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Apparatus for lesion or organ localization

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Publication number
CA2314794A1
CA2314794A1 CA 2314794 CA2314794A CA2314794A1 CA 2314794 A1 CA2314794 A1 CA 2314794A1 CA 2314794 CA2314794 CA 2314794 CA 2314794 A CA2314794 A CA 2314794A CA 2314794 A1 CA2314794 A1 CA 2314794A1
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CA
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
ultrasound
image
lesion
device
diagnostic
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
CA 2314794
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Dimitre Hristov
Tony Falco
Original Assignee
Dimitre Hristov
Tony Falco
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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N5/00Radiation therapy
    • A61N5/10X-ray therapy; Gamma-ray therapy; Particle-irradiation therapy
    • A61N5/1048Monitoring, verifying, controlling systems and methods
    • A61N5/1049Monitoring, verifying, controlling systems and methods for verifying the position of the patient with respect to the radiation beam
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B8/00Diagnosis using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
    • A61B8/08Detecting organic movements or changes, e.g. tumours, cysts, swellings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B8/00Diagnosis using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
    • A61B8/42Details of probe positioning or probe attachment to the patient
    • A61B8/4245Details of probe positioning or probe attachment to the patient involving determining the position of the probe, e.g. with respect to an external reference frame or to the patient
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N5/00Radiation therapy
    • A61N5/10X-ray therapy; Gamma-ray therapy; Particle-irradiation therapy
    • A61N5/1048Monitoring, verifying, controlling systems and methods
    • A61N5/1049Monitoring, verifying, controlling systems and methods for verifying the position of the patient with respect to the radiation beam
    • A61N2005/105Monitoring, verifying, controlling systems and methods for verifying the position of the patient with respect to the radiation beam using a laser alignment system
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N5/00Radiation therapy
    • A61N5/10X-ray therapy; Gamma-ray therapy; Particle-irradiation therapy
    • A61N5/1048Monitoring, verifying, controlling systems and methods
    • A61N5/1049Monitoring, verifying, controlling systems and methods for verifying the position of the patient with respect to the radiation beam
    • A61N2005/1051Monitoring, verifying, controlling systems and methods for verifying the position of the patient with respect to the radiation beam using an active marker
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N5/00Radiation therapy
    • A61N5/10X-ray therapy; Gamma-ray therapy; Particle-irradiation therapy
    • A61N5/1048Monitoring, verifying, controlling systems and methods
    • A61N5/1049Monitoring, verifying, controlling systems and methods for verifying the position of the patient with respect to the radiation beam
    • A61N2005/1058Monitoring, verifying, controlling systems and methods for verifying the position of the patient with respect to the radiation beam using ultrasound imaging

Abstract

A method and apparatus for lesion or organ localization, definition and verification of treatment position. The system is a combination of a ultrasound imaging apparatus and a diagnostic imaging apparatus to acquire localization ultrasound images referenced in the coordinate space of the diagnostic modality through the use of a position sensing system.
The system compares the location of the lesion in the localization ultrasound images with the position of the lesion in ultrasound images taken while the patient lies on the treatment table of a therapy treatment unit, suggests corrective measures to place the lesion in its intended treatment position and executes the correction upon confirmation from qualified personnel.

