CA2283530A1  Apparatus for obtaining worldwide data on the earth's resonance  Google Patents
Apparatus for obtaining worldwide data on the earth's resonance Download PDFInfo
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 CA2283530A1 CA2283530A1 CA 2283530 CA2283530A CA2283530A1 CA 2283530 A1 CA2283530 A1 CA 2283530A1 CA 2283530 CA2283530 CA 2283530 CA 2283530 A CA2283530 A CA 2283530A CA 2283530 A1 CA2283530 A1 CA 2283530A1
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Abstract
Devices take samples of signals from overhead power lines, produce phasers representing time relations between a template set of values and a coherent frequency component of the Earth's electromagnetic resonance, phase lock the component and the template and measure phasers of harmonics related to the component.
Description
APPARATUS FOR OBTAINING WORLDWIDE DATA ON THE EARTH'S RESONANCE
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
i The Earth has a natural resonance of electromagnetic energy excited by lightning strokes and other phenomena. Tesla sensed the resonance in experiments carried out in 1899 to 1900.
Fig. 1 shows idealized angular distributions of the vertical electric and horizontal magnetic components of the lowest four normal modes of the Schumann resonances to be explained below. The sphere represents the Earth, and the excitation source is assumed to be a vertical lightning channel at the top of the sphere. The distributions are azimuthally symmetric about the polar axis. In each component the field amplitudes are plotted in two ways, first as a gray scale density, and then as a height (extensions radially) above the sphere. This figure was obtained from http://dsentman.
gi.alaska.edu/schumann.htm on March 2, 1999.
An informative paper (hereinafter identified as reference S1) , by Davis D. Sentman is titled "Schumann Resonances" and was obtained from http://dsentman.gi.alaska.edu/~heavner/rs/conf/
icae96/schres/index.html. In this reference, S1, Schumann states that there is a continuous average of 100 lightning strokes per second around~the Earth. It is proposed herein that data be taken from around the Earth using methods and apparatus according to the present invention. Remodeled from actual data, the form may be quite different than the simplistic single lightning stroke model of Fig. 1. Such a detailed model based on the actuality of the E
field will also imply the correctness of the magnetic components of Fig. 1.
The following is a quotation from the book The Cycles of r Heaven by Guy L. Playfair and Scott Hill, St. Martins Press, New York City, 1978, ISBN # 0312180535.
"In 1952, W. O. Schumann of Munich University published an important paper on the mechanism by which ELF (extra low frequency) and VLF (very low frequency) waves are set up in the space between Earth's surface and the ionosphere. This interspace constitutes a concave spherical cavity resonator  a conductive sphere surrounded by a dielectric  and Schumann found that when ELF wavelengths come close in length to that of the circumference of the Earth, a resonant system, which produces the 'Schumann resonances', is set up. Power spectra of these resonances reveal amplitude peaks at 7.8, 14.1, 20.3, 26.4 and 32.5 Hz: all well within the ELF range."
While this reference is rather superficial as to the studies underway of the Earth's resonance, it is valuable in its summaries of work going on concerning effects of low frequency acoustic and electromagnetic waves on human and animal behavior. Researchers in human and animal behavior may find data obtained by the methods of this invention useful.
The coherent frequency component is often called the Schumann frequency after W. O. Schumann and is sometimes said to be approximately 7.32 Hertz. This value can be approximated by dividing the speed of light by the circumference of the Earth.
Excerpts from Sentman, D.D., "Schumann Resonances," in CRC Handbook of Atmospheric Electrodynamics, (Hans Volland, ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1985, are available from http://ddentman.gi.alaska.edu/
schuchar.htm. The following are quotes from this Sentman excerpt:
"The lowest frequency components of the impulse (from lightning) can circumnavigate the global circumference several times before suffering serious degradation, and the phase addition and cancellation of waves the global circumference several times along multiple paths produce a resonant line spectrum.... These resonances, called Schumann resonances, have been observed at many different locations and can, in principle, be detected from any place on the planet."
The term "Resonant line spectrum" is taken herein to mean a continuous coherent E (Electric) wave with frequencies at the fundamental or higher modes of Earth's resonance (See. Fig. 1).
The Sentman excerpts list 152 references including those by Schumann.
We have assumed hereinbelow that the resonant line is at 7.32 Hz, however resonant lines may also exist within bands of energy which Sentman lists around 14 and 20 Hz. No mention is found in reference S1 of harmonics of coherent E waves which by definition are synchronous with fundamental waves to which their phase is referenced as.,described in detail hereinbelow.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
i The Earth has a natural resonance of electromagnetic energy excited by lightning strokes and other phenomena. Tesla sensed the resonance in experiments carried out in 1899 to 1900.
Fig. 1 shows idealized angular distributions of the vertical electric and horizontal magnetic components of the lowest four normal modes of the Schumann resonances to be explained below. The sphere represents the Earth, and the excitation source is assumed to be a vertical lightning channel at the top of the sphere. The distributions are azimuthally symmetric about the polar axis. In each component the field amplitudes are plotted in two ways, first as a gray scale density, and then as a height (extensions radially) above the sphere. This figure was obtained from http://dsentman.
gi.alaska.edu/schumann.htm on March 2, 1999.
An informative paper (hereinafter identified as reference S1) , by Davis D. Sentman is titled "Schumann Resonances" and was obtained from http://dsentman.gi.alaska.edu/~heavner/rs/conf/
icae96/schres/index.html. In this reference, S1, Schumann states that there is a continuous average of 100 lightning strokes per second around~the Earth. It is proposed herein that data be taken from around the Earth using methods and apparatus according to the present invention. Remodeled from actual data, the form may be quite different than the simplistic single lightning stroke model of Fig. 1. Such a detailed model based on the actuality of the E
field will also imply the correctness of the magnetic components of Fig. 1.
The following is a quotation from the book The Cycles of r Heaven by Guy L. Playfair and Scott Hill, St. Martins Press, New York City, 1978, ISBN # 0312180535.
"In 1952, W. O. Schumann of Munich University published an important paper on the mechanism by which ELF (extra low frequency) and VLF (very low frequency) waves are set up in the space between Earth's surface and the ionosphere. This interspace constitutes a concave spherical cavity resonator  a conductive sphere surrounded by a dielectric  and Schumann found that when ELF wavelengths come close in length to that of the circumference of the Earth, a resonant system, which produces the 'Schumann resonances', is set up. Power spectra of these resonances reveal amplitude peaks at 7.8, 14.1, 20.3, 26.4 and 32.5 Hz: all well within the ELF range."
While this reference is rather superficial as to the studies underway of the Earth's resonance, it is valuable in its summaries of work going on concerning effects of low frequency acoustic and electromagnetic waves on human and animal behavior. Researchers in human and animal behavior may find data obtained by the methods of this invention useful.
The coherent frequency component is often called the Schumann frequency after W. O. Schumann and is sometimes said to be approximately 7.32 Hertz. This value can be approximated by dividing the speed of light by the circumference of the Earth.
Excerpts from Sentman, D.D., "Schumann Resonances," in CRC Handbook of Atmospheric Electrodynamics, (Hans Volland, ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1985, are available from http://ddentman.gi.alaska.edu/
schuchar.htm. The following are quotes from this Sentman excerpt:
"The lowest frequency components of the impulse (from lightning) can circumnavigate the global circumference several times before suffering serious degradation, and the phase addition and cancellation of waves the global circumference several times along multiple paths produce a resonant line spectrum.... These resonances, called Schumann resonances, have been observed at many different locations and can, in principle, be detected from any place on the planet."
The term "Resonant line spectrum" is taken herein to mean a continuous coherent E (Electric) wave with frequencies at the fundamental or higher modes of Earth's resonance (See. Fig. 1).
The Sentman excerpts list 152 references including those by Schumann.
We have assumed hereinbelow that the resonant line is at 7.32 Hz, however resonant lines may also exist within bands of energy which Sentman lists around 14 and 20 Hz. No mention is found in reference S1 of harmonics of coherent E waves which by definition are synchronous with fundamental waves to which their phase is referenced as.,described in detail hereinbelow.
In reference S1 Sentman also describes "Qbursts" in the form of very large discrete events that occur at random intervals at the rate of several to tens of events per hour. Sentman states that Q
bursts may be caused by large lightning transients but otherwise are presently unexplained.
A further reference, hereinafter known as S2, by Heavner and Sentman was obtained from http://elf.gi.alaska.edu/~heavner/rs/
conf/icae96/schres/index.html. This and reference S1 identify locations where related measurements are made. These include Table Mountain and Learmonth California, Australia, Brazil, and several sites in Alaska. The equipment used for measurement is large and expensive including shielded magnetic pickup coils mounted underground. On the other hand, the area covered is small as compared to the entire surface of the Earth.
A reference, hereinafter known as S3, by Hickey, Heavner and Sentman was obtained from http://dsentman.gi.alaska.edu/iarbands .htm and covers events that occur only at night. A paper by Sentman and Fraser "Simultaneous observations of Schumann resonances in California and Australia: Evidence for intensity modulation by the local height of the D region, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 15973 describes equipment in use at Table Mountain California for continuous observations since 1993.
These references give the time duration of past observations which are generally small as compared to continuous observations.
In general it appears that much fine work has been done in forming mathematic models for the many complex resonant modes of excitation of the Earth's resonance. The gathering of data, especially in continuous modes is more recent with many phenomena, such as the Qburst, looking for further understanding.
One coherent component of the E wave has been reported to be 7.32 Hz and of sufficient stability as to be useable as a frequency reference. Many lightning events consist of a leader stroke and many following strokes. It is said that a frequency in the range r of 7.32 hz can be seen in the repetition rate of the follower strokes of lightning which may sometimes approach 100 in number.
While a coherent frequency of the E wave has no sense of rotation with respect to the Earth, harmonics may add up to a wave which does. Knowing this and the direction of the rotation would be of interest.
The "DC component" is well known as the Earth's magnetic field used by compasses to determine direction. The node for this component, however is not at the pole of rotation of the Earth and local anomalies sometimes confuse readings of direction. The coherent frequency of the E wave may have an axis . What is its relation with respect to the axis of the DC component?
It is known that the Earth's rotation carries the atmosphere with it as it rotates, producing reactions generally known as the Coriolis effect. It is known that this effect causes storms within the atmosphere to rotate clockwise in the northern hemisphere and counter clockwise in the southern atmosphere. Energy from the Earth's rotation is thus carried by the atmosphere to provide the rotational energy of the storms. Rotational rates of storms are far greater than the rotational frequency of the Earth, with tornados being the highest.
It is reasonable, therefore, that the Earth also carries the resonant electromagnetic energy with it as it rotates thus creating vortices in the electromagnetic field. While it is true that the resonant energy has no mass and therefore not immediately analogous to the effects of the Earth's rotation on the mass of the atmosphere, there may be reasons for similar relations between the electromagnetic field and the Earth's rotation. There is no indications readily available to indicate that this matter has been the subject of investigation.
QUESTION: Are electromagnetic vortices then created rotating clockwise in the northern hemisphere and counter clockwise in the southern? Are they of various diameters with those associated with tornados among the highest?
Electromagnetic vortices may develop with respect to the electromagnetic wave much like tornados develop in the atmosphere.
If so could some be either continuing vortices or ones that often reoccur at certain places on Earth?
The combined effect of the electromagnetic field and its complex modes of oscillations may be a source of great energy and may have effects on the weather. For the purpose of this invention we hypothesize the field as the driving force for major tornados.
The hypothesis will be stated in positive terms. It is to be understood that a hypothesis is a "theory" or possible truth and that research to determine the truth related to the hypotheses stated here is of obvious importance. Inventive means for obtaining data for this suggested research are given below.
HYPOTHESIS: Rotation by the Earth of the complex electromagnetic oscillations known collectively as Schumann resonances forms electromagnetic vortices which move in unknown ways over the surface of the Earth. These vortices may be potential sources of great energy.
There is a spot on the Sherman ranch in Nevada, owned by Robert Bigelow, where UFO activity is said to be very high.. Col.
John Alexander operates the National Institute of Discovery Science which Bigelow set up to sponsor scientific research into phenomena related to UFOs.
This inventor herein has first hand memory of the "Philadelphia Story" in which the mine sweeper IX97 was moved back in time two weeks from a location in the water just off a birth in the Philadelphia navy yard to a previous location docked at Newport News, Virginia. As told by Dr. Horton of Bell Laboratories who made the trip, the power of three phase 7.5Hz generators were brought up and up in an attempt to move down the bay by one hour.
When nothing happened with full power, they moved the frequency slightly and instantly jumped to Newport News, Virginia. The indication is that the generators suddenly became synchronous with the Earth's 7.32 coherent frequency and produced the two week time shift.
Unmodified minesweepers used a single phase current generator to run a very, large current through huge cables draped into the water from the bow, along both sides of the boat connecting to a generator on the fantail. The frequency used was about 7.5 Hz matching the resonant frequency of the German magnetic ship detector.
The detector consisted of a sealed tube with a permanent magnet sliding in oil inside the tube. Springs at either end gave the mechanism a resonance of about 7.5 Hz. It is believed that the choice of this frequency close to the Earth's resonance was purely coincidental.
