CA2263031A1 - Communications based train control - Google Patents

Communications based train control

Info

Publication number
CA2263031A1
CA2263031A1 CA 2263031 CA2263031A CA2263031A1 CA 2263031 A1 CA2263031 A1 CA 2263031A1 CA 2263031 CA2263031 CA 2263031 CA 2263031 A CA2263031 A CA 2263031A CA 2263031 A1 CA2263031 A1 CA 2263031A1
Authority
CA
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
network
wayside
train
train control
system
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
CA 2263031
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Alex Oprea
Charles Elliott
Bill Colvin
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
SPRINGBOARD WIRELESS NETWORKS Inc
Original Assignee
SPRINGBOARD WIRELESS NETWORKS Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W4/00Services specially adapted for wireless communication networks; Facilities therefor
    • H04W4/02Services making use of location information
    • H04W4/04Services making use of location information using association of physical positions and logical data in a dedicated environment, e.g. buildings or vehicles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B61RAILWAYS
    • B61LGUIDING RAILWAY TRAFFIC; ENSURING THE SAFETY OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC
    • B61L15/00Indicators provided on the vehicle or vehicle train for signalling purposes ; On-board control or communication systems
    • B61L15/0018Communication with or on the vehicle or vehicle train
    • B61L15/0027Radio-based, e.g. using GSM-R
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B61RAILWAYS
    • B61LGUIDING RAILWAY TRAFFIC; ENSURING THE SAFETY OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC
    • B61L25/00Recording or indicating positions or identities of vehicles or vehicle trains or setting of track apparatus
    • B61L25/02Indicating or recording positions or identities of vehicles or vehicle trains
    • B61L25/021Measuring and recording of train speed
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B61RAILWAYS
    • B61LGUIDING RAILWAY TRAFFIC; ENSURING THE SAFETY OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC
    • B61L25/00Recording or indicating positions or identities of vehicles or vehicle trains or setting of track apparatus
    • B61L25/02Indicating or recording positions or identities of vehicles or vehicle trains
    • B61L25/025Absolute localisation, e.g. providing geodetic coordinates
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B61RAILWAYS
    • B61LGUIDING RAILWAY TRAFFIC; ENSURING THE SAFETY OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC
    • B61L27/00Central traffic control systems ; Track-side control or specific communication systems
    • B61L27/0005Details of track-side communication
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W84/00Network topologies
    • H04W84/02Hierarchically pre-organised networks, e.g. paging networks, cellular networks, WLAN [Wireless Local Area Network] or WLL [Wireless Local Loop]
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B61RAILWAYS
    • B61LGUIDING RAILWAY TRAFFIC; ENSURING THE SAFETY OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC
    • B61L27/00Central traffic control systems ; Track-side control or specific communication systems
    • B61L27/0038Track-side control of safe travel of vehicle or vehicle train, e.g. braking curve calculation
    • B61L2027/005Track-side control of safe travel of vehicle or vehicle train, e.g. braking curve calculation using Communication-based Train Control [CBTC]
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B61RAILWAYS
    • B61LGUIDING RAILWAY TRAFFIC; ENSURING THE SAFETY OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC
    • B61L2205/00Communication or navigation systems for railway traffic
    • B61L2205/04Satellite based navigation systems, e.g. GPS
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W84/00Network topologies
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W92/00Interfaces specially adapted for wireless communication networks
    • H04W92/02Inter-networking arrangements

Abstract

The present invention involves a secure, wireless communication subsystem for communications-based train control, which provide the wireless data communications subsystem needed for locating trains and for exchanging control information between the onboard train control computers and the fixed site computers that manage the movement of the trains.