Description

particles. The radiation unit typically has a radiation TRACT source, which is typically mounted on a rotatable A ethod and apparatus for lesion or organ gantry of the radiation treatment unit. Through gantry localizati definition and verification of treatment rotation, the radiation source is rotated about the position. Th stem is a combination of a ultrasound patient who is typically placed on a treatment table imaging appara and a diagnostic imaging apparatus and the radiation beam is directed towards the tumor to acquire localizat ultrasound images referenced in or lesion to be treated.
Various types of devices are the coordinate spac of the diagnostic modality used to conform the shape of the radiation treatment through the use of a posits sensing system. beam to encompass tightly the outline of the tumor as The system compares th ocation of the lesion in seen by the radiation treatment beam as it traverses the the localization ultrasound imag with the position of patient's body into the tumor. An example of such a the lesion in ultrasound images tak while the patient device is a multileaf collimator, which consists of a set lies on the treatment table of a therap eatment unit, of computer-controlled movable leaves or fingers, suggests corrective measures to place the esion in its which can be positioned individually in and out of the intended treatment position and exec es the radiation beam in order to shape it to the tumor correction upon confirmation from qu lified outline. Various types of radiation treatment planning personnel. systems can create a radiation treatment plan which, once implemented will deliver a specified dose to the tumor while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue or METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LESION adjacent healthy organs.
LOCALIZATION, DEFINITION AND Basic problem in conformal radiation therapy is VERIFICATION knowing where the target, or lesion or tumor, or alternatively critical healthy organs are located with BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION respect to the intended placement of the radiation beam or field (I) prior to the design of a radiation treatment plan and (II) at the time of the radiation 1. Field of the invention treatment. Localization of the target volume within the The invention relates to a method and apparatus patient prior to the design of a radiation treatment plan for localizing the position of a lesion to be treated by a is performed by acquiring a three-dimensional image radiation therapy device and verification of the of the patient with a conventional diagnostic imaging position of the lesion with respect to the radiation device such as computerized tomographic imaging beam or beams prior to the execution of a radiation device ("CT's, a magnetic resonance ("MR") imaging treatment. device or a positron emission imaging device ("PET"), as they are known in the art. Both the 2. Description of Prior Art patient's position and the position of the target within The goal of modem day radiation therapy of the patient at the time of the radiation treatment are cancerous tumors or lesions, is to eradicate the tumor assumed to be grossly the same at as they were at the while avoiding to the maximum possible extent tie the treatment plan was created. If the position of damage to healthy tissue and organs in the vicinity of ~e target volume is not correctly determined (I) prior the tumor. Since the large majority of the tumors are to the treatment plan creation or (II) at the time of radioresponsive, they can be controlled or eradicated treatment, treatment failures can occur in a sense that completely if a sufficient radiation dose is delivered to the conformal dose of radiation may not be delivered the tumor volume. However, the delivery of the to the correct location within the patient's body.
necessary tumorcidal dose may result in certain Failures of type (I) can occur if the conventional complications due to damage of healthy tissue that imaging modality fails to reveal completely or partly surround the tumor, or to other healthy body organs the tumor or lesion or organ of interest. Failures of located in the proximity of the tumor. Conformal ~'Pe (II) can occur as a result of organ displacement therapy is a radiation treatment approach which (motion) from day to day as well as from incorrect attempts to combine accurate target localization with Positioning of the patient on the treatment table of the focused radiation delivery in order to conform the radiation treatment unit.
To avoid the above failures, high dose region closely to the region defined by the ~e Present day radiation treatment plans typically outer surface of the tumor while minimizing the dose regard ~ the target organ to occupy a space in the to surrounding healthy tissue or adjacent healthy Patent s body, which is larger than it really occupies, in order to ensure that the target organ, or tumor or organs. lesion, regardless of the uncertainty of its location, Conformal radiation therapy employs dedicated falls within the volume of tissue which receives the radiation units capable of producing highly energetic desired radiation dose.
Because some healthy tissue or radiation beams of photons, electrons or other charged healthy organs surround the target, a larger volume of these will be irradiated with ultrasound imaging device to acquire the maximum radiation at least one dose intended for the tumor or ultrasound image of the lesion target volume. in the patient's body Delivering the maximum radiationand a device to indicate the position dose to a larger of the ultrasound volume of healthy tissue or healthyimage generating device or probe organs may than with respect to the increase the risk of damaging radiation therapy device. The these. For this reason above said system oncologists may decide to deliververifies that the actual position a lower radiation of the lesion dose to the intended treatment immediately before the treatment volume in order to session conforms to spare the non-target tissue withthe desired position of the lesion the potential in the radiation disadvantage of compromising treatment plan by comparing the the success of the outlines of the outer treatment by underdosing some surface of the lesion as defined portion of the target on the at least one organ. ultrasound image to the outline of the outer surface of In an attempt to improve the the lesion as defined on the at localization of the least one of the lesion for the treatment of prostatediagnostic images obtained by cancer and a computerized therefore rectify failures of tomographic ("CT") or alternatively type I, a method was by magnetic claimed (Holupka et al., US patentresonance ("MR") device and used #5810007) which for the design of utilizes a transrectal probe the radiation treatment plan However, to generate a two- the following dimensional ultrasound image shortcomings may limit the utility and also image of the above said registration to superimpose the system to correct failures of above said ultrasound type II.

image on an image acquired with 1. The appearance of the tumor a conventional or lesion or diagnostic imaging device. The organ in the ultrasound image image registration in or images can have an the above said method requires appearance different from the the identification of at appearance of the tumor least 2 fiducials visible in or lesion or organ in the images both the ultrasiund image obtained with and the image acquired with the conventional diagnostic devices.
conventional Thus the process of diagnostic imaging device. However,comparing outlines of the outer the following surfaces of the tumor shortcomings may limit the utilityor lesion or organ as they appear of the above said in images obtained method. with different imaging devices may be inaccurate 1. The transrectal ultrasound since these surfaces can be different probe may both in considerably displace the lesionappearance and extent.
or organ thus providing inaccurate information2. The above said method does about the spatial not address location of the lesion at treatmentfailures of type I whereby the time if at that time diagnostic images the transrectal probe is not obtained with computed tomography inserted. On the other or magnetic hand, inserting the transrectal resonance imaging devices do not probe for each treatment reveal completely session can cause significant the location or the extent of patient discomfort. the tumor or lesion or 2. The above said method assumesorgan. Furthermore if the computed that the tomography or ultrasound image and the image magnetic resonance diagnostic obtained with the images do not reveal conventional diagnostic imaging the tumor or organ or lesion the modality are above said method acquired in the same plane. For will lack the means to outline this case two an outer surface to serve identifiable fiducials in both as a reference for the comparison images would be to the outer surface sufficient to register and superimposeof the tumor or lesion or organ the images. outlined on the one or However, the assumption of identicalmore ultrasound images.
imaging planes cannot be asserted with the meansIn view of the above description of the above of the prior art it method and therefore a deviationis therefore an object of the from the above said invention to provide an assumption may compromise considerablyimproved method and apparatus the for radiation therapy accuracy of the method. treatments to decrease the rate of occurrence of the 3. The above said method registersabove defined failures of type and I and type II.