The IX97 was outfitted with three special current generators tied to a large control panel with circuitry which held their output currents 120° in phase angle. The three currents were fed into the two cables along the port and starboard sides and the third to a cable hanging on masts just above the cabin. The currents, tied together at the bow, added to zero.
The IX97 was thus outfitted very quickly by the General Electric Co., as the inventor herein members. It is likely that Tesla's early experiments in moving objects with rotating magnetic fields were not repeated and therefore the significance of synchronizing with the Earth's resonance was not recognized.
For a complete account of the authors experience with the "Philadelphia Story" please refer to a book, HYPOTHESES, written by the inventor of this patent application and available from bookstores using R.R.Bowker's Books in Print.
QUESTION: Could extraterrestrial spacecraft be using an electromagnetic vortex, consistently operating at the Sherman ranch, to obtain energy for teleporting to and from a home planet?
Could advanced craft, either military or private, use energy from the coherent frequencies to levitate, teleport and time travel?
It is clear that "dust devils" as seen in the western desert do not rotate at as high a frequency as 7.32 Hz and that their behavior can be explained and understood without reference to the coherent component of the E wave. It is also evident that funnel clouds extending downward during tornado weather conditions do not initially have this higher rate of rotation. The question i.s, at what point, if any, does energy from the coherent frequency of the E wave enter the cell of rotating air?
HYPOTHESIS: As a tornado grows in intensity, fed only by thermal energy from the atmosphere, an inner column of low pressure is created from the centrifugal forces in the funnel. The highest wind speeds are on the boundary of this tube of low pressure, being difficult to detect and measure. When the rotational speed of this tubular layer of air reaches a coherent frequency of the E wave, the rotational speed locks with it synchronously extracting energy to greatly increase the power of the tornado.
QUESTION: Which comes first, movement of an electromagnetic vortex to a storm center or creation of such a vortex by a storm center?
Fig. 2 shows the structure of a fully developed tornado. The funnel cloud 30 is visible and often photographed moving down its destructive path. The inner surface boundary 31 is seldom, if ever, seen and photographed. The center core 32 of very low pressure has pccasionally been measured. It is held accountable for buildings being literally blown apart such as one on October 3, 1992 that destroyed a two story building housing the Beckwith Electric Company.
This tornado would likely be classified an F2 of "significant"
strength. The observed circumference of about 300 meters falls midway in the Class F2 range with maximum wind speeds, as measured by doppler radar, of 60 meters per second. From this one can calculate a center core 3 of Fig. 2 of 0.26 meters or 10" in diameter to produce a rotation of 7.32 cps of this central core.
Within this core the velocity must fall to nearly zero in the "calm" center of rotating storms.
This center seems smaller than might be expected, however this may be the size high in the sky where the highest vacuum may exist in relatively clean air. Lower where the funnel is filled as a water spout if over water and filled with debris if over land the core may be larger and the maximum velocity less.
For a tornado core with a circumference of 0.82 meters the frequency can be calculated as: 0.82 x 108  82 megahertz, well within the lower television band. The lowest television frequency is channel 2 at 54 mHz. Before the era of cable TV, channel 2 was frequently used as a tornado detector with the screen "going white"
when a tornado was nearby. The core may vary in diameter and produce frequencies over a range of TV frequencies. Even very large tornados may have small center cores producing these high frequencies. Note also that these frequencies may well be produced at the higher ends of the funnel where they will propagate over large distances.
QUESTIONS: Are vortices associated with human levitation and do they also produce frequencies at the lower TV frequencies? Are coherent frequencies of the E wave sources of energy for other phenomena including teleportation and time travel? Is this the energy that persons with psychic abilities sense? Can humans light up screens of TVs with rabbit ear antennas?
HYPOTHESIS: Within the core of a fully developed tornado a divided space (see HYPOTHESES) forms with the power to levitate material objects, carry them high into the sky and then drop them to the ground.
QUESTION: Did this result in automobiles being picked up and deposited in a heap in a gully as resulted from tornados in Georgia on or about April 5, 1998?
QUESTION: Is this levitation or just suction by a vacuum?
RELATED PATENTS:
1) METHOD AND APPARATUS PROVIDING HALFCYCLE DIGITIZATION OF
AC SIGNALS BY AN ANALOGTODIGITAL CONVERTER, U. S, Patent No.
5,315,527, describes apparatus and methods for sensing positive half cycles of AC signals.
2) APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR SAMPLING SIGNALS SYNCHRONOUS
WITH ANALOGTODIGITAL CONVERTER, U. S. Patent No. 5,544,064, describes apparatus and methods useful for obtaining digital samples of AC waves synchronous with free running analog to digital converters (ADCs).
3) A METHOD FOR OBTAINING THE FUNDAMENTAL AND ODD HARMONIC
COMPONENTS OF AC SIGNALS, U. S. Patent No. 5,774,366, describes methods for obtaining the fundamental component and odd harmonics of half wave AC signals.
4) TWO WAY PACKET RADIO INCLUDING SMART DATA BUFFER AND
PACKET RATE CONVERSION, U. S. Patent Application Serial No.
710,816, filed on September 23, 1996 describes apparatus and methods of communicating synchronously with the power frequency as useful in the present invention.
5) DISTRIBUTION CIRCUIT VAR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING ADAPTIVE
CAPACITOR CONTROLS: U. S. Patent #5,541,498 issued Jul. 30, 1996.
6) MULTIFUNCTION ADAPTIVE CONTROLS FOR TAPSWITCHES AND
CAPACITORS: U. S. Patent #5,646,512 issued Jul. 8, 1997.
7) INFINITE SPEED SPACE COMMUNICATIONS USING INFORMATION
GLOBES, U. S. Patent Application serial number 083315 dated April 14, 1998.
8) TWO WAY PACKET RADIO INCLUDING SMART DATA BUFFER AND
PACKET RATE CONVERSION, U. S. Patent Application Serial No.
710,816, filed on September 23, 1996 describes apparatus and methods of communicating synchronously with the power frequency as useful in the present invention.
U. S. Patents No's. 5,315,527, 5,541,498, 5,544,064, 5,646,512, 5,774,366 and U. S. Patent Applications Serial Nos.
710,816, 059738 all by Robert W. Beckwith the inventor herein, are incorporated herein by reference.
U.S. Pat. No. 4,686,605, "METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR ALTERING
A REGION IN THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE, IONOSPHERE AND MAGNETOSPHERE"
filed by the inventor, Dr. Bernard J. Eastlund, on Jan. l0. 19s5 and issued Aug.ll, 1987 appears to be the basis for the Highs frequency Active Auroral Research Project (HAARP). This secret system is deployed from the northernmost to the southernmost points of Alaska and may be used to modify the coherent component of the E wave. Reference is made to a book "ANGELS DON'T PLAY THIS HAARP"
by Jeane Manning and Dr. Nick Begich, Earthpulse Press for a detailed description of this system.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Use is made of devices such as electric utility controls, protective relays and digital fault recorders which take several hundred digital samples of alternating current voltage waves per cycle from overhead power lines. These lines act as large low frequency antennae for picking up E signals from the Earth's natural electrical resonance. Computers, using search and track algorithms, select digital samples synchronous with the Earth's electromagnetic field resonance from these devices, and use cross correlations to extract data as to the resonance and place the data on the Internet . Organizations have this information available for research as to the worldwide nature of the Earth's resonant field.
The data gathering is accomplished at a very low additional cost from electric utility devices which take digital samples of alternating current (AC) power frequency voltages as a matter of their normal functioning. Telephone lines where they are overhead and not in cables are alternative existing lines already in place for other purposes and useable to pick up signals from the Earth's resonance. A sensor receiver for direct measurement of atmospheric electromagnetic signals from overhead lines is included.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Fig. 1 Angular distributions of Schumann resonant modes.
Fig. 2 The structure of a tornado.
Fig. 3 The method of selecting digital samples related to a lower variable search frequency.
Fig. 4 A diagram for the collection of digital samples of AC voltage waves, analyzing for components related to the coherent frequency of the E wave and placing on the Internet.
Fig. 5 Schematic diagram of a receiver for direct detection and measurement of coherent components of the E wave from overhead power lines.
Fig. 6 Schematic diagram of a battery operated receiver for direct detection and measurement of coherent components of the E
wave from overhead telephone lines.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE
PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
THE PURPOSE OF THIS INVENTION
A first purpose of this invention is to use digital samples of waves obtained from overhead wire lines at rates corresponding to expected coherent and related harmonic frequencies of Earth's E
(electric) component of electromagnetic resonance. A second r purpose is to use said digital samples to find time profiles of randomly occurring bursts (such as Qbursts) of information of predictable length in time.
First sources of said digital samples are preexisting devices taking digital samples of alternating current (AC) waves at higher rates than required for this invention wherein selected samples are used and others discarded. Such devices, include tapchanging transformer and regulator controls, protective relays and digital fault recorders, operate from overhead electric power lines.
Communication ports are generally available on these devices for use in obtaining the samples for the purpose of this invention.
Some devices, in particular digital fault recorders, provide time stamps for the data. If desired this data can be downloaded and processed with programs that are equivalent to real time processing but in fact are not.
Second sources are devices especially designed for taking digital samples from wire lines which may include electric power lines, telephone lines and even electric fence lines so long as they are overhead and ungrounded.
The overall purpose is to utilize combinations of these devices to obtain worldwide data and to use this data to form models of the actual E field replacing the theoretical "Electric"
models illustrated along the top row of Fig. 1.
THE USE OF CROSS CORRELATION
In the aforesaid first purpose, cross correlations are made between selected digital samples from said devices and tables of sine anc~ cosine functions to measure magnitudes of fundamental components of coherent waves and phasers components of related harmonics, said phasers using said fundamental components as phase references.
Tables of values of sine and cosine functions are converted into time functions which selectively form digital templates for full wave and half wave periods. These periods are the reciprocal of the frequencies being sought. In practice devices often are served from an external computer, such as a lap top, where requests to search for a particular coherent frequency are converted to terms most fitting to the device. In a typical case, the term used by the device may be a range of clock cycles of donothing steps.
This technique uses neither a period or a frequency but nevertheless performs the required function. Thus the terms "period" and "frequency" will be used interchangeably hereinbelow in describing techniques for seeking, acquiring, locking and tracking coherent waves.
Cross correlation is defined as:
C = (Ea x b)'~/ (Eaz + Ebz)'~
Where C is a correlation number and "a" and "b" are functions each represented by a series of digital values. Each sum, E, is computed over the range of the values of "a" and "b". It is generally required that "a" and "b" have the same number of sample values . In the general case "a" is any monotonic function of a variable such as time and "b" is another monotonic function of the same variable. The cross correlation gives the similarity of the two functions for whatever reason.
As used herein for the first purpose, functions "a" and "b"
are limited to the special case of sine waves in time with related harmonics.
Values are chosen from tables of the sine function at time rates that produce a time variable digital value rate at a selected search frequency. As they are chosen the values are multiplied by the next available sample from overhead lines and a sum of the products formed.
The square root of said first sum is computed forming the numerator of the above described correlation function as the magnitude of a phaser component.
The denominator of this equation is a normalizing calculation that gives values of correlation, C, between 1 and 1. C generally represents the probability that a  b. A probability of 1 indicates a certainty, 0 represents a lack of correlation and 1 indicates the certainty that "a" is a mirror image of "b".
For the aforementioned second purpose the numerator is divided by the denominator to obtain probabilities of signal identification. The denominator is obtained by forming a second sum of the square of said next available samples along with said first sum. The second sum is then added to a precomputed sum of the square of the stored table of values and the square root of the addition of these two sums computed forming the denominator.
FINDING COHERENT E SIGNALS
(This is the first purpose of this invention) A Beckwith Electric Model M2667 Load Tapchanging Transformer Switch Control described in patent 5,646,512 cited above is used as a typical illustration of a device already taking digital samples of AC waves and using the samples for other purposes. A total of 240 samples of each half cycle of a 60 Hz wave are taken each cycle. This device demonstrates a resolution of O.Olo in measurement of AC voltage waves.
Since it can be assumed that the positive and negative halves of an AC voltage wave are identical except for polarity sign, this is equivalent of 480 samples per cycle or 480 x 60 = 28,800 samples per second. This provides approximately 3934 samples for each of the cycles of a 7.32 Hz signal within a single second. This then is 537 samples per cycle at 7.32 Hz, nearly the same as the 480 samples per cycle used at 60 Hz.
In normal operation the M2667 makes 20 samples of AC voltage per second, with time required to also process AC current waves.
When used to furnish samples for detection of the coherent component of the E wave, the M2667 is switched to voltage only control, acceptable for short periods of time while furnishing said samples. During this time samples are available 60 times per second and adequate for purposes of this invention.
It is reasonable that a cooperating utility, perhaps compensated for its participation, could dedicate l00 of the time for controls to furnishing the desired samples. The resultant degradation in the functioning of his control would be tolerable.
Other devices such as digital fault recorders are available most of the time since their use during a fault utilizes but a tiny portion of their time.
Some utility devices such as fault recorders store time stamped sampled AC wave data. In general, then, these devices provide a first choice of using data from the devices in real time as it is taken and a second choice of making calculations "off line" from stored data.
