embodiment shown in Figure 1. 2o The two wings 31, 31 'of the base B rise substantially to the level of the diametrical plane horizontal P2 of the pipe, passing through the axis O, 0' and, even, slightly above this plane in the mode of embodiment shown in Figure 1. 25 The two lateral sides 13, 13 'of the panel lower 1 of enclosure A can still go back to above the P2 plane because they are stiffened by the two wings 31, 31 'of the base and their longitudinal edges 11, 11 'are therefore kept parallel and aligned with the corresponding edges of the pipe part already made, which facilitates installation and welding of the upper panel 2. The lower panel 1 covers then an angular sector greater than 180 °, at an angle entering, the upper panel 2 covering the sector complementary angular. 25 The two lateral sides 13, 13 'of the panel lower 1 of enclosure A can still go back to above the P2 plane because they are stiffened by the two wings 31, 31' of the base and their longitudinal edges 11, 11 'are therefore kept parallel and aligned with the corresponding edges of the pipe part already made, which facilitates installation and welding of the upper panel 2. The lower panel 1 covers then an angular sector greater than 180 °, at an angle entering, the upper panel 2 covering the sector complementary angular. The upper part of the pipe 1 consisting of upper panel 2 and sides 13, 13 'of the panel lower 1, which connect tangentially, advantageously has the shape of a cylinder of revolution centered on the axis 0, 0 ', at least until level of the diametrical plane P2. The upper part of the pipe 1 consisting of upper panel 2 and sides 13, 13 'of the panel lower 1, which connect tangentially, advantageously has the shape of a cylinder of revolution centered on the axis 0, 0', at least until level of the diametrical plane P2. In this way, so that enclosure A resists in the best conditions 1a to the constraints applied. In this way, so that enclosure A resists in the best conditions 1a to the constraints applied. Indeed, the application of internal pressure only determines tensile stresses in the metal wall which is easily calculated and the thickness of which can be relatively small. Indeed, the application of internal pressure only determines tensile stresses in the metal wall which is easily calculated and the thickness of which can be relatively small. It should be noted that the half form IS circular wall 2, 13, 13 'allows it to resist in the best conditions, not only to internal pressure but also to loads external, for example, in the case of driving buried under an embankment before the pressurization of the 2o fluid inside the enclosure A. It should be noted that the half form IS circular wall 2, 13, 13 'allows it to resist in the best conditions, not only to internal pressure but also to loads external, for example, in the case of driving buried under an embankment before the pressurization of the 2o fluid inside the enclosure A. The lower part 1 is not necessarily semicircular and can even be planar because the base 3 of the concrete block B and its reinforcements can be calculated to withstand the stresses 25 bending. The lower part 1 is not necessarily semicircular and can even be planar because the base 3 of the concrete block B and its reinforcements can be calculated to withstand the stresses 25 bending. As noted, in the mode of realization described in the previous patent EP-0767881 from the same inventor, the support bed was consisting of three parts, respectively a base 3 ~~ extending below the lower part of the enclosure and two lateral support pieces which support the sides of the enclosure and are applied against the side faces of the base by tie rods prestressed. As noted, in the mode of realization described in the previous patent EP-0767881 from the same inventor, the support bed was consisting of three parts, respectively a base 3 ~~ extending below the lower part of the enclosure and two lateral support pieces which support the sides of the enclosure and are applied against the side faces of the base by tie rods prestressed. In such an arrangement, the junction between the two lateral support pieces and the base of the massif works like a joint. In such an arrangement, the junction between the two lateral support pieces and the base of the massif works like a joint. In the invention, on the other hand, at least the lateral part 31 of the support block B placed at each side of enclosure A is made up of a room monobloc having, in cross section, a profile in L which comprises a substantially vertical branch 32 extend along the corresponding side of the enclosure here A and a substantially horizontal branch 33 extending below the pipe to form at least part of the base 3 resting on the ground. In the invention, on the other hand, at least the lateral part 31 of the support block B placed at each side of enclosure A is made up of a room monobloc having, in cross section, a profile in L which included a substantially vertical branch 32 extend along the corresponding side of the enclosure here A and a substantially horizontal branch 33 extending below the pipe to form at least part of the base 3 resting on the ground. This provision ensures the continuity of the transmission of stresses, i5 spreading forces applied by the lateral sides 13, 13 'of enclosure A on the two wings 32, 3.2' of solid B being taken up by the base 3 thereof. This provision ensures the continuity of the transmission of stresses, i5 spreading forces applied by the lateral sides 13, 13 'of enclosure A on the two wings 32, 3.2' of solid B being taken up by the base 3 thereof. Thus, it is possible to delete the prestressed tie rods which in the embodiment Zn previous, were stretched inside the base and subjected it to compression forces important. Thus, it is possible to delete the prestressed tie rods which in the embodiment Zn previous, were stretched inside the base and subjected it to compression forces important. In the invention, the base is subject only to bending forces resulting from the tendency to spread sides 32, 32 'which are 25 moreover compensated by the weight of pipe A and applying pressure on its underside 14. In the invention, the base is subject only to bending forces resulting from the tendency to spread sides 32, 32 'which are 25 moreover compensated by the weight of pipe A and applying pressure on its underside 14. The base 3 of the support mass can therefore be lightened and it is possible even for very large 3 "sections, for example a diameter of the order of 3 m, to make a solid one-piece support such as shown in figure 1. The base 3 of the support mass can therefore be lightened and it is possible even for very large 3 "sections, for example a diameter of the order of 3 m, to make a solid one-piece support such as shown in figure 1. The massive B will normally be made in reinforced concrete, for example as shown in section vs) partial in Figure 1. The frame 5 must then have the desired U shape and can be conventionally made up of longitudinal bars 51 associated with transverse reinforcements 52. The massive B will normally be made in reinforced concrete, for example as shown in section vs) partial in Figure 1. The frame 5 must then have the desired U shape and can be conventionally made up of longitudinal bars 51 associated with transverse reinforcements 52. The lower part 1 of the tubular enclosure may have a larger radius of curvature than that of the upper part 2 and can even be flat. The lower part 1 of the tubular enclosure may have a larger radius of curvature than that of the upper part 2 and can even be flat. I1 however it is better to provide a connection progressive between the bottom of pipe A and the part to superior 2 external to massif B, so that ensure the continuity of the transmission of forces without any angular points. I1 however it is better to provide a progressive connection between the bottom of pipe A and the part to superior 2 external to massif B, so that ensure the continuity of the transmission of forces without any angular points. For example, in Figure 2, we have shown schematically, in solid lines a pipe according to the invention comprising a pipe metal A associated with a concrete base B and, in mixed line, the deformation A ', B', determined by the calculation in the event of an overpressure from the outside relative to the inside of the pipe for example 2c ~ under the weight of an embankment. For example, in Figure 2, we have schematically shown, in solid lines a pipe according to the invention comprising a pipe metal A associated with a concrete base B and, in mixed line, the deformation A ', B', determined by the calculation in the event of an overpressure from the outside relative to the inside of the pipe for example 2c ~ under the weight of an embankment. Of course, the scale of the deformations has been amplified to make them more visible but we can see that, thanks to the continuous transmission at base 3, 33, 33 'of the spreading forces applied on the wings 32, 32 ', of the concrete block B, it deforms by gradually, the two wings 32, 32 'now the rigidity of the tubular enclosure at the level of sides 13, 13 'thereof without risk of breakage at the junction with the concrete block B. Of course, the