superimposes a two-dimensional It is another object of the invention ultrasound image to provide a onto a 2-dimensional image acquirednovel method and apparatus for with a accurate localization conventional diagnostic imaging and definition of tumor or lesion modality. Thus the or other organ ultrasound definition of the volume in preparation for radiation lesion is performed only in therapy.

a single plane. For the purposesIt is further object of the invention of three-dimensional to provide an conformal therapy a two-dimensionalimproved method and apparatus definition of the for establishing an lesion is incomplete and thereforeultrasound image or plurality inadequate since in of ultrasound images for other imaging planes the extent target definition and localization of the lesion volume and correlating this may be larger or smaller. image or plurality of ultrasound images to radiation In attempt to rectify failures therapy simulator images, obtained of type II, another with conventional system was proposed to verify diagnostic imaging devices such the target or lesion as a computerized position prior to a radiation tomographic imaging device ("CT"), treatment session (M. a magnetic Carol, US patent #5411026). The system comprises a resonance ("MR") imaging device or a positron ultrasound image or images to the ultrasound image or emission imaging device ("PET") . images obtained at the time of the acquisition of the It is also an object of the invention to provide a diagnostic images whereby the position of the tumor novel method for three-dimensional superposition of a or lesion or organ with respect to the radiation therapy three-dimensional ultrasound image of a lesion onto device may be verified to establish conformity with another three-dimensional lesion image, such as CT or the desired position of the tumor or lesion or organ in MR or another ultrasound image. the radiation treatment plan.
It is yet another object of the invention to provide Another feature of the present invention may an improved method and apparatus for accurate include the method of comparing or registering the positioning of the target relative to radiation therapy ultrasound image or images acquired immediately beams based on the registration of a ultrasound images before the radiation treatment session to the or plurality of ultrasound images acquired ultrasound image or images obtained immediately immediately before or after the acquisition of before or after the acquisition of the diagnostic conventional diagnostic images to a ultrasound image images. This method may employ either gray-level or plurality of images acquired immediately before a image correlation without the need of contour outlines radiation treatment session. or alternatively the registration of geometric objects The invention relates to a method and apparatus (as known in the art) composed of the outlines the for (a) lesion localization and tumor or lesion or organ outer surface of the tumor or lesion or organ as definition for radiotherapy treatment planning and (b) defined on the ultrasound image or images acquired in for verification and rectification of lesion position the diagnostic and the radiation therapy room.
during radiotherapy treatment. As a result of the above said image comparison another feature of the present invention is the step of SU1~IMARY OF THE INVENTION determining the necessary tumor or lesion or organ The present invention includes the following steps displacement in order to dispose the tumor or lesion or to improve the localization and the definition of the organ in the desired position prescribed by the tumor or lesion or organ: disposing the patient on the radiation treatment plan. A further feature of the table of the conventional diagnostic imaging device; present invention may include the step of performing acquiring a diagnostic image or plurality of diagnostic the above determined tumor or lesion or organ images with possibly fiducials placed on the patient displacement by but not restricted to, moving the surface so that the geometric orientation of the treatment table with respect to the radiation treatment diagnostic image or images can be determined with device, rotating the treatment table with respect to the respect to the diagnostic imaging device; acquiring a radiation treatment device, rotating the collimator of ultrasound image or plurality of ultrasound images ~e radiation treatment device as well as rotating the immediately before or after the acquisition of the g~~'Y of the radiation therapy device.
diagnostic images with the ultrasound image generating means being disposed in a known DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
geometric orientation with respect to the diagnostic FIG. 1 is a functional block diagram of an imaging device for each ultrasound image generated; embodiment of the invention.
superimposing (known in the art as fusing) or FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a conventional combining the ultrasound image or images with the diagnostic imaging device with a patient schematically diagnostic image or images with the previous illustrated on the imaging table.
The patient having a knowledge about their geometric orientation: outlining lesion disposed with in the patient body.
the contours of the outer surface of the tumor or lesion FIG. 3 is a perspective view of an image device of or organ on the ultrasound image or images and FIG. 2 with the patient passing through the imaging simultaneously displaying the above said outer surface device.
on the diagnostic image or images; employing the FIG. 4 is an example of an image produced by the above said contours of the outer surface of the tumor imaging device of FIG. 2 illustrating the position of or lesion or organ for the design of a radiation the lesion within the patient body.
treatment plan. FIG. 5 is an example of an image produced by the With respect to the verification of the tumor or imaging device of FIG. 2 illustrating fiducials with lesion or organ position with respect to the radiation known position with respect to the diagnostic imaging therapy device the present invention includes the steps device and visible on the diagnostic image or images.
of: disposing the patient on the treatment table of a FIG. 6 a representation of the three-dimensional radiation therapy device; generating at least one US diagnostic image data reconstructed from the multiple image of the lesion in the patient's body with the US diagnostic images such as the one depicted in FIG. 5.
image generating means, that is the probe, being FIG. 7 is a perspective schematic view of the disposed in a known geometric orientation for each conventional diagnostic imaging device of FIG. 2, US image generated; comparing the above said including a means for generating DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE
an US image of the lesion with the patient's body. INVENTION