Fig. 3 illustrates details for selecting the fundamental component of various frequencies from a stream of samples of an AC
voltage wave which precess (beat) with relation to a 1/8 subharmonic of the 60 Hz power frequency. Column 0 shows the first 53 samples of such a stream of data. Note that accurate digital time stamp are available that can be received from a time service and added at the start of this stream accurately providing the time of sample 1 of column 0 of data. By providing the frequency of the 60 Hz voltage signal, the times of all succeeding samples of column 0 are also known.
Column A shows numbers from a stack of values of a sine wave matched in a computation procedure with every eighth sample of column 0. This procedure provides samples for computation of the cross correlation between the sine wave and the samples of the AC
voltage.
Column B represents values of the fundamental component of a target wave at an expected slightly lower frequency than the 1/8 subharmotiic of the power frequency. Value B1 is seen matched to Ol, B2 most nearly matched to 09, B3 most nearly matched to 018, B4 most nearly matched to 026, B5 most nearly matched to 034, B6 most nearly matched to 043 and B7 most nearly matched to 051. It is seen that the value of the AC wave that matches is advancing by a count of about 2 out of 50 samples. This indicates the correlation will find a frequency component about 4% lower than the 1/8 subharmonic of 7.5 Hz or about 7.2 Hz. In practice there will be more than eight samples from electrical utility devices between those taken in this example.
Note that taking the nearest match may be best when analyzing data off line. In processing data in real time, however, it is only practical to take the next sample as it comes along in time.
As an example of the formation of a time function by selection of values from a table of sine values, consider the following:
Suppose that one frequency of 7.330 Hz is contained in a scan of frequencies used to locate the target frequency which turns out to be 7.321 Hz. The period of 7.330 Hz is its reciprocal or 0.1364256 seconds. Converted to microseconds this is 136,426ms.
Further assume that this is to be time selected from a sine table having 100 values. The computer program for this process runs in real time, selecting a value from the sine table every 136.4 microseconds. This assumes that the resolution of the program is 0.1 microsecond.
It is noted that unavoidable roundoff errors are created and one can convert the 136.4 microsecond sampling period back to a value of~ 7.331 Hz actually being used. This implies use of a 10 mHz processor to create the signal, with a program, written in assembly language, counting processor clock cycles to time the selection of values from the sine table.
Little is known about the amount of electromagnetic noise present in the range of 7.32 Hz, however it must be expected that it will be necessary to obtain the target Earth's reference signal buried in considerable noise. In order to approach the resolution of 0.01% obtainable from each measurement of a power frequency cycle in the aforementioned M2667 control it is necessary to track the Earth's resonant frequency averaging out results of many cycles of measurement .
A search, acquire and track technique is used in which a first scan of frequencies approximately locates the target frequency.
Subsequent scans of ever decreasing steps in frequency difference above and below the first approximation are made until a sufficient accuracy is obtained effectively locking onto an accurate value of the target frequency.
The correlation computation acts as a narrow band frequency filter with the bandwidth becoming narrower as the number of values of "a" and "b" is increased.
As used in this invention, "A" in the numerator of the correlation equation becomes the magnitude of an unknown wave represented by samples "a". "B" in the numerator is the template function of a known wave being sought represented by a table of values "~b". Thus "A" is selectively the fundamental or harmonic components of a coherent frequency of the E wave and "B" is the matching table of values required to obtain the selected component.
The fundamental component of a coherent frequency of the E
wave is represented by a phaser, A = m + jn, where the magnitude of the phaser in polar form is the magnitude of the fundamental component and the angle is the time difference between the template and the fundamental component.
When phase locked, m = A (n being controlled around zero) and harmonics may be measured as phasers Ar = pr + jqr with "m" as the phase reference of the harmonic phasers and "r" the order of the harmonic.
Preferably computation is preformed by programs written in assembly language using no interrupts and with operating loops timed to be synchronous with analog to digital converters (ADCs) of microprocessors on which the programs run. This is as described in U. S. Patent No. 5,544,064 referenced above. These programs access values of tables B spaced in time so as to produce a template time function. This the frequency of the template is variable in steps as small as one step of said loop. Generally this equals one clock cycle of said microprocessor.
Said program loops are made synchronous as required by adding donothing steps. The template frequency is then varied by adding or subtracting these donothing steps thus changing the time between accessing values from said table and changing the period and frequency of the template wave. Hereinafter, references to changing the search (template) frequency refers to the procedure of this paragraph.
Fig. 4 illustrates one way in which data is taken for electric utility control purposes and at the same time made available for experts around the world to construct an analytical model of the E
wave in order, for example, to explore the possibility that it contributes energy to form tornados.
Substation fence 1 defines an electric power distribution substation housing load tap changing transformer 2 supplying power to distribution line 18. The voltage supplied to line 18 is adjusted by load tap changer (LTC) 22 in response to tapchanger control 4. Line 18 is provided with power factor compensating capacitors 10 at various points along line 18, said capacitors 10 in turn switched on and off by switches 8 in turn controlled by capacitor control 11. Part way along lines 18 regulators 9 may be provided to further adjust the voltage on extension 19 of said distribution line 18. Regulators 9 are controlled by regulator controls 17.
Additional capacitors 10 switched by switches 8 controlled by controls 11 are provided along lines 19. Data is extracted from controls 4 via radios 3 to radios 5 in turn connected to telephone lines 7. In some instances telephone lines 7 are mounted on poles 20 located outside the fence 1 in order to protect lines 7 from the ground potential rise within the substation caused by ground faults within the substation fence 1. In other instances the telephone lines 7 are terminated on wooden poles 20 utilizing the insulating properties of wood to protect telephone lines 7 from temporarily high potentials of the ground within the substation fence 1.
Radios 3 may also provide data to radios not shown within vehicles 6. Data may also be extracted from controls 17 via radios 3 to radios 5 in turn connected to telephone lines 7. Regulators 9 are often mounted on wooden cross beams between two poles carrying lines 18 and 19. Telephone lines 7 may be mounted on the same poles or may be on separate poles 21 placed along the same right of way as lines 18 and 19. Radios 3 may also provide data to radios not shown within service vehicle 12. Switches 8 are controlled by controls 11, however communications is not generally provided to controls 11 since it would likely duplicate the information obtainable from controls 4 and controls 17.
Computers 13 dial up radios 5 over lines 7 connected to local telephone service by modem 23. Computer 13 obtains data from controls 4 and 17 via radio links 3 and 5 as each radio is selected by computer 13. This data is buffered by computer 13 and fed into The Internet 16 at selected intervals using a medium speed connection, typically an ISDN line 24. The data is transferred via The Internet 16 to server 14 via connection 25, generally a type T1 telephone line. Data is obtainable from server 14 by computers 15 located around the world and typically connected to The Internet 16 by phone lines 26.
It is to be understood that The Internet 16 includes local area networks and electric utility owned networks all combined in a complex communications system. This system can be expected to evolve from the system of the present to a future one quite different in nature but which will still accommodate the inventions contained herein.
Digital data from said sensors and from AC wave shapes are time stamped and brought to computers in raw data form for integration into a centralized study of the Earth's resonance.
Fig. 5 is a circuit diagram of a receiver for direct detection of a selected coherent frequency of the E wave by obtaining power and samples of the E wave from any overhead power or telephone line. Samples are taken as required for acquiring, locking and tracking of the coherent frequency of the E wave and not by selection from a larger number of samples taken for other purposes .
In order to increase the sensitivity of this receiver to the E wave signals, the fundamental component of the power frequency is suppressed by a twin T notch filter. Since harmonics of power frequency supply voltages can be expected to fall below 2%, components of the coherent frequency of the E wave are raised approximately 50 times as compared, for example with the aforementioned M2667 device, and fed into the analog to digital converter (ADC) of the receiver.
The receiver furnishes phaser components of the fundamental and harmonic components of a selected coherent frequency of the E
wave by conventional communications ports. In addition, three phase outputs are provided for driving external devices, such as synchronous motors, rotating at the precise frequency of the selected coherent component of the E wave.
Fig. 5 shows a circuit diagram for a dedicated receiver 58 to directly measure coherent frequencies of E waves as picked .up on overhead electric power lines. Fig. 5 consists of electrical plug 40 bringing AC voltage, typically 120 VAC, to power supply 41 of receiver 58. Power supply 41 supplies power for microprocessor 52 terminals VDD and VSS and transistors 55, 56 and 57. Microprocessor 52 high reference VRH is connected to VDD and low reference VRL is connected to VSS, high AC input voltage 63 is also connected to microprocessor 52 digital sampling analog to digital converter input ADCO via a twin T filter and resistor 49. Said twin T filter consists of a first T made up by serial resistors 42 and 43 with shunt capacitor 47 in parallel with a second T made up by serial capacitors 44 and 45 with shunt resistor 46. Resistor 49 and diodes 50 connected to VDD and 51 connected to VSS protect microprocessor 52 input ADCO from excessive voltages.
Microprocessor outputs consist of communications ports 53 such as RS232, parallel connected volatile RAM and nonvolatile flash memory 54 and three phase outputs capable of driving devices external to xeceiver 58 such as synchronous motor 59 at speeds synchronously related to coherent E elements of the Earth's electromagnetic resonance. Said three phase outputs are formed by binary ports OCO, OC1 and OC2 driving three phase lines 60, 61 and 62 via drive transistors 55, 56 and 57. Said three phase outputs consist of square waves rotating in the sense 012 from said outputs OCO, OC1 and OC2 as timed by program means contained in receiver 58 when locked synchronously with a received coherent signal.
The circuit of Fig. 5 is derived from the aforementioned M
2667 control by eliminating components relating to control and adding said twin T filter and circuits to produce said three phase outputs.
This device is suitable for plugging into a convenience outlet, nominally 120 VAC in the United States and is operational wherever said outlet is fed from transformers in turn connected to overhead power lines. Operational at selected frequencies of 50 and 60 Hz, adapting plugs and voltage dropping transformers, familiar to a world traveler, are used to operate the receiver in countries where required. When installed in areas of tornado activity, the harmonics may furnish indications of electromagnetic vortices involvement in tornado strength.
Fig. 6 illustrates a second dedicated receiver 59 selectively used for receiving spectral E waves of the Earth's resonance from overhead telephone lines (not shown) through external telephone connector 71 and ground connection 72. Receiver power 70 typically consists of three 1.5 Vdc batteries serially connected to supply 4.5 Vdc to microprocessor inputs VDD and VSS. All other components and their functions are as shown for receiver 58 as described above with reference to Fig. 5. Receiver 59 typically drives synchronous motor 59 as also shown in Fig. 5. Such motors may be used to rotate magnets at rates synchronous with a coherent wave for research purposes.
These dedicated circuits measures only positive half cycles of the of the E wave as described in U. S, Patent No. 5,315,527 referenced above. The steps of searching acquiring and tracking are related to the positive half cycles with the expectation that seldom, if ever will there be significant changes in the coherent frequency of the E wave from one half cycle to the next.
These steps are modified to the following:
An original best guess as to the frequency of the E wave is made and phaser A is taken twice. The one with the highest value of the real component, "m", of the phaser is accepted and followed.
The amount of rotation of the phaser is calculated and if less than a predetermined amount it is considered that the signal has been acquired. If not, the frequency is made to search over the expected range of the frequency and phaser A taken twice and again the one with the highest value of the real component, "m", of the phaser is accepted and followed. The amount of rotation of the phaser is again calculated and if less than a predetermined amount it is considered that the signal has been acquired. This process is repeated until examination of phaser A indicates acquisition.
Tracking, is accomplished by raising and lowering the template frequency an amount proportional to the j term "n" of phaser A, always in the direction that reduces the beat to zero. After a few beat cycles, the correction is faster than the beat and the beat is reduced to zero, the template and the coherent frequency of the E
wave has no long term phase difference between them and harmonics are measured.
Phasers Ar are obtained by using tables of "r" cycles of sine and cosine functions corresponding to one half cycle of a coherent component of the E wave . A string of computations in a loop is now:
Use 180° sine tables to compute m.
Use 180° cosine tables to compute n.
After acquisition of the coherent frequency of the E wave, time for the negative half cycle equal to the measured period of the positive half cycle is skipped until measurement is resumed.
Samples from positive half cycles are stored for processing harmonic calculations during negative half cycles. Tables for harmonics are used corresponding to half cycles of the fundamental component. Use is made of well known symmetry of odd and even harmonics and harmonic computations made between adjacent half cycles of fundamental components.
Moving calculations of harmonics into the "unused" negative half cycles results in use of shorter synchronous loops during positive half cycles following only the fundamental component of the coherent component of the E wave. Shorter loops result in more samples per cycle of the wave, thus narrowing the bandwidth of the correlation filter, giving better signal to noise ratios and improving the acquisition and tracking of the signal.
Tracking consists of making measurements and computations and observing long term variations in characteristics of the coherent components of the E wave.
An original best guess as to the frequency of a coherent frequency of the E wave of interest is made and phaser "A" is taken twice. The amount of rotation of the phaser is calculated and if less than a predetermined amount it is considered that the signal has been acquired. If not, the frequency is made to search over the expected range of the frequency of the coherent frequency of the E
wave and phaser "A" examined for acquisition. Note that the rotation of the phaser below a selected amount is equivalent to saying that the beat frequency between the template and the coherent frequency of the E wave is less than a given amount and finding the coherent frequency of the E wave is indicated.
