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Indane dimer compounds and their pharmaceutical use

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Publication number
CA2239694C
CA2239694C CA 2239694 CA2239694A CA2239694C CA 2239694 C CA2239694 C CA 2239694C CA 2239694 CA2239694 CA 2239694 CA 2239694 A CA2239694 A CA 2239694A CA 2239694 C CA2239694 C CA 2239694C
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solution
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ether
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French (fr)
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CA2239694A1 (en )
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John Walsh
Neil Frankish
Helen Sheridan
Ronan Farrell
William Byrne
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Venantius Ltd
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Venantius Ltd
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Abstract

Indame dimer compounds and their pharmaceutical use particularly to achieve smooth muscle relaxing activity and/or mast cell stabilising activity and/or anti-inflammatory activity are described.

Description

INDANE DIMER COMPOUNDS AND THEIR PHARMACEUTICAL USE

The invention relates to indane compounds, processes for their production, compositions containing them and their pharmacological use.

According to the invention there is provided a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of any of the formulae:

R'' ~R3 a 12~ R9 Rs ~ 'Qz Qs '~ Rs RiO
R A

,~
s RB f ~ R =~~y R7 i4A

. 43 ~
Qu ~ 3 3 R'~
g:7 ~ iR2 3= ~/3 :~

M ~Qtj ~ti ~ie~
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) _ 2 _ wherein in Formulae 1 and 3 R1 and R3 to Ris in Formulae 2 and 4 R 2 to Ris A.
are selected from one or more of the same or different of:

H, halo, hydroxy, alkoxy, aryloxy, acetoxy, carboxy, alkyl carbonyl, hydro carbonyl, amino, amido, alkylamino, hydroxylamino, amine oxide groups, azo groups, cyano, hydrazino groups, hydrazide groups, hydrazone groups, imide groups, iminoether groups, ureyl groups, oxime, nitro, nitrate, nitrite, nitroso groups, nitrile, heterocyclic groups containing hetero atoms selected from one or more of N. 0 and/or S, aralkyl groups, mono and polybenzoid aryl groups, substituted aryl groups, thiol, thioureyl, phenylthiol groups, sulphonic acid groups, sulphoxide groups, sulphone groups, alkyl containing 1 to 10 carbon atoms or cycloalkyl groups containing 3 to 8 carbon atoms which may be saturated or unsaturated, substituted akyl or cycloalkyl groups which may be saturated or unsaturated in Formulae 1 and 4 any of: R8 and R15; or R8 and R9 may together represent a double bond in Formulae 2 and 3 any of: R8 and R15; or R8 and R ; or R8 and R14 may together represent a double bond SU STITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) in Formula 1 any one or more of R1' 1R1 R3 1R3 R9 1R9 Rlo i r i r r .
IR10 may together represent oxo;

in Formula 2 any one or more of 2 1 2, 3 1 3, 9 1 9, 14 R, R, R, R, R, R, R, 1R14; may together represent oxo;

in Formula 3 any one or more of 1 0 R1 1R1R3 1R3, R9 1R9 14 r r r r r ; R
-1R14; may together represent oxo;

in Formula 4 any one or more of 2 1 2, 3 1 3, 9 1 9 10 R, R, R, R, R, R; R, 1R1O; may together represent oxo;

pharmacogically acceptable salts, esters, amides, solvates and isomers thereof.

The invention also provides compounds of Formulae 1 to 4 per se as defined above.

In Formula 1 R1 1R1 R3 1R3 and R1 1 10 , , , ; , R do not all together represent oxo.

In Formula 2 R3, 1R3; R9, 1 R 9 ; and R14, 1R14 do not all together represent oxo.

In Formula 3 any three or all four of SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) R1, 1Ri; R3, 1R3, 1R9 1R9; and R14, 1R14 do not together represent oxo.

In Formula 4 any three or all four of R1, 1Rl; R3, 1R3; R9, 1R9; and Ri4~ IRL4 do not together represent oxo.

in one embodiment of the invention the alkyl or cycloalkyl are substituted with one or more of the same or different of halo, oxo, hydroxy, alkoxy, aryloxy, acetoxy, carboxy, carbonyl, amino, amido, alkylamino, hydroxyamino, amine oxide groups, azo groups, cyano, hydrazino groups, hydrazide groups, hydrazone groups, imide groups, imino ether groups, ureyl groups, oxime, nitro, nitrate, nitrite, nitroso groups, nitrile, heterocyclic groups, aralkyl groups, mono and polybenzoid aryl groups, substituted aryl groups, thiol, thioureyl, phenyl thiol groups, sulphonic acid groups, sulphoxide groups and sulphone groups.

In one embodiment of the invention the heterocyclic groups are selected from heteroatoms containing one or more of N, O or S.

Preferably in Formula 1 R3 to R' and preferably also R10 to R14 are hydrogen.

In Formula 1 preferred particularly because of pharmacological activity as mast cell stabilisers are those compounds in which:

R 8 and R9 together represent a double bond;
R1, 1R1 represent H, OH; and R15 is benzyl. ' SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Preferably in Formula 2 R3 to R' and also preferably R10 to R13 are hydrogen.

In Formula 2 preferred particularly because of pharmacological activity as mast cell stablilisers are those compounds in which:

R8 and R9 or R8 and R14 together represent a double bo nd ;
RZ, 1RZ represent H, OH; and R15 is benzyl.

Preferably in Formula 3 R'' to R' and preferably also R10 to Rf3 represent hydrogen.

In Formula 3 preferred particularly because of pharmacological activity as mast cell stabilisers and for anti-inflammatory activity are those compounds in which:

R 8 and R9 or R 8 and R14 together represent a double bond;
R1, iRl represents H, OH; and R15 is benzyl.

Preferably in Formula 4 R4 to R7 and also preferably R10 to R14 represent hydrogen.

The invention relates to the compounds above for use as smooth muscle relaxants and/or as mast cell stabilising agents and/or as anti-inflammatory agents.

The invention also relates to the use of the compounds in { 25 methods of prophylaxis or treatment particularly to achieve smooth muscle relaxant activity and/or mast cell stabilising activity and/or anti-inflammatory activity.

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) The invention also relates to the compounds per se given in Appendix 2.

In a broad aspect, then, the present invention relates to a pharmaceutical s composition comprising a compound of any of the formulae:

a Ra 1Rs 1 1o R R3 Rs \ / \ R11 R15 Rs 7 R 1R1 R7 R 1R1a R1s R10 / R 1a Ra 1R3 R 1s R1o I ---wherein in Formulae 1 and 3 R',1R1, R3, I R3, R4 to R2, R9, R10,1R1 , Rll to R13, R14, 1R14and R15 in Formula 2 R2, 'R2, R3, W, R4 to R7, R9 to R13, R14, IRla and R1s are selected from one or more of the same or different of:

6a H, halo, hydroxy, alkoxy, aryloxy, acetoxy, carboxy, alkyl carbonyl, hydro carbonyl, ami.no, amido, alkylainino, hydroxylamino, Ci-Cio alkyl or C3-C8 cycloalkyl groups, substituted alkyl or cycloalkyl in Formula 1 any one or more of R1, 1R1; R3,1R3; R'o, iR10may together represent oxo;

in Formula 2 any one or more of R2, IRz; R3,'R3; R14, 1R14; may together represent oxo;
in Formula 3 any one or more of Ri, 1R1; R3, iR3; R14, iR14; may together represent oxo;

In another broad aspect, then, the present invention relates to a compound 1C4 2-(1-indanyl)-2-methylindane 1C5 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-methylindan-l-ol 1C7 1-(2-(2-methylindanyl))ind-l-ene 1C8 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-methyl-l-acetoxyindane 1C9 2-(3,3-dimethyl-l-ind-l-enyl)-2-methylindan-l-one 1C10 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-ethylindan-l-one 1C12 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-prop-2-enylindan-l-one 1C13 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-propylindan-l-one 1C15 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-prop-2-enylindan-l-ol 1C16 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-prop-2-enyl-l-acetoxyindane 1C17 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-propylindan-l-ol 1C18 2-(1-ind-l-en),l)-2-propylindan-l-ol 1C19 2-(ind-l-enyl)-2-propanyl-l-acetoxyindane 6b 1C20 2-(1-ind-1 -enyl)-2-pent-2-enylindan-l-one 1C21 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-pentylindan-l-one 1C22 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-pent-2-enylindan-l-ol 1C23 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-pent-2-enylindan-l-ol 1C24 2-(1-ind-1-enyl)-2-benzylindan-l-one 1C25 and 1C26 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-benzylindan-l-ol 1C27 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-benzyl-l-acetoxyindane 1 C31 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-p-methoxycarbonylphenylmethyl-indan-l-one 1C32 2-(1-ind-1 -enyl)-2-p-carboxyphenylmethylindan-l-one 1C33 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-methoxycarbonylmethylindan-l-one 1C34 2-(1-indenyl)-2-carboxymethylindan-l-one 1C35 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-sodiurn oxycarbonylmethylindan-l-one 108 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-acetoxymethylindan-1-one 2C3 1-(2-indenyl)-1-ethylindan-2-one 2C4 1-(2-indenyl)-indan-2-one 2C6 1-(2-indenyl)-1-prop-2-enylindan-2-one 2C7 1-(2-indenyl)-1-benzylindan-2-one 2C8 1-(2-indenyl)-1-benzylindan-2-ol 2C10 1-(benzyl-2-inden-2-enyl)-inden-2-acetoxy 3C3 2-(2-indenyl)-2-prop-2-enylindan-l-one 3C4 2-(2-indenyl)-2-propylindan-l-one 3C5 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzylindan-l-one 3C6 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzylindan-l-ol 3C7 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzylindan-l-ol 3C8 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzylindan-l-ol 3C9 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzylindan-l-ol 3C10 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzyl-l-acetoxyindane 3C11 2-(2-indenyl)-2-p-methoxycarbonyl-6c phenylmethylindan-"1-one 3C13 2-(2-indenyl)-2-p-methoxycarbonyl-phenylmethyl-4-methoxyindan-l-one 3C18 2-(2-indenyl-2-benzyl-6-bromo-5,7-dimethylindan-l-one 3C19 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzyl-6-bromo-5,7-dimethylindan-l-ol 3C20 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzyl-6-bromo-5,7-dimethylindan-l-ol 3C22 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzyl-5-bromo-4,6-dimethylindan-l-one 3C23 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzyl-5-bromo-4,6-dimethylindan-l-ol 3C24 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzyl-5-bromo-4,6-dimethylindan-l-ol 3C31 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzyl-5,7-dimethylindan-l-one 3C32 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzyl-5,7-dimethylindan-l-ol 3C33 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzyl-5,7-dimethylindan-l-ol The invention also provides various processes for preparing the indane dimers as outlined in the claims. These processes are described in more detail below.

General Reaction Procedures 1. Aluminium tri-tert-butoxide method for synthesis of indan-l-one Indan-l-one and toluene was placed in a 250 ml round bottomed flask and the solution was dried by azeotropic distillation. To this solution was added Aluminium tri-tert-butoxide and the reaction mixture was allowed to reflux for 1 hour. An additional amount of Aluminium tri-tert-butoxide was added and the reaction was left to reflux for a further 30 mins.

The reaction mixture was cooled before being poured onto water. The product was extracted using ether and dried over sodium sulphate. On evaporation of the solvent the crude product was purified by flash column chromatography (eluent: petroleum ether:ether, 9:1). After evaporation of the eluent the product was obtained as a crystalline solid.

This procedure is particularly applicable for the synthesis of 2-(l'-Indanylidene)-l-indanone using 1-indanone as starting material.

2. Lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) Alkylation reaction LDA based alkylations of a-B enone dimer has proven to have been an excellent route to a alkyl-!3, a enone dimers.
Generally, the experimental procedure was as follows. A
three necked 100 ml round bottomed flask was oven dried and fitted with a septum and a nitrogen inlet line. The flask was then evacuated and heated with a heat gun to dry. To this flask which was filled with nitrogen was added the required dimer in dry THF. The solution was SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) cooled to -78 C with a liquid nitrogen/ethyl acetate bath and lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in THF/heptane/
ethylbenzene was added. After stirring for 10 minutes at -78 C, the desired organic halide was added and the solution was allowed to warm to room temperature for 3 =,, hours under a nitrogen atmosphere. To this solution was added ether and aqueous ammonium chloride solution. The organic layer was isolated and the aqueous layer was extracted with ether. The combined organic extracts were dried over sodium sulphate and on evaporation of the solvent afforded an oil. The crude product was purified by flash column chromatography.