scale of the deformations has been amplified to make them more visible but we can see that, thanks to the continuous transmission at base 3, 33, 33 'of the spreading forces applied on the wings 32, 32', of the concrete block B, it deforms by gradually, the two wings 32, 32 'now the rigidity of the tubular enclosure at the level of sides 13, 13' thereof without risk of breakage at the junction with the concrete block B. Thanks to the excellent distribution of efforts throughout the volume of the solid block B, the mass of it can be: considerably reduced compared to the previously known arrangements. Thanks to the excellent distribution of efforts throughout the volume of the solid block B, the mass of it can be: considerably reduced compared to the previously known arrangements. To further lighten the structure, we can advantageously use a concrete known as "high BHP performance "with compressive strength and much higher traction than concrete 5 ordinary, for example above 40 MPa. To further lighten the structure, we can advantageously use a concrete known as "high BHP performance" with compressive strength and much higher traction than concrete 5 ordinary, for example above 40 MPa. Such a resistance promotes solidarity and cooperation between the metal pipe A and the solid in concrete B. On the other hand, increased performance concrete allows the use of high-tensile steel 10 resistance. Such a resistance promotes solidarity and cooperation between the metal pipe A and the solid in concrete B. On the other hand, increased performance concrete allows the use of high-tensile steel 10 resistance. We can thus reduce the thickness of the metal wall and therefore the overall weight elements. We can thus reduce the thickness of the metal wall and therefore the overall weight elements. In addition, as shown in Figures 3 and 4, it is possible to improve the junction between the metal wall A and the support block B by means angles 7, 7 'each forming at least one angle reentering having a side 71 covering the face upper 30 'of each wing 32, 32' of the massif of support B and one side 72 extending upwards and 2 ~~ tangent to the outer side side corresponding 13, 13 ′ of the thin wall A, at the outlet of massif B. Side 71 is sealed in concrete and side 72 is welded on the outside of the side side 13, 13 'which is thus stiffened and kept applied against wing 32, 32 'of the massive H, which allows to avoid any risk of detachment which could lead to, for example, a water inlet. In addition, as shown in Figures 3 and 4, it is possible to improve the junction between the metal wall A and the support block B by means angles 7, 7 'each forming at least one angle reentering having a side 71 covering the face upper 30 'of each wing 32, 32' of the massif of support B and one side 72 extending upwards and 2 ~~ tangent to the outer side side corresponding 13, 13 ′ of the thin wall A, at the outlet of massif B. Side 71 is sealed in concrete and side 72 is welded on the outside of the side side 13, 13 'which is thus stiffened and kept applied against wing 32, 32' of the massive H, which allows to avoid any risk of detachment which could lead to, for example, a water inlet. The angle 7, 7 'is provided with parts of sealing 73 and can advantageously cover the 3u external edge of the upper face 30 'of the block B The angle 7, 7 'is provided with parts of sealing 73 and can advantageously cover the 3u external edge of the upper face 30' of the block B to reduce the risk of concrete cracking. to reduce the risk of concrete cracking. Preferably, the angles 7, 7 'extend all along the 30 'face of massif B, but they can also be simple legs sealing away from each other. Preferably, the angles 7, 7 'extend all along the 30' face of massif B, but they can also be simple legs sealing away from each other. According to another characteristic particularly advantageous, continuous transmission efforts in the support mass B allows simplify the realization of the frame, in the way shown in Figures 3 and 4. According to another characteristic particularly advantageous, continuous transmission efforts in the support mass B allows simplify the realization of the frame, in the way shown in Figures 3 and 4. In this case, in fact, the armature can be essentially consisting of a single sheet 54 which 1o is curved with the same curvature as the wall 1 of enclosure A and embedded in concrete 30. Des perforations 55 provided on all the surface of the sheet 54 ensure the penetration of concrete for a better joining. In this case, in fact, the armature can be essentially consisting of a single sheet 54 which 1o is curved with the same curvature as the wall 1 of enclosure A and embedded in concrete 30. Des perforations 55 provided on all the surface of the sheet 54 ensure the penetration of concrete for a better joining. In addition, as the Figure 4, the sheet 54 can also be provided on its two sides, of projecting elements 56 to ensure a complete solidarity. In addition, as the Figure 4, the sheet 54 can also be provided on its two sides, of projecting elements 56 to ensure a complete solidarity. The two parallel sheets 1 and 54 connected by the concrete 30 cooperate with each other in the manner of a 2o curved beam to absorb the spreading forces lateral sides 32, 32 '. The two parallel sheets 1 and 54 connected by the concrete 30 cooperate with each other in the manner of a 2o curved beam to absorb the spreading forces lateral sides 32, 32 '. To avoid cracking, it suffices to place a light reinforcement in the corners of block B To avoid cracking, it suffices to place a light reinforcement in the corners of block B 5 ', for example a welded mesh, in particular the along the external faces of the massif. 5 ', for example a welded mesh, in particular the along the external faces of the massif. Thanks to the simplification of the frame, as shown in Figure 4, it is possible to spare, each corner of the massif, a free location in which are placed tubes 58 placed end to end which 3o can participate in resistance and limit a longitudinal space for the passage, for example, of electrical cables, pipes, or longitudinal prestressing bars. Thanks to the simplification of the frame, as shown in Figure 4, it is possible to spare, each corner of the massif, a free location in which are placed tubes 58 placed end to end which 3o can participate in resistance and limit a longitudinal space for the passage, for example, of electrical cables, pipes, or longitudinal prestressing bars. According to another advantageous characteristic represented in FIG. According to another advantageous characteristic represented in FIG. 4, the concrete 30 can be a fiber concrete comprising, in known manner, a multitude of metallic fibers 57 distributed regularly in the mass of concrete and oriented from randomly. 4, the concrete 30 can be a fiber concrete comprising, in known manner, a multitude of metallic fibers 57 distributed regularly in the mass of concrete and oriented from randomly. Thus, the concrete block B can still be lightened. Thus, the concrete block B can still be lightened. Generally, to allow distribution random metal fibers 57, a concrete of lo fibers is made from weak aggregates dimensions, the largest pieces not exceeding, in practice, 8 mm. Generally, to allow distribution random metal fibers 57, a concrete of lo fibers is made from weak aggregates dimensions, the largest pieces not exceeding, in practice, 8 mm. In addition, we often use, in especially for high performance concrete, adjuvants that improve fluidity. In addition, we often use, in especially for high performance concrete, adjuvants that improve fluidity. Such concrete can therefore easily spread during casting in the reinforcements, so much so that it is often no need to vibrate. Such concrete can therefore easily spread during casting in the reinforcements, so much so that it is often no need to vibrate. According to another very characteristic advantageous of the invention, it is intended to ensure joining the concrete block with the envelope metallic A, to fix on the external face of this one a corrugated joining member which, preferably, is consisting of a wire mesh 8 having irons longitudinal 81 and transverse irons 82. Such trellis. According to another very characteristic advantageous of the invention, it is intended to ensure joining the concrete block with the envelope metallic A, to fix on the external face of this one a corrugated joining member which, preferably, is consisting of a wire mesh 8 having irons longitudinal 81 and transverse irons 82. Such trellis. exist commercially and can be wavy, for example by passing them between rollers with nested grooves, the corrugations being parallel to the longitudinal bars 81. Such a corrugated mesh easily deforms in the transverse direction and can therefore be applied to the sector 14 of the external face of the envelope A, on which is applied the concrete block. exist commercially and can be wavy, for example by passing them between rollers with nested grooves, the corrugations being parallel to the longitudinal bars 81. Such a corrugated mesh easily deforms in the transverse direction and can therefore be applied to the sector 14 of the external face of the envelope A, on which is applied