Description

2 Background Historically, train and transit operators have utilized a signaling architecture known as "fixed block" where trains are physically signaled from fixed posts along the wayside as to whether or not they are authorized to enter the next block of track - if there is another train in the next block of track, the signal will be red, indicating that the train must stop until signaled that the block is cleared. The "fixed blocks" vary in length from hundreds of yards to tens and even hundreds of miles.
Virtually all of these signal and train control systems use track circuits for train detection.
Track circuits detect trains by injecting a tiny electric current into one end of a rail section.
As long as there is no train in the track circuit, the current travels down the rails where it energizes a relay at the other end In its most basic form, the energized track relay causes a green aspect to be displayed to the train operator. But when a train enters the track circuit, the steel wheels and axles short out this signal current and causes the track relay to drop. The de-energized relay makes the green aspect go dark and illuminates a red aspect for the operator in the following train.
This approach served the rail industry well for more than 100 years. But as heavy steam trains gave way to light rail systems and DC and AC propulsion it became increasingly difficult to make track circuit-based systems work reliably.
All track circuit-based systems are designed to be "failsafe" and as a consequence of traditional signal design, nearly all are "fail stop." This means that when they fail safely these systems present a more restrictive aspect (usually red) to the operator or on-board train control system.

3 For small systems with few track circuits, or systems with long headways, "fail stop" may be an infrequent annoyance. But in the case of larger transit systems "fail stop" can mean frequent operational disasters that are expensive and time consuming to mitigate For example, every 10 hours (on average) New York City Transit's (NYCT) operating department reports to its signal maintenance group that it believes there is a signal system failure. To fix the problem and get trains rolling within 10 minutes, NYCT
maintains a staff of nearly 1,000 in its signal maintenance department. Many, poised like firefighters, are ready to spring into action 24 hours per day.
A ten-minute delay on a roadway may seem like smooth sailing in today's big cities, but for subway commuters it can feel like eternity. Worse, a ten-minute signal system delay on a high capacity rail line can throw the line's schedule off for the rest of the day.
Clearly, there needs to be better train control system In order to address the obvious deficiencies of "fixed block" signaling, train and transit operators have been seeking ways to implement "moving block" signaling.
Instead of controlling train separation by regulating movement past fixed points along the wayside (i.e., into fixed blocks of track), "moving block" signaling regulates the actual separation, or distance, between trains. The key to "moving block" signaling is that the trains must have uninterrupted radio communication amongst themselves and to the wayside in order to pinpoint exact locations and receive control messages, This has proven to be a major challenge, due to the train environment, which is very "radio hostile" (e.g., large amounts of metal, tunnels etc. that tend to interfere with radio signals). This problem was partially overcome by a system known as communications-based train control (CBTC) Early versions of the CBTC overcame the radio communication challenge by installing a "leaky feeder" between the tracks so that the onboard radios were required to

4 communicate only a few feet. However, the drawbacks to this solution are, among others, the cost of the cable and susceptibility to damage/sabotage.
There remains a need for a CBTC system that is accurate, fast, inexpensive, less susceptible to physical damage that can operate in a hostile environment in a truly wireless system.
Brief Description of the Drawings Figure 1: An overview of a CBTC system Summary on Invention The present invention demonstrates a truly wireless communications system that will support full implementation of "moving block" communications based train control. The present invention is the first integrated secure wireless communications system that will enable full scale deployment of "moving block" CBTC.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the new CBTC system is a clear improvement over traditional fixed-block systems in that it allows for increased system capacity and very high availability. Moreover, the present invention reduces the possibility of human error by automating many manual operations.
Another embodiment of the present invention involves a communications-based train control data communications system comprising a standard Internet Protocol (IP) routed data communications network comprising three linked networks, which form the standards based data communication system, being: (1) the wayside network, (2) the RF
distribution network and, (3) the carborne network.