3. Formation of dimers in Families 1 to 4 by coupling of a silyl enol ether of an Indonone with a dimethyl acetal or cyclic acetal of the same or different Indanone This coupling procedure was primarily developed to couple two different indanones together. However, this methodology was also successful for the coupling of the same indanone together. Generally, the experimental procedure was as follows.

To a stirred solution of the silyl enol ether of a particular indanone together and the corresponding dimethyl acetal of the same or different indanone in dichloromethane at -78 C, was added a catalytic amount of TMS triflate. The solution was left stirring at -78 C for 3 hours and then allowed to reach -50 C for 1 hour. To this solution was then added a 5% solution of sodium bicarbonate. The organic layer was isolated and the aqueous layer extracted with dichloromethane. The combine organic layers were dried with sodium sulphate. After evaporation of the solvent, the crude product was passed through a plug of silica, eluting with petroleum ether SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) 100% grading to petroleum ether:ethyl acetate, 100:4.
After evaporation of the eluent the product was obtained.
Same procedure for the coupling of a silyl enol ether of ' an Indonone derivative with a cyclic-ketal of 1-indanone derivative.

4. Elimination of methanol to form a,8-unsaturated ketone This procedure was primarily designed to synthesise a,I3-unsaturated ketones from the resulting methyl ethers dimers generated from the coupling of the silyl enol ethers and dimethyl acetals of different indanones. The reaction procedure was as follows.

The required dimer was dissolved in methanol and DCM, 3:1 and to this stirring solution was added triflic acid. The reaction mixture was allowed to reflux for 1 hour, after which time a precipitate formed. The solution was then cooled in an ice bath, filtered and the solid which was the respective a,f3-unsaturated ketone was dried.

5. Coupling of 3-Bromoindan-l-one to the silyl enol ether of indanones This procedure was particularly designed to couple a multitude of indanones to the 3 position of indane-l-one.
None of the other synthesis that were described above to couple indanones together appeared to allow for this transformation. The success of this coupling was primarily governed by the choice of Lewis acid (TMS
triflate was used) because of the presence of the potentially reactive carbonyl functional group on the 3-~ bromo indanone in the presence of the Lewis acids. The reaction scheme for preparing one compound of the invention is as follows:

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) -''M~/ -, Tnita~e O vQy -780c To a stirred solution of the silyl enol ether of an indanone and a 3-bromo indane-l-one derivative in dichioromethane at -78 C, was added a catalytic amount of TMS triflate. The solution was left stirring at -78 C for 10 nmins and at room temperature for 3 hours. To this solution was then added solid sodium bicarbonate (approx.
2 g) and the solution was stirred rapidly for 10 minutes.
The solution was then filtered and the filtrate was evaporated to leave a mobile oil, which was passed through a plug of silica, eluting with petroleum ether:ethyl acetate 9:2. After evaporation of the eluent, the product was obtained.

6. Reduction of dimers with 10% Palladium on Carbon This procedure is particularly applicable to the reduction of the carbon-carbon double bonds of f3, a enone dimers in families 1,2,3 and 4. In the case of a,13-unsaturated ketone indane dimers, this method of reduction always results in both the reduction of the carbon-carbon double bond and the carbonyl of the a-B-unsaturated system. The reduction procedure was as follows.

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) The required dimer was dissolved in ethanol and ethyl acetate. To this, 10% palladium over activated charcoal (catalytic quantities) was added and the reaction was stirred under hydrogen for 2 hours. The catalyst was removed by filtration. Evaporation of the solvent at reduced pressure afforded the crude product. The crude product was purified by flash column chromatography.

7. Reduction of dimers with 10% Palladium on Carbon and concentrated aq HC1 This procedure is particularly applicable to both the reduction of the f3, a carbon-carbon double bond and the ketone functional group. The reduction procedure was as follows.

The required dimer was dissolved in distilled ethanol and ethyl acetate. To this, concentrated aqueous HC1 37%
solution was added together with water and 10% palladium over activated charcoal (catalytic quantities) and the mixture was stirred under hydrogen for 24 hours.

The catalyst was removed by filtration and the product was extracted into ethyl acetate (3 x 20 ml). The crude product was purified by flash column chromatography.

8. Sodium borohydride reduction of dimers This reduction is particularly applicable to the reduction of the ketone functional group of compounds in families 1-4. The reduction procedure was as follows.

The required dimer was dissolved in ethanol and sodium borohydride was added to the reaction in small portions over 10 mins. The reaction was then stirred at room temperature for 3 hours. The reaction mixture was poured SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) onto water (20 ml) and extracted into diethyl ether (3 x 20 ml). Flash column chromatography over silica gel afforded the product.

9. Reduction of dimers by Huang-Minlon modification reaction Hydrazine hydrate reaction This reduction procedure is particularly applicable to the reduction of the ketone functional group in the case of f3, a enones. The reduction procedure was as follows.

The required dimer was dispersed in ethylene glycol.
Hydrazine hydrate was added along with sodium hydroxide.
The reaction was stirred at reflux for 24 hours. The reaction mixture was then cooled to room temperature and water was added and the product was extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was isolated and dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate. Flash column chromatography was used to afford the pure product.

10. Cyanoborohydride reduction of dimers This reduction procedure is particularly applicable to the reduction of the ketone functional group of compounds in families 1-4. The reduction is as follows.

The required dimer was dispersed in 1,2-dichioroethane at room temperature. To this solution was added solid zinc iodide and sodium cyanborohydride. The reaction was stirred at reflux for 20 hours. The product was added to water and extracted into ethyl acetate. Flash column chromatography (eluent: petroleum ether:ethyl acetate, 9:1) was used to isolate the pure product.

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) 11. Reduction or isomerisation of the a,l3-unsaturated double bond in dimers with 5% palladium on carbon = This procedure is particularly applicable to the reduction of the double bond in the case of a,l3-unsaturated ketones.
The required dimer was dispersed in ethanol and ethyl acetate and to this was added 5% palladium on carbon. The mixture was stirred under hydrogen for 14 hours. The palladium was removed by filtration and the solvent was removed to afford the crude reaction product. Flash column chromatography afforded the required product.

12. Wilkinsons reduction of dimers This method of reduction was particularly effective for the selective reduction of a double bond on R15 without reducing the R8-R9 double bond in families 1 to 4. The reduction procedure was as follows.

The required dimer was dissolved in ethanol and ethyl acetate. To this stirring solution Wilkinsons catalyst was added. The reaction was then stirred under hydrogen for 20 hours. The product was partitioned between ethyl acetate and water and the organic layer was isolated and dried with Na2SO4. The crude product was purified by flash column chromatography to yield the required product.

13. Hydrolysis of an ester dimers in Families 1 to 4 The required ester was dissolved in a solution of 1.45 M
NaOH in THF:MeOH:H20 (6:3:2), which was then refluxed.
After 20 minutes, TLC showed that the hydrolysis of the ester was complete. After cooling the reaction mixture, a saturated solution of aqueous ammonium chloride, aqueous HC1 (2M) and ether was added. The organic layer was SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) WO 97/20802 PC'd'/IE96/00080 isolated and the aqueous layer was extracted with ether.
The combined organic extracts were dried with Na2SO4 and filtered. Evaporation of the solvent, left the acid.

14. Oxime synthesis This procedure is particularly applicable for the synthesis of oxime derivatives of ketonic indane dimers which have hydrogens to the ketone. Generally the procedure was as follows.

The ketonic indanone dimer was dissolved in a solution of methanol:pyridine (4:1) and to this solution was then added hydroxylamine hydrochloride. Depending on the specific ketonic indan dimer, the reaction was carried out either at room temperature or at reflux conditions.

15. 0-alkylation of the oxime This procedure is particularly applicable to 0-alkylation of the oxi.me derivatives synthesised. Generally the procedure was as follows.

A solution of the oxime indane dimer was dissolved in ether:tert-butanol 3:1. Benzyl bromide was generally used as the alkylating reagent and it was added to the reaction mixture. Potassium tert-butoxide 1 eq. was added dropwise to this solution at room temperature. After workup using aqueous ammonium chloride and ether the desired oxime ether was isolated after chromatography.

16. cx-alkylation of O-benzyl oximes This- procedure is particularly applicable to the a-alkylation of oxime ether derivatives.

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) The procedure was as follows.

A solution of the oxime ether was dissolved in dry ether " and cooled to -78 C. To this solution was added n-butyl lithium, followed by benzyl bromide in excess. the ~ 5 reaction was generally quenched with water, the product extracted with ether and purified by flash column chromatography.

17. Sulfonylation of 2-indanol dimers This procedure is particularly applicable to sulfonylation of hydroxyl groups of 2-indanol dimers. The required hydroxylated dimer was dissolved in dichloromethane and to this solution was added methanesulfonyl chloride and N,N-diisopropylethyl amine dropwise. After stirring for 15 mins at 0 C, the reaction mixture was normally partitioned between DM and aqueous NaHCO3, the organic layer was isolated washed with water, 2M aqueous HC1 and finally water. Final purification of the products was by flash column chromatography.

18. Acetylation of the hydroxyl indan-dimers Generally the procedure was to dissolve the compound for acetylation in DCM and to use acetic anhydride as the acetylating reagent with triethylamine as tertiary base and DMAP as the acylation catalyst.

19. !3-methoxy carbonyl compounds transformation to a-alkyl and !3, -enones The J3-methoxy carbonyl compound was dissolved in ether:
tbutanol (5:1) and to this the desired alkylation agent was added. To a stirring solution potassium tert-butoxide was added dropwise over a period of 30 mins. The reaction was SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) allowed to stir at room temperature for 24 hours. An aqueous solution of ammonium chloride was added and the product was extracted into ether. The crude reaction mixture was then passed through a column of flash silica, to yield the desired product.

20. Alkylation of an a, J3-enone The required dimer was dissolved in ether: tbutanol (5:1) and to this the desired alkylation agent was added. To a stirring solution potassium tert-butoxide was added dropwise over a period of 30 mins. The reaction was allowed to stir at room temperature for 24 hours. An aqueous solution of ammonium chloride was added and the product was extracted into ether. The crude reaction mixture was then passed through a column of flash silica, to yield the desired product.

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 1C1 Potassium tert-butoxide method ether = 'BuOK
I ~; O
. ~ ~
Ic 1 Potassium tert butoxide (4.25 g, 37 mmol) in 'butanoi (125 ml) and ether (10 ml) were added dropwise over 20 minutes, to a stirring solution of indan-l-one (5.0 g, 37 mmol) in ether (20 ml) and 'butanol (5 ml). The reaction mixture was then left stirring overnight.

The crude product was partitioned between ethyl acetate and saturated aqueous ammonium chloride. The organic layer was isolated and the aqueous phase was re-extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layers were combined and dried over sodium sulphate. On evaporation of the solvent the crude product was obtained. Flash chromatography was used to purify the required product (eluent : petroleum ether (b.p. 40-60 C) . ethyl acetate, 9:1). On recrystallisation with ether lCl was obtained as a yellow solid. (Yield 20%).

Low resolution mass spectra: Found M*246.
Required M' 246.
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) iH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 3.11 (2H, t, J=6 Hz, CHZ) , 3.54 (2H, m, CI-IZ) , 3.98 (2H, s, CHZ) , 7.53 (6H, m, 6 x Ar-H) , 7.79 (2H, m, 2 x Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 30.9, 31.5, 33.0 (3 x_QHz) , 123.5, 125.7, 125.9 (3 x Ar-_QH), 125.9 (C=C), 126.2, 126.8, 127.2, 130.4, 133.5 (5 x Ar-CH), 139.5, 140.8, 148.5, 151.7, 154.9 (1 X c=c and 4 x AR-_Q), 195.1 (-Q=O).
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Alternative Synthesis of 1C1 Aluminium tri-tert-butoxide method.

J w tofueae + I tCH03CO 13 A!

S~S

Indan-l-one (5.0 g, 37 mmol) and toluene (80 ml) were placed in a 250 ml round bottomed flask and the solution was dried by azeotropic distillation. To this solution was added Aluminium tri-tert-butoxide (4.7 g, 19 mmol) and the reaction mixture was allowed to reflux for 1 hour. An additional amount of Aluminium tri-tert-butoxide (2.3 g, 9.0 mmol) was added and the reaction was left to reflux for a further 30 minutes.