the concrete block. The summits 83 corrugations can then be welded electrically, in known manner, on the external face 14 of the wall 1 which forms a lost formwork, of the way shown in the way shown in Figure 6. The summits 83 corrugations can then be welded electrically, in known manner, on the external face 14 of the wall 1 which forms a lost formwork, of the way shown in the way shown in Figure 6. If you use a concrete of fine grain size, in particular, high performance fiber concrete, this can penetrate into the parts 84 of the trellis which protrude between the vertices 83 of so that the trellis is completely embedded in concrete and achieves, after hardening, a perfect joining between envelope A and the massif in lo concrete B. As shown in Figure 6, the junction at the upper level of the concrete block B can further improved by an extension 85 of mesh 8 having an adequate profile. If you use a concrete of fine grain size, in particular, high performance fiber concrete, this can penetrate into the parts 84 of the trellis which protrude between the vertices 83 of so that the trellis is completely embedded in concrete and achieves, after hardening, a perfect joining between envelope A and the massif in lo concrete B. As shown in Figure 6, the junction at the upper level of the concrete block B can further improved by an extension 85 of mesh 8 having an adequate profile. We thus avoid any risk of water penetration between envelope A We thus avoid any risk of water penetration between envelope A and the concrete block B and we can even remove the angles 7 described above. and the concrete block B and we can even remove the angles 7 described above. Similarly, the use of fiber concrete can be used to delete the other reinforcements 52, 54 'described above. Similarly, the use of fiber concrete can be used to delete the other reinforcements 52, 54 'described above. Such an achievement 2o further improves the flexibility of the structure. Such an achievement 2o further improves the flexibility of the structure. The invention simplifies the production of prefabricated elements and their implementation place for the construction of a pipe. The invention simplifies the production of prefabricated elements and their implementation place for the construction of a pipe. The lower part 1 of the tubular enclosure A can be set up, even for large dimensions, of sheet metal plates which are bent at the press or on rollers so as to present the desired curvature. The lower part 1 of the tubular enclosure A can be set up, even for large dimensions, of sheet metal plates which are bent at the press or on rollers so as to present the desired curvature. As shown schematically the Figure 7, to make a prefabricated element of the 3u pipe, plate 1 is turned over and placed in the bottom of a mold 6 so as to form a formwork lost. As shown schematically the Figure 7, to make a prefabricated element of the 3u pipe, plate 1 is turned over and placed in the bottom of a mold 6 so as to form a formwork lost. Panel 1 was previously fitted, on the upper surface, of joining elements 53 such as welded profiles or a corrugated mesh 8, in the case of f figure 6. After setting up the side faces 61 of the mold and the frame 5, place the reinforcement and pour the concrete up to the level wanted to give base B the necessary thickness. Panel 1 was previously fitted, on the upper surface, of joining elements 53 such as welded profiles or a corrugated mesh 8, in the case of f figure 6. After setting up the side faces 61 of the mold and the frame 5, place the reinforcement and pour the concrete up to the level wanted to give base B the necessary thickness. I1 it should be noted that the plate-shaped armature Figures 3 and 4 can be fixed in advance, to the required spacing, on panel 1. I1 it should be noted that the plate-shaped armature Figures 3 and 4 can be fixed in advance, to the required spacing, on panel 1. After setting, the whole is stripped and return. After setting, the whole is stripped and return. it ~ For handling the prefabricated element thus produced, it must obviously be provided with anchor points such as 40 rings sealed in the concrete at the top of the wings 32, 32 'and can be used for hanging slings. it ~ For handling the prefabricated element thus produced, it must obviously be provided with anchor points such as 40 rings sealed in the concrete at the top of the wings 32, 32 'and can be used for hanging slings. The case IS required, the rings 40 can also be welded to the angles 7 sealed on the upper face 30 'of the massif B. The case IS required, the rings 40 can also be welded to the angles 7 sealed on the upper face 30 'of the massif B. Such prefabricated elements can be easily transported to the construction site, 2c ~ for example on a trailer 62, as indicated in figure 6. It is thus possible to transport by road elements of very large dimensions if the height h of the element increased by that of the trailer remains compatible with the road gauge. Such prefabricated elements can be easily transported to the construction site, 2c ~ for example on a trailer 62, as indicated in figure 6. It is thus possible to transport by road elements of very large dimensions if the height h of the element increased by that of the trailer remains compatible with the road gauge. In 25 effect, i1 suffices to limit the length L of the element prefabricated so that, this one being placed across on the trailer, the whole does not exceed the width authorized. In 25 effect, i1 suffices to limit the length L of the element prefabricated so that, this one being placed across on the trailer, the whole does not exceed the width authorized. The upper panels 2 of the pipe, constituted aei of bent sheets, can be simply stacked for their transport on the site. The upper panels 2 of the pipe, constituted aei of bent sheets, can be simply stacked for their transport on the site. For carrying out the pipe, after having prepared the laying surface C, the elements prefabricated are placed one after the other the IS For carrying out the pipe, after having prepared the laying surface C, the elements prefabricated are placed one after the other the IS along T longitudinal axis O, O 'by adjusting the levels and positioning so that the edges lateral lla, llb of the panels la, lb of the element B1 to be put in place and element B already installed, either in line with each other, the edges transverse 12a, 12b corresponding being in contact. along T longitudinal axis O, O 'by adjusting the levels and positioning so that the edges lateral lla, llb of the panels la, lb of the element B1 to be put in place and element B already installed, either in line with each other, the edges transverse 12a, 12b corresponding being in contact. We can then place the upper panel 2a and proceed to weld the assembly along the longitudinal joints 11, 21 and transverse joints 12, 22. We can then place the upper panel 2a and proceed to weld the assembly along the longitudinal joints 11, 21 and transverse joints 12, 22. At each longitudinal end of the element precast, the concrete block B is stopped slightly set back from the sheet 1 so as to leave between two consecutive elements B1, B2, a space 34 which facilitates the installation of the elements and the welding of the sheets. At each longitudinal end of the element precast, the concrete block B is stopped slightly set back from the sheet 1 so as to leave between two consecutive elements B1, B2, a space 34 which facilitates the installation of the elements and the welding of the sheets . Longitudinal reinforcement 51 and / or the securing means 8 are provided with waiting parts that intersect in this space 34 and are then drowned in a mortar of sealing. Longitudinal reinforcement 51 and / or the securing means 8 are provided with waiting parts that intersect in this space 34 and are then drowned in a mortar of sealing. The realization of the pipe is therefore particularly easy, the elements can be prefabricated in the factory and then transported to the construction site. The realization of the pipe is therefore particularly easy, the elements can be prefabricated in the factory and then transported to the construction site. However, for very large dimensions, it 2, it is also possible to produce the elements on the site. However, for very large dimensions, it 2, it is also possible to produce the elements on the site. The sheets 1, 2 can indeed be formed in workshop and stacked on a lice trailer to be delivered on site which can be simply fitted with molds 6 required, these being particularly 3o simple. The sheets 1, 2 can indeed be formed in workshop and stacked on a lice trailer to be delivered on site which can be simply fitted with molds 6 required, these being particularly 3o simple. Furthermore, the prefabricated elements can also be carried out near the site on fairground prefabrication facilities. Furthermore, the prefabricated elements can also be carried out near the site on fairground prefabrication facilities. Of course, if the support block B can be lightened, it must, however, be calculated in depending on the circumstances of use. Of course, if the support block B can be lightened, it must, however, be calculated in depending on the circumstances of