FIG. 8 is a representation of An illustration of the method a ultrasound image of the and apparatus of the tumor or lesion or organ. invention is shown in the components of the apparatus FIG. 9 is a perspective view indicatingand images derived therefrom in multiple the figures. In the ultrasound images being taken functional diagram of FIG. 1 the of a lesion with the US embodiment of the apparatus of FIG. 7 innovation is generally illustrated.
With reference to FIG. 10 is a representation of FIG. 2, a conventional diagnostic the three-dimensional image device 002 is ultrasound image data reconstructedschematically shown with a conventional from the multiple imaging ultrasound images acquired in table 001, upon which a patient the room of the 009 having a tumor or diagnostic imaging device and a lesion or an organ of interest depicted in FIG. 9. 010 is disposed.

FIG. 11 is a representation of Imaging device 002 can be a computed the three-dimensional tomography ultrasound and diagnostic image scanner ("CT"), a magnetic resonance data sets imaging superimposed or combined. scanner ("MR") or alternatively a positron emission FIG. 12 is a representation of tomography ("PET") scanner. The a sequence of two- diagnostic device dimensional ultrasound pictures 002 is producing a cross-sectional of the lesion within image 023 or a the three-dimensional ultrasound "slice" of the body tissue, one data with the lesion such "slice" being having its outer surface outlined.illustrated in FIG. 4 with the tumor or lesion or organ FIG. 13 is a 3-D rendering of of interest 010 shown. Several the outline of the image diagnostic images 023 prepared from the lesion contoursare acquired by moving the table as illustrated in of the diagnostic FIG. 12. device 001 and the patient 1109 in the slice acquisition FIG. 14 is a perspective view space 017 of the diagnostic imaging of a conventional device 001 as radiotherapy treatment device, shown in FIG. 3. FIG. 6 illustrates or linear accelerator a three-including a rotatable couch, collimatordimensional picture 027 formed and gantry. or reconstructed from The radiation treatment device the plurality of diagnostic images can be any device 023 of a part or a capable of producing radiation section of the patient anatomy for external beam 009.