The reaction mixture was cooled before being poured onto water. The product was extracted using ether and dried over sodium sulphate. On evaporation of the solvent the crude product was purified by flash column chromatography (eluent : petroleum ether : ether, 9:1). After evaporation of the eluent 1C1 was obtained as a yellow crystalline solid, 48% yield.

Low resolution mass spectra: Found M'246.
Required M'246.

~H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 3.11 (2H, t, J=6 Hz, CRZ ), 3.54 (2H, m, CIL), 3.98 (2H, s, CH2), 7.53 (6H, m, 6 x Ar-fl), 7.79 (2H, m, 2 x Ar-ii) .

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) 13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 30.9, 31.5, 33.0 (3 x-QHZ), 123.5, 125.7, 125.9 (3 x Ar-CH), 125.9 (C=C), 126.2, 126.8, 127.2, 130.4, 133.5 (5 x Ar-_QH), 139.5, 140.8, 148.7, 151.7, 154.9 (4 x Ar-_Q, and 1 xQ=C), 195.1 (C=0).
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) -synthesis of 3.C2 LDA in dry THF E2LI/N o ~ \ -78 c !G-CH3=
O

- c2 A three necked 100 ml round bottomed flask was oven dried and fitted with a septum and a nitrogen inlet line. The flask was then evacuated and heated with a heat gun to dry. To this flask, which was filled with nitrogen was added indan-l-one dimer 1C1 (500 mg, 2.0 mmol) in dry THF
(25 ml). The solution was cooled to -78 C with a liquid nitrogen/ethyl acetate bath and lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in THF/heptane/ethylbenzene (1.0 ml of 2M solution of LDA) was added. After stirring for 10 minutes at -78 C, iodomethane (1.14 g, 8.0 mmol, 4 equivalents) was added and the solution was allowed to warm to room temperature for 3 hours under vacuum and in a nitrogen atmosphere.

To this solution was added ether (30 ml) and ammonium chloride solution (30 ml). The organic layer was isolated and the aqueous layer was extracted with ether (2 x 30 SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) ml) The combined organic extracts were dried over sodium sulphate and on evaporation of the solvent afforded an oil. The crude product was purified by flash column chromatography (eluent : petroleum ether b.p. 40-60 C
ethyl acetate, 9:1), to yield 1C2 m.p. : 112-114 C.
IR (KBr)m$,,: 2361.2, 1715.1, 1606.9, 1459.7 cm"1.
Microanalysis: C19H16O requires C, 87.69% and H, 6.15%.
found: C, 87.54% and H, 6.25%

Low resolution mass spectra: Found M}260, M+-15=245.
Required M'260.

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 1.67 (3H, s, CH3), 3.20 (1H, d, J=17 Hz, CH), 3.40 (2H, d, J=2 Hz, QU2), 3.69 (1H, d, J=17 Hz, CH) , 6.52 (1H, t, J=2 Hz, CH) , 6.87 (1H, d, J=8 Hz, Ar-ii), 7.15 (2H, m, 2 x Ar-H), 7.48 (3H, m, 3 x Ar-H), 7.68 (1H, m, Ar-H), 7.92 (1H, d, J=8 Hz, Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47MHz) Sc 23.9 (CH3), 37.6, 41.2 (2 x HHZ), 50.5 (CO_Q(CH2) (CH3)), 119.8, 124.1, 124.6, 124.8, 125.9, 126.8, 127.7, 130.1, 135.2, (8 x Ar-_QH & 1 x C=_QH), 135.6, 143.0, 144.9, 145.8, 152.3 (4 x Ar-C &_C,=CH), 208.6 (-Q=0).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 1C2 Potassium tert-butoxide method.

ether eH3 + 'BuOK + CH3I
p 'BiM O
'G2 To a three necked round bottomed flask was added indan-I-one (l0.Og, 75 mmol) which was dissolved in ether (100 ml) and 'butanol (20 ml). To this, iodomethane (4.72 ml, 75 mmol) in ether (50 ml) and potassium tert-butoxide (8.49 g, 75 mmol) in 'butanol (150 ml) were added dropwise at equal rates. The reaction mixture was stirred at ref lux for 2 hours.

The solution was allowed to cool and the mixture was partitioned between ethyl acetate and aqueous ammonium chloride (1 : 1 300 ml). The organic layer was extracted and the aqueous phase re-extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 50 ml). The combined organic layers were dried over sodium sulphate. On evaporation of the solvent the crude product was obtained. Flash column chromatography was used to purify the required product (eluent: petroleum ether (b.p. 40-60 C) : ethyl acetate, 9:1) . On isolation of SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) 1C2 it was recrystallised from ether to yield a white solid, (20%).

m.p. 112-114 C.

IR (KBr)m$X: 2361.2, 1715.1, 1606.9, 1459.7 cm-1.

Microanalysis: C19H16O requires C, 87.69% and H, 6.15%.
found: C, 87.54% and H, 6.25%
Low resolution mass spectra: Found M+260, M'-15=245.
Required M+260.

iH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 1.67 (3H, s, CH3), 3.20 (1H, d, J=17 Hz, CH), 3.40 (2H, d, J=2 Hz, CHZ), 3.69 (1H, d, J=17 Hz, CH), 6.52 ( 1H, t, J=2 Hz, CH), 6.87 (1H, d, J=8 Hz, Ar-H), 7.15 (2H, m, 2 x Ar-I-,), 7.48 (3H, m, 3 x Ar-H), 7.68 (1H, m, Ar-H), 7.92 (1H, d, J=8 Hz, Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 23.9 (_QH3), 37.6, 41.2 (2 x -QHZ), 50.5 (COf,(CHZ) (CH3))1 119.8, 124.1, 124.6, 124.8, 125.9, 126.8, 127.7, 130.1, 135.2, (8 x Ar--QH & 1 x C=HH), 135.6, 143.0, 144.9, 145.8, 152.3 (4 x Ar-_Q &-Q=CH), 208.6 SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 1C3 10% Palladium on Carbon Reduction.

C C H
PdfCharcoal 0 1 ~ EtOK C
EeOAc t CZ 1G3 1C2 (1.0 g, 3.8 mmol) was dissolved in ethanol (20 ml) and ethyl acetate (10 ml). To this 10% palladium over activated charcoal (catalytic quantities) was added and the reaction was stirred under hydrogen for 2 hours. The catalyst was removed by filtration. Evaporation of the solvent at reduced pressure afforded a clear oil, which was recrystallised from petroleum ether (b.p. 40-60 C) as a white solid, (0.76g, 76.34%). This white solid was found to be a mixture of diastereomers (1C3).

M.p. 88-90 C.

IR (film)Q,x: 1709.8 cm-1 (C=0), 1606.8cm-1 (C=C).

Where distinguishable the values for the minor diastereomeric mixture are itallised.

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SE 1.46 (3H, s, CH3), 1.45, 1.90, 2.10 & 2.30 (2H, 4 x m, CHCHZ), 2.63 & 2.97 (2H, dd, J=18, 102.1 Hz, CCjiz), 2.79 (2H, m, CHCH2CIj2) , 3.65, 3.84 (1H, 2 x m, CjJCH2CH2), 6.73 & 6.99 (1H, 2 x br.m, 1 x Ar-H), 7.30 (5H, br m, 5 x Ar-ii), 7.56 (1H, m, 1 x Ar-fl), 7.78, 7.83 (1H, dd, 1 x Ar-I-~).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) 13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 24.4, 24.6 (-QH3), 29.0, 28.3, 31 . 8, 31.2, 37.6, 36.8 (3 xQHZ) , 50.7, 50.6 (_QH) , 52 . 9, 52.6 (q-Q), 124.2, 124.8, 125.5, 125.9, 126.4, 126.8, 127.4, 134.8 (Ar-_QH), 136.2, 144.2, 145.0, 153.4 (Ar-C), 210.9, 211.0 (C=O).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) 10% Palladium on Carbon reduction Synthesis of 1C4 /
T I CH3 pd/Charcoat OQH
EtOH p ~ \
EtOAc -IC2 (1.0 g, 3.8 mmol) was dissolved in ethanol (20 ml) and ethyl acetate (10 ml). To this, 10% palladium over activated charcoal (catalytic quantities) was added and the reaction was stirred under hydrogen for 2 hours. The catalyst was removed by filtration. Evaporation of the solvent at reduced pressure afforded a clear oil , which was recrystallised from diethyl ether and petroleum ether (b.p. 40 - 60 C) as a white solid, 0.76 g, 76.34%. This white solid was found to be a mixture of diasteriomers.
M.p. 88 - 90 C.
IR ( fiZm)õx: 1709.8 cm-I (C=0) , 1606.8 cat L(C=C) .

Where distinguishable the values for the minor diasteriomer are italized.

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 1.46 (3H, s, CR3), 1.45, 1.90, 2.10 & 2.30 (2H, 4 x m, CHCK2CHZ) , 2.68 & 2.98 (2H, dd, J=17 . 8 Hz, CC112) , 2.79 (2H, m, CHCHZCH,Z) , 3.65, 3.85 ( 1H, m, CIJCHZCHZ), 6.75 & 6.96 (1H, br.m & t respectively, 1 x Ar-11), 7.30 (5H, br m, 5 x Ar-lj,), 7.56 (1H, m, 1 x Ar-H), 7.78, 7.83 (1H, dd, 1 x Ar-ii).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 24.4, 24.6 (-CH3), 29.0, 28.3, 31.8, 31.2, 37.6, 36.8 (3 x!CHZ), 50.7, 50.6 (-QH), 52.9, 52.6 (q-Q), 124.2, 124.8, 125.5, 125.9, 126.4, 126.8, 127.4, 134.8 (Ar--QH), 136.2, 144.2, 145.0, 153.4 (Ar-.Q), 210.9, 211.0 (C=O).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) 101 Palladium on Carbon reduction Synthesis of 1C4 / CH3 C:H3 I ~ Pd/Charcoal \ \
O EtOH
IEiOAc HCl 1 G 2 1 G t.t 1C2 (100 mg, 0.385 mmol) was dissolved in distilled ethanol (5 ml) and ethyl acetate (1 ml). To this solution concentrated HC1 37% solution (0.2 ml) was added together with water (0.4 ml) and Pd/Charcoal (catalytic quantities) and the mixture was stirred under hydrogen for 24 hours.
The catalyst was removed by filtration and the product was extracted into ethyl acetate (3 x 20 ml). The crude product was purified by flash column chromatography (eluent : petroleum ether : ethyl acetate, 99:1) to yield 1C4 (84 mg, 89.14%).

iH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SB 1.52 (3H, s, CHi ), 2.14 and 2.21 (2H, each m, CHCH2CH2), 2.80 and 3.26 (2H, 2 x d, J=15 . 5 Hz, CCHZ), 3.04 and 3.13 (2H, 2 x d, J=15.5 Hz, CCH.z), 3.11 (2H, m, CHCHZCHZ) , 3.49 (1H, m, CHCHZCH2) , 7.26 (8H, br m, 8 X Ar_ff).

13C NMR (CDC13i 75.47 MHz) Sc 22.6 (-QH3), 28.6, 31.9, 46.3, 46.5 (CH2), 55.5 (_QH), 124.5, 124.7, 125.2, 125.8, 125.9, 125.9, 126.4, (Ar--QH), 142.5, 143.0, 145.1, 145.2 (Ar-C).

References: C.M. Wong, D. Popies, R. Schwerk and J. Te Raa.
Can. J. Chem. Vol 49 õ(1971), 2714 SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Sodium Borohydride Reduction Synthesis of 1C5 CHg NaBH4 o EtOH

~ EtOAc OH
\G2 c E) 1C2 (530 mg, 2.04 mmol) was dissolved in ethanol (10 ml) and sodium borohydride (0.1 g, 2.63 mmol) was added to the reaction in small portions over 10 minutes. The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 3 hour. The reaction mixture was poured onto water (20 ml) and extracted into diethyl ether (3 x 20 ml). Flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: petroleum ether (b.p. 40-60 C):
ethyl acetate, 98:2) afforded the product 1C5 as a clear oil 396 mg, 74.15%. It was found that the product was obtained as a mixture of diastereomers.

IR (KBr),i,: 3429.8 cm'1.

Where distinguishable the values for the minor diastereomer are italized.