At this point there is a beat between the template and the coherent frequency of the E wave and it is desirable to lock them;
ie. eliminate the beat. This is accomplished by raising and lowering the template frequency an amount proportional to the j term "n" of phaser A, always in the direction that reduces the beat to zero. After a few beat cycles, the correction is faster than the beat and the beat is reduced to nearly zero (n is nearly zero).
The template and the coherent frequency of the E wave will have no long term phase difference between them, the magnitude of A is now equal to "m" and harmonics may be measured.
In more detail this invention includes searching for, acquiring and tracking expected frequencies of coherent E waves of the Earth's electromagnetic resonance consisting of the steps of:
a) obtaining digital samples of signals from existing wire lines, b) storing N values of 180 of a sine function, c) storing N values of 180 of a cosine function, d) ' forming frequencies of N digital values by sequences spaced by time difference ~t of accessing said values from .said tables B of values of sine waves, e) forming sums of N products of said digital values of a sine function with N said digital samples of signals, f) forming sums of N products of said digital values of a cosine function with N said digital samples of signals, g) computing the following substeps for one half cycle time equal t o N * Wit, 1 taking the square root of the sum taken by using sine functions thereby obtaining magnitudes of real components "m" of phasers, 2 taking the square root of the sum taken by using cosine functions thereby obtaining magnitudes of reactive components "n" of phasers, 3 obtaining magnitudes "A" of said phasers by taking the square root of real magnitudes squared added to reactive magnitudes squared, 4 obtaining angles of said phasers as the angle whose sine is real magnitude/reactive magnitude, 5 if said angle is from 90° to 180° waiting an additional one half cycle period, 6 choosing said frequency by changing ~t so as to search through expected values of said coherent frequencies, computing the rate of rotation of said phaser from one determination to the next, 8 when said rate of rotation is below a preselected value making said change in frequency proportional to reactive magnitudes of said phasers using the polarity whereby said coherent frequencies are acquired, 9 tracking said frequencies as desired, and 10 exiting said substeps when requested by communications.
h) outputting said magnitudes of phasers and frequencies of acquired coherent E waves, and i) returning to step d) Harmonic phasers Ar may also be obtained after substep 10 by using tables of "r" cycles of sine and cosine functions corresponding to one cycle of the template. Each harmonic phaser stack of values must have the same number of values as the template. Phaser computations take place in the synchronous loops referred to above. It is reasonable that a good representation of the shape of ,the coherent frequency of the E wave is made by finding the fundamental and the second, third, fourth and fifth harmonic phaser. A string of computations in a loop would then be:
Use a 720° sine table to compute p2.
Use a 720° cosine table to compute q2.
Use a 1080° sine table to compute p3.
Use a 1080° cosine table to compute q3.
And so on through the phaser components for the fifth harmonic; producing a total of eight harmonic phaser components.
These components may be combined with the real, m, term of the fundamental component and the E wave shape displayed and studied within the resolution of five harmonics.
Tracking now consists of maintaining the lock, making measurements and computations and observing any long term variations in characteristics of the coherent component of the E
wave . By combining data from various places on Earth the worldwide nature of the coherent frequency of the E wave can be studied.
FINDING QBURSTS
(The second purpose of this invention) In the period 1955 to 1960 an adaptive filter was developed by a group in the Research Laboratory of the General Electric Company in Schenectady NY using digital computers available at the time.
This filter needed know only the approximate time duration of any randomly occurring monotonic (single valued) function. It then was able to find the signal deeply buried in noise in a process included the following steps:
1) Digitally sample the noise for the chosen time duration forming stack of samples.
a 2) Compute the running correlation between the first stack and a stack with the oldest sample discarded and a new sample added.
3) When the correlation exceeded a minimum positive probabili ty, average the first and the present stack as a new starting~ stack.
4) Continue the process and averaging by weighting. old averages by the number of stacks averaged and with each new stack weighted as one.
5) Increase the threshold towards one as the signal emerges and the robability of detection approaches unity.
p This process is adapted to discovering signals such as the Qburst as follows:
a) Choose known coherent frequencies within various frequency bands of the Earth's resonance.
b) Choose a time duration as measured by the number of full cycles of each said chosen frequency.
c) Measure the amplitude of each said full cycle forming a first sta ck of said amplitudes.
d) Continue the process of steps 1) through 5), above, until the time function of a Qburst is obtained.
e) Repeat steps a) through d) using known coherent frequenci es forming a multifrequency model of a Qburst.
This model should be useful in hypothesizing sources which cause the phenomena.
In more detail this invention includes obtaining time profiles of randomly spaced bursts of low frequency electric (E) waves of predictable time duration of the Earth's electromagnetic resonance by the following steps:
a) obtaining digital samples of signals from existing wire lines, b) selecting initial limits of positive correlation, c) selecting upper values for said limit, d) digitally sampling signals at selected uniformly spaced intervals for said predicted time duration initializing pushdown stacks A of signals with newest signals at top of stacks and oldest at bottom of stacks, e) forming loops consisting of substeps 1 through 8, 1 taking new samples of signal, 2 copying stack A, adding said new samples to top of copied stack and discarding samples at bottom of copied stack thereby forming stack N, 3 cross correlating stack N with stack A obtaining correlations between 1 and +1, 4 if correlation is less than said limit returning to substep 1, 5 if correlation is greater than said limit multiplying samples from stack A by C, adding said new sample and dividing by C + 1 thus revising stack A, 6 incrementing said limit upward by percentage a of therange from the value of the limit to +1, 7 incrementing a count C by one and returning to substep 1, 8 exiting the loop when said correlation exceeds said upper value, f) outputting stack A to computers selectively via the Internet, and g) returning to step a).
whereby stacks A outputted are time profiles of randomly spaced bursts of E waves useful for research as to the cause of random signals such as Qbursts. Note that the fundamental component of such bursts may be zero in which case harmonics are not defined, having no basis for a phase reference.
ADVANTAGES OF THE INVENTION:
1. Makes use of existing overhead power and telephone lines around the world.
2. Provides a low cost means for obtaining continuous data from many points around the world for proving or modifying mathematical models of fundamental E components the Earth's resonance.
3. Provides data in phaser form for modeling the E field fundamental component and harmonics using the fundamental as phase reference.
4. As one alternative provides easy to install and operate computer programs for extracting data from existing controls, protective relays and fault recorders.
5. As a second alternative provides a dedicated receiver for obtaining data from telephone and power lines.
6. Dedicated receivers are easy for use by nonprofessionals.
7. Simple means for inputting phaser information on the Internet from any point on Earth for distribution worldwide..
~ March 30, 1999 R. W. Beckwith
bursts may be caused by large lightning transients but otherwise are presently unexplained.
A further reference, hereinafter known as S2, by Heavner and Sentman was obtained from http://elf.gi.alaska.edu/~heavner/rs/
conf/icae96/schres/index.html. This and reference S1 identify locations where related measurements are made. These include Table Mountain and Learmonth California, Australia, Brazil, and several sites in Alaska. The equipment used for measurement is large and expensive including shielded magnetic pickup coils mounted underground. On the other hand, the area covered is small as compared to the entire surface of the Earth.
A reference, hereinafter known as S3, by Hickey, Heavner and Sentman was obtained from http://dsentman.gi.alaska.edu/iarbands .htm and covers events that occur only at night. A paper by Sentman and Fraser "Simultaneous observations of Schumann resonances in California and Australia: Evidence for intensity modulation by the local height of the D region, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 15973 describes equipment in use at Table Mountain California for continuous observations since 1993.
These references give the time duration of past observations which are generally small as compared to continuous observations.
In general it appears that much fine work has been done in forming mathematic models for the many complex resonant modes of excitation of the Earth's resonance. The gathering of data, especially in continuous modes is more recent with many phenomena, such as the Qburst, looking for further understanding.
One coherent component of the E wave has been reported to be 7.32 Hz and of sufficient stability as to be useable as a frequency reference. Many lightning events consist of a leader stroke and many following strokes. It is said that a frequency in the range r of 7.32 hz can be seen in the repetition rate of the follower strokes of lightning which may sometimes approach 100 in number.
While a coherent frequency of the E wave has no sense of rotation with respect to the Earth, harmonics may add up to a wave which does. Knowing this and the direction of the rotation would be of interest.
The "DC component" is well known as the Earth's magnetic field used by compasses to determine direction. The node for this component, however is not at the pole of rotation of the Earth and local anomalies sometimes confuse readings of direction. The coherent frequency of the E wave may have an axis . What is its relation with respect to the axis of the DC component?
It is known that the Earth's rotation carries the atmosphere with it as it rotates, producing reactions generally known as the Coriolis effect. It is known that this effect causes storms within the atmosphere to rotate clockwise in the northern hemisphere and counter clockwise in the southern atmosphere. Energy from the Earth's rotation is thus carried by the atmosphere to provide the rotational energy of the storms. Rotational rates of storms are far greater than the rotational frequency of the Earth, with tornados being the highest.
It is reasonable, therefore, that the Earth also carries the resonant electromagnetic energy with it as it rotates thus creating vortices in the electromagnetic field. While it is true that the resonant energy has no mass and therefore not immediately analogous to the effects of the Earth's rotation on the mass of the atmosphere, there may be reasons for similar relations between the electromagnetic field and the Earth's rotation. There is no indications readily available to indicate that this matter has been the subject of investigation.
QUESTION: Are electromagnetic vortices then created rotating clockwise in the northern hemisphere and counter clockwise in the southern? Are they of various diameters with those associated with tornados among the highest?
Electromagnetic vortices may develop with respect to the electromagnetic wave much like tornados develop in the atmosphere.
If so could some be either continuing vortices or ones that often reoccur at certain places on Earth?
The combined effect of the electromagnetic field and its complex modes of oscillations may be a source of great energy and may have effects on the weather. For the purpose of this invention we hypothesize the field as the driving force for major tornados.
The hypothesis will be stated in positive terms. It is to be understood that a hypothesis is a "theory" or possible truth and that research to determine the truth related to the hypotheses stated here is of obvious importance. Inventive means for obtaining data for this suggested research are given below.
HYPOTHESIS: Rotation by the Earth of the complex electromagnetic oscillations known collectively as Schumann resonances forms electromagnetic vortices which move in unknown ways over the surface of the Earth. These vortices may be potential sources of great energy.
There is a spot on the Sherman ranch in Nevada, owned by Robert Bigelow, where UFO activity is said to be very high.. Col.
John Alexander operates the National Institute of Discovery Science which Bigelow set up to sponsor scientific research into phenomena related to UFOs.
This inventor herein has first hand memory of the "Philadelphia Story" in which the mine sweeper IX97 was moved back in time two weeks from a location in the water just off a birth in the Philadelphia navy yard to a previous location docked at Newport News, Virginia. As told by Dr. Horton of Bell Laboratories who made the trip, the power of three phase 7.5Hz generators were brought up and up in an attempt to move down the bay by one hour.
When nothing happened with full power, they moved the frequency slightly and instantly jumped to Newport News, Virginia. The indication is that the generators suddenly became synchronous with the Earth's 7.32 coherent frequency and produced the two week time shift.
Unmodified minesweepers used a single phase current generator to run a very, large current through huge cables draped into the water from the bow, along both sides of the boat connecting to a generator on the fantail. The frequency used was about 7.5 Hz matching the resonant frequency of the German magnetic ship detector.
The detector consisted of a sealed tube with a permanent magnet sliding in oil inside the tube. Springs at either end gave the mechanism a resonance of about 7.5 Hz. It is believed that the choice of this frequency close to the Earth's resonance was purely coincidental.
The IX97 was outfitted with three special current generators tied to a large control panel with circuitry which held their output currents 120° in phase angle. The three currents were fed into the two cables along the port and starboard sides and the third to a cable hanging on masts just above the cabin. The currents, tied together at the bow, added to zero.
The IX97 was thus outfitted very quickly by the General Electric Co., as the inventor herein members. It is likely that Tesla's early experiments in moving objects with rotating magnetic fields were not repeated and therefore the significance of synchronizing with the Earth's resonance was not recognized.
For a complete account of the authors experience with the "Philadelphia Story" please refer to a book, HYPOTHESES, written by the inventor of this patent application and available from bookstores using R.R.Bowker's Books in Print.
QUESTION: Could extraterrestrial spacecraft be using an electromagnetic vortex, consistently operating at the Sherman ranch, to obtain energy for teleporting to and from a home planet?
Could advanced craft, either military or private, use energy from the coherent frequencies to levitate, teleport and time travel?
It is clear that "dust devils" as seen in the western desert do not rotate at as high a frequency as 7.32 Hz and that their behavior can be explained and understood without reference to the coherent component of the E wave. It is also evident that funnel clouds extending downward during tornado weather conditions do not initially have this higher rate of rotation. The question i.s, at what point, if any, does energy from the coherent frequency of the E wave enter the cell of rotating air?
HYPOTHESIS: As a tornado grows in intensity, fed only by thermal energy from the atmosphere, an inner column of low pressure is created from the centrifugal forces in the funnel. The highest wind speeds are on the boundary of this tube of low pressure, being difficult to detect and measure. When the rotational speed of this tubular layer of air reaches a coherent frequency of the E wave, the rotational speed locks with it synchronously extracting energy to greatly increase the power of the tornado.