therapy, e.g. tomotherapy unit, In FIG. 4, the tumor or lesion proton therapy unit, or organ 010 is Cobalt-60 unit, etc. shown at a location with coordinates (Xi, Yi, Z,) FIG. 15 is a perspective schematicdetermined in a conventional manner view of the linear by the CT or accelerator of including a means MR or other diagnostic imaging for generating an device with respect to ultrasound image of the lesion ~e conventional coordinate system within the patient's 011 of the body. diagnostic imaging device 002.
The determination of FIG. 16 is a perspective view the coordinates (X, Y, Z) with indicating multiple US respect to the images being taken of a lesion conventional coordinate system with the ultrasound 011 of the diagnostic imaging device of FIG. 15. imaging device 002 of any point within the three-FIG. 17 is a representation of dimensional picture 023 formed the three-dimensional by the plurality of ultrasound image data reconstructeddiagnostic images can be done from the multiple by but not limited to ultrasound images acquired in the following standard method the room of the therapy employed in radiation device and depicted in FIG. 16 therapy. At least three fiducials 029 with known FIG. 18 is a representation of positions with respect to the several two- diagnostic imaging dimensional US images with the device coordinate reference system lesion of FIG. 17 Ol l are placed on having its outer surface outlined.the patient body 009 in the vicinity of the lesion FIG. 19 is a 3-D rendering of before the acquisition of the the outline of the image diagnostic images 023. In Rrepared from the plurality of FIG. S, a diagnostic image of images from FIG. 18. the at least three FIG. 20 is a representation of fiducials 029 is shown. Since the process of the coordinates of the at determining the necessary correctionsleast three fiducials are known in the treatment in both the setup (table position, collimatorconventional coordinate system and gantry rotation) 011 of the diagnostic prior to a treatment session basedimaging device and in the image on contour or coordinate system surface registration. 030 of FIG. 5, a conventional fitting algorithm known FIG. 21 is a representation of to those of ordinary skill in the process of the art can be used to determining the necessary con determine a transformation matrix, ections in the treatment or coordinate setup (table position, collimatortransformation between the conventional and gantry rotation) coordinate prior to a treatment session basedsystem of the diagnostic device on image cross- Ol i and the image correlation. coordinate system 030. This transformation matrix allows the localization of any image feature in the conventional coordinate system of the diagnostic imaging device 011 as illustrated in FIG. 6. It is to be noted that the tumor or organ or lesion 010 may not be depicted, either partially or completely, in the plurality the ultrasound probe 005 position and orientation; a of diagnostic images 023. In the case of such an event, positioning system based on mechanical arm with the the radiation treatment plan may fail to treat the lesion ultrasound probe 005 attached to the arm. It is to be or tumor and thus it may compromise the success of noted that neither the ultrasound probe 005 nor the the radiation treatment. means 006a-006b for indicating the geometric The definition and the localization of the lesion orientation of the ultrasound probe 005 have to be 010 may be improved in the following manner. A fixed to the table 001 of the diagnostic imaging device means 008 (FIG. 7) for generating at least one 002. The means 006a-006b for indicating the ultrasound image 016 of the lesion 010 (FIG. 8) is geometric orientation of the ultrasound probe 005 are disposed in the diagnostic imaging room, as depicted aligned with or as known in the art, calibrated to the in FIG. 7. Preferably the means 008 for generating an conventional coordinate reference system 011 of the ultrasound image 016 utilizes a conventional, diagnostic device 002. Because of this alignment or commercially available ultrasound probe 005 (FIG. calibration, for any point or feature from the plurality 7). The ultrasound probe 005 is brought in contact of ultrasound images 016, the coordinates (X, Y, Z) in with the patient body 009 (FIG. 7) in order to the conventional coordinate reference system 011 of generate the ultrasound image or images 016 of the the diagnostic device 002 are known. With this tumor or lesion or organ 010 (FIG. 8). By moving or knowledge the value of the ultrasound image data for rotating the ultrasound probe 005, a plurality of each point within the reconstructed volume 031 (FIG.
ultrasound images 016 (FIG. 9) of the tumor or lesion 10) can be determined by interpolating algorithms or organ 010 may be acquired. In FIG. 9, the known to those of ordinary skill in the art.