H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 1.44, 1.47 (3H, d, CH3), 3.00 &
3.84, (1H, 2 x d, J=15.5 Hz, CH of CH2), 3.13 & 3.35 (1H, dd, J=15.9 Hz, CH of CH2), 3.43 & 3.59 (2H, 2 x d, J = 2 Hz, 2 Hz, CHZ), 5.41, 5.67 (1H, 2 x s, CHOH), 6.49, 6.53 SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) ( 1H, 2 x t, J=2 Hz, 2 Hz, C=CH) , 7. 40 & 7. 78 ( 6H, m & d respectively, 6 x Ar-H), 7.61 (2H, m, 2 x Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) 8c 25.5 (_QH3), 37.6, 37.9, 43.1, 43.2 (-QH2), 49.9, 50.2 (qg), 80.7, 81.6, (CI~,-OH), 121.1 (-CH), 121.2, 121.6, 124.2, 124.3, 124.4, 124.5, 124.8, 125.1, 125.3, 125.8, 126.1, 126.4, 128.0, 128.6, 128.9, 128.9, 130.8, 138.5, 140.3, 142.8, 143.3, 143.9, 144.0, 145.4, 145.5, 148.2, 150.0, 171.3 (Ar-HH & Ar-C & 1 x C=CH).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Sodium borohydride reduction Synthesis of 1C6 NaBH4 cN
EcoH

EtOAc OH
G-2...
1G.~
The same method was used as for the synthesis of 1C5. 1C6 was isolated as a mixture of diastereomers 176 mg, 76.24%.

Where distinguishable values for minor diastereomers are italized.

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) Sfl 0.86, 0.94 (3H, 2 x s, CH3), 2.29-3.54 (6H, br m, CHZ's), 5.19, 5.23 (1H, 2 x br.s, CHOH), 7.19-7.39 (8H, m, 8 x Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 15.1, 16.0 (-QH3), 27.9, 28.9, 31.9, 32.1, 43.6, 43.8 (-QHZ), 52.1 (q.Q), 54.5, 54.1 (CH), 82.5, 82.0 (_QHOH), 123.7, 124.7, 124.9, 125.3, 125.5, 125.8, 125.9, 127.8 (Ar--QH), 140.2, 144.0, 144.7, 145.2 (Ar-.Q).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Hydrazine Hydrate Reaction.

Huang - Minlon modification Reduction Reaction Synthesis of 1C7 / ocH2cx20H CH
~
o H2NNH,.H2O
-- NaOH

IG~
1C~
1C2 (100mg, 0.38 mmol) was dispersed in ethylene glycol (5 ml). Hydrazine hydrate (2.5 ml) was added along with sodium hydroxide (0.2 g). The reaction was stirred at reflux for 24 hours. The reaction mixture was then cooled to room temperature and water (50 ml) was added and the product was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 20 ml). The organic layer was isolated and dreid over anhydrous sodium sulphate. Flash column chromatography (eluent : petroleum ether : ethyl acetate 99:1) was used to afford the pure product 1C7 34mg, 35.58%.

Low resolution mass spectra: Found M+246 Required M' 246.

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 1.53 (3H, s, CH3), 3.04 (2H, d, J=15.5 Hz, Cffz), 3.39 (2H, s, CHZ), 3.59 (2H, d, J=15.5 Hz, CHZ), 6. 36 (1H, t, CH),, 7.28 (6H, br m, 6 x Ar- H) , 7.48 (1H, m, 1 x Ar-H), 7.53 (1H, br d, 1 x Ar-H).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) 13C nmr (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 27.5 (CH3), 37.4, 45.6, 45.6 (3 x CH2) 44.2 (qC), 121.3, 124.1, 124.2, 124.9, 124.9, 125.7, 126.3, 126.3, 126.9 (8 x Ar-CH and 1 x C=CH) 142.4, 142.4, 144.0, 145.4, 151.7 (4 x Ar-C and 1 x C=CH).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Cyanoborohydride Reduction Reaction Synthesis of 1C7 Cyanoborohydride Reduction Reaction.

CH NaCN(BH3) CH
~ ZnI2 ~C2 lG-1 1C2 (100 mg, 0.38 mmol) was dispersed in 1,2-dichloroethane (5 ml) at room temperature. To this solution was added solid zinc iodide (0.02 g, 0.0625 mmol) and sodium cyanoborohydride (0.2 g, 3.18 mmol). The reaction was stirred at reflux for 20 hours. The product was added to water (15 ml) and extracted into ethyl acetate. Flash column chromatography (eluent : petroleum ether : ethyl acetate 9:1) was used to isolate 1C7, 27mg, 29.13%.

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) 6H 1.53 (3H, s, CH3), 3.04 (2H, d, J=15.5 Hz, CIJZ), 3.39 (2H, s, CH2), 3.59 (2H, s, J=15.5 Hz, CH2), 6.36 (1H, t, J=2.1Hz, Cil), 7.28 (6H, br m, 6 x Ar-H), 7.48 (1H, m, I x Ar-.(j), 7.53 (1H, br d, 1 x Ar-lj).
References: C.K. Lau, Claude Durfresne, P.C. Belanger, S.
Pietre and J. Scheigetz.
J. Org. Chem., (1986), U, 3038-3043.
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 1C8 Acetic anhvdride Et3H, DM.4,P
OH
Ococ3 zz~' ZC5 (100 mg, 0.38 mmol) was dissolved in clean, dry DCM (5 ml). To this solution was added triethylamine (0.2 ml), DMAP (0.1g) and acetic anhydride (0.35 ml, 10 equivalents). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 15 minutes and passed through a plug of silica eluting with petroleum spirit (b.p. 40-60 C) : ethyl acetate (8:2) to afford 1C8 (67 mg, 57.7%).

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 1.44 (3H, s, CEi3), 1.53 (3H, s, OCOCK3), 2.91-3.91 (4H, br. m, CRZ), 6.38 (1H, br s, C=CH), 6.445 (1H, s, CIJOCOCHj), 7.18-7.58 (8H, m, Ar-H) 13CNMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 20.7, 21. 1(CH3) , 26. 1(OCOCH3) , 37.5, 37.6, 43.7, 43.9 (2 x CHZ), 47.9, 48.7 (qC), 81.5, 82.4 (.QHOCOCH3), 121.0, 121.3, 123.8, 124.1, 124.2, 124.4, 124.8, 125.1, 125.2, 125.8, 125.9, 126.7, 126.8, 127.2, 128.4, 128.6, 129.1, 129.3, 140.5, 141.8, 143.5 143.8, 144 . 8, 145.3, 148. 3( 8 x Ar-_QH, 4 x Ar-.Q, 1 each 170,6 ( O-COCH3 ) SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 1C9 tBuoK
CEi3 t Gq To stirring solution of indan-l-one (2g, 0.015mo1) in diethyl ether (40 ml) and t-butanol (20 ml), was added potassium tert-butoxide (1.7g, 15.2 mmol) in portions.
Following the addition of the potassium tert-butoxide, iodomethane (2.13g, 0.934 ml, 14.6 mmol) was added dropwise and the reaction was stirred at reflux for 2 hours. The reaction was cooled to room temperature and extracted into ethyl acetate. The solvent was evaporated at reduced pressure. Column chromatography over silica gel eluting with petroleum spirit (b.p. 40-60 C) : ethyl acetate (9:1) afforded 1C9 (0.87g, 39.9%) tH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) 6H 1.31, 1.34, 1.61 (9H, 3 x s, 3 x CH3), 3.20 (1H, d, J = 17.3 Hz, CH of CCIL), 3.67 (1H, d, J = 17.3 Hz, CH OF CCHZ), 6.31 (1H, s, C=Cjj), 6.79 (1H, d, J= 6.6 Hz, 1 x Ar-H), 6.80 - 7.17 (2H, m, 2 x Ar-H), 7.23 - 7.31 (1H, t, J = 7.2 Hz, 1 x Ar-H), 7.41 - 7.49 (2H, m, 2 x Ar-H), 7.62 - 7.70 (1H, t, J= 7.3 Hz, 1 x Ar-H), 7.87 (1H, d, J = 6.5 Hz, 1 x Ar-H) 13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 23.9, 24.7, 24.8 (3 x-CH3), 41.2 (1 xQH2), 47.8, 50.0 (2 x q.Q), 120.2, 121.4, 124.7, 125.1, 126.1, 126.7, 127.7, 135.1, 142.9 (8 x Ar-fH and 1 x C=_QH), 135.7, 141.0, 141.6, 152.2, 154.5 (4 x Ar-C & 1 x _Q=CH), 208.2 (Q=O) Elemental microanalysis C21H200 requires C: 87.5, H: 6.94, found C: 87.21, H: 7.07 SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 1C10 I.DA in dry THF 01RLI/\ O 1 \ 78 C ...- ~

1G~ /
f ~ C,Ai o ~ \
1cro The reaction yield of 1C10 was 0.87 g, 77.89%.

Low resolution mass spectra: Found M'274, M'-29 = 245.
Required M'274.

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 0. 83 (3H, t, J 8 Hz, CHA, 2.21 (2H, m, J=8 Hz, CHZ). 3.34 (iH, d, Ci-~), 3.35 (2H, s, CHZ), 3.59 (1H, d, J=17 Hz, CH), 6.49 (1H, t, J=2 Hz, Cli) , 7.15-8.0 (8H, m, 8 x Ar-H).

IsC NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 8.6 (CH&HA, 29.5, 37.4, 38.3 (3 x-QH2), 54.4 (q.Q), 120.1, 123.9, 123.9, 124.4, 125.7, 126.2, 127.3, 129.7, 134.8, (8 x Ar-_QH & C=_QH), 136.9, 143.2, 144.8, 145.1, 152.6 (5x Ar-.Q), 207.7 (.Q=O).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 1CI1 10%
Pd/Charcod EtoH
o ficoAc 0 Clo sc ts The reaction yield for 1C11 was 163 mg, 73.56%.

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SA 0.75 (3H, m, CH3 ), 1.25 - 2.30 (4H, br m, 2 x CHZ), 2.75 - 3.10 (4H, br m, 2 x CHZ), 3.8 & 3.9 (1H, 2 x m, CHCH2CH2) , 7.0 - 7.9 (8H, br m, 8 x Ar-H).

I3C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 8.4 & 8.7 (CH3), 28.2, 28.3, 30.7, 31.3, 31.8, 35.0, 35.2 (4 x CHZ), 50.1, 50.2 (CH), 56.4, 57.0 (qC), 123.6, 124.8, 125.5, 126.2, 126.9, 134.6, 134.7, 137.9, 143.2, 144.2, 144.4, 145.2, 154.2, (Ar-CH &
Ar-C), 210.9 (C=0).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Wo 97/20802 PCT/IE96/00080 Synthesis of 102 LDA in dry THF

~ -78 C OLi / tG t H2C---CHCH2B r O

The reaction yield for 1C12 was 0.78 g, 67.09%.
Low resolution mass spectra: Found: M'286 Required: M'286 iH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 2.94 (2H, d, CH2CH=CHZ ), 3.38 (2H, br s, C=CHC112), 3.53 (2H, ab q, J=17.5 Hz, C#L), 4.99 ( 1H, dd, J=1 Hz, 10 Hz, CHZCH=C#J2) , 5.16 (1H, dd, J=3.3 Hz, 17 Hz, CH2CH=CH2), 5.62 (1H, m, CHZCH=CHz), 6.52 ( 1H, t, J=2 Hz, C=C#JCH2), 7.06 (1H, m, 1 x Ar-H), 7.18 (2H, m, 2 x Ar-H), 7.46 (3H, m, 3 x Ar-H), 7.65 (1H, dt, J=1.3 Hz & J=7.6 Hz 1 x Ar-H), 7.87 (1H, d, J=7.5 Hz, 1 x Ar-H).

I3C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 37.6, 37.6, 41.1 (3 xCHZ), 53.9 (q.Q), 118.7 (CHZC=_QH2), 120.2, 124.0, 124.2, 124.6, 125.8, 126.4, 127.6, 130.3, 132.9, 135.2, (8 x Ar-CH & 2 xQfi), 136.2, 143.0, 144.8, 144.9, 152.7 (Ar-C), 207.4 SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Wilkinsons reduction Synthesis of 1C13 Wiikinsons Catalyst /
EtOH \
O ,~.
Et Ac G-Z. 1Gt3 1C12 (100 mg, 0.349 mmol) was dissolved in ethanol (20 ml) and ethyl acetate (10 ml). To this stirring solution Wilkinsons catalyst (0.1 g) was added. The reaction was then stirred under hydrogen for 20 hours. The product was partitioned between ethyl acetate and water and the organic layer was isolated and dried with NaZSO~. The crude product was purified by flash column chromatography to yield ZC13 57 mg, 56.60%.