In a further embodiment of the present invention, the new CBTC offers improved capacity because it is able to locate trains with greater precision. By knowing more precisely where trains are located, the present invention can operate trains closer together.
In a further embodiment, the CBTC systems can use microcomputers making it practical for two or more to be configured in parallel so that when one fails the system is able to seamlessly switch over to a working unit. This "fail-operational" aspect of CBTC is attractive because it reduces the frequency of service disrupting failures and allows more flexibility in managing maintenance crews.
Detailed Description of the Invention In one aspect of the present invention, a CBTC communication system consists of the following:
~ WRF - Wayside RF Router (with Spread Spectrum, 2.4 GHz radio) ~ CRF - Carborne RF Router (with radio) ~ WIU - Wayside Network Interface Unit ~ CIU - Carborne Network Interface Unit An overview of a CBTC system is shown in Figure 1. As is evidence, a key component of the present invention is the radio, which has been designed to operate efficiently and reliably in harsh environments such as a subway system where signal channeling, multi-path distortion and intermittent blockage by train cars occurs on a continuous basis.
GHz Hybrid Spread Spectrum Transceivers The present invention further involves a capable routers (WRF-3000 and CRF-3100) employ similar 2.4 GHz Hybrid Spread Spectrum (SS) radio transceivers along the wayside and on the trains. These RF capable routers employ both Slow Frequency Hopping (SFH) and Direct Sequence (DS) Spread Spectrum techniques Technically the wayside to train RF data link employs a half duplex Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) scheme which allows one wayside SS transceiver to communicate with many carborne SS transceivers at one time. Adjacent wayside communication cells use different SFH patterns, are not synchronized and a frequency hop is the length of a TDMA frame. There are a limited number of SFH carriers but a frequency hopping sequence can be reused based on distance separation.
Frequency hopping sequences for adjacent cells are designed such that two consecutive frames will not collide.
In the present CBTC system, a Zone Controller (ZC) manages the movement of trains on a contiguous section of track. To do this the ZC is in constant communication with onboard Train Controllers (TC). The TC controls vehicle operation.
The present CBTC data communications system interfaces with existing ZC and TC
equipment in order to transport their messages using, among others, industry standard protocols. That is, the interface converts the train control messages to an industry standard form. In addition, the data communications system is capable of carrying secondary data used to facilitate transit operations.
The present CBTC data communications system has at its core, a standard Internet Protocol (IP) routed data communications network.
The three linked networks, which form the standards based data communication system, are the wayside network, the RF distribution network and the carborne network.
Wayside Network The wayside network, as its name implies, interconnects a signaling company's train control systems and RF radios located along the side of the track. Interface points allow other supervisory or management equipment to connect to the wayside network.
The wayside network is a fully redundant, primarily linear, network, which connects wayside stations to their 'upstream' and 'downstream' neighbors. The minimum configuration for a wayside network node is a redundant set of RF capable IP
routers (WRF-3000). Connections between wayside network nodes are made using point to point, redundant fiber optic cables operating at 10 Mbps.
Each wayside station, through the WRF-3000, provides a connection to the RF
distribution network - the network which links the wayside and the carborne networks.
Carborne Network The carborne network, like the wayside network, is based on the IP routing paradigm. The minimum configuration for a carborne network is a redundant set of RF capable IP routers (CRF-3100) located at each end of a multi-car train unit. Carborne devices capable of attachment directly to an IP based local area network can be connected to the redundant network provided by the CRF-3100 units.
Since existing onboard Train Controllers do not have IP capable local area network interfaces, an interface unit (CIU-3300) provides a protocol conversion gateway service for the onboard Train Controllers. The CIU-3300 also provides gateway services for LonWorksTM type networks.
RF Distribution Network Each wayside network node will manage one RF communication cell. A cell is a dynamic area within which RF communication between a wayside transceiver and a number of carborne transceivers is possible.
Each multi-car train unit has two operational radio transceivers, one at each end of the train. Each radio transceiver attempts to become a member of a RF
communication cell.
The process for this is called acquisition. The management of mobile radios within wayside cells is controlled by the RF distribution network. No intervention from the train control system is required.
The RF distribution network provides redundant RF data links between the wayside network and each carborne network. Each multi-car train unit has two RF data links to the wayside network - one from each end of the train unit. As the train moves, each radio transceiver will independently attempt to find a better wayside cell. When an onboard RF
capable router switches to a new cell, it immediately transmits a routing information packet to update the wayside network routes on the most direct path to reach the IP
networks in the carborne network. This process of moving into a new cell is called handover. Handover is independent from the train control system and has no impact on train control communications.