lesion 010 is shown disposed within the plurality of Furthermore, for any point or feature within the ultrasound images 016 with the plane of each volume of ultrasound image 031 (FIG. 10), the ultrasound image representative of the orientation of coordinates (X, Y, Z) in the conventional coordinate the ultrasound probe 005 at the time of the ultrasound reference system 011 of the diagnostic device 002 are image acquisition. From the plurality of ultrasound known. The acquisition control and fusion software is images 016 a reconstruction of the three-dimensional executed on a dedicated computer or workstation 013 volume or picture 031 (FIG. 10) of the ultrasound as illustrated in FIG. 1.
Standard segmentation and data is performed in the conventional coordinate other image enhancing tools are available to facilitate system 011 of the diagnostic imaging device. It is to to process of lesion outlining and rendering. Since the be noted that, depending of the size of the acquisition of the plurality of ultrasound images 016 is reconstructed volume 031 there may be location in the done immediately before or after the acquisition of the periphery of reconstructed volume 031 for which plurality of diagnostic images 023, the ultrasound ultrasound data are not available. However, such an three-dimensional image data 031 and the diagnostic event is inconsequential to the invention as long as the three-dimensional image 027 represent pictures of tumor or organ or lesion is visible within the spatially overlapping volumes or sections of the reconstructed volume. patient anatomy at two very close moments of time.
In order to accurately reconstruct the three- For a large number of anatomical sites it can be dimensional volume 031 of the ultrasound data from assumed that, within the accuracy required for the plurality of ultrasound images 016, for each treatment planning, the patient anatomy at these two ultrasound image 016 acquired, the orientation and the very close moments of time does not change and position (hereafter referred to as the orientation) of the therefore both the ultrasound three-dimensional image ultrasound probe 005 with respect to the conventional data 031 and the diagnostic three-dimensional image coordinate system 011 of the diagnostic imaging data 027 represent temporally identical, spatially device 002 must be known. A means 006a-006b for overlapping sections of the same patient anatomy.
indicating the geometric orientation of the ultrasound Given that the positions and the orientations of both probe 005 are disposed in the room of the diagnostic the ultrasound three-dimensional image data 031 and device 002 as shown in FIG. 7. Any conventional the diagnostic three-dimensional image data 027 are position sensing system can be used as means 006a- known with respect the conventional coordinate 006b to determine the position and the orientation of reference system 011 of the diagnostic device 002 the the ultrasound probe 005 with respect to the ultrasound three-dimensional image data 031 and the coordinate system 011 of the diagnostic imaging diagnostic three-dimensional image data 027 can be device 002. These positioning systems can include: a superimposed as illustrated in FIG. 11. Since the camera system fixed in the room which looks at light ultrasound three-dimensional image data 031 and the emitting or reflective markers mounted on the diagnostic three-dimensional image data 027 are ultrasound probe 005; ultrasonic system with emitters combined, contours 022 of the outer surface of the mounted on the probe 005 with a detector measuring lesion 010 can be defined in arbitrary planes within the distances to these emitters by time measurements ultrasound three-dimensional image data 031 (FIG.
and consequent geometric triangulation to determine 12) and displayed at their correct location within the diagnostic three-dimensional treatment planning a 4 x 4 transformation image data 027. These matrix T is contours 022 can be used to performdetermined which whea applied three- to the patient by dimensional rendering 021 of mechanical motions of the therapy the lesion within the device table 018, diagnostic three-dimensional of the treatment device collimator image data 027. In this 004 as well as of manner, the lesion 010 is (1) the treatment device gantry 007 localized and defined disposes the tumor or with respect the conventional lesion or organ 010 in the desired coordinate reference treatment position.

system 011 of the diagnostic If the conventional coordinate device 002 and (2) reference system 011 of localized, defined and visualizedthe diagnostic device 002 and within the diagnostic the conventional three-dimensional image data coordinate system 019 of the therapy 027. Because of (1) and device 003 are (2) above, a radiation treatmentnot identical, a predefined transformation plan can be designed matrix or in conventional manner to delivercoordinate transformation is available the necessary between the radiation to the lesion 010 evenconventional coordinate system though the lesion may 019 of the therapy not be completely visualized device 003 and the conventional by the image or images coordinate reference 023 acquired with the diagnosticsystem 011 of the diagnostic device imaging device 002. 002.