'H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) Sg 0.88 (3H, t, J=7 Hz, CH3), 1.27 (2H, m, C,d2), 2.16 (2H, m, C_U2), 3.36 (2H, br.s, C=CHCHZ), 3.49 (2H, ab q, J=17.6 Hz, COCHz) 6.50 (1H, t, J=2 Hz, Clj), 7.12 (3H, m, 3 x Ar-ii), 7.50 (3ft, m, 3 x Ar-li), 7.64 (1H, dt, J=1.2 Hz & J=7.6 Hz, 1 x Ar-ii), 7.86 (1H, d, J=7.2 Hz, 1 x Ar-L-I ) .

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 14.5 (-QH3), 17.6, 37.6, 38.9, 39r2 (4 xQH2), 54.3 (q-Q), 120.3 (-QH), 124.1, 124.2, 124.6, 125.8, 126.3, 127.6, 129.8, 135.0 (8 x Ar-.QH), 136.9, 143.3, 144.9, 145.3, 152.8 (4 x Ar-_Q & 1 x C'=C), 208.2 (-Q=0).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) 10% Palladium on carbon reduction Synthesis of 1C14 Pd/Charcoa!
EtOEi O EtOAc O

G~~- 1 C evt.
The reaction yield for 1C14 was 76 mg, 75.4%.

Where distinguishable values for minor diastereomers are italized iH NMR (CDC13i 300 MHz) SH 0.92 (3H, t, CH3), 1.10-4.00 (14H, br m, CH & CHZ's), 3.74 (1H, m, CHCHZCHZ), 6.90-7.90 (8H, m, 8 x Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 14.6 (-QH3), 17.1, 17.5 (.QHa), 28.2 (.QHZ) , 31.2, 31.8 (-QH2), 35 . 3, 35. 6MHZ) , 40.5, 41.0 (CH2), 50.4, 50.6 (-QH), 56.2, 56.7 (q-Q), 123.4, 123.6, 123.9, 124.4, 124.8, 125.5, 125.9, 126.1, 126.2, 126.5, 126.8, 127.3, 134.6, 134.7, 137.7, 143.4, 144.2, 144.4, 145.2, 153.7, 154.1 (Ar-.QH & Ar-_Q), 211.0 (Q=O).

SUBSTiTUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 1C15 Sodium borohydride reduction oe iYagH4 ErC?H
o Et Ac scs.2 1C1s The method is the same as that described for IC5.

The reaction yield for 1C15 (73 mg, 72.42%) from which two diastereoisomers were separated by flash column chromatography.

pl astere meric Mixture 1=

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 2.55 & 2.61 (1H, 2 x d, CC#jZCH=CHZ), 2.89 & 2.94 ( 1H, 2 x d J = 6.15 Hz CCF,,,(ZCH=CHz), 3.33 (2H, q, Ja16 Hz, C112), 3.35 (2H, d, J = 2 Hz, C=CHC112), 4.90 ( 1H, dd, J=l Hz, 10 Hz, CHZCH=CffZ) , 4.98 (IH, dd, J=3. 3 Hz, 17 Hz, CHZCH=Cff2) , 5.51 (IH, d, J=7.9 Hz, CIIOH), 5.64 (1H, m, C=CIJCHZ), 6.40 (IH, s, C=CH) 7.19 (5H, m, 5 x Ar-H), 7.35 (1H, m, 1 x Ar-H), 7.50 (IH, d, J=5 Hz, 1 x Ar-H), 7.72 (1H, d, J=5 Hz, 1 x Ar-H).

11C NMR (CDC13, 75 . 47 MHz )&c 37 . 4, 37 . 6, 40.4 (3 x -CHZ), 53.0 (q_Q), 81.8 (-CHOH), 116.9 (CH=QH2)o 121.7, 124.1, 124.1, 124.4, 124.7, 125.8, 126.9, 128.4, 129.9, 136.1 (8 x Ar-rH & 1 x Cx-QH & 1 xQH=CH2), 140.7, 143.9, 144.1, 145.3, 148.2 (4 x Ar-(' & 1 xf,=CH) .

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Diastereomeric Mixture 2:

iH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 2.24 (1H, d, J=5. 39 Hz, CHOH) , 2.87-3.41 (6H, m, 3 x CHZ), 4.91 (2H, m, CH=CHZ), 5.49 (H, d, J=5. 37 Hz, CliOH), 5.62 (1H, m, CH=CH2), 6.37 (1H, s, C=CIICH2), 7.23-7.72 (8H, m, 8 x Ar-CH).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 29.7, 37.4, 37.6 (3 x HH2), 81.7 (-QOH), 116.9 (CH=-QH2), 121.7, 124.0, 124.1, 124.4, 124.7, 125.8, 126.9, 128.3, 129.9, 136.1, (8 x Ar_QH & 2 x _Q=_QH), 140.7, 143.8, 144.0, 145.3, 148.2 (5 x Ar-C).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of acetates Synthesis of 1C16 I j A
Acxtic Anhydride 6t3iv, DMAP
OH

1C15 (140 mg, 0.5 mmol ) was dissolved in clean, dry DCM
(10 ml). To this solution was added triethylamine (0.15g, 0.20 ml), DMAP (0.1g) and acetic anhydride (0.45 ml, 10 equivalents). Thereaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 15 minutes and passed through a plug of silica eluting with petroleum spirit (b.p. 40-60 C) : ethyl acetate (8:2) to afford 1C16 (149 mg, 92.9%).

iH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) &H 1.53 (3H, s, OCOC~.i3), 2.23 (1H, dd, J= 5.5 and 13.8 Hz, CH of CHZ), 2.80 (1H, dd, J= 5.5 and 13.8 Hz, CH of CR2), 3.22 (1H, d, J = 15.8 Hz, CH of CIJ2), 3.44 (2H, s, CIJZ), 3.63 (1H, d, J = 15.8 Hz, CH of Cji2), 4.87 ( 1H, d, J = 17 Hz, CH of C112), 4.95 ( 1H, d, J =
10 Hz, CH of CH2), 5.61-5.49 (1H, m C-~,I), 6.36 (1H, t, J =
2.0 Hz, C=C,#j), 6.54 (1H, s, C~.iOCOCH3 ), 7. 21-7 . 37 (5H, m, 5 x Ar - H), 7.51 (2H, t, J = 6.6 Hz, 2 x Ar - H), 7.63 (1H, d, J= 7.2 Hz, 1 x Ar - H) 13C_ NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 20.6 (OCO.QH3), 37.6, 40.0, 40.3 (3 x f-HZ ) , 51 . 6 ( qC ) , 81.7 ( CHOCOCH3 ) , 117 . 8 ( CH=-QHZ ) , 120.8, 123.8, 124.2, 124.9, 125.9, 126.8, 127.1, 129.3, 130.9, 134.1, 140.7, 143.1, 143.6, 144.7, 145.9, (8 x Ar-CH, 4 x Ar-C, 1 each Q=.QH and 1 xQH=CH2 ), 170 . 6 ( O.QOCH3 ) SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) .Jynthesis of 1C17 & IC18 Sodium borohydride reduction of 1C13 NaBH4 EtOH
~ ~- EtOAc OH

Yield (90 mg, 90%) 1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 0. 84-2 . 20 (8H, br m, CH31 CHZ's ), 3.29 (2H, s, C=CHCHZ), 3.33 (2H, abq, J=16Hz, COHCCH2), 5.42 (1H, br s, CFiOH), 6.28 (1H, t, J=2.lHz, C=Cli), 7.18-7.81 (8H, m, 8 x Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 14.8 (_QHs), 18.7, 34.7, 37.5, 40.8 (4 x-QHZ), 53.6 (q-Q), 81.2 (_QHOH), 121.7, 124.0, 124.3, 124.4, 124.7, 125.8, 126.7, 128.3, 129.7, 141.7, 144.1, 144.2, 145.3, 148.2 (8 x Ar-.QH & 4 x Ar-.Q & 1 x .Q=CH & 1 x C=fH).

IH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 0.74 (3H, t, J=7.4Hz, CH2CHZCN3), 0.92 (2H, m, CCHZCi CH3 ), 1.75 (2H, m, CC112CHZCH3 ), 3.45 (2H, s, CCH2), 3.12 & 3.59 ( 1H each, d. J=15.6Hz, CHCffi), 5.37 (1H, s, CHOH), 6.45 (1H, s, C=CFj), 7.27-7.79 (8H, m, 8 x Ar-11) .

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 14.4 (CH3), 18.5, 29.7, 37.8, 39.4 (4 x_QH2), 54.8 (q.Q), 81.8 (-QHOH), 120.9, 124.2, 124.7, 125.1, 125.7, 126.3, 126.7, 128.7, 130.9, 142.6, 143.4, 143.7, 145.2, 146.1, (8 x Ar-_QH & 4 x Ar-_Q & 1 x .Q=CH & I x C=-QH).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) WO 97/20802 PCT/1E96l00080 Svnthesis of 1.C19 A
cetic Anhydride Et3N, DI~tAP

OH
C)C
OCOCH3 \
i G C..1 1 IC18 (70 mg, 0.25 mmol) was dissolved in clean, dry DCM (5 ml). To this solution was added triethylamine (0.15 ml) DMAP (0.05g) and acetic anhydride (0.25 ml, 10 equivalents). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 15 minutes and passed through a plug of silica eluting with petroleum spirit (b.p. 40-60 C) : ethyl acetate (8:2) to afford IC19 (65 mg, 81.1%).

'H NMR ( CDCI3r 300 MHz) 6H 0.71 (3H, t, J= 7.1 Hz, CH2CIL), 0.89 - 1.97 (4H. br. M. CIWs ), 1.51 (3H, s, CI ), 3.17 (1H, d, J 15.5 Hz, CH of CHCIJ2), 3.40 (2H, s, CH2), 3.62 (IH, d, J= 15.6 Hz, CH of CHCHZ), 6.34 (1H, t, J= 2.2 Hz, C=Cji), 6.49 (1H, s, CJJOCOCH3), 7.18 - 7.59 (SH, m, Ar-H) 13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 14.3 (CH&H3), 18.3 (.QHZ), 20.7 (OCO_QH3), 37.6, 38.6, 40.4 (3 xQH2), 52.4 (qQ), 82.4 (f,HOCOCH3), 120.8, 123.8, 124.2, 124.98, 125.9, 126.8, 127.0, 129.3, 130.4 (8 x Ar-C-H, vinylic _QH), 141.0, 143.4, 143.9, 144.6, 146.6 (4 x Ar-.Q and 1 xQ=CHCHZ), 170.7 ( O.QOCH3 ) SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Svnthesis of 1C20 LDA in dry THF
o -7a c o t; .._-Q'j3CH2CH=CHa-f2 Bt' O

Zc 9,o The reaction for IC20 was 40%.

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) Se 0.73 (3H, t, CH2CH3 ), 1.83 (2H, m, CHzCH3), 2.85 (2H, d, CH2CH=CH ), 3.38 (2H, br s, C=CHC117), 3.50 (2H, ab q, J=13.0 Hz, COCCHZ), 5.18 & 5.58 (2H, 2 x m, CHZCH=CHCHZ) , 6.52 ( 1H, t, J=2 Hz, 1 x C=CHCHZ), 7.01 (1H, m, 1 x Ar-H), 7.15 (2H, m, 2 x Ar-H), 7.40 (3H, m, 3 x Ar-H), 7.65 (1H, t, 1 x Ar-H), 7.85 (IH, d, 1 x Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 13.4 (CH3), 25.4, 37.6, 37.6, 39.9 (4 x-QH2), 54.3 (qC), 120.1, 123.1, 124.0, 124.0, 124.6, 125.8, 126.3, 127.4, 130.2, 135.0, 136.6, 136.9, 143.2, 144.9, 145.1, 152.9 (8 x Ar-!QH & 4 x Ar-H & 1 x & 1 x _QH=_QH), 207.9 (C=O).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 1C21 Wilkinsons reduction of 1C20 /

Wilkinsons catalyst EtOH
F10Ac O
O

1C20 (0.50g, 1.58 mmol) was dissolved in ethanol (20 ml) and ethyl acetate (10 ml). To this stirring solution Wilkinsons catalyst (0.1 g) was added. The reaction was then stirred under hydrogen for 20 hours. The product was partitioned between ethyl acetate and water and the organic layer was isolated and dried with Na2SO.4. The crude product was purified by flash column chromatography to yield 1C21 (450 mg, 90%).