In an alternative embodiment of the present invention, a security system can be installed.
For example, the WRF-3000 can implement a data encryption capacity. Additional data protection shall be provided on the RF data link by encrypting the data with a method compliant with Data Encryption Standard (DES). Such an encryption could use a secret 56 bit key, which is stored within the RF transceivers and is not retrievable.
Interfaces to Next Vendors' Equipment Interface is provided between the WIU and the Zone Controller and between the CIU and the Train Controller. The details of the interfaces will be specific to a particular signaling company.
These interfaces can be X.21, V.35 or V.24 compliant physical connections with the WIU
or CIU providing a DCE interface. Note that the WIU and CIU hardware provide standard DTE physical interfaces. This allows for modem/line driver equipment between the interface units and controller.
From the foregoing, it will be appreciated that, although specific embodiments of the invention have been described herein for purposes of illustration, various modifications may be made without deviating from the spirit and scope of the invention.
Accordingly, the invention is not limited except as by the appended claims.

Claims

We claim:
1. A communications-based train control data communications system comprising a standard Internet Protocol (IP) routed data communications network comprising three linked networks, which form the standards based data communication system, being:
(1) the wayside network, (2) the RF distribution network and, (3) the carborne network.
CA 2263031 1999-02-26 1999-02-26 Communications based train control Withdrawn CA2263031A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CA 2263031 CA2263031A1 (en) 1999-02-26 1999-02-26 Communications based train control

Applications Claiming Priority (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CA 2263031 CA2263031A1 (en) 1999-02-26 1999-02-26 Communications based train control
PCT/CA2000/000186 WO2000052851B1 (en) 1999-02-26 2000-02-28 Communication system for mobile networks
EP20000906101 EP1166465A1 (en) 1999-02-26 2000-02-28 Communication system for mobile networks
CA 2299778 CA2299778A1 (en) 1999-02-26 2000-02-28 Communication system for mobile networks

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
CA2263031A1 true true CA2263031A1 (en) 2000-08-26

Family

ID=4163331

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CA 2263031 Withdrawn CA2263031A1 (en) 1999-02-26 1999-02-26 Communications based train control

Country Status (3)

Country Link
EP (1) EP1166465A1 (en)
CA (1) CA2263031A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2000052851B1 (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2006028318A1 (en) * 2004-09-10 2006-03-16 Korea Institute Of Machinery And Materials Apparatus for wireless remote control magnetic levitation train and method thereof

Families Citing this family (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP1213862A1 (en) * 2000-12-11 2002-06-12 Marconi Communications GmbH Optical data network with protection switching
US7487252B2 (en) 2001-11-16 2009-02-03 Gateway Inc. Vehicle based intelligent network interactivity
US6862502B2 (en) * 2002-05-15 2005-03-01 General Electric Company Intelligent communications, command, and control system for a land-based vehicle
DE10360089B3 (en) * 2003-12-20 2005-05-25 Rag Ag Track-guided system used in underground mining and tunnel construction for transporting people and material comprises a rail system, and vehicles equipped with sensors for detecting optical, acoustic, temperature
FR2883682A1 (en) * 2005-03-23 2006-09-29 Freinrail Systemes Ferroviaire communication system for the control of convoys
DE102006014326B4 (en) * 2006-03-23 2012-08-09 Siemens Ag System and method for radio-based exchange of information between the wayside equipment and moving along a running distance vehicles, in particular a rail system
JP5503692B2 (en) * 2006-06-07 2014-05-28 株式会社日立製作所 Radio control security system
US8091114B2 (en) * 2006-09-15 2012-01-03 Bombardier Transportation Gmbh Integrated security event management system
US8565214B2 (en) * 2010-12-09 2013-10-22 Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories, Inc. Method for scheduling data transmission in hybrid communication networks for transportation safety systems
RU2477024C1 (en) * 2011-10-24 2013-02-27 Открытое акционерное общество "Научно-производственное предприятие "Полет" Mobile complex of communication facilities
CN103386994A (en) * 2012-05-08 2013-11-13 上海富欣智能交通控制有限公司 Intelligent transport system for urban railway based on safety communication
CA2879071A1 (en) * 2012-07-17 2014-01-23 Thales Canada Inc. Intra-train network management system
US9166952B2 (en) 2012-10-15 2015-10-20 Thales Canada Inc Security device bank and a system including the and SD security device bank
US9128815B2 (en) * 2013-01-14 2015-09-08 Thales Canada Inc Control system for vehicle in a guideway network
RU2528168C1 (en) * 2013-07-18 2014-09-10 Федеральное государственное казенное учреждение "27 Центральный научно-исследовательский институт" Министерства обороны Российской Федерации Mobile system of operational communication equipment
WO2015044502A1 (en) * 2013-09-27 2015-04-02 Teleste Oyj Wireless data offload system
RU2550339C1 (en) * 2014-03-18 2015-05-10 Федеральное государственное казенное учреждение "27 Центральный научно-исследовательский институт" Министерства обороны Российской Федерации Self-contained mobile telecommunication complex
FR3025480B1 (en) * 2014-09-04 2016-12-23 Alstom Transp Tech radio infrastructure for a railway signaling system type CBTC
EP3150460A1 (en) * 2015-09-30 2017-04-05 ALSTOM Transport Technologies Railway vehicle with unidirectional security gateway for secure diagnosis data transmission
RU2645742C1 (en) * 2017-01-23 2018-02-28 Федеральное государственное казенное военное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Академия Федеральной службы охраны Российской Федерации" (Академия ФСО России) Mobile multifunctional communication node
RU2645285C1 (en) * 2017-05-15 2018-02-19 Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение "16 Центральный научно-исследовательский испытательный ордена Красной Звезды институт имени маршала войск связи А.И. Белова" Министерства обороны Российской Федерации Mobile communication equipment room for control and management for the transport network of the field communication system
RU173688U1 (en) * 2017-06-20 2017-09-06 Открытое акционерное общество "Научно-производственное объединение Ангстрем" (ОАО "НПО Ангстрем") Radio Data Input Device