Preferably the radiation treatmentAs a first step towards the verification plan is a conformal of the plan whereby the shape of the intended treatment position, localization radiation beam will and definition conform to the spatial contour of the actual position of the or outline 022 of the tumor, or lesion or organ lesion. Alternatively, if a healthy010 is performed in the room of organ 010 is the conventional localized and outlined with the radiotherapy device 003 similarly above described to the localization procedure, the radiation treatmentand definition of the tumor, or plan will preferably lesion or organ 010 be designed to avoid excessive performed in the room of the diagnostic radiation damage to device 002. A

the organ 010. The ultrasound means 028 (FIG. 15) for generating three-dimensional at least one image data 031, the diagnostic ultrasound image 020 of the lesion three-dimensional 010 (FIG. 15) is image data 027, the contours disposed in the therapy room, 022 of the outer surface as depicted in FIG. 15.

of the lesion 010 and the three-dimensionalPreferably the means 028 for generating rendering at least one 021 of the lesion 010 are then ultrasound image 020 utilizes transferred from the a conventional, workstation 013 (FIG. 1) to a commercially available ultrasound computer or a probe 025 (FIG.

workstation 014 in the control 15).
area of the radiation therapy device 003 (FIG. 1 ) The ultrasound probe 025 is brought to serve as reference data in contact for the verification of the treatmentwith the patient body 009 (FIG.
position of the 15) in order to tumor or lesion or organ 010 generate an ultrasound image or before the radiation images 020 of the treatment session. tumor or lesion or organ 010 (FIG.
16). By moving Before the radiation treatment or rotating the ultrasound probe session, the 025, a plurality of verification of the tumor or ultrasound images 020 (FIG. 16) lesion or organ 010 of the tumor or position proceeds in the followinglesion or organ 010 may be acquired.
manner. With In FIG. 16, reference to FIG. 14, the patientthe lesion 010 is shown disposed 009 having a tumor within the plurality or a lesion or an organ of interestof ultrasound images 020 with 010 is disposed on the plane of each the treatment table 018 of the ultrasound image representative conventional therapy of the orientation of device 003 hereafter referred the ultrasound probe 025 at the to as linear accelerator. time of the ultrasound As depicted in FIG. 14, at the image acquisition. From the plurality time of the treatment of ultrasound session, in the therapy room, images 020 a reconstruction of the position (possibly the three-dimensional including orientation and shape)volume or picture 033 (FIG. 17) of the tumor or lesion of the ultrasound or organ 010 with respect to data is performed in the conventional the conventional coordinate coordinate system 019 of the system 019 of the therapy device therapy device 003 will 003. It is to be noted be generally different from the that, depending of the size of intended treatment the reconstructed position 032 (possibly includingvolume 033 there may be location orientation and in the periphery of shape) of the lesion as prescribedreconstructed volume 033 for which by the radiation ultrasound data treatment plan. Since typically are not available.
the conventional coordinate reference system 011 In order to accurately reconstruct of the diagnostic the three-device 002 and the conventional dimensional volume 033 of the coordinate system ultrasound data from 019 of the therapy device 003 the plurality of ultrasound images are considered to be 020, for each identical, the intended treatmentacquired ultrasound image 020, position 032 the orientation and the (possibly including orientation)position (hereafter referred to of the lesion 010 is as the orientation) of the calculated from the spatial coordinatesultrasound probe 025 with respect and extent of to the conventional the lesion 010 determined previouslycoordinate system 019 of the therapy in the diagnostic device 003 must imaging device 002 room with be known. A means 026a-026b for the localization and indicating the definition method described earliergeometric orientation of the ultrasound and illustrated in probe 025 are FIG. 2 to FIG. 13. Typically, disposed in the room of the therapy in the process of device 003 as shown in FIG. 15. Any conventional position sensing localization data 031 acquired in the room of the system can be used as means 026a-026b to determine diagnostic device 002 prior to the treatment plan to the the position and the orientation of the ultrasound three-dimensional surface 034 or contours 024 of the probe 025 with respect to the coordinate system 019 lesion 010 as outlined within the three-dimensional of the therapy device 003. These positioning systems ultrasound localization data 033 acquired in the room can include: a camera system fixed in the room which of the therapy device 003 before the treatment session.
looks at light emitting or reflective markers mounted Conventional methods for contour and surface on the ultrasound probe 025; ultrasonic system with matching include chamfer matching and "top-and-emitters mounted on the probe 025 with a detector hat" least square distance matching. An alternative measuring the distances to these emitters by time method for the establishment of the coordinate measurements and consequent geometric triangulation transformation R between the coordinate system 011 to determine the ultrasound probe 025 position and of the diagnostic device 002 and the coordinate system orientation; a positioning system based on mechanical 019 of the therapy device 003, which does not rely on arm with the ultrasound probe 025 attached to the predefined contours or surfaces is illustrated in FIG.
mechanical arm. It is to be noted that neither the 21, whereby image cross correlation is performed ultrasound probe 025 nor the means 026a-026b for between the reconstructed three-dimensional indicating the geometric orientation of the ultrasound ultrasound localization data 033 acquired in the room probe 025 have to be fixed to the table 018 of the of the therapy device 003 before the treatment session therapy device 003. The means 026a-026b for and the three-dimensional ultrasound localization data indicating the geometric orientation of the ultrasound 031 acquired in the room of the diagnostic device 002 probe 025 are aligned with or as known in the art, prior to the design of the treatment plan. The calibrated to the conventional coordinate reference coordinate transformation .is selected to be the one system 019 of the therapy device 003. Because of this which produces the highest peak of the correlation alignment or calibration, for any point or feature from value between the two three-dimensional data sets 033 the plurality of ultrasound images, the coordinates (X, and 031. The determination of the necessary Y, Z) in the conventional coordinate system 019 of the adjustments of the treatment table 018 position, of the therapy device 003 are known. With this knowledge, treatment device collimator 004 rotation as well as of the value of the ultrasound image data for each point the treatment device gantry 007 rotation is then within the reconstructed volume 033 (FIG. 17) can be performed by a decomposition of the 4 x 4 determined by interpolating algorithms known to ttansformation matrix TR-~ by algorithms known to those of ordinary skill in the art. Furthermore, for any those of ordinary skill in the art. It is to be noted that point or feature within the volume of ultrasound image after the establishment of the coordinate data 033 (FIG. 17) the coordinates (X, Y, Z) in the conventional coordinate system 019 of the therapy tT~sformation R between the coordinate system 011 device 003 are known. Thus the localization of the of the diagnostic device 002 and the coordinate system tumor or lesion or organ 010 as depicted by the three- 019 of the therapy device 003 by either of the above dimensional ultrasound image data 033 (FIG. 17) is said two methods, adjustments other than the above complete. Furthermore, contours 024 (FIG. 18) of the said adjustments of the treatment table 018 position, outer surface of the lesion 010 can be defined in of the treatment device collimator 004 rotation as well arbitrary planes within the ultrasound three- as of the treatment device gantry 007 rotation can be dimensional image data 033 (FIG. 17). These undertaken. These may range from simple contours 024 can be used to properly perform three- modifications of the initially intended radiation beam dimensional rendering 034 (FIG. 19) of the lesion in shapes to change in the beam intensities and even a the coordinate system 019 of the therapy device 003. completely new treatment plan with different beam Once the tumor or lesion or organ 010 is localized ~'angements. These adjustments are calculated with in the room of the therapy device 003, the necessary software running on the workstation 014 and executed adjustments of the treatment table 018 position, of the bY the therapy device controller 015 which is treatment device collimator 004 rotation as well as of interfaced to the therapy device 003 and treatment the treatment device gantry 007 rotation can be table controller 012 as illustrated in FIG. 1.
performed by either of the following two methods. file particular preferred embodiments of the With reference to FIG. 20, the first method invention have been shown and described, it will be establishes a coordinate transformation (4 x 4 obvious to those of skill in the art that changes and .
transformation matrix) R between the coordinate modifications can be made without departing from the system 011 of the diagnostic device 002 and the spirit and the scope of the invention as set forth in the coordinate system 019 of the therapy device 003 by claims. Accordingly, the invention is limited only by superimposing or matching of the three-dimensional the scope of the appended claims.
We claim:
surface 022 or contours 021of the lesion 010 as outlined within the three-dimensional ultrasound

Claims (5)