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) Sff 0.86 (3H, t, J=1.6Hz, CU3), 1.27-1.47 (6H, m, 3 x CH2), 2. 16-2 . 21 (2H, m, CB6), 3.37 (2H, s, CR2), 3.52 (2H, ab q, J=17.6Hz, CHCHZ), 6.51 (1H, d, J=2 . lHz, Cli), 7. 15-7 . 91 (8H, m, 8 x Ar-#i).

23C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 13.9 (_QH3), 22.3, 23.8, 32.2, 36.8, 37.6, 38.8 (6 xCH2), 54.3 (qg), 120.3, 124.0, 124.1, 124.5, 125.8, 126.3, 127.5, 129.8, 134.9 (8 x Ar-.QH & 1 x C=_QH), 136.8, 143.3, 144.9, 145.3, 152.7 (4 x Ar-_Q & 1 x Qy(ZH), 208.1 (-Q=O). SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 1C22 & iC23 Sodium borohydride reduction of 1C20 ~
NaBH;

EtOH
EtOAc OH

iczz ~ lc~3 1C20 (0.50 g, 1.58 mmol) was dissolved in ethanol and ethyl acetate (2:1, 9 ml) and sodium borohydride (0.1 g, 0.263 mmol) was added to the reaction in small portions over 10 minutes. The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 3 hours. The reaction mixture was poured onto water (20 ml) and extracted into diethyl ether (3 x 20 ml). Flash column chromatography over silica gel eluent: petroleum ether (b.p. 40-60 C):ethyl acetate, 98:2) afforded 1C22 & 1C23 (470 mg, 95%).

iH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 0.79 (3H, t, J=7 . 4Hz, CHZCH3 ), 1.83-3.36 (8H, br m, CH2's), 5.21-5.53 (2H, m, CHZCH=CHCHZ) , 5.54 ( 1H, br s, CHOH), 6.21, 6.43 (1H, 2 x s, CH=C), 7.21-7.71 (8H, m, 8 x Ar-ji).

iH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 0.34 - 3.52 (12H, m, CHZ's), 5.09-5.29 (2H, m, CH=CH), 5.36 (1H, br.m, CHOH), 6.42 (1H, d, J=6.5Hz, CH=C), 7.23-7.76 (8H, m, 8 x Ar-ii).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 1C 4 LDA in dry THF

0 -78 aC oL;
vG~ \ /
J G6~2B r o 1 G 2+-t The reaction yield for 1C24 was 230 mg, 33.67%.

Low resolution mass spectra: Found M+336 M' -91=245 Required M'336.

iH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) Sg 3.37 (2H, dd, C=CHCIjZ), 3.55 (2H, ab q, J=13 Hz, CCH2), 3.54 (2H, d, J=14 Hz, PhC%) , 6.53 (1H, t, J=2 Hz, C=C#j), 7.12 (5H, m, 5 x Ar-ii), 7.25 (5H, br m, 5 x Ar-l,i), 7.47 (2H, m, 2 x Ar-H), 7.78 (1H, d, J=7 Hz, 1 x Ar-lj).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 36.8, 37.6, 41.7 (3 xQHZ), 55.5 (qC), 120.5, 123.9, 124.2, 124.7, 125.9, 126.1, 126.4, 127.7, 127.2, 130.2, 130.2, 130.4, 134.8 (13 x Ar-~H & 1 x C=_QH), 136.6, 136.7, 143.1, 145.1, 145.1, 152.6 (5 x Ar-C & _Q=CH).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Sodium borohydride reduction Synthesis of 1C25 & 1C26 ~~
NaBH4 ~ OOH/N
H ~

~ cz~ 1cz6- -t- /cz(o 1C25 and 1C26 was isolated, yield 90 mg, 89.45% as a mixture of diastereomers.

LH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) Sg 2.58-3.62 (6H, br m, 3 x CHZ), 5.45 & 5.56 (1H, 2 x br s, CI-~OH), 6.04 & 6.09 (1H, 2 x s, C=CHCHZ), 6.64 (1H, d, J=2 Hz, Ar-CH), 7.15 (9H, m, 9 x Ar-CH), 7.67 (1H, d, Ar-CH), 7.98 (1H, dd, Ar-CH), 7.90 &
8.10 (1H, 2 x d, J= Hz, 1 x Ar-_QH).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) 6c 37.1, 37.4, 37.8, 38.4, 39.6, 40.9 (5 x CHZ), 55.2, 55.8 (qC), 81.2,81.3 (CHOH), 120.9, 122.3, 123.9, 124.3, 124.4, 124.5, 124.7, 124.7, 124.9, 125.1, 125.8, 125.9, 126.1, 126.1, 126.5, 126.5, 126.7, 126.9, 127.3, 127.4, 127.4, 128.4, 129.0, 130.2, 130.2, 130.2, 131.2, 134.2 (Ar-CH and C=CH), 137.8, 138.7, 141.2, 142.4, 143.2, 143.6, 144.2, 145.2, 145.2, 147.4 (Ar-C).
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of IC27 ~ ~ ..
Ac~etic anltydride Ft~IV. DMAP OH ~

aC?2.5 -2rI cQ.6 t c a.--t IC25/IC26 (50 mg, 1.5 mmol) was dissolved in clean, dry DCM (5 ml). To this solution was added triethylamine (0.1 ml), DMAP (0.05g) and acetic anhydride (0.25 ml, 10 equivalents). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 15 minutes and passed through a plug of silica eluting with petroleum spirit (b.p. 40-60 C) : ethyl acetate (8:2) to afford 1C27 (48 mg, 85.4%) as a mixture of diastereomers.

'H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 1.56 and 2.23 (6H, 2 x s, 2 x OCOCH3), 2.57 - 3.73 (12H, m, 6 x CRZ), 5.59 and 6.6 (4H, 2 x m, 2 x C#i, 2 x CHCOCHA, 6.90 - 7.73 (25H, m, 25 x Ar-H), 8.1 (IH, d, J=6Hz, 1 x Ar-l[) 13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 20.8, 21.4 (OCOCH3), 37.4, 37.5, 38.1, 39.2, 40.6, 41.0 (3 xQHZ), 53.4, 54.1 (qC), 81.2, 81.7 (,QH0C0CH3), 120.6, 121.9, 124.0, 124.1, 124.3, 124.4, 124.9, 126.0, 126.1, 126.2, 126.6, 126.9, 127.3, 127.5, 129.0, 129.5, 129.9, 130.5, 132.2, 132.24, 137.2, 138.3, 140.8, 143.2, 143.4, 143.5, 143.8, 144.6, 144.9, 145.2 (Ar-_QH, vinylic Q and Ar--Q), 170.5 (Og'OCHA

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) 10% of Palladium on carbon reduction.
Synthesis of 1C28 1096 Pd/Charcoal aq HCl tG~4 iC~
IC24 (106 mg, 0.315 mmol) was dissolved in distilled ethanol (5 ml) and ethyl acetate (1 ml). To this solution was added concentrated HC1 37% solution (0.2 ml) was added together with water (0.4 ml), and Pd/Charcoal (catalytic quantities) and the mixture was stirred under hydrogen for 24 hours.

The catalyst was removed by filtration and the product was extracted into ethyl acetate (3 x 20 ml). The crude product was purified by flash column chromatography (eluent : petroleum ether : ethyl acetate, 99:1) to yield 1C28 83 mg, 81.7%.

iH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 2.04 - 2.33 (2H, each m, CW, 2.76 - 3.05 (8H, m, 4 x CHZ) , 3.52 (IH, m, QUCH2CH2), 7.05 - 7.40 (13H, br.m, 13 x Ar-ii).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 28.9, 31.7, 41.6, 41.9, 42.5, (5 -x -QHZ), 51.4 (qQ), 52.2 (CH), 124.3, 124.4, 124.7, 125.8, 125.8, 125.9, 126.0, 126.0, 126.5, 127.6, 127.6, 130.6 130.6 (13 x Ar-_QH), 138.8, 142.6, 142.9, 144.7, 145.6 (5 x Ar-.Q).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 1C29 10% Pd/Charcoal o 1C29 was isolated as a mixture of diastereomers (170 mg, 50.45%).

Where distinguishable the minor diastereomers values are italized.

iH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) St, 2.10 - 4. 10 ( 8H, br m, CH &
CH21s), 6.77 - 7.80 (13H, br m, 13 x Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 28.5, 28.8, 31.3, 31.6, 33.5, 33.8, 43.1, 43.7 (4 x CHZ), 51.1 (CH), 57.6, 57.8 (q-Q), 123.0, 123.3, 124.2, 124.4, 124.9, 125.4, 125.7, 125.8, 125.9, 126.2, 126.6, 126.8, 126.9, 126.9, 127.5, 127.7, 129.8, 130.0, 134.2, 134.4, 136.2, 136.6, 137.6, 138.2, 142.7, 144.0, 144.4, 145.3, 153.4, 153.8, (Ar-.QH's & Ar-.Q's), 210.3, 210.6 (-Q=O).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Sodium borohydride reduction Synthesis of 1C30 NaBH.~

09%
EtOH o ot G2a 1 C3~

The reaction yield for 1C30 was 63 mg, 62.81$.

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) Sg 1.83 - 3.50 (9H, br m, CH, CHZ's), 4.94 - 5.32 (1H, m, CHOH), 6.98 - 7.29 (13H, m, Ar-H).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 1C31 i.DA in dry THF -~" -78 C u --~

cO2Me G
JCO2MeC61-L4a-!2Bc o ~

The reaction yield for 1C31 was 60%.

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) Sg 3.37 (2H, dd, J=1.8 Hz, C=CHCIJZ), 3.45, 3.56 (2H, d, PhC#i2), 3.57 (2H, q, J=13.0 Hz, C-Clb), 3.84 (3H, s, _QH3 ), 6.48 ( 1H, t, J=1 . 8 Hz, C.#i), 7.25 (7H, m, 7 x Ar-ii), 7.46 (2H, dt, 2 x Ar-#i), 7.77 (3H, m, 3 x Ar-Ii) =

13C NMR (CDC13 75.47 MHz) 6c 36.9, 37.6, 41.6 (3 xQHZ), 51.9 (.QH3), 55.4 (q-Q), 128.4 (Ar-_Q), 120.5, 124.0, 124.3, 124.8, 125.9, 126.1, 127.5, 129.2, 129.2, 130.2, 130.2, 130.6, 135.1, (12 x Ar-CH & 1 xCH=C), 136.5, 142.1, 142.9, 144.6, 145.1, 152.3 (5 x Ar-Q & 1 x-Q=CH), 166.8 (COZCH3) , 207.2 (C=0) .

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Hydrolysis of 1C31 Synthesis of 1C32 NaOH
MeOH / THF / H_O

O O
ic31 >c3z The benzoate ester 1C31 (0.1 g, 0.253 mmol) was dissolved in a solution of 1.45 M NaOH in THF - MeOH - H20 (6 : 3:
2) (4 ml), which was then refluxed. After 20 minutes, TLC
showed that the hydrolysis of the benzoate ester 1C31 was complete. After cooling the reaction mixture, a saturated solution of aqueous ammonium chloride (4 ml), aqueous HC1 (2 M) (10 ml) and ether (30 ml) was added. The organic layer was isolated and the aqueous layer was extracted with ether (1 x 10 ml). The combined organic extracts were dried with Na2SO4 and filtered. Evaporation, left the acid 1C32 as a slightly coloured solid.

IH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz ) SH 3.39 & 3.45 (2H, dd, J= Hz C=CHCJJ2 ), 3.49 & 3.57 (2H, d, PhCH2 ), 3.59 (2H, q, C-CHZ ), 6.49 (1H, br s, C~-I), 7.22 (8H, m, 8 x Ar-ji), 7.47 (2H, t, 2 x Ar-ff) , 7.79 ( 1H, d, 1 x Ar-H), 7.89 (2H, d, 2 x Ar-#i) .
13 C NMR (CDC13 75.47 MHz) Sc 36.9, 37.9, 41.7 (3 x CHZ), 55.4 (qC), 120.5, 124.1, 124.3, 124.8, 126.0, 126.2, 127.4, 129.8, 129.8, 130.3, 130.3, 130.7, 136.4 (12 x Ar-.QH & 1 x C=.QH), 135.2, 135.2, 142.9, 143.1, 144.6, 145.1, 152.3 (6 x Ar--Q & 1 x-Q=CH), 171.6 (-QO2H), 207.3 (_Q=O).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Svnth sis of IC33 LDA in dry THF

O ~ i -78 C O~i OMe BeCH2CO2Me ~ l \
O
~ G 33 The reaction yield for 1C33 was 0.53g, 41.12$.