QUESTION: Which comes first, movement of an electromagnetic vortex to a storm center or creation of such a vortex by a storm center?
Fig. 2 shows the structure of a fully developed tornado. The funnel cloud 30 is visible and often photographed moving down its destructive path. The inner surface boundary 31 is seldom, if ever, seen and photographed. The center core 32 of very low pressure has pccasionally been measured. It is held accountable for buildings being literally blown apart such as one on October 3, 1992 that destroyed a two story building housing the Beckwith Electric Company.
This tornado would likely be classified an F2 of "significant"
strength. The observed circumference of about 300 meters falls midway in the Class F2 range with maximum wind speeds, as measured by doppler radar, of 60 meters per second. From this one can calculate a center core 3 of Fig. 2 of 0.26 meters or 10" in diameter to produce a rotation of 7.32 cps of this central core.
Within this core the velocity must fall to nearly zero in the "calm" center of rotating storms.
This center seems smaller than might be expected, however this may be the size high in the sky where the highest vacuum may exist in relatively clean air. Lower where the funnel is filled as a water spout if over water and filled with debris if over land the core may be larger and the maximum velocity less.
For a tornado core with a circumference of 0.82 meters the frequency can be calculated as: 0.82 x 108  82 megahertz, well within the lower television band. The lowest television frequency is channel 2 at 54 mHz. Before the era of cable TV, channel 2 was frequently used as a tornado detector with the screen "going white"
when a tornado was nearby. The core may vary in diameter and produce frequencies over a range of TV frequencies. Even very large tornados may have small center cores producing these high frequencies. Note also that these frequencies may well be produced at the higher ends of the funnel where they will propagate over large distances.
QUESTIONS: Are vortices associated with human levitation and do they also produce frequencies at the lower TV frequencies? Are coherent frequencies of the E wave sources of energy for other phenomena including teleportation and time travel? Is this the energy that persons with psychic abilities sense? Can humans light up screens of TVs with rabbit ear antennas?
HYPOTHESIS: Within the core of a fully developed tornado a divided space (see HYPOTHESES) forms with the power to levitate material objects, carry them high into the sky and then drop them to the ground.
QUESTION: Did this result in automobiles being picked up and deposited in a heap in a gully as resulted from tornados in Georgia on or about April 5, 1998?
QUESTION: Is this levitation or just suction by a vacuum?
RELATED PATENTS:
1) METHOD AND APPARATUS PROVIDING HALFCYCLE DIGITIZATION OF
AC SIGNALS BY AN ANALOGTODIGITAL CONVERTER, U. S, Patent No.
5,315,527, describes apparatus and methods for sensing positive half cycles of AC signals.
2) APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR SAMPLING SIGNALS SYNCHRONOUS
WITH ANALOGTODIGITAL CONVERTER, U. S. Patent No. 5,544,064, describes apparatus and methods useful for obtaining digital samples of AC waves synchronous with free running analog to digital converters (ADCs).
3) A METHOD FOR OBTAINING THE FUNDAMENTAL AND ODD HARMONIC
COMPONENTS OF AC SIGNALS, U. S. Patent No. 5,774,366, describes methods for obtaining the fundamental component and odd harmonics of half wave AC signals.
4) TWO WAY PACKET RADIO INCLUDING SMART DATA BUFFER AND
PACKET RATE CONVERSION, U. S. Patent Application Serial No.
710,816, filed on September 23, 1996 describes apparatus and methods of communicating synchronously with the power frequency as useful in the present invention.
5) DISTRIBUTION CIRCUIT VAR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING ADAPTIVE
CAPACITOR CONTROLS: U. S. Patent #5,541,498 issued Jul. 30, 1996.
6) MULTIFUNCTION ADAPTIVE CONTROLS FOR TAPSWITCHES AND
CAPACITORS: U. S. Patent #5,646,512 issued Jul. 8, 1997.
7) INFINITE SPEED SPACE COMMUNICATIONS USING INFORMATION
GLOBES, U. S. Patent Application serial number 083315 dated April 14, 1998.
8) TWO WAY PACKET RADIO INCLUDING SMART DATA BUFFER AND
PACKET RATE CONVERSION, U. S. Patent Application Serial No.
710,816, filed on September 23, 1996 describes apparatus and methods of communicating synchronously with the power frequency as useful in the present invention.
U. S. Patents No's. 5,315,527, 5,541,498, 5,544,064, 5,646,512, 5,774,366 and U. S. Patent Applications Serial Nos.
710,816, 059738 all by Robert W. Beckwith the inventor herein, are incorporated herein by reference.
U.S. Pat. No. 4,686,605, "METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR ALTERING
A REGION IN THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE, IONOSPHERE AND MAGNETOSPHERE"
filed by the inventor, Dr. Bernard J. Eastlund, on Jan. l0. 19s5 and issued Aug.ll, 1987 appears to be the basis for the Highs frequency Active Auroral Research Project (HAARP). This secret system is deployed from the northernmost to the southernmost points of Alaska and may be used to modify the coherent component of the E wave. Reference is made to a book "ANGELS DON'T PLAY THIS HAARP"
by Jeane Manning and Dr. Nick Begich, Earthpulse Press for a detailed description of this system.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Use is made of devices such as electric utility controls, protective relays and digital fault recorders which take several hundred digital samples of alternating current voltage waves per cycle from overhead power lines. These lines act as large low frequency antennae for picking up E signals from the Earth's natural electrical resonance. Computers, using search and track algorithms, select digital samples synchronous with the Earth's electromagnetic field resonance from these devices, and use cross correlations to extract data as to the resonance and place the data on the Internet . Organizations have this information available for research as to the worldwide nature of the Earth's resonant field.
The data gathering is accomplished at a very low additional cost from electric utility devices which take digital samples of alternating current (AC) power frequency voltages as a matter of their normal functioning. Telephone lines where they are overhead and not in cables are alternative existing lines already in place for other purposes and useable to pick up signals from the Earth's resonance. A sensor receiver for direct measurement of atmospheric electromagnetic signals from overhead lines is included.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Fig. 1 Angular distributions of Schumann resonant modes.
Fig. 2 The structure of a tornado.
Fig. 3 The method of selecting digital samples related to a lower variable search frequency.
Fig. 4 A diagram for the collection of digital samples of AC voltage waves, analyzing for components related to the coherent frequency of the E wave and placing on the Internet.
Fig. 5 Schematic diagram of a receiver for direct detection and measurement of coherent components of the E wave from overhead power lines.
Fig. 6 Schematic diagram of a battery operated receiver for direct detection and measurement of coherent components of the E
wave from overhead telephone lines.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE
PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
THE PURPOSE OF THIS INVENTION
A first purpose of this invention is to use digital samples of waves obtained from overhead wire lines at rates corresponding to expected coherent and related harmonic frequencies of Earth's E
(electric) component of electromagnetic resonance. A second r purpose is to use said digital samples to find time profiles of randomly occurring bursts (such as Qbursts) of information of predictable length in time.
First sources of said digital samples are preexisting devices taking digital samples of alternating current (AC) waves at higher rates than required for this invention wherein selected samples are used and others discarded. Such devices, include tapchanging transformer and regulator controls, protective relays and digital fault recorders, operate from overhead electric power lines.
Communication ports are generally available on these devices for use in obtaining the samples for the purpose of this invention.
Some devices, in particular digital fault recorders, provide time stamps for the data. If desired this data can be downloaded and processed with programs that are equivalent to real time processing but in fact are not.
Second sources are devices especially designed for taking digital samples from wire lines which may include electric power lines, telephone lines and even electric fence lines so long as they are overhead and ungrounded.
The overall purpose is to utilize combinations of these devices to obtain worldwide data and to use this data to form models of the actual E field replacing the theoretical "Electric"
models illustrated along the top row of Fig. 1.
THE USE OF CROSS CORRELATION
In the aforesaid first purpose, cross correlations are made between selected digital samples from said devices and tables of sine anc~ cosine functions to measure magnitudes of fundamental components of coherent waves and phasers components of related harmonics, said phasers using said fundamental components as phase references.
Tables of values of sine and cosine functions are converted into time functions which selectively form digital templates for full wave and half wave periods. These periods are the reciprocal of the frequencies being sought. In practice devices often are served from an external computer, such as a lap top, where requests to search for a particular coherent frequency are converted to terms most fitting to the device. In a typical case, the term used by the device may be a range of clock cycles of donothing steps.
This technique uses neither a period or a frequency but nevertheless performs the required function. Thus the terms "period" and "frequency" will be used interchangeably hereinbelow in describing techniques for seeking, acquiring, locking and tracking coherent waves.
Cross correlation is defined as:
C = (Ea x b)'~/ (Eaz + Ebz)'~
Where C is a correlation number and "a" and "b" are functions each represented by a series of digital values. Each sum, E, is computed over the range of the values of "a" and "b". It is generally required that "a" and "b" have the same number of sample values . In the general case "a" is any monotonic function of a variable such as time and "b" is another monotonic function of the same variable. The cross correlation gives the similarity of the two functions for whatever reason.
As used herein for the first purpose, functions "a" and "b"
are limited to the special case of sine waves in time with related harmonics.
Values are chosen from tables of the sine function at time rates that produce a time variable digital value rate at a selected search frequency. As they are chosen the values are multiplied by the next available sample from overhead lines and a sum of the products formed.
The square root of said first sum is computed forming the numerator of the above described correlation function as the magnitude of a phaser component.
The denominator of this equation is a normalizing calculation that gives values of correlation, C, between 1 and 1. C generally represents the probability that a  b. A probability of 1 indicates a certainty, 0 represents a lack of correlation and 1 indicates the certainty that "a" is a mirror image of "b".
For the aforementioned second purpose the numerator is divided by the denominator to obtain probabilities of signal identification. The denominator is obtained by forming a second sum of the square of said next available samples along with said first sum. The second sum is then added to a precomputed sum of the square of the stored table of values and the square root of the addition of these two sums computed forming the denominator.
FINDING COHERENT E SIGNALS
(This is the first purpose of this invention) A Beckwith Electric Model M2667 Load Tapchanging Transformer Switch Control described in patent 5,646,512 cited above is used as a typical illustration of a device already taking digital samples of AC waves and using the samples for other purposes. A total of 240 samples of each half cycle of a 60 Hz wave are taken each cycle. This device demonstrates a resolution of O.Olo in measurement of AC voltage waves.
Since it can be assumed that the positive and negative halves of an AC voltage wave are identical except for polarity sign, this is equivalent of 480 samples per cycle or 480 x 60 = 28,800 samples per second. This provides approximately 3934 samples for each of the cycles of a 7.32 Hz signal within a single second. This then is 537 samples per cycle at 7.32 Hz, nearly the same as the 480 samples per cycle used at 60 Hz.
In normal operation the M2667 makes 20 samples of AC voltage per second, with time required to also process AC current waves.
When used to furnish samples for detection of the coherent component of the E wave, the M2667 is switched to voltage only control, acceptable for short periods of time while furnishing said samples. During this time samples are available 60 times per second and adequate for purposes of this invention.
It is reasonable that a cooperating utility, perhaps compensated for its participation, could dedicate l00 of the time for controls to furnishing the desired samples. The resultant degradation in the functioning of his control would be tolerable.
Other devices such as digital fault recorders are available most of the time since their use during a fault utilizes but a tiny portion of their time.
Some utility devices such as fault recorders store time stamped sampled AC wave data. In general, then, these devices provide a first choice of using data from the devices in real time as it is taken and a second choice of making calculations "off line" from stored data.
Fig. 3 illustrates details for selecting the fundamental component of various frequencies from a stream of samples of an AC
voltage wave which precess (beat) with relation to a 1/8 subharmonic of the 60 Hz power frequency. Column 0 shows the first 53 samples of such a stream of data. Note that accurate digital time stamp are available that can be received from a time service and added at the start of this stream accurately providing the time of sample 1 of column 0 of data. By providing the frequency of the 60 Hz voltage signal, the times of all succeeding samples of column 0 are also known.
Column A shows numbers from a stack of values of a sine wave matched in a computation procedure with every eighth sample of column 0. This procedure provides samples for computation of the cross correlation between the sine wave and the samples of the AC
voltage.
Column B represents values of the fundamental component of a target wave at an expected slightly lower frequency than the 1/8 subharmotiic of the power frequency. Value B1 is seen matched to Ol, B2 most nearly matched to 09, B3 most nearly matched to 018, B4 most nearly matched to 026, B5 most nearly matched to 034, B6 most nearly matched to 043 and B7 most nearly matched to 051. It is seen that the value of the AC wave that matches is advancing by a count of about 2 out of 50 samples. This indicates the correlation will find a frequency component about 4% lower than the 1/8 subharmonic of 7.5 Hz or about 7.2 Hz. In practice there will be more than eight samples from electrical utility devices between those taken in this example.
Note that taking the nearest match may be best when analyzing data off line. In processing data in real time, however, it is only practical to take the next sample as it comes along in time.