1. A system foo localizing a tumor or lesion or organ 6. A system for localizing a tumor or lesion or organ for the purpose of a radiation treatment planning, for the purpose of treatment verification, for use for use with a conventional diagnostic imaging with a conventional therapy device, comprising:
device, comprising: a) A means for generating at least one a) A means for generating at least one ultrasound image of the lesion; and ultrasound image of the lesion; and b) A means for indicating the position and the b) A means for indicating the position and the~~orientation with respect to the conventional orientation with respect to the diagnostic~~therapy device of the means of generating at imaging of the means of generating at the at~~the at least one ultrasound image when the at least one ultrasound image when the at least~~least one ultrasound image is generated.
ultra sound image is generated.~~~~7. The system of claim 6 wherein the means for
2. The system of claim 2 wherein the means for~~generating the ultrasound image is an ultrasound generating the ultrasound image is an ultrasound~probe.
probe.~~~~~~~8. The system of claim 6 wherein the means of for
3. The system of claim 2 wherein the means of~~indicating the position of the means for indicating the position of the means for~~generating the at least one ultrasound image is a generating the at least one ultrasound image is a~position sensing system which indicates the position sensing system which indicates the~~position and the orientation of the ultrasound position and the orientation of the ultrasound~~generating means with respect to the therapy generating means with respect to the diagnostic~~device.
imaging device.~~~~~~9. A method for localizing a lesion within a body of
4. A method for localizing a tumor or lesion or~~a patient prior to radiation treatment comprising organ for the purposes of radiation treatment~~the steps of:
planning comprising the steps of:~~~a) Disposing the patient on the table of the a) Disposing the patient on the table of the~~therapy device;
diagnostic imaging device;~~~~b) Generating at least on ultrasound image of b) Generating at least one diagnostic image of~~the tumor or lesion or organ with the the tumor or lesion or organ with known~~~ultrasound generating means being disposed orientation and position of the plane of the at~~in a known position and orientation with least one diagnostic image with respect to the~~respect to the therapy device for each diagnostic imaging device for each diagnostic~~ultrasound image generated;
image generated;~~~~~10. A method for verifying the position of the lesion c) Generating at least one ultrasound image of~~prior to radiation treatment comprising the the tumor or lesion or organ with the~~~method in claim 9 and the further step of ultrasound generating means being disposed~~comparing the position and orientation of the in a known position and orientation with~~lesion of the at least one localization ultrasound respect to the diagnostic imaging device for~~image acquired with the method of claim 9 with each ultrasound image generated;~~~the position and the orientation of the lesion as d) Superimposing or fusing the at least one~~depicted by the at least one ultrasound image ultrasound image and the at least one~~~acquired during the localization of the lesion with diagnostic image whereby, with the ~~~the method of claim 4.
knowledge about the position and the~~~11. The method of claim 10 wherein the said orientation with respect to the diagnostic~~comparison is performed by comparing the device of the at least one ultrasound and of~~outlines of the outer surface of the lesion as the at least on diagnostic image pixel data~~localized by the method of claim 9 to the outlines from said at least one ultrasound image is~~of the surface of the lesion drawn with the method mapped to pixel data from said at least on~~of claim 5.
diagnostic image. For these pixels of said at~~12. The method of claim 10 wherein the said least one diagnostic image, for which~~~comparison is performed by image cross-ultrasound data are not acquired, ultrasound~~correlation between the at least one ultrasound data are generated by interpolation and~~~image generated and localized with the method of extrapolation of the data from the at least~~claim 9 and the at least one ultrasound image one ultrasound image.~~~~~generated and localized with the method of claim
5. The method of claim 4 further including the step~4, without the need to compare lesion outlines.
of drawing contours of the outer surface of the~~13. The method of claim 10 further including the step lesion on the diagnostic images by drawing the~~of: determining the amount of movement of the contours of the outer surface of the lesion on the~lesion required to dispose the lesion in the desired at least on ultrasound image;

position of the lesion in the radiation treatment~16. The method of claim 14 wherein the step of plan.~~~~~~~moving the lesion is performed by rotating the 14. The method of claim 13 including the step of~treatment table with respect to the radiation moving the lesion with respect to the therapy~~therapy device, rotating the collimator of the device to dispose the lesion in the desired~~radiation therapy device and rotating the gantry of treatment position.~~~~~the radiation therapy device.
15. A method comprising of repeating steps of claims 9 through 14.
CA 2314794 2000-08-01 2000-08-01 Apparatus for lesion or organ localization Abandoned CA2314794A1 (en)

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CA 2314794 CA2314794A1 (en) 2000-08-01 2000-08-01 Apparatus for lesion or organ localization
CA 2416887 CA2416887C (en) 2000-08-01 2001-07-31 Method and apparatus for lesion localization, definition and verification
EP20010959999 EP1304960B1 (en) 2000-08-01 2001-07-31 Method and apparatus for lesion localization, definition and verification
ES01959999T ES2243536T3 (en) 2000-08-01 2001-07-31 Method for locating, defining and verifying injury.
JP2002515145A JP4101647B2 (en) 2000-08-01 2001-07-31 Method and apparatus for resolution and confirmation of lesion
PCT/CA2001/001113 WO2002009588A9 (en) 2000-08-01 2001-07-31 Method and apparatus for lesion localization, definition and verification
DE2001611385 DE60111385T2 (en) 2000-08-01 2001-07-31 Apparatus for localization of a lesion or an organ
ES05006290T ES2373444T3 (en) 2000-08-01 2001-07-31 Method and apparatus for locating, defining and verifying injury.
US10343336 US7634304B2 (en) 2000-08-01 2001-07-31 Method and apparatus for lesion localization, definition and verification
EP20050006290 EP1543774B1 (en) 2000-08-01 2001-07-31 Method and apparatus for lesion localization, definition and verification
DE2001611385 DE60111385D1 (en) 2000-08-01 2001-07-31 Apparatus for localization of a lesion or an organ
JP2006271724A JP2007054641A5 (en) 2006-10-03
JP2008068612A JP4129053B1 (en) 2000-08-01 2008-03-18 Method and apparatus for resolution and confirmation of lesion
US12479126 US20090275830A1 (en) 2000-08-01 2009-06-05 Methods and Systems for Lesion Localization, Definition and Verification

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