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) Sg 3.31 (2H, q, J=16.2 Hz, COCK2), 3.30 (2H, dd, J=2 Hz, C=CHC),.Z), 3.54 (3H, s, COOCR3), 3.65 (2H, ab q, CI-2,.~2COOCH3 ), 6.31 (IH, t, C#i), 7.25 (3H, m, 3 x Ar-H), 7.42 (3H, m, 3 x Ar-H), 7.63 (1H, dt, 1 x Ar-$), 7.91 (IH, m, 1 x Ar-ij).

13C NMR (CDC13 75.47 MHz) 6c 37.6, 38.2, 39.8, (3 xQHZ), 51.6 (CH3), 52.0 (q-Q), 120.3, 124.3, 124.3, 124.8, 125.9, 126.3, 127.5, 130.4, (8 x Ar-.QH), 134.9 (.QH), 136.1, 142.5, 143.6, 145.0, 145.0, 152.2 (5 x Ar-.C & 1 xC=CH), 171.4 (QOZCH3), 206.2 (C=O).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 1C34 Hydrolysis of 1C33 OH
NaOH
\ \ ~ ~
THF: MeOH: H2GEC O /\
O

~ G 33 e G 3 L-t 1C33 (0.1g, 0.316 mmol) was dissolved in a solution of 1.45 M NaOH in THF : MeOH : H20 (6:3:2) (4 ml), which was then refluxed. After 0.5hr TLC showed that hydrolysis of BRA 64 was complete. This was then partitioned between DCM (50 ml) and dilute HC1 (1 M 20m1). The organic layer was isolated and the aqueous layer extracted with DCM (2 x 50 ml). The combined organic extracts were washed with water and dried over Na2SO4 and filtered. Evaporation left the acid 1C34 as a gum.

1H NMR (CDC1õ 300 MHz) SB 3.26 (4H, br m, C=CHHH2 &
CH2COOH), 3.64 (2H, ab q J=17 . 0 Hz, COCH2), 6.28 (1H, t, J=2Hz, C=CHCH2) , 7.18 (3H, br m, 3 x Ar-H), 7.45 (3H, br m, 3 x Ar-H), 7.65 (1H, dt, 1 x Ar-ji), 7.86 (1H, br d, 1 x Ar-,#i) .

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) 5ynthesis of IC35-OCH3 ONa NaHCO3 MeOH
O
fW O

~ c33 tc35 SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 1C36 and 1C37 5% Palladium on Carbon method.
39o PdK.hstcoat ~ ~ = MeOH

sc ~

i ' ~

tC37 1C1 (200 mg, 0.8 mmol) was dispersed in methanol (20 ml) and to this was added 5% Palladium on carbon (100 mg).
The mixture was stirred under hydrogen for 12 hours. The Palladium was removed by filtration and the solvent was removed to afford the crude reaction product. Flash column chromatography (eluent : petroleum spirits b.p. 40-60 C :

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) ethyl acetate 95:5) afforded 1C37 126 mg, 66.23% and 1C36 37 mg, 18.35%.

NMR data for 1C37: where distinguishable the values for the minor are itallised.

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 194-2 . 17 ( 1H, m, CO-C~-I), 2.36-3.49 (6H, m, 3 x CH2), 3.98-4.14 (1H, m, CH-CHCH2CHZ), 6.73-7.14 (1H, m, 1 x Ar-Ii), 7.15-7.31 (3H, m, 1 x Ar-H), 7.33-7.42 (2H, m, 1 x Ar-H), 7.49-7.52 (1H, m, 1 x Ar-H), 7.77-7.88 (1H, m, Ar-H).

L3C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 25.9, 26.2, 29.6, 30.9, 31.5, 31.7 (3 xCHZ), 45.0, 45.1, 49.6 (2 x-QH), 123.2, 123.7, 124.5, 126.0, 126.3, 126.5, 126.7, 134.5 (8 x Ar-_QH), 134.7, 137.3, 137.5, 143.0, 144.2, 144.5, 154.0, 154.4 (4 ,), 207.8, 208.1 (C=O).
x Ar-C

NMR Data for IC36.

Low resolution mass spectra: Found M+234 Required M+234 1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 1.97 & 2.30 (2H, 2 x br m, CHCI-~2CHZ) , 3. 00 3.22 & 3.45 (8H, 3 x br m, 3 x CHZ & 2 x CHCH), 7.30 (8H, m, 8 x Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13i 300 MHz) Sc 29.8, 31.3, 36.9, 38.0 (4 x ~;Ha), 43.7, 49.5 (2 x_QH), 124.2, 124.3, 124.3, 124.5, 124.5, 126.0, 126.1, 126.4 (8 x Ar--QH), 143.3, 143.6, 144.4, 146.4 (4 x Ar-H).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) ,~ynthe is of 1C38 LDA in dry THF

.781C
tcs '" rxt CH3CO2CH2Br ...~
2C3 $

iH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 1.88 (3H, s, OCOCI), 3.55 (2H, t, J= 2.7 Hz, C=CHCIJ2), 3.58 (2H, ab q, J=17.0 Hz, CCU, 4.55, 4.91 (2H, 2 x d, J=10.7 Hz, C112O-COCH3), 7.16 (3H, br m, 3 x Ar-ii), 7.45 (3H, m, 3 x Ar-ii), 7.65 (1H, dt, J=6 Hz, 1.32 Hz 1 x Ar-11), 7.9 (1H, d, J=6Hz, 1 x Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 20.5 (.QH3COO), 36.3, 37.8 (2 x_QH2), 54.2 (.QCO), 66.7 (CHZOCOCH3), 120.1, 124.1, 124.4, 124.9, 126.0, 126.4, 127.6, 131.3, 135.3, 136.2, 141.5, 142.6, 144.7, 152.6 (8 x Ar-_CH & 4 x Ar-jQ & I x 170.6 (CH3-COO), 205.1 (C=0).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 1C39 & 1C40 Q
, 3,5-dimethylphenyf isocyanate (1.1 eq) J
or 1 ~
1 ~ 1 mo196 Trimethylsilyl chloride O
OH Cr-JI
iVH
(G aS '2f i G12L (o C39 & 1Cq..0 To a stirred solution of the diastereomixture of IC25 &
1C26 (150 mg, 0.44 mmol) in DCM (5 ml) was added 3,5-dimethy.Iphenyl isocyanate (72 mg, 0.48 mmol, 1.leq) and 5 trimethylsilyl chloride (10 mol%). The mixture was left stirring under a nitrogen atmosphere for 24 hours. The solvent was then evaporated off on the rotary evaporator.
The residue which remained was passed through a plug of silica. The diastereoisomers were separable on TLC and 10 hence were separated by flash column chromatography. 1C39 & 1C40 were isolated giving a total yield of (0.13 g, 60%).

1H NMR ( CDC13i 300 MHz) S122.33 (6H, br s, 2 x Ar-CH3 ), 3.13 (2H, br s, 1 x Cli2), 3.21 ( 1H, d, J=13.3Hz, CH of CHZ) , 3.52 (2H, d, 7.14 Hz, PhCf~2), 3.75 (1H, d, J=13.3Hz, CH of C112), 5.92 (IH, t, J=2.OHz, C~-I=C), 6.34 (1H, br s, ArN~,iCOO), 6.65 (1H, s, Ar-H), 6.72-7.41 (15H, br m, 15 x Ar-lj) .

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) 1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 2.20 (6H, br s, 2 x Ar-CH3), 2.64 (1H, d, J=13.1Hz, CH of CHZ), 3.07 (1H, d, J=15.8Hz, CH of CHZ), 3.41 (4H, m, 4 x CH of CHz's ), 5.91 (1H, br s, CH=C), 6.03 (1H, s, ArNHCOO), 6.58 (4H, m, 4 x Ar-H), 7.10-7.40 (9H, br m, 9 x Ar-H), 7.50 (1H, d, J=7.2Hz, 1 x Ar-H), 7.70 (iH, d, J=7.7Hz, 1 x Ar-li), 7.78 (1H, d, J=7.5Hz, 1 x Ar-H).

x SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3-(3'-Bromo-2',4' - dimethylphenyl)-1-chloro-3-oxopropane (1) and 3-(4'-bromo- 3',S'- dimethyiphenyl) -1- chloro-3-oxopropane (2).

Br + A1C13 + C1CH2CH2COCl C'' ~=- ~

O
CH3 Ci1 i + CH3 ~ ~
~
Br ~ Br Cf CFig Ct-!3 (1) (2) To a mixture of A1C13 (10.0 g, 75 mmol) in CS2 (50 ml) was added dropwise !3-chloropropionylchloride (7.48 g, 59 mmol). To this mixture was added bromo-m-xylene (10 g, 54 mmol) in CSz (10 ml) dropwise over 30 minutes at 0 C. The reaction mixture was stirred for a further 3 hours at room temperature and then poured onto iced water. To this mixture was added ethyl acetate. The organic layer was isolated and the aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 100 mi). The combined organic layers were washed with water (2 x 100 ml) and dried with Na2SO4.
After evaporation of solvent the crude products (1) and (2) were isolated.

Synthesis of 6-Bromo-5,7- dimethylindan-l-one (3) and 5-Bromo-4,6 - dimethylindan-l-one (4).
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) CH3 ~ C~ O
~ ~ / + CH3 ~ ~
~ i (1} reflux (2) O

+ Br I / 6 Br (3) (4) A solution of the crude products (1) and (2) (12.0 g) in concentrated sulphuric acid (75 ml) was heated on an oil bath at 80 C (optimum temperature). After 3 hours the reaction mixture was poured onto iced water (400 ml) and to this ethyl acetate was added. The organic layer was isolated and the aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 250 ml). All the organic phases were combined and dried with NaZSO4. Flash column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: petroleum spirit (b.p. 40-60 C): ether, 9:1) afforded compounds (3) (56%) and (4) (42%).

1H NMR (CDC13, t=300 MHz) Se (Compound 3) 2.46 (3H, s, CH3), 2.71 (3H, s, C#_i3), 2.65 (2H, t, J=6.0 Hz, CH2), 2.95 (2H, t, Js6.0 Hz, CH2), 7.16 (1H, s, Ar-H).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) 13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc (Compound 3) 17.8, 24.4 (2 x -QH3), 24.9, 37.3 (2 x_QHZ) , 125.8 (Ar-_QH), 127.9, 133.4, 138.8, 144.6, 154.4 (5 x Ar-C), 206.3 (-Q = 0).

iH NMR ( CDC13 , 300 MHz) SH (Compound 4) 2.35 (3H, s, Cff3), 2.39 (3H, s, CÃ ), 2.61 (2H, t, CH2), 2.94 (2H, t, CIL), 7.37 (1H, s, Ar-1i--).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75 . 47 MHz) Sc (Compound 4) 18.8, 24.1 (2 x -QH3), 25.2, 36.2 (2 xaH2), 121.9 (Ar-.CH), 134.9, 135.6, 136.0, 137.8, 152.2 (5 x Ar-_Q), 206.2 (_Q = 0).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 1C41 Aluminium tri-tert-butoxide method.
Synthesis of 1C41 CiH3 Dp:: [(~3)3C0]3A1 Br toluene ~
(4) ~ I
Br ~ CH3 After evaporation of the eluent 1C41 was obtained as an oil 10%.

IH NMR (CDCis, 300 MHz) SH 2.51 (3H, s, Cff3), 2.48 (3H, s, C113), 2.46 (3H, s, CH3), 2.85 (3H, s, CK3), 2.82 and 2.88 (2H, m, C=CH2CR2), 3.49 (2H, m, C=CH2CH2), 3.52 (2H, s, C=CIJ2), 7.11 and 7.14 (2H, 2 x s, 2 x Ar-11).