Family Cites Families (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE4310645A1 (en) * 1993-04-01 1994-10-06 Deutsche Aerospace Radio system for transmitting messages between at least one mobile station and n is longitudinally disposed a distance stationary base stations
DE4334631C2 (en) * 1993-10-06 1996-12-19 Koepenick Funkwerk Gmbh Mobiles, line-shaped radio network
DE59611297D1 (en) * 1995-04-04 2005-12-29 Siemens Ag System for acquiring and transmitting information to central locations
CA2218546A1 (en) * 1995-06-02 1996-12-05 Charles D. Gavrilovich Mobile radio communications system with moving base station
WO1998028865A1 (en) * 1996-12-05 1998-07-02 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson (Publ) Device and method for a telecommunications system

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2006028318A1 (en) * 2004-09-10 2006-03-16 Korea Institute Of Machinery And Materials Apparatus for wireless remote control magnetic levitation train and method thereof

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
EP1166465A1 (en) 2002-01-02 application
WO2000052851B1 (en) 2000-11-30 application
WO2000052851A1 (en) 2000-09-08 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US5751569A (en) Geographic train control
US5346163A (en) Power supply regulation system for a railway
US6032905A (en) System for distributed automatic train supervision and control
US20080195265A1 (en) Train Integrity Network System
Fokum et al. A survey on methods for broadband internet access on trains
US20040049327A1 (en) Radio based automatic train control system using universal code
US6759951B2 (en) Method and system for communicating among a plurality of mobile assets
US5420883A (en) Train location and control using spread spectrum radio communications
US20080159281A1 (en) Systems and Methods for Providing Hybrid Communication in a Transit Environment
US20030223387A1 (en) Remote vehicle communication associate
US8428798B2 (en) Short headway communications based train control system
Zimmermann et al. Towards modeling and evaluation of ETCS real-time communication and operation
Zimmermann et al. A train control system case study in model-based real time system design
US20050254818A1 (en) Optical wireless access systems for train passengers
US5364047A (en) Automatic vehicle control and location system
US20150217790A1 (en) Data communication system and method
US20060195236A1 (en) Signaling system
JP2003261028A (en) System and method for radio-applied block control
JP2002012150A (en) Radio communication network system
US20080173770A1 (en) Method and System for a Track Signaling System Without Insulated Joints
US5937350A (en) Train radio telephone system using home location register (HLR)
Shafiullah et al. Survey of wireless communications applications in the railway industry
JPH082416A (en) Running control method of moving block train and control system used thereto
Moreno et al. A survey on future railway radio communications services: challenges and opportunities
WO2000052851A1 (en) Communication system for mobile networks

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AZWI Withdrawn application