use. For example, when the pipe is placed inside the water table, the concrete block ensures advantageously a ballast role and its mass is therefore determined accordingly. For example, when the pipe is placed inside the water table, the concrete block ensures advantageously a ballast role and its mass is therefore determined accordingly. But the invention is obviously not limited to the details of the embodiments that come to be described, other variants being imagined without departing from the defined protection framework lo by the claims. But the invention is obviously not limited to the details of the embodiments that come to be described, other variants being imagined without departing from the defined protection framework lo by the claims. For example, it is possible to further lighten the concrete block, as shown in the figure 3, giving a circular profile to the enclosure tubular A which then resists by itself the IS internal pressure, without applying bending forces based on base 3 which essentially serves to ensure the rigidity of the enclosure, especially when mounting, and to distribute the load over a large area. For example, it is possible to further lighten the concrete block, as shown in the figure 3, giving a circular profile to the enclosure tubular A which then resists by itself the IS internal pressure, without applying bending forces based on base 3 which essentially serves to ensure the rigidity of the enclosure, especially when mounting, and to distribute the load over a large area. The result, however, is an increase in 2n the total height H of the element and, for a large passage section, the basic embodiment generally flattened in Figure 1 will be preferable. The result, however, is an increase in 2n the total height H of the element and, for a large passage section, the basic embodiment generally flattened in Figure 1 will be preferable. Furthermore, the method of construction, according to FIG. Furthermore, the method of construction, according to FIG. 7, of a tubular enclosure in two parts, 25 is particularly interesting for pipes of very large sections but, due to the advantages obtained, the invention can also be applied to pipes of more common dimensions, for example to from a diameter of 0.5 m. 7, of a tubular enclosure in two parts, 25 is particularly interesting for pipes of very large sections but, due to the advantages obtained, the invention can also be applied to pipes of more common dimensions, for example to from a diameter of 0.5 m . In this case, it is 3o more advantageous to directly produce pipes closed. In this case, it is 3o more advantageous to directly produce pipes closed. For example, so. For example, so. known, we can wrap oblique a thin sheet of great length by welding the adjacent edges in a helix to form a closed tubular enclosure which is cut into sections of length compatible with the possibilities of handling and transport. known, we can wrap oblique a thin sheet of great length by welding the adjacent edges in a helix to form a closed tubular enclosure which is cut into sections of length compatible with the possibilities of handling and transport. Such a tubular section can be laid between two side walls of a mold having, on both sides on the other side of the pipe, two bottoms placed at the desired level, for example halfway up the pipe. Such a tubular section can be laid between two side walls of a mold having, on both sides on the other side of the pipe, two bottoms placed at the desired level, for example halfway up the pipe. We then fix on the convex upper part of the pipe means joining, for example, a corrugated mesh 8. On 1n can then, as indicated above, flow from concrete in the mold thus formed up to a level protruding from the top of the pipe so that give the concrete block the desired thickness. We then fix on the convex upper part of the pipe means joining, for example, a corrugated mesh 8. On 1n can then, as indicated above, flow from concrete in the mold thus formed up to a level protruding from the top of the pipe so that give the concrete block the desired thickness. On the other hand, it is particularly i5 advantageous to make a solid block in one piece U shape but it would be possible, also, like we have represented it on figure 5, to realize two parts in L 36, 36 'having branches horizontal 33, 33 'which join in the plane 2n median P1 of the pipe. On the other hand, it is particularly i5 advantageous to make a solid block in one piece U shape but it would be possible, also, like we have represented it on figure 5, to realize two parts in L 36, 36 'having branches horizontal 33, 33 'which join in the plane 2n median P1 of the pipe. The formwork would then be made so as to leave between the facing faces of the two branches 33, 33 ′ a free space 37 in which intersect reinforcements awaiting two elements that cooperate with reinforcements 2, longitudinal, the assembly being embedded in a mortar sealing to ensure the continuity of the base. The formwork would then be made so as to leave between the facing faces of the two branches 33, 33 ′ a free space 37 in which intersect reinforcements awaiting two elements that cooperate with reinforcements 2, longitudinal, the assembly being embedded in a mortar sealing to ensure the continuity of the base. Of course, we can vary the level longitudinal joints 11, 21 and the height (h ') of the lateral sides 32, 32 ', but this must remain 3n sufficient to maintain the stiffness of the sides I3, 13 'and resist a crushing effort from the driving in the event of depression in relation to outside. Of course, we can vary the level longitudinal joints 11, 21 and the height (h ') of the lateral sides 32, 32', but this must remain 3n sufficient to maintain the stiffness of the sides I3, 13 'and resist a crushing effort from the driving in the event of depression in relation to outside. The concrete block B must obviously be strong enough to allow handling, transportation and placement of items prefabricated. The concrete block B must obviously be strong enough to allow handling, transportation and placement of items prefabricated. Certainly, thanks to the solidarity between the metal wall A and the concrete block B, the rigidity of the assembly is improved. Certainly, thanks to the solidarity between the metal wall A and the concrete block B, the rigidity of the assembly is improved. However, for lighten as much as possible the element, it will be, sometimes more interesting to strengthen the massif of support B by means of a connecting cross member fixed on the upper ends of the two wings 32, 32 'of so as to ensure the rigidity of the lateral parts of the solid B during handling. However, for lighten as much as possible the element, it will be, sometimes more interesting to strengthen the massif of support B by means of a connecting cross member fixed on the upper ends of the two wings 32, 32 'of so as to ensure the rigidity of the lateral parts of the solid B during handling. This cross of support can be fixed removably, so that be removed after placing the element lower, to install the upper panel 2. This cross of support can be fixed removably, so that be removed after placing the element lower, to install the upper panel 2. However, such a connecting cross member can still present benefits after completion of the conduct. However, such a connecting cross member can still present benefits after completion of the conduct. Indeed, as indicated in the figure 8, it can be given the shape of a hoop 41 in 2 “mëcano-welded construction, which spans the pipe and has an interior profile 42 identical to that of the upper wall 2. Such an arch 41 can also be fixed in advance on the upper panel 2 if the solid B is strong enough for handling. Indeed, as indicated in the figure 8, it can be given the shape of a hoop 41 in 2 “mëcano-welded construction, which spans the pipe and has an interior profile 42 identical to that of the upper wall 2. Such an arch 41 can also be fixed in advance on the upper panel 2 if the solid B is strong enough for handling. The 4I bar then provides protection exterior and reinforcement of panel 2 which may decrease the thickness, this being calculated only according to the tensile stresses due to internal pressure. The 4I bar then provides protection exterior and reinforcement of panel 2 which may decrease the thickness, this being calculated only according to the tensile stresses due to internal pressure. Panel 2 as well 3c ~ reinforced by one or more hoops 41, will resist better at crushing when the pipe is in depression compared to the outside. Panel 2 as well 3c ~ reinforced by one or more hoops 41, will resist better at crushing when the pipe is in depression compared to the outside. A pipe according to the invention also has other advantages. A pipe according to the invention also has other advantages. For example, in curved parts of the driving, successive elements in concrete can be interconnected so as to avoid the shifting of the driving. For example, in curved parts of the driving, successive elements in concrete can be interconnected so as to avoid the shifting of the driving. As shown in Figure 9, the prefabricated elements can easily be made so that the transverse joint plane Q in which are placed the