13C NMR (CDC13 75.47 MHz) Sc 17.5, 24.5, 24.6, 25.1 (4 x -QH3), 31.3, 33.6, 34.1 (3 xCHZ), 124.7, 124.9, (2 x Ar-_QH), 127.4, 128.1, 130.5, 134.2, 135.4, 138.8, 140.1, 140.4, 143.9, 147.1, 148.4 and 154.9 (Ar--Q and q_C), 194.9 SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) p~ormation of cyclicketal of 1-indanone OH OH

para toluene sulfonic acid O O
To a solution of toluene/ethylene glycol (2:1, 150 ml) was' added indan-l-one (1.0 g, 7.57 mmol) and a catalytic amount of p-toluenesulfonic acid approx 1-2 mol %. The biphasic solution was then left refluxing and continuously dried by azeotropic distillation for 24 hours. The solution was then cooled and to it was added solid sodium bicarbonate approx 1.0 g. Evaporation of the solvent left a mobile oil which was partitioned between ether and water 1:1 (300 ml). The organic layer was isolated and the aqueous layer extracted with 2 x 100 ml of diethyl ether.
The combined organic layers were dried with sodium sulphate. Filtration followed by evaporation left a mobile oil, which was passed through a plug of silica.
Evaporation of the eluent left the cyclic acetal as a mobile oil, (0.60 g, 45%).

IH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 2.34 (2H, t, J=6. 8 Hz, CI[Z), 2.99 (2H, t, J=6.8 Hz, CU2), 4.18 (4H, m, 2 x OCRZ), 7.27 (4H, br m, 4 x Ar-ii).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 28.3, 36.9 (2 xQH2), 65.2 (2 xQHa), 117.0 (O-C-O), 122.9, 125.0, 126.7, 129.3 (4 x Ar-_QH), 141.8, 144.1 (2 x Ar--Q).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of hydroxy ketone 1C42 O 01' O
TMS Trillate DCM O ~ \1 /
OH
OSiMe3 ~ G 4-2 To a stirred solution of the silyl enol ether of indan-l-one (0.40 g, 1.96 mmol) and the 1,3 dioxalone of indan-l-one (0.40 g, 2.27 mmol) at -78 C in DCM (3 ml) was added TMS triflate 20 ml. The solution was left stirring at -78 C for 2 hours. To this solution was then added solid sodium bicarbonate approx 1 g and the mixture rapidly stirred and allowed to reach room temperature. The solution was then decanted off and passed through a plug of silica eluting with ethyl acetate: petroleum ether 1:9 grading to ethyl acetate:petroleum ether 3:2. Evaporation of the eluent left the hydroxy ketone 1C42 as a mobile oil (0.30 g, 50.5%).

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz ) SH 2. 10-3 . 71 ( 11H, br m, 5 x CH2 &
2 x CH), 7.19-7.30 (12H, br m, 12 x Ar-H), 7.50 (2H, t, 2 x Ar-H), 7.65, 7.80 (2H, d, 2 x Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 29.3, 29.6 (-QHZ), 30.9 (CHZ), 32.4, 33.4 MHZ) , 48.7, 53.4 (CH), 60.3, 61.8 (OCH2_QH2OH) , 63.7, 64.7 (O.QH2CH2OH) , 89.5, 90.2 (OHCHZCH2O-C) , 123.7, 123.8, 124.6, 124.7, 125.0, 126.1, 126.2, 127.2, 127.5, 128.6, 128.9, 134.6, 134.9 (8 x Ar-CH), 137.7, 141.5, 145.2, 153.5 (4 x Ar-C), 206.9 (-Q=O).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 1C44 \ ~ \
N
OH ~-4-IH NMR (CDC13r 300 MHz) Sg 3.02 (1H, dd, J=2.6. 16.9 Hz, CH
OF CHz), 3.23 (2H, q, J=16.0 and 7.3 Hz, CH,a), 3.52 (1H, dd, J=8.6 and 8.6 Hz, CH of CIJZ), 4.59 (1H, dd, J=8.6 and 1.4 Hz, CWHZ) , 6.08 ( 1H, s, C=CJjCHZ), 7. 16-7 . 40 (8H, br m, 8 x Ar-H), 7.94 (1H, d, J=7.8 Hz, 1 x Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 37.2, 37.6 (2 x CHZ), 39.8 (1 x CH), 118.9, 123.4, 123.9, 124.9, 125.6, 126.0, 127.4, 128.0, 132.3 (9 x Ar-.QH and 1 x C=_CH), 142.7, 143.5, 144.3, 148.0 (4 x Ar-C).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) WO 97/20802 PC'Y'/IE96/00080 Coup in9 reaction of the corrp4pondinq silyl enol ether of indan-2-one to the corresoond;,ng d;merh.,l acetal of indan-2-one Synthesis of a silyl enoi ether of indan-2-one CK)= CF3SO3Si(CH3)3 /
0 LjLtS1Me3 Et3N

o C (7) To a stirred solution of indan-2-one (1.0 g, 7.57 mmol) and triethylamine (0.84 g, 1.16 ml, 8.32 mmol) in dichloromethane at 0 C was added trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (1.68 g, 1.36 ml, 7.58 mmol).
The solution was left stirring at 0 C for 15 minutes and then the solution was rapidly passed through a plug of silica, eluting with petroleum ether (b.p. 40-60 C): ethyl acetate 100 : 0.5. After evaporation of the eluent the silyl enol ether was isolated as a clear colourless oil (7), 0.50 g, 77.01..

Synthesis of dimethyl acetal of indan-2-one.
001= O MeOH / CH(OCHs)s / OMe e C~i3C6I-~SO3H.H2O \ OMe (6) SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) To a stirred solution of indan-2-one (1.0 g, 7.57 mmol) in methanol (12 ml) was added trimethyl orthoformate (2 ml) and p-toluenesulfonic acid (approx 1 mol %). The solution was then allowed to stir at room temperature for 2 hours.
To this solution was then added solid sodium bicarbonate (approx. 0.50 g). The methanol was evaporated from the reaction mixture. The crude solid was then partitioned between ether : water (1 : 1) (50 ml). The organic layer was isolated and the aqueous layer extracted with ether (3 x 20 ml). The combined organic layers were dried with sodium sulphate. After evaporation of the solvent the crude product was then passed through a plug of silica, eluting with petroleum ether 100% grading to petroleum ether : ethyl acetate, 100:1. After evaporation of the eluent the dimethyl acetal of indan-2-one was isolated as a clear colourless oil 0.80 g, 60%.

iH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 3.21 (4H, s, 2 x CH2), 3.35 (6H, s, 2 x= OCffi), 7.22 (4H, s, 4 x Ar-H) .

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 41.2, 41.2 (2 xQH2), 49.4, 49.4 (2 x O-QH3), 111.4 (-Q(OMe)2), 124.5, 124.5, 126.5, 126.5 (4 x Ar-CH), 139.8, 139.8 (2 x q-Q).

t SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 2C1 \ I ~ OSiMe3 TMS Triflate O
(7) DCM

+ -50 C
OCK OMe OMe (6) ~C
To a stirred solution of the silyl enol ether of indan-2-one (7) (0.80g, 3.92 mmol) and the corresponding dimethyl acetal of indan-2-one (0.70g, 3.92 mmol) in dichloromethane at -78 C, was added a catalytic amount of TMS Triflate (30 pl). The solution was left stirring at -78 C for 3 hours and then allowed to reach -50 C for 1 hour. To this solution was then added a 5% solution of sodium bicarbonate (approx 20 ml). The organic layer was isolated and the aqueous layer extracted with dichloromethane (2 x 20 ml). The combined organic layers were dried with sodium sulphate. After evaporation of the solvent, the crude product was passed through a plug of silica, eluting with petroleum ether 100% grading to petroleum ether : ethyl acetate, 100:4. After evaporation of the eluent 2C1 was isolated as a solid 0.72 g, 74.3%.
Low resolution mass spectra: Found M{246.
Required M;246.

iH NMR (CDC13i 300 MHz) SH 3.45 (2H, s, C&), 4.10 (2H, s, CHZ), 4.40 (2H, s, CH2), 7.45 (8H, m, 8 x Ar-~,i).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 40.7, 41.2, 42.7 (3 x-QHZ), 123.5, 124.3, 124.6, 125.1, 126.7, 127.0, 127.2, 127.5 (8 x Ar-.QH), 129.6, 137.4, 139.2, 140.2, 141.1, 154.2 (4 x Ar-.Q & 2 x , 204.0 (-Q=O).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 2C1 Potassium tert-butoxide method.

+ tBuOK O
0:~>=O ether Potassium tert-butoxide (4.25 g, 37 mmol) in 'butanol (125 ml) and ether (10 ml) were added dropwise over 20 minutes, to a stirring solution of indan-2-one (5.0 g, 37 mmol) in ether (25 ml) and 'butanol (5 ml). The reaction mixture was then left stirring overnight.

The crude product was partitioned between ethyl acetate and saturated aqueous ammonium chloride. The organic layer was isolated and the aqueous phase was re-extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layers were combined and dried over sodium sulphate. On evaporation of the solvent the crude product was obtained. Flash column chromatography was used to purify the required product (eluent : petroleum ether (b.p. 40 - 60 C) : ethyl acetate, 9:1). On recrystallisation with ether 2C1 was obtained as a white crystalline solid,.0 41.12%.

Low resolution mass spectra: Found M'246.
Required M+246.

IH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SE, 3.45 (2H, s, CR2), 4.10 (2H, s CHZ), 4.40 (2H, s, CIJZ), 7.45 (8H, m, 8 x Ar-lj,) .

13C NMR (CDC13, 75 . 47 MHz) Sc 40 . 7, 41.2, 42 . 7, (3 x f,~HZ), 123.5, 124.3, 124.6, 125.1, 126.7, 127.0, 127.2, 127.5 (8 SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) x Ar-.QH), 129.6, 137.4, 139.2, 140.2, 141.1, 154.2, (4 x Ar-.Q & 2 x _Q _ _Q), 204.0 z SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) ;iynthes.a,s of 2C2 Potassium tert-butoxide method ether TCH., O + 'BuOK + ~izi cB~~i O

After evaporation of the eluent 2C2 was isolated as a pale yellow oil.

Low resolution mass spectra: Found M'260, M;-15=245 Required Mr260.

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) S8 1.70 (3H, s, C113), 3.38 (2H, br s, CHZ) , 3.71 (2H, ab q, J=22.5 Hz, COCIJZ), 6.40 ( 1H, br s, Clj), 7.17 (9H, br m, 8 x Ar-ii).

!'C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 22.6 (-QH3), 38.2, 41.6 (2 x CH2), 57.2 (q-Q), 120.7, 123.5, 124.5, 124.6, 124.7, 126.3, 127.7, 127.8, 128.9 (8 x Ar-CH & 1 x C=fH), 135.5, 143.5, 144.1, 146.1, 149.8 (4 x Ar-_Q & 1 xQ=CH), 215.5 (C=0).

r SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) WO 97/20802 PCT/tE96/00080 LDA Method LDA in dry THF OLi .. ~ ~ /

~G Z

A three necked 100 ml round bottomed flask was oven dried and fitted with a septum and a nitrogen inlet line. The flask was then evacuated and heated with a heat gun to dry. To this flask, which was filled with nitrogen was added indan-2-one dimer 2C1 (500 mg, 2.0 mmol) in dry THF
(25 ml). The solution was cooled to -78 C with a liquid nitrogen/ethyl acetate bath and lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in THF/heptane/ethyl benzene (1.0 ml of 2M solution of LDA) was added. After stirring for 10 minutes at -78 C, iodomethane (1.14 g, 8.0 mmol, 4 equivalents) was = added and the solution was allowed to warm to room temperature for 3 hours under vacuum and in a nitrogen atmosphere.

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) To this solution was added ether (30 ml) and aqueous ammonium chloride solution (30 ml). The organic layer was isolated and the aqueous layer was extracted with ether (2 x 30 ml). The combined organic extracts were dried over sodium sulphate and on evaporation of the solvent afforded an oil. The crude product was purified by flash column chromatography (eluent : petroleum ether (b.p. 40-60 C) ethyl acetate, 9:1), to yield 2C2.

Low resolution mass spectra: Found M+260, M+-15 = 245.
Required M'260.

iH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 1.70 (3H, S, CH3), 3.38 (2H, s CCHZ), 3.68 (2H, q, J=22 . 5, COCHZ) , 6.40 ( 1H, br s, CH), 7.17 (8H, m, 8 x Ar--H).

13 C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 22.6 (f.H3), 38.2, 41.6 (2 x -QHZ), 57.2 (q-Q), 120.7, 123.5, 124.5, 124.6, 124.7, 126.3, 127.7, 127.8, 128.9 (8 x Ar--QH & 1 x C=.CH), 135.5, 143.5, 144.1, 146.1, 149.8 (4 x Ar-C & 1 x_Q=CH), 215.5 (