As an example of the formation of a time function by selection of values from a table of sine values, consider the following:
Suppose that one frequency of 7.330 Hz is contained in a scan of frequencies used to locate the target frequency which turns out to be 7.321 Hz. The period of 7.330 Hz is its reciprocal or 0.1364256 seconds. Converted to microseconds this is 136,426ms.
Further assume that this is to be time selected from a sine table having 100 values. The computer program for this process runs in real time, selecting a value from the sine table every 136.4 microseconds. This assumes that the resolution of the program is 0.1 microsecond.
It is noted that unavoidable roundoff errors are created and one can convert the 136.4 microsecond sampling period back to a value of~ 7.331 Hz actually being used. This implies use of a 10 mHz processor to create the signal, with a program, written in assembly language, counting processor clock cycles to time the selection of values from the sine table.
Little is known about the amount of electromagnetic noise present in the range of 7.32 Hz, however it must be expected that it will be necessary to obtain the target Earth's reference signal buried in considerable noise. In order to approach the resolution of 0.01% obtainable from each measurement of a power frequency cycle in the aforementioned M2667 control it is necessary to track the Earth's resonant frequency averaging out results of many cycles of measurement .
A search, acquire and track technique is used in which a first scan of frequencies approximately locates the target frequency.
Subsequent scans of ever decreasing steps in frequency difference above and below the first approximation are made until a sufficient accuracy is obtained effectively locking onto an accurate value of the target frequency.
The correlation computation acts as a narrow band frequency filter with the bandwidth becoming narrower as the number of values of "a" and "b" is increased.
As used in this invention, "A" in the numerator of the correlation equation becomes the magnitude of an unknown wave represented by samples "a". "B" in the numerator is the template function of a known wave being sought represented by a table of values "~b". Thus "A" is selectively the fundamental or harmonic components of a coherent frequency of the E wave and "B" is the matching table of values required to obtain the selected component.
The fundamental component of a coherent frequency of the E
wave is represented by a phaser, A = m + jn, where the magnitude of the phaser in polar form is the magnitude of the fundamental component and the angle is the time difference between the template and the fundamental component.
When phase locked, m = A (n being controlled around zero) and harmonics may be measured as phasers Ar = pr + jqr with "m" as the phase reference of the harmonic phasers and "r" the order of the harmonic.
Preferably computation is preformed by programs written in assembly language using no interrupts and with operating loops timed to be synchronous with analog to digital converters (ADCs) of microprocessors on which the programs run. This is as described in U. S. Patent No. 5,544,064 referenced above. These programs access values of tables B spaced in time so as to produce a template time function. This the frequency of the template is variable in steps as small as one step of said loop. Generally this equals one clock cycle of said microprocessor.
Said program loops are made synchronous as required by adding donothing steps. The template frequency is then varied by adding or subtracting these donothing steps thus changing the time between accessing values from said table and changing the period and frequency of the template wave. Hereinafter, references to changing the search (template) frequency refers to the procedure of this paragraph.
Fig. 4 illustrates one way in which data is taken for electric utility control purposes and at the same time made available for experts around the world to construct an analytical model of the E
wave in order, for example, to explore the possibility that it contributes energy to form tornados.
Substation fence 1 defines an electric power distribution substation housing load tap changing transformer 2 supplying power to distribution line 18. The voltage supplied to line 18 is adjusted by load tap changer (LTC) 22 in response to tapchanger control 4. Line 18 is provided with power factor compensating capacitors 10 at various points along line 18, said capacitors 10 in turn switched on and off by switches 8 in turn controlled by capacitor control 11. Part way along lines 18 regulators 9 may be provided to further adjust the voltage on extension 19 of said distribution line 18. Regulators 9 are controlled by regulator controls 17.
Additional capacitors 10 switched by switches 8 controlled by controls 11 are provided along lines 19. Data is extracted from controls 4 via radios 3 to radios 5 in turn connected to telephone lines 7. In some instances telephone lines 7 are mounted on poles 20 located outside the fence 1 in order to protect lines 7 from the ground potential rise within the substation caused by ground faults within the substation fence 1. In other instances the telephone lines 7 are terminated on wooden poles 20 utilizing the insulating properties of wood to protect telephone lines 7 from temporarily high potentials of the ground within the substation fence 1.
Radios 3 may also provide data to radios not shown within vehicles 6. Data may also be extracted from controls 17 via radios 3 to radios 5 in turn connected to telephone lines 7. Regulators 9 are often mounted on wooden cross beams between two poles carrying lines 18 and 19. Telephone lines 7 may be mounted on the same poles or may be on separate poles 21 placed along the same right of way as lines 18 and 19. Radios 3 may also provide data to radios not shown within service vehicle 12. Switches 8 are controlled by controls 11, however communications is not generally provided to controls 11 since it would likely duplicate the information obtainable from controls 4 and controls 17.
Computers 13 dial up radios 5 over lines 7 connected to local telephone service by modem 23. Computer 13 obtains data from controls 4 and 17 via radio links 3 and 5 as each radio is selected by computer 13. This data is buffered by computer 13 and fed into The Internet 16 at selected intervals using a medium speed connection, typically an ISDN line 24. The data is transferred via The Internet 16 to server 14 via connection 25, generally a type T1 telephone line. Data is obtainable from server 14 by computers 15 located around the world and typically connected to The Internet 16 by phone lines 26.
It is to be understood that The Internet 16 includes local area networks and electric utility owned networks all combined in a complex communications system. This system can be expected to evolve from the system of the present to a future one quite different in nature but which will still accommodate the inventions contained herein.
Digital data from said sensors and from AC wave shapes are time stamped and brought to computers in raw data form for integration into a centralized study of the Earth's resonance.
Fig. 5 is a circuit diagram of a receiver for direct detection of a selected coherent frequency of the E wave by obtaining power and samples of the E wave from any overhead power or telephone line. Samples are taken as required for acquiring, locking and tracking of the coherent frequency of the E wave and not by selection from a larger number of samples taken for other purposes .
In order to increase the sensitivity of this receiver to the E wave signals, the fundamental component of the power frequency is suppressed by a twin T notch filter. Since harmonics of power frequency supply voltages can be expected to fall below 2%, components of the coherent frequency of the E wave are raised approximately 50 times as compared, for example with the aforementioned M2667 device, and fed into the analog to digital converter (ADC) of the receiver.
The receiver furnishes phaser components of the fundamental and harmonic components of a selected coherent frequency of the E
wave by conventional communications ports. In addition, three phase outputs are provided for driving external devices, such as synchronous motors, rotating at the precise frequency of the selected coherent component of the E wave.
Fig. 5 shows a circuit diagram for a dedicated receiver 58 to directly measure coherent frequencies of E waves as picked .up on overhead electric power lines. Fig. 5 consists of electrical plug 40 bringing AC voltage, typically 120 VAC, to power supply 41 of receiver 58. Power supply 41 supplies power for microprocessor 52 terminals VDD and VSS and transistors 55, 56 and 57. Microprocessor 52 high reference VRH is connected to VDD and low reference VRL is connected to VSS, high AC input voltage 63 is also connected to microprocessor 52 digital sampling analog to digital converter input ADCO via a twin T filter and resistor 49. Said twin T filter consists of a first T made up by serial resistors 42 and 43 with shunt capacitor 47 in parallel with a second T made up by serial capacitors 44 and 45 with shunt resistor 46. Resistor 49 and diodes 50 connected to VDD and 51 connected to VSS protect microprocessor 52 input ADCO from excessive voltages.
Microprocessor outputs consist of communications ports 53 such as RS232, parallel connected volatile RAM and nonvolatile flash memory 54 and three phase outputs capable of driving devices external to xeceiver 58 such as synchronous motor 59 at speeds synchronously related to coherent E elements of the Earth's electromagnetic resonance. Said three phase outputs are formed by binary ports OCO, OC1 and OC2 driving three phase lines 60, 61 and 62 via drive transistors 55, 56 and 57. Said three phase outputs consist of square waves rotating in the sense 012 from said outputs OCO, OC1 and OC2 as timed by program means contained in receiver 58 when locked synchronously with a received coherent signal.
The circuit of Fig. 5 is derived from the aforementioned M
2667 control by eliminating components relating to control and adding said twin T filter and circuits to produce said three phase outputs.
This device is suitable for plugging into a convenience outlet, nominally 120 VAC in the United States and is operational wherever said outlet is fed from transformers in turn connected to overhead power lines. Operational at selected frequencies of 50 and 60 Hz, adapting plugs and voltage dropping transformers, familiar to a world traveler, are used to operate the receiver in countries where required. When installed in areas of tornado activity, the harmonics may furnish indications of electromagnetic vortices involvement in tornado strength.
Fig. 6 illustrates a second dedicated receiver 59 selectively used for receiving spectral E waves of the Earth's resonance from overhead telephone lines (not shown) through external telephone connector 71 and ground connection 72. Receiver power 70 typically consists of three 1.5 Vdc batteries serially connected to supply 4.5 Vdc to microprocessor inputs VDD and VSS. All other components and their functions are as shown for receiver 58 as described above with reference to Fig. 5. Receiver 59 typically drives synchronous motor 59 as also shown in Fig. 5. Such motors may be used to rotate magnets at rates synchronous with a coherent wave for research purposes.
These dedicated circuits measures only positive half cycles of the of the E wave as described in U. S, Patent No. 5,315,527 referenced above. The steps of searching acquiring and tracking are related to the positive half cycles with the expectation that seldom, if ever will there be significant changes in the coherent frequency of the E wave from one half cycle to the next.
These steps are modified to the following:
An original best guess as to the frequency of the E wave is made and phaser A is taken twice. The one with the highest value of the real component, "m", of the phaser is accepted and followed.
The amount of rotation of the phaser is calculated and if less than a predetermined amount it is considered that the signal has been acquired. If not, the frequency is made to search over the expected range of the frequency and phaser A taken twice and again the one with the highest value of the real component, "m", of the phaser is accepted and followed. The amount of rotation of the phaser is again calculated and if less than a predetermined amount it is considered that the signal has been acquired. This process is repeated until examination of phaser A indicates acquisition.
Tracking, is accomplished by raising and lowering the template frequency an amount proportional to the j term "n" of phaser A, always in the direction that reduces the beat to zero. After a few beat cycles, the correction is faster than the beat and the beat is reduced to zero, the template and the coherent frequency of the E
wave has no long term phase difference between them and harmonics are measured.
Phasers Ar are obtained by using tables of "r" cycles of sine and cosine functions corresponding to one half cycle of a coherent component of the E wave . A string of computations in a loop is now:
Use 180° sine tables to compute m.
Use 180° cosine tables to compute n.
After acquisition of the coherent frequency of the E wave, time for the negative half cycle equal to the measured period of the positive half cycle is skipped until measurement is resumed.
Samples from positive half cycles are stored for processing harmonic calculations during negative half cycles. Tables for harmonics are used corresponding to half cycles of the fundamental component. Use is made of well known symmetry of odd and even harmonics and harmonic computations made between adjacent half cycles of fundamental components.
Moving calculations of harmonics into the "unused" negative half cycles results in use of shorter synchronous loops during positive half cycles following only the fundamental component of the coherent component of the E wave. Shorter loops result in more samples per cycle of the wave, thus narrowing the bandwidth of the correlation filter, giving better signal to noise ratios and improving the acquisition and tracking of the signal.
Tracking consists of making measurements and computations and observing long term variations in characteristics of the coherent components of the E wave.
An original best guess as to the frequency of a coherent frequency of the E wave of interest is made and phaser "A" is taken twice. The amount of rotation of the phaser is calculated and if less than a predetermined amount it is considered that the signal has been acquired. If not, the frequency is made to search over the expected range of the frequency of the coherent frequency of the E
wave and phaser "A" examined for acquisition. Note that the rotation of the phaser below a selected amount is equivalent to saying that the beat frequency between the template and the coherent frequency of the E wave is less than a given amount and finding the coherent frequency of the E wave is indicated.
At this point there is a beat between the template and the coherent frequency of the E wave and it is desirable to lock them;
ie. eliminate the beat. This is accomplished by raising and lowering the template frequency an amount proportional to the j term "n" of phaser A, always in the direction that reduces the beat to zero. After a few beat cycles, the correction is faster than the beat and the beat is reduced to nearly zero (n is nearly zero).
The template and the coherent frequency of the E wave will have no long term phase difference between them, the magnitude of A is now equal to "m" and harmonics may be measured.