transverse edges 12, 22 of enclosure A is inclined relative to the median plane longitudinal P1 of each prefabricated element so lo to gradually make a change of direction. As shown in Figure 9, the prefabricated elements can easily be made so that the transverse joint plane Q in which are placed the transverse edges 12, 22 of enclosure A is inclined relative to the median plane longitudinal P1 of each prefabricated element so lo to gradually make a change of direction. Successive elements can then be joined by tensioned tie rods 43 which can advantageously be threaded into the tubes 58 described previously referring to Figure 4, and whose IS ends are supported on bosses 35 provided, on the outside, at the ends of each element Bl, B2. Successive elements can then be joined by tensioned tie rods 43 which can advantageously be threaded into the tubes 58 described previously referring to Figure 4, and whose IS ends are supported on bosses 35 provided, on the outside, at the ends of each element Bl, B2. Analogously, as the Figure 10, the joint plane Q can be tilted by 2t1 compared to the horizontal so as to adapt to a variation of the slope of the installation surface C. Analogously, as the Figure 10, the joint plane Q can be tilted by 2t1 compared to the horizontal so as to adapt to a variation of the slope of the installation surface C. As explained with reference to the figure As explained with reference to the figure
6, il est particulièrement avantageux, pour assurer la solidarisation entre le massif en bëton B et le tuyau 25 A de fixer sur celui-ci un treillis ondulé 8, en raison du faible coût de celui-ci et de la facilité de réalisation. Cependant, on pourrait rêaliser d'une autre façon un tel panneau ajouré permettant la pénétration du béton et pouvant être ondulé, par zn exemple en utilisant un grillage formant une sorte de résille, ou bien un caillebotis réalisé par étirage d'une plaque mince découpée en lamelles.
Par ailleurs, la nature et les caractéristiques de la paroi constituant le tuyau A

doivent évidemment être adaptées au fluide transporté
et à la pression supportée.
A cet égard, il est à noter que la constitution particulière de la conduite permet de 5 diminuer l'épaisseur de la paroi du tuyau par rapport aux conduites métalliques habituelles. In this regard, it should be noted that the particular construction of the pipe makes it possible to reduce the thickness of the wall of the pipe compared to usual metal pipes. De ce fait, il peut être intéressant de réaliser le tuyau en un métal spécial, par exemple un acier inoxydable, l'augmentation du coüt étant compensée par la In suppression du revêtement habituellement nécessaire et l'amélioration des conditions d'écoulement. Therefore, it may be advantageous to make the pipe of a special metal, for example stainless steel, the increased cost being compensated by the removal of the coating usually required and the improvement of the flow conditions. Dans ce cas, il sera particulièrement avantageux d'améliorer la solidarisation entre le tuyau et le béton au moyen d'un treillis ondulé tel IS que représenté sur la figure 6. In this case, it will be particularly advantageous to improve the connection between the pipe and the concrete by means of a corrugated mesh such as IS as shown in FIG. 6. Les signes de réfërence insérés après les caractéristiques techniques mentionnëes dans les revendications, ont pour seul but de faciliter la comprëhension de ces dernières et n'en limitent 2u aucunement la portëe. The reference signs inserted after the technical characteristics mentioned in the claims are intended only to facilitate understanding of the latter and in no way limit their scope. 6, it is particularly advantageous, to ensure the connection between the concrete block B and the pipe 25 A to fix thereon a corrugated mesh 8, in because of the low cost of it and the ease of production. 6, it is particularly advantageous, to ensure the connection between the concrete block B and the pipe 25 A to fix thereon a corrugated mesh 8, in because of the low cost of it and the ease of production. However, one could dream of a other way such an openwork panel allowing the concrete penetration and can be corrugated, by zn example using a mesh forming a kind of mesh, or a grating made by stretching a thin plate cut into strips. However, one could dream of a other way such an openwork panel allowing the concrete penetration and can be corrugated, by zn example using a mesh forming a kind of mesh, or a grating made by stretching a thin plate cut into strips. Furthermore, the nature and characteristics of the wall constituting the pipe A Furthermore, the nature and characteristics of the wall constituting the pipe A must obviously be adapted to the fluid transported and the pressure supported. must obviously be adapted to the fluid transported and the pressure supported. In this regard, it should be noted that the particular constitution of the pipe allows 5 decrease the thickness of the pipe wall compared to the usual metal pipes. In this regard, it should be noted that the particular constitution of the pipe allows 5 decrease the thickness of the pipe wall compared to the usual metal pipes. Therefore, it it may be interesting to make the pipe out of a metal special, for example stainless steel, the increase in cost being offset by the In removal of the coating usually necessary and improving flow conditions. Therefore, it it may be interesting to make the pipe out of a metal special, for example stainless steel, the increase in cost being offset by the In removal of the coating usually necessary and improving flow conditions. In this case, it will be particularly advantageous to improve the connection between the pipe and concrete by means of a corrugated mesh such IS as shown in Figure 6. In this case, it will be particularly advantageous to improve the connection between the pipe and concrete by means of a corrugated mesh such IS as shown in Figure 6. The reference signs inserted after the technical characteristics mentioned in the claims are intended only to facilitate the understanding of these and lim The reference signs inserted after the technical characteristics mentioned in the claims are intended only to facilitate the understanding of these and lim
(document too long, translation truncated) (document too long, translation truncated)

Claims (20)

1. Conduite de circulation de fluide comprenant un tuyau étanche (A) fixé sur un massif de support rigide (B) formant une base (3) d'appui sur une surface de pose (C), ledit tuyau ayant un axe longitudinal et étant constitué d'une paroi mince résistante, fermée sur elle même de façon à former une enceinte tubulaire étanche ayant une partie supérieure et une partie inférieure (1) qui est appliquée et fixée sur une face interne (38) du massif de support (B), caractérisée par le fait que le massif de support (B) comprend, de chaque côté de l'axe longitudinal (O, O') de l'enceinte tubulaire (A), une partie monobloc (31, 31') ayant, en section transversale, un profil en L comprenant une branche sensiblement verticale (32) s'étendant le long du côté
correspondant de l'enceinte (A) et une branche sensiblement horizontale (33) s'étendant au-dessous de celle-ci pour former au moins une partie de la base (3) du massif (B) prenant appui sur le sol (C). of the enclosure (A) and a substantially horizontal branch (33) extending below the latter to form at least part of the base (3) of the mass (B) resting on the ground (C) ). 1. Fluid circulation line comprising a waterproof pipe (A) fixed on a mass of rigid support (B) forming a base (3) for bearing on a laying surface (C), said pipe having an axis longitudinal and consisting of a thin wall resistant, closed on itself so as to form a waterproof tubular enclosure having an upper part and a lower part (1) which is applied and fixed on an internal face (38) of the support block (B), characterized by the fact that the massif of support (B) includes, on each side of the axis longitudinal (O, O ') of the tubular enclosure (A), a monobloc part (31, 31 ') having, in section transverse, an L-shaped profile comprising a branch substantially vertical (32) extending along the side speaker of the enclosure (A) and a branch substantially horizontal (33) extending below this to form at least part of the base (3) of the massif (B) bearing on the ground (C). 1. Fluid circulation line comprising a waterproof pipe (A) fixed on a mass of rigid support (B) forming a base (3) for bearing on a laying surface (C), said pipe having an axis longitudinal and consisting of a thin wall resistant, closed on itself so as to form a waterproof tubular enclosure having an upper part and a lower part (1) which is applied and fixed on an internal face (38) of the support block (B), characterized by the fact that the massif of support (B) includes, on each side of the axis longitudinal (O, O ') of the tubular enclosure (A), a monobloc part (31, 31') having, in section transverse, an L-shaped profile comprising a branch substantially vertical (32) extending along the side speaker of the enclosure (A) and a branch substantially horizontal (33) extending below this to form at least part of the base (3) of the massif (B) bearing on the ground (VS).
2. Conduite selon la revendication 1, caractérisée par le fait que, au moins sur une certaine longueur, le massif de support B est moulé en une seule pièce, les branches horizontales 33, 33' des deux parties en L (31, 31') se rejoignant pour former la base (3) du massif de support (B). 2. Pipe according to claim 1, characterized in that, at least on one certain length, the support block B is molded in one piece, the horizontal branches 33, 33 'of the two L-shaped parts (31, 31 ') joining to form the base (3) of the support block (B).
3. Conduite selon la revendication 1, caractérisée par le fait que, au moins sur une certaine longueur, le massif de support (B) est constitué de deux parties (36,36') à profil en L ayant des branches horizontales (33, 33') dont les extrémités en regard sont solidarisées entre elles dans le plan médian (P1) de l'enceinte (A) passant par l'axe longitudinal (O, O'), de façon à former une base continue. 3. Pipe according to claim 1, characterized in that, at least on one certain length, the support block (B) is consisting of two parts (36.36 ') with L-profile having horizontal branches (33, 33 ') whose opposite ends are joined together in the median plane (P1) of the enclosure (A) passing through the longitudinal axis (O, O '), so as to form a base keep on going.
4. Conduite selon l'une des revendications précédentes, caractérisée par le fait que le massif de support (B) est réalisé en béton. 4. Operation according to one of the claims previous, characterized by the fact that the support (B) is made of concrete.
5. Conduite selon l'une des revendications précédentes, caractérisée par le fait que chaque partie en L (31) du massif de support présente une face interne (38) d'application et de fixation de l'enceinte, dont l'orientation varie progressivement entre une partie inférieure sensiblement horizontale et une partie supérieure sensiblement verticale. 5. Operation according to one of the claims previous, characterized in that each L-shaped part (31) of the support block has a internal face (38) for applying and fixing the enclosure, whose orientation varies gradually between a substantially horizontal lower part and a substantially vertical upper part.
6. Conduite selon la revendication 5, caractérisée par le fait que la face interne (38) des deux branches (32, 33) de chaque partie en L (31), ainsi que les parties correspondantes de l'enceinte tubulaire (A) présentent un rayon de courbure qui varie de façon continue, sans point anguleux. 6. Pipe according to claim 5, characterized by the fact that the internal face (38) of the two branches (32, 33) of each L-shaped part (31), as well as the corresponding parts of the enclosure tubular (A) have a radius of curvature which varies continuously, without angular point.
7. Conduite selon l'une des revendications précédentes, caractérisée par le fait que chaque branche verticale (32, 32') du massif (B) est recouverte au moins partiellement par une pièce métallique (7, 7') formant au moins un angle rentrant ayant un côté (71) scellé sur la face supérieure (30') de la branche (32, 32') du massif (B) et un côté (72) tangent au côté latéral (13, 13') de l'enceinte (A), à
la sortie du massif (B), et soudé sur celui-ci. the exit of the solid (B), and welded on this one. 7. Operation according to one of the claims previous, characterized in that each vertical branch (32, 32 ') of the massif (B) is at least partially covered by a piece metallic (7, 7 ') forming at least one re-entrant angle having one side (71) sealed on the upper face (30 ') of the branch (32, 32 ') of the massif (B) and one side (72) tangent to the lateral side (13, 13 ') of the enclosure (A), the outlet of the block (B), and welded thereon. 7. Operation according to one of the previous claims, characterized in that each vertical branch (32, 32 ') of the massif (B) is at least partially covered by a piece metallic (7, 7') forming at least one re- entering angle having one side (71) sealed on the upper face (30 ') of the branch (32, 32') of the massif (B) and one side (72) tangent to the lateral side (13, 13 ') of the enclosure (A), the outlet of the block (B), and welded thereon.
8. Conduite selon l'une des revendications précédentes, caractérisée par le fait que le massif de support (B) est réalisé en un béton à haute performance, ayant une résistance à la compression supérieure à 40 MPa. 8. Operation according to one of the claims previous, characterized by the fact that the support (B) is made of high concrete performance, having compressive strength greater than 40 MPa.
9. Conduite selon l'une des revendications précédentes, caractérisée par le fait que le massif de support (B) est réalisé en un béton armé de fibres. 9. Operation according to one of the claims previous, characterized by the fact that the support (B) is made of concrete reinforced with fibers.
10. Conduite selon l'une des revendications précédentes, caractérisée par le fait que, au moins dans chaque partie en L (31, 31), le massif de support (B) est réalisé en béton renforcé par une armature (52) noyée à l'intérieur du béton (30) et ayant deux branches, respectivement horizontale et verticale s'étendant chacune dans la branche correspondante (32, 33) de la partie (31) en L du massif (B). 10. Operation according to one of the claims previous, characterized in that, at least in each L-shaped part (31, 31), the support block (B) is made of concrete reinforced by a reinforcement (52) embedded inside the concrete (30) and having two branches, horizontal and vertical respectively each extending in the corresponding branch (32, 33) of the L-shaped part (31) of the massif (B).