In more detail this invention includes searching for, acquiring and tracking expected frequencies of coherent E waves of the Earth's electromagnetic resonance consisting of the steps of:
a) obtaining digital samples of signals from existing wire lines, b) storing N values of 180 of a sine function, c) storing N values of 180 of a cosine function, d) ' forming frequencies of N digital values by sequences spaced by time difference ~t of accessing said values from .said tables B of values of sine waves, e) forming sums of N products of said digital values of a sine function with N said digital samples of signals, f) forming sums of N products of said digital values of a cosine function with N said digital samples of signals, g) computing the following substeps for one half cycle time equal t o N * Wit, 1 taking the square root of the sum taken by using sine functions thereby obtaining magnitudes of real components "m" of phasers, 2 taking the square root of the sum taken by using cosine functions thereby obtaining magnitudes of reactive components "n" of phasers, 3 obtaining magnitudes "A" of said phasers by taking the square root of real magnitudes squared added to reactive magnitudes squared, 4 obtaining angles of said phasers as the angle whose sine is real magnitude/reactive magnitude, 5 if said angle is from 90° to 180° waiting an additional one half cycle period, 6 choosing said frequency by changing ~t so as to search through expected values of said coherent frequencies, computing the rate of rotation of said phaser from one determination to the next, 8 when said rate of rotation is below a preselected value making said change in frequency proportional to reactive magnitudes of said phasers using the polarity whereby said coherent frequencies are acquired, 9 tracking said frequencies as desired, and 10 exiting said substeps when requested by communications.
h) outputting said magnitudes of phasers and frequencies of acquired coherent E waves, and i) returning to step d) Harmonic phasers Ar may also be obtained after substep 10 by using tables of "r" cycles of sine and cosine functions corresponding to one cycle of the template. Each harmonic phaser stack of values must have the same number of values as the template. Phaser computations take place in the synchronous loops referred to above. It is reasonable that a good representation of the shape of ,the coherent frequency of the E wave is made by finding the fundamental and the second, third, fourth and fifth harmonic phaser. A string of computations in a loop would then be:
Use a 720° sine table to compute p2.
Use a 720° cosine table to compute q2.
Use a 1080° sine table to compute p3.
Use a 1080° cosine table to compute q3.
And so on through the phaser components for the fifth harmonic; producing a total of eight harmonic phaser components.
These components may be combined with the real, m, term of the fundamental component and the E wave shape displayed and studied within the resolution of five harmonics.
Tracking now consists of maintaining the lock, making measurements and computations and observing any long term variations in characteristics of the coherent component of the E
wave . By combining data from various places on Earth the worldwide nature of the coherent frequency of the E wave can be studied.
FINDING QBURSTS
(The second purpose of this invention) In the period 1955 to 1960 an adaptive filter was developed by a group in the Research Laboratory of the General Electric Company in Schenectady NY using digital computers available at the time.
This filter needed know only the approximate time duration of any randomly occurring monotonic (single valued) function. It then was able to find the signal deeply buried in noise in a process included the following steps:
1) Digitally sample the noise for the chosen time duration forming stack of samples.
a 2) Compute the running correlation between the first stack and a stack with the oldest sample discarded and a new sample added.
3) When the correlation exceeded a minimum positive probabili ty, average the first and the present stack as a new starting~ stack.
4) Continue the process and averaging by weighting. old averages by the number of stacks averaged and with each new stack weighted as one.
5) Increase the threshold towards one as the signal emerges and the robability of detection approaches unity.
p This process is adapted to discovering signals such as the Qburst as follows:
a) Choose known coherent frequencies within various frequency bands of the Earth's resonance.
b) Choose a time duration as measured by the number of full cycles of each said chosen frequency.
c) Measure the amplitude of each said full cycle forming a first sta ck of said amplitudes.
d) Continue the process of steps 1) through 5), above, until the time function of a Qburst is obtained.
e) Repeat steps a) through d) using known coherent frequenci es forming a multifrequency model of a Qburst.
This model should be useful in hypothesizing sources which cause the phenomena.
In more detail this invention includes obtaining time profiles of randomly spaced bursts of low frequency electric (E) waves of predictable time duration of the Earth's electromagnetic resonance by the following steps:
a) obtaining digital samples of signals from existing wire lines, b) selecting initial limits of positive correlation, c) selecting upper values for said limit, d) digitally sampling signals at selected uniformly spaced intervals for said predicted time duration initializing pushdown stacks A of signals with newest signals at top of stacks and oldest at bottom of stacks, e) forming loops consisting of substeps 1 through 8, 1 taking new samples of signal, 2 copying stack A, adding said new samples to top of copied stack and discarding samples at bottom of copied stack thereby forming stack N, 3 cross correlating stack N with stack A obtaining correlations between 1 and +1, 4 if correlation is less than said limit returning to substep 1, 5 if correlation is greater than said limit multiplying samples from stack A by C, adding said new sample and dividing by C + 1 thus revising stack A, 6 incrementing said limit upward by percentage a of therange from the value of the limit to +1, 7 incrementing a count C by one and returning to substep 1, 8 exiting the loop when said correlation exceeds said upper value, f) outputting stack A to computers selectively via the Internet, and g) returning to step a).
whereby stacks A outputted are time profiles of randomly spaced bursts of E waves useful for research as to the cause of random signals such as Qbursts. Note that the fundamental component of such bursts may be zero in which case harmonics are not defined, having no basis for a phase reference.
ADVANTAGES OF THE INVENTION:
1. Makes use of existing overhead power and telephone lines around the world.
2. Provides a low cost means for obtaining continuous data from many points around the world for proving or modifying mathematical models of fundamental E components the Earth's resonance.
3. Provides data in phaser form for modeling the E field fundamental component and harmonics using the fundamental as phase reference.
4. As one alternative provides easy to install and operate computer programs for extracting data from existing controls, protective relays and fault recorders.
5. As a second alternative provides a dedicated receiver for obtaining data from telephone and power lines.
6. Dedicated receivers are easy for use by nonprofessionals.
7. Simple means for inputting phaser information on the Internet from any point on Earth for distribution worldwide..
~ March 30, 1999 R. W. Beckwith
Claims (26)
1. Devices for taking samples of signals from overhead wire lines comprising in combination:
a) means for storing expected periods, and thereby frequencies, of coherent waves of electric (E) fields of Earth's electromagnetic resonances, b) means for storing tables of values of sine and cosine functions, c) means for accessing said values in timed sequences forming time functions corresponding to said expected periods, and d) means for utilizing said time functions for seeking, acquiring, locking and tracking said expected frequencies of coherent E
waves.
a) means for storing expected periods, and thereby frequencies, of coherent waves of electric (E) fields of Earth's electromagnetic resonances, b) means for storing tables of values of sine and cosine functions, c) means for accessing said values in timed sequences forming time functions corresponding to said expected periods, and d) means for utilizing said time functions for seeking, acquiring, locking and tracking said expected frequencies of coherent E
waves.
2. Devices as in Claim 1 further comprising means for varying times between said accessing of values whereby frequencies of said time functions are varied.
3. Devices as in Claim 2 further comprising in combination:
a) means for computing phasers between said time functions and said samples of signals from overhead lines, b) means for sluing said frequencies across expected values of coherent E waves of Earth's resonances, c) means for comparing said phasers for best indication of finding said coherent E waves, and c) means for discarding selected phasers and following phasers providing said best indication.
a) means for computing phasers between said time functions and said samples of signals from overhead lines, b) means for sluing said frequencies across expected values of coherent E waves of Earth's resonances, c) means for comparing said phasers for best indication of finding said coherent E waves, and c) means for discarding selected phasers and following phasers providing said best indication.
4. Devices as in Claim 3 further comprising means for using imaginary terms of said phasers to vary frequencies of said time functions so as to reduce said imaginary terms to zero whereby phase locks with Earth' s coherent waves are established and frequencies of the waves determined.
5. Devices as in Claim 4 whereby amplitudes of said phasers are computed as measures of amplitudes of said coherent waves.
6. Devices as in Claim 4 whereby said phase locks are maintained for extended periods of time and said amplitudes obtained and recorded over said extended periods whereby relations of the amplitudes with time of day and time of the year are determined.
7. Devices as in Claim 1 further comprising in combination:
a) microprocessor means having analog to digital converters (ADCs), b) means of programming said ADCs to take continuous samples of said signals from overhead lines, c) microprocessor program means running in continuous loops synchronously with said taking of samples, d) means whereby said loops have donothing steps as short as one microprocessor clock cycle, e) means for selecting stored stacks of values of sine and cosine functions representing fundamental components of E waves, f) means for taking successive values from said stacks and multiplying by samples from said ADC as they become available, and g) means for summing said products of sine and cosine values with said samples whereby the sum using sine values is related to the real component of phasers and the sum using cosine values is related to corresponding imaginary components of phasers.
a) microprocessor means having analog to digital converters (ADCs), b) means of programming said ADCs to take continuous samples of said signals from overhead lines, c) microprocessor program means running in continuous loops synchronously with said taking of samples, d) means whereby said loops have donothing steps as short as one microprocessor clock cycle, e) means for selecting stored stacks of values of sine and cosine functions representing fundamental components of E waves, f) means for taking successive values from said stacks and multiplying by samples from said ADC as they become available, and g) means for summing said products of sine and cosine values with said samples whereby the sum using sine values is related to the real component of phasers and the sum using cosine values is related to corresponding imaginary components of phasers.
8. Devices as in Claim 7 further comprising in combination:
a) means for selecting and storing the number of values in said stacks to establish the approximate frequency of the time function of said taking of values from said stack, and b) program means for changing said do nothing steps in said loops so as to dynamically refine said frequencies of time functions whereby frequencies are formed and varied to search for and lock on to coherent waves of the Earth's resonance.
a) means for selecting and storing the number of values in said stacks to establish the approximate frequency of the time function of said taking of values from said stack, and b) program means for changing said do nothing steps in said loops so as to dynamically refine said frequencies of time functions whereby frequencies are formed and varied to search for and lock on to coherent waves of the Earth's resonance.
9. Devices as in Claim 8 further comprising in combination:
a) means using preexisting devices, such as voltage controls, protective relays and digital fault recorders, requiring a multitude of samples, and b) means whereby the next occurring in time of said multitude of samples are multiplied by said successive values from stacks and others are disregarded.
a) means using preexisting devices, such as voltage controls, protective relays and digital fault recorders, requiring a multitude of samples, and b) means whereby the next occurring in time of said multitude of samples are multiplied by said successive values from stacks and others are disregarded.
10. Devices as in Claim 8 further comprising in combination:
a) means whereby said devices are specifically designed for the purpose of measuring said coherent E waves, and b) means whereby samples as taken by said ADC are multiplied by said successive values from stacks.
a) means whereby said devices are specifically designed for the purpose of measuring said coherent E waves, and b) means whereby samples as taken by said ADC are multiplied by said successive values from stacks.
11. Devices as in Claim 8 further comprising in combination:
a) means whereby said stacks of values are for 180° of sine and cosine functions, b) means where said sums of products are computed during expected positive half cycles of said coherent E wave, and c) means whereby other required computation is performed during negative half cycles of said E wave whereby the time between taking values from stacks is shortened and the number of samples of the positive half cycle of the E wave is increased thereby improving the signal to noise ratio.
a) means whereby said stacks of values are for 180° of sine and cosine functions, b) means where said sums of products are computed during expected positive half cycles of said coherent E wave, and c) means whereby other required computation is performed during negative half cycles of said E wave whereby the time between taking values from stacks is shortened and the number of samples of the positive half cycle of the E wave is increased thereby improving the signal to noise ratio.
12. Devices as in Claim 11 further comprising in combination:
a) a first step means for taking the square root of first sums of products made using values taken from sine functions stacks forming real terms "m" of phaser A, b) means for taking the square root of second sums of products made using values taken from cosine functions stacks forming reactive terms "n" of phaser A, c) during said next half cycle means for computing the magnitude and phase angle of said phaser A, d) during said next half cycle means for computing the time for said magnitude to be positive and reactive term "n" to be zero, and e) at the end of said time means for looping to said first step, f) means for sluing said time functions by changing said donothing program steps, and g) means for continuing said looping until positive values for "m" and nearly zero values for "n" are obtained indicating a phase lock with a coherent E wave has been obtained.
a) a first step means for taking the square root of first sums of products made using values taken from sine functions stacks forming real terms "m" of phaser A, b) means for taking the square root of second sums of products made using values taken from cosine functions stacks forming reactive terms "n" of phaser A, c) during said next half cycle means for computing the magnitude and phase angle of said phaser A, d) during said next half cycle means for computing the time for said magnitude to be positive and reactive term "n" to be zero, and e) at the end of said time means for looping to said first step, f) means for sluing said time functions by changing said donothing program steps, and g) means for continuing said looping until positive values for "m" and nearly zero values for "n" are obtained indicating a phase lock with a coherent E wave has been obtained.