11. Conduite selon l'une des revendications précédentes, caractérisée par le fait que le massif de support (B) est réalisé en béton renforcé par une armature constituée d'au moins une tôle cintrée (53) noyée dans le béton (30) et sensiblement parallèle à
la partie inférieure (1) de l'enceinte (A), ladite tôle (53) remontant dans les branches verticales (32, 32') du massif (B).
11. Operation according to one of the claims previous, characterized by the fact that the support (B) is made of concrete reinforced by a reinforcement consisting of at least one curved sheet (53) embedded in concrete (30) and substantially parallel to the lower part (1) of the enclosure (A), said sheet (53) rising in the vertical branches (32, 32 ') of the massif (B).
12. Conduite selon l'une des revendications précédentes, caractérisée par le fait qu'elle est associée â une pluralité d'arceaux espacés (41) répartis le long de la conduite et ayant une face interne (42) enveloppant la partie supérieure (2) de l'enceinte tubulaire (A). 12. Operation according to one of the claims previous, characterized by the fact that it is associated with a plurality of spaced arches (41) distributed along the pipe and having a face internal (42) enveloping the upper part (2) of the tubular enclosure (A).
13. Conduite selon l'une des revendications précédentes, caractérisée par le fait qu'elle est constituée d'éléments préfabriqués juxtaposés s'étendant chacun sur une certaine longueur de la conduite et comprenant chacun un élément de tuyau (A) formant une enceinte tubulaire fermée en section transversale et ayant une face externe (14) dont un secteur forme un coffrage perdu pour le moulage d'un élément de massif en béton (B). 13. Operation according to one of the claims previous, characterized by the fact that it is made up of prefabricated elements juxtaposed each extending over a certain length of the pipe and each comprising a pipe element (A) forming a tubular enclosure closed in section transverse and having an external face (14) including one sector forms a lost formwork for the molding of a concrete block element (B).
14. Conduite selon la revendication 13, caractérisée par le fait que chaque élément de tuyau (A) est constitué d'au moins deux panneaux incurvés en tôle métallique, respectivement un panneau inférieur (1) ayant deux bords longitudinaux parallèles (11, 11') et au moins un panneau supérieur (2) ayant deux côtés latéraux (21, 21') soudés sur les bords longitudinaux (11, 11') du panneau, le massif en béton (B) étant moulé sur un secteur du panneau (1) compris entre les bords longitudinaux (11, 11') 14. Conduct according to claim 13, characterized by the fact that each pipe element (A) consists of at least two curved panels in sheet metal, respectively a bottom panel (1) having two parallel longitudinal edges (11, 11 ') and at least one upper panel (2) having two lateral sides (21, 21 ') welded on the edges longitudinal (11, 11 ') of the panel, the concrete block (B) being molded on a sector of the panel (1) included between the longitudinal edges (11, 11 ')
15. Conduite selon l'une des revendications 13, 14 caractérisée par le fait que chaque élément de tuyau (A) est solidarisé avec l'élément de massif (B) par un moyen de jonction constitué d'un panneau métallique ajouré (8) conformé de façon à présenter des ondulations et appliqué sur le secteur de moulage (14) de la face externe (14) de l'élément de tuyau (A), lesdites ondulations présentant chacune un sommet (83) soudé sur ladite face externe et une partie (84) s'étendant en saillie entre deux sommets consécutifs et l'élément de massif (B) étant constitué d'un béton qui est coulé sur ledit secteur de moulage (14) et pénètre dans lesdites ondulations de façon à noyer entièrement le panneau ajouré (8). 15. Operation according to one of the claims 13, 14 characterized in that each element of pipe (A) is secured to the solid element (B) by a joining means consisting of a panel perforated metal (8) shaped so as to present corrugations and applied to the molding sector (14) of the external face (14) of the pipe element (A), said undulations each having a vertex (83) welded to said external face and a part (84) extending projecting between two consecutive vertices and the bedding element (B) consisting of concrete which is cast on said molding sector (14) and penetrates into said undulations so as to drown fully openwork panel (8).
16. Conduite selon la revendication 15, caractérisée par le fait que le panneau ajouré (8) est un panneau de treillis métallique ayant des fers longitudinaux rectilignes (81), parallèles à l'axe longitudinal du tuyau (A) et des fers transversaux ondulés (82). 16. Pipe according to claim 15, characterized by the fact that the perforated panel (8) is a wire mesh panel having irons longitudinal straight (81), parallel to the axis longitudinal of pipe (A) and transverse bars wavy (82).
17. Conduite selon la revendication 15, caractérisée par le fait que,le panneau ajouré est un grillage métallique qui est conformé de façon à présenter des ondulations parallèles à l'axe longitudinal du tuyau (A). have corrugations parallel to the longitudinal axis of the pipe (A). 17. Pipe according to claim 15, characterized by the fact that the perforated panel is a metal mesh which is shaped so as to have undulations parallel to the axis longitudinal of the pipe (A). 17. Pipe according to claim 15, characterized by the fact that the perforated panel is a metal mesh which is shaped so as to have undulations parallel to the axis longitudinal of the pipe (A).
18. Conduite selon la revendication 14, caractérisée par le fait qu'au moins deux éléments successifs (B1, B2) se terminent, à leurs extrémités adjacentes, par des plans de joint transversaux (Q) inclinés par rapport à l'axe (O, O') du tuyau (A), de façon à assurer un changement de direction de l'axe (O, O') de la conduite. 18. Conduct according to claim 14, characterized in that at least two elements successive (B1, B2) end, at their ends adjacent, by transverse joint planes (Q) inclined with respect to the axis (O, O ') of the pipe (A), so as to ensure a change of direction of the axis (O, O ') of the pipe.
19. Procédé de réalisation d'une conduite constituée d'éléments préfabriqués selon l'une des revendications 14 à 18, caractérisé par le fait que, pour chaque élément, on réalise tout d'abord au moins deux panneaux de tôle incurvés à la courbure souhaitée, respectivement un panneau inférieur (1) et un panneau supérieur (2), on soude sur une face externe du panneau inférieur (1) des éléments de solidarisation en saillie (53, 8), on pose le panneau (1) dans le fond d'un moule (6) de telle sorte que la face externe convexe soit tournée vers le haut, on pose les armatures nécessaires et l'on coule du béton de façon à dépasser d'une hauteur minimale le niveau supérieur du panneau retourné et, après durcissement du béton et démoulage, on retourne l'élément de conduite ainsi préfabriqué et le panneau supérieur (2) est ensuite soudé sur les bords supérieurs du panneau (1) pour fermer le tuyau, les éléments préfabriqués ainsi réalisés étant placés sur la surface de pose et reliés entre eux pour constituer la conduite. 19. Method of making a pipe consisting of prefabricated elements according to one of Claims 14 to 18, characterized in that, for each element, we first realize at least two curved sheet metal panels at the curvature desired, respectively a lower panel (1) and an upper panel (2), welded on one side external of the lower panel (1) of the surface mounting (53, 8), the panel is placed (1) in the bottom of a mold (6) so that the convex outer face is facing up, we install the necessary reinforcement and pour concrete so as to exceed the level by a minimum height top of the panel overturned and after hardening concrete and demoulding, we return the element of thus prefabricated pipe and the top panel (2) is then welded to the top edges of the panel (1) to close the pipe, the prefabricated elements thus produced being placed on the laying surface and interconnected to constitute the pipe.
20. Procédé de réalisation d'une conduite constituée d'éléments préfabriqués, selon la revendication 13, caractérisé par le fait que l'on réalise en continu un tube métallique par enroulement en biais d'une tôle mince de grande longueur avec soudage des bords adjacents en hélice pour constituer un tuyau fermé, on coupe ledit tuyau en tronçons tubulaires de longueur compatible avec des possibilités de manipulation et de transport, on soude des moyens de solidarisation (53, 8) sur un secteur de moulage (14) de chaque tronçon, on place ledit tronçon, avec le secteur de moulage (14) tourné vers le haut, dans un moule (6) comprenant deux parois latérales (61) parallèles à l'axe longitudinal du tronçon et s'étendant vers le haut, de part et d'autre de celui-ci, chaque paroi latérale (61) du moule (6) étant reliée à la paroi du tuyau (A) par une plaque formant un fond placé à un niveau intermédiaire déterminant la hauteur de la partie latérale du massif, on coule du béton dans le moule ainsi formé
jusqu'à un niveau dépassant d'une hauteur minimale le niveau supérieur du secteur de moulage (14) et, après durcissement du béton et démoulage, on retourne l'élément ainsi préfabriqué qui peut alors être placé up to a level exceeding by a minimum height the upper level of the molding sector (14) and, after hardening of the concrete and demoulding, the element thus prefabricated is turned over which can then be placed sur une surface de pose pour la constitution de la conduite. on a laying surface for the construction of the pipe. 20. Method of making a pipe consisting of prefabricated elements, according to the claim 13, characterized in that one continuously produces a metal tube by winding across a long, thin sheet with welding of the adjacent edges in a helix to constitute a closed pipe, said pipe is cut into sections of tubular length compatible with handling and transport possibilities, we weld securing means (53, 8) on a sector of molding (14) of each section, we place said section, with the molding sector (14) facing the top, in a mold (6) comprising two walls lateral (61) parallel to the longitudinal axis of the section and extending upwards, on both sides thereof, each side wall (61) of the mold (6) being connected to the wall of the pipe (A) by a plate forming a bottom placed at an intermediate level determining the height of the lateral part of the solid, concrete is poured into the mold thus formed up to a level exceeding a minimum height on upper level of the molding sector (14) and, after concrete 20. Method of making a pipe consisting of prefabricated elements, according to the claim 13, characterized in that one continuously produces a metal tube by winding across a long, thin sheet with welding of the adjacent edges in a helix to constitute a closed pipe, said pipe is cut into sections of tubular length compatible with handling and transport possibilities, we weld securing means (53, 8) on a sector of molding (14) of each section, we place said section, with the molding sector (14) facing the top, in a mold (6) comprising two walls lateral (61) parallel to the longitudinal axis of the section and extending upwards, on both sides thereof, each side wall (61) of the mold (6) being connected to the wall of the pipe (A) by a plate forming a bottom placed at an intermediate level determining the height of the lateral part of the solid, concrete is poured into the mold thus formed up to a level exceeding a minimum height on upper level of the molding sector (14) and, after concrete hardening and demoulding, we return the prefabricated element which can then be placed on a laying surface for the constitution of the conduct. hardening and demoulding, we return the prefabricated element which can then be placed on a laying surface for the constitution of the conduct.
CA002325628A 1999-01-29 2000-01-28 Pressurized liquid circulation duct and method for the production thereof Abandoned CA2325628A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR99/01050 1999-01-29
FR9901050A FR2789096B1 (en) 1999-01-29 1999-01-29 PRESSURE FLUID CIRCULATION LINE
PCT/FR2000/000206 WO2000044993A1 (en) 1999-01-29 2000-01-28 Pressurized liquid circulation duct and method for the production thereof

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CA2325628A1 true CA2325628A1 (en) 2000-08-03

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EP (1) EP1068401A1 (en)
JP (1) JP2002535577A (en)
CN (1) CN1294647A (en)
AP (1) AP200001932A0 (en)
AR (1) AR022337A1 (en)
AU (1) AU766283B2 (en)
BR (1) BR0004533A (en)
CA (1) CA2325628A1 (en)
DZ (1) DZ3005A1 (en)
FR (1) FR2789096B1 (en)
MA (1) MA25192A1 (en)
OA (1) OA11623A (en)
TN (1) TNSN00020A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2000044993A1 (en)

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FR2849145B1 (en) 2002-12-19 2005-03-18 Soc Civ D Brevets Matiere METHOD FOR PRODUCING A FLUID TRANSPORT DRIVE
US8303217B2 (en) 2008-09-25 2012-11-06 Terra Technologies, LLC Systems for the subterranean support of underground conduits
US8342778B2 (en) * 2009-04-16 2013-01-01 Hercules Machinery Corporation Method and apparatus for facilitating the subterranean support of underground conduits having a fixed insertion axis
US8096733B2 (en) 2009-07-10 2012-01-17 Hercules Machinery Corporation Apparatus for inserting sheet pile having an independently adjustable insertion axis and method for using the same
CN101881032A (en) * 2010-06-04 2010-11-10 朝阳市天龙大型水泥管道(集团)有限公司 Concrete pipe pillow
CN103306292B (en) * 2013-07-02 2015-06-10 中国石油集团工程设计有限责任公司 Skid resistance supporting straining protection method for passing through topsoil of landslide area of oil and gas conveying pipeline
CN105604090B (en) * 2016-03-17 2017-09-12 上海市城市建设设计研究总院(集团)有限公司 The cast-in-place open section tunnel structure combined with precast assembly
CN105926665B (en) * 2016-07-04 2018-07-24 中建市政工程有限公司 A kind of prefabricated block brick assembly concrete drainage pipeline pedestal and its construction method
CN110616647A (en) * 2019-09-26 2019-12-27 苏交科集团股份有限公司 Full-prefabricated sliding assembled culvert and construction process thereof

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DE2354930B2 (en) * 1973-11-02 1976-06-16 Tunnels, especially traffic tunnels
SE399956B (en) * 1976-05-04 1978-03-06 Meag Ab LOWER FOR RULES, WIRES, CABLES AND THE LIKE
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FR2645614B1 (en) * 1989-04-10 1991-11-08 Matiere Marcel Extended pressure speaker and method for producing the same
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FR2721988B1 (en) 1994-06-29 1996-09-13 Matiere Soc Civ De Brevets FLUID CIRCULATION DUCT

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FR2789096B1 (en) 2001-05-11
MA25192A1 (en) 2001-07-02
FR2789096A1 (en) 2000-08-04
AR022337A1 (en) 2002-09-04
OA11623A (en) 2004-09-09
EP1068401A1 (en) 2001-01-17
BR0004533A (en) 2000-11-21
WO2000044993A1 (en) 2000-08-03
TNSN00020A1 (en) 2002-05-30
JP2002535577A (en) 2002-10-22
CN1294647A (en) 2001-05-09
AP200001932A0 (en) 2000-09-30
AU766283B2 (en) 2003-10-16
DZ3005A1 (en) 2004-03-27
AU2299800A (en) 2000-08-18

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