13. Devices as in Claim 1 further comprising in combination:
a) means for storing said samples of signals, b) means for storing time stamp information so as to identify the time of occurrence of said stored samples of signals, c) means of storing tables of values of sine and cosine functions, d) means of selecting time differences between said values effectively converting said tables into time functions, e) means of selecting the number of said tables of values so as to place said time function at a frequency of coherent E waves within said stored samples of signals, f) means of selecting said time differences so as to slue said frequency through expected values of coherent E waves, g) means of sequentially selecting the nearest said stored samples of signals spaced at said selected time differences, h) means of taking the square root of the sum of products of said selected values and said sequentially selected samples using said sine table thus forming the real, "m" term of a phaser, i) means of taking the square root of the sum of products of said selected values and said sequentially selected samples using said cosine table thus forming the imaginary "n" term of the phaser, j) means of effectively moving in time along the stored samples of signals be eliminating the oldest sample and adding a new sample as the next sample in time not formerly utilized in forming said phaser, k) means of repeating said determination of phaser terms until a positive value for "m" is obtained, l) means of changing said time differences proportionally to the magnitude of said term "n" in the direction as to reduce said magnitude, and m) means of sluing said differences as necessary to find the frequency of an E wave and phase lock on it by reduction of term "n" to nearly zero.
a) means for storing said samples of signals, b) means for storing time stamp information so as to identify the time of occurrence of said stored samples of signals, c) means of storing tables of values of sine and cosine functions, d) means of selecting time differences between said values effectively converting said tables into time functions, e) means of selecting the number of said tables of values so as to place said time function at a frequency of coherent E waves within said stored samples of signals, f) means of selecting said time differences so as to slue said frequency through expected values of coherent E waves, g) means of sequentially selecting the nearest said stored samples of signals spaced at said selected time differences, h) means of taking the square root of the sum of products of said selected values and said sequentially selected samples using said sine table thus forming the real, "m" term of a phaser, i) means of taking the square root of the sum of products of said selected values and said sequentially selected samples using said cosine table thus forming the imaginary "n" term of the phaser, j) means of effectively moving in time along the stored samples of signals be eliminating the oldest sample and adding a new sample as the next sample in time not formerly utilized in forming said phaser, k) means of repeating said determination of phaser terms until a positive value for "m" is obtained, l) means of changing said time differences proportionally to the magnitude of said term "n" in the direction as to reduce said magnitude, and m) means of sluing said differences as necessary to find the frequency of an E wave and phase lock on it by reduction of term "n" to nearly zero.
14. Devices as in Claim 8 further comprising in combination:
a) means of determining that a phase lock with an E wave has been established, b) means of selecting additional said stored tables of sine and cosine functions of harmonics of first selected tables representing fundamental components of E waves, c) means of selecting values from said table at time intervals so as to form a time function of a selected order of harmonic which is phase and frequency locked to the fundamental component of the E
wave, d) means for taking the square root of sums of products using values taken from sine function stacks forming real terms "p" of a harmonic phaser, and e) means for taking the square root of sums of products using values taken from cosine function stacks forming imaginary terms "q" of a harmonic phaser whereby the fundamental component of the E wave is the phase reference for harmonics.
a) means of determining that a phase lock with an E wave has been established, b) means of selecting additional said stored tables of sine and cosine functions of harmonics of first selected tables representing fundamental components of E waves, c) means of selecting values from said table at time intervals so as to form a time function of a selected order of harmonic which is phase and frequency locked to the fundamental component of the E
wave, d) means for taking the square root of sums of products using values taken from sine function stacks forming real terms "p" of a harmonic phaser, and e) means for taking the square root of sums of products using values taken from cosine function stacks forming imaginary terms "q" of a harmonic phaser whereby the fundamental component of the E wave is the phase reference for harmonics.
15. Apparatus for receiving measurements of E waves of the Earth's resonance further comprising in combination:
a) means for installing and operating devices designed for taking samples of signals from preexisting overhead lines at a multitude of divergent locations on the Earth, b) means for conveying data of magnitudes of coherent E waves from said divergent locations to said apparatus, and c) means for constructing three dimensional graphic displays of each said coherent E wave.
a) means for installing and operating devices designed for taking samples of signals from preexisting overhead lines at a multitude of divergent locations on the Earth, b) means for conveying data of magnitudes of coherent E waves from said divergent locations to said apparatus, and c) means for constructing three dimensional graphic displays of each said coherent E wave.
16. Apparatus as in Claim 15 further comprising means for repeated construction of said displays over extended periods of time thereby permitting studies of changes of said displays over periods of days and years.
17. Apparatus as in Claim 15 further comprising in combination:
a) means of conveying phasers of harmonics and magnitudes of related fundamental components of E waves from devices for taking samples of signals from preexisting overhead lines to said apparatus, b) means of adding fundamentals and components of phasers of harmonics point by point along a time line, and c) means for displaying the result whereby the wave shape of E waves are observed.
a) means of conveying phasers of harmonics and magnitudes of related fundamental components of E waves from devices for taking samples of signals from preexisting overhead lines to said apparatus, b) means of adding fundamentals and components of phasers of harmonics point by point along a time line, and c) means for displaying the result whereby the wave shape of E waves are observed.
18. Devices for taking samples of signals from preexisting overhead lines further comprising in combination:
a) means for taking said samples for a selected time duration forming an initial stack of samples, b) means for computing the correlation between said initial stack and a new stack formed with the oldest sample discarded and a new sample added.
c) means for determining that the correlation has exceeded a selected positive probability threshold, d) means for forming averaged stacks by weighing old stacks by the number of stacks averaged and weighing new stacks as one, e) means for increasing said correlation threshold by a percentage of the amount of by which the threshold was exceeded, f) means for computing the correlation between said averaged stack and a new stack formed with the oldest sample discarded and a new sample added.
g) means for outputting said averaged stack when a maximum limit of correlation is exceeded, and h) means for returning to step c) whereby randomly occurring transient signals such as Qbursts are discovered.
a) means for taking said samples for a selected time duration forming an initial stack of samples, b) means for computing the correlation between said initial stack and a new stack formed with the oldest sample discarded and a new sample added.
c) means for determining that the correlation has exceeded a selected positive probability threshold, d) means for forming averaged stacks by weighing old stacks by the number of stacks averaged and weighing new stacks as one, e) means for increasing said correlation threshold by a percentage of the amount of by which the threshold was exceeded, f) means for computing the correlation between said averaged stack and a new stack formed with the oldest sample discarded and a new sample added.
g) means for outputting said averaged stack when a maximum limit of correlation is exceeded, and h) means for returning to step c) whereby randomly occurring transient signals such as Qbursts are discovered.
19. Apparatus as in Claim 18 further comprising in combination:
a) means for displaying the wave shape of the averaged stack, b) means for selectively changing said time duration for a better match to wave shapes of interest.
a) means for displaying the wave shape of the averaged stack, b) means for selectively changing said time duration for a better match to wave shapes of interest.
20. A method for obtaining information about the electric (E) component of the Earth's electromagnetic resonance consisting of the steps of:
a) , obtaining digital samples of waves from existing wire lines, b) forming frequencies of digital values by timed sequences of accessing said values from tables of values, c) using first frequencies consisting of timed sequences of sine values, d) using second frequencies consisting of timed sequences of cosine values, e) computing the square root of sums of products of values of said first frequencies and said digital samples of waves so as to form real terms of first phasers, f) computing the square root of sums of products of values of said second frequencies and digital samples of waves from said existing wire lines so as to form reactive terms of first phasers, and g) using said first phasers for seeking, acquiring, locking and tracking coherent frequency waves of E components of said Earth's electromagnetic resonances.
a) , obtaining digital samples of waves from existing wire lines, b) forming frequencies of digital values by timed sequences of accessing said values from tables of values, c) using first frequencies consisting of timed sequences of sine values, d) using second frequencies consisting of timed sequences of cosine values, e) computing the square root of sums of products of values of said first frequencies and said digital samples of waves so as to form real terms of first phasers, f) computing the square root of sums of products of values of said second frequencies and digital samples of waves from said existing wire lines so as to form reactive terms of first phasers, and g) using said first phasers for seeking, acquiring, locking and tracking coherent frequency waves of E components of said Earth's electromagnetic resonances.
21. The method of Claim 20 further including the steps of:
a) defining harmonics of said waves as phasers related to the fundamental component of said waves as the phase reference, and b) once locked onto a wave using the real term of said first phasers as the reference for said second phasers of harmonic components of said Earth's E components of coherent resonances.
a) defining harmonics of said waves as phasers related to the fundamental component of said waves as the phase reference, and b) once locked onto a wave using the real term of said first phasers as the reference for said second phasers of harmonic components of said Earth's E components of coherent resonances.
22. The method of Claim 20 further including the steps of:
a) using tables of values of sine functions, b) accessing said values at selected time intervals thereby forming said real term of said first phaser, c) using tables of values of cosine functions, and d) accessing said values at selected time intervals thereby forming said reactive term of in a time function of said first phaser,
a) using tables of values of sine functions, b) accessing said values at selected time intervals thereby forming said real term of said first phaser, c) using tables of values of cosine functions, and d) accessing said values at selected time intervals thereby forming said reactive term of in a time function of said first phaser,
23. The method of Claim 22 further including the steps of:
a) using loops in programs running synchronously with analog to digital converters of microprocessors, b) starting analog to digital conversion to provide said samples of waves just in time for forming said sums of products, and c) using donothing steps in said loops to establish the frequencies of said loops.
a) using loops in programs running synchronously with analog to digital converters of microprocessors, b) starting analog to digital conversion to provide said samples of waves just in time for forming said sums of products, and c) using donothing steps in said loops to establish the frequencies of said loops.
24. The method of Claim 23 further including the step of adding and subtracting said donothing steps so as to change said frequencies of digital values.
25. A method for searching for, acquiring and tracking expected frequencies of coherent E waves of the Earth's electromagnetic resonance consisting of the steps of:
a) obtaining digital samples of signals from existing wire lines, b) storing N values of 180° of a sine function, c) storing N values of 180° of a cosine function, d) forming frequencies of N digital values by sequences spaced by time difference ~t of accessing said values from said tables of values of sine waves, e) forming sums of N products of said digital values of a sine function with N said digital samples of signals, f) forming sums of N products of said digital values of a cosine function with N said digital samples of signals, g) computing the following substeps for one half cycle time equal to N * ~t, 1 taking the square root of the sum of sine functions thereby obtaining magnitudes of real components of phasers, 2 taking the square root of the sum of cosine functions thereby obtaining magnitudes of reactive components of phasers, 3 obtaining magnitudes of said phasers by taking the square root of real magnitudes squared added to reactive magnitudes squared, 4 obtaining angles of said phasers as the angle whose sine is real magnitude/reactive magnitude, 5 if said angle is from 90° to 180° waiting an additional one half cycle period, 6 choosing said frequency by changing ~t so as to search through expected values of said coherent frequencies, 7 computing the rate of rotation of said phaser from one determination to the next, 8 when said rate of rotation is below a preselected value making said change in frequency proportional to reactive magnitudes of said phasers using the polarity whereby said coherent frequencies are acquired, 9 tracking said frequencies as desired, and 10 exiting said substeps when requested by communications.
h) outputting said magnitudes of phasers and frequencies of acquired coherent E waves, and i) returning to step d)
a) obtaining digital samples of signals from existing wire lines, b) storing N values of 180° of a sine function, c) storing N values of 180° of a cosine function, d) forming frequencies of N digital values by sequences spaced by time difference ~t of accessing said values from said tables of values of sine waves, e) forming sums of N products of said digital values of a sine function with N said digital samples of signals, f) forming sums of N products of said digital values of a cosine function with N said digital samples of signals, g) computing the following substeps for one half cycle time equal to N * ~t, 1 taking the square root of the sum of sine functions thereby obtaining magnitudes of real components of phasers, 2 taking the square root of the sum of cosine functions thereby obtaining magnitudes of reactive components of phasers, 3 obtaining magnitudes of said phasers by taking the square root of real magnitudes squared added to reactive magnitudes squared, 4 obtaining angles of said phasers as the angle whose sine is real magnitude/reactive magnitude, 5 if said angle is from 90° to 180° waiting an additional one half cycle period, 6 choosing said frequency by changing ~t so as to search through expected values of said coherent frequencies, 7 computing the rate of rotation of said phaser from one determination to the next, 8 when said rate of rotation is below a preselected value making said change in frequency proportional to reactive magnitudes of said phasers using the polarity whereby said coherent frequencies are acquired, 9 tracking said frequencies as desired, and 10 exiting said substeps when requested by communications.
h) outputting said magnitudes of phasers and frequencies of acquired coherent E waves, and i) returning to step d)
26. A method of obtaining time profiles of randomly spaced bursts of low frequency electric (E) waves of predictable time duration of the Earth's electromagnetic resonance consisting of the steps of a) obtaining digital samples of signals from existing wire lines, b) selecting initial limits of positive correlation, c) selecting upper values for said limit, d) digitally sampling signals at selected uniformly spaced time intervals for said predicted time duration initializing pushdown stacks A of signals with newest signals at top of stacks and oldest at bottom of stacks, e) forming loops consisting of substeps 1 through 8, 1 taking new samples of signal, 2 copying stack A, adding said new samples to top of copied stack and discarding samples at bottom of copied stack thereby forming stack N, 3 cross correlating stack N with stack A obtaining correlations between 1 and +1, 4 if correlation is less than said limit returning to substep 1, 5 if correlation is greater than said limit multiplying samples from stack A by C, adding said new sample and dividing by C + 1 thus revising stack A, 6 incrementing said limit upward by a percentage of the range from the value of the limit to +1, 7 incrementing a count C by one and returning to substep 1, 8 exiting the loop when said correlation exceeds said upper value, f) outputting stack A, and g) returning to step a).
whereby stacks A outputted are time profiles of randomly spaced bursts of E waves.
whereby stacks A outputted are time profiles of randomly spaced bursts of E waves.
Applications Claiming Priority (2)
Application Number  Priority Date  Filing Date  Title 

US28606899A  19990405  19990405  
US09/286,068  19990405 
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CA2283530A1 true CA2283530A1 (en)  20001005 
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CA 2283530 Abandoned CA2283530A1 (en)  19990405  19990924  Apparatus for obtaining worldwide data on the earth's resonance 
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 19990924 CA CA 2283530 patent/CA2283530A1/en not_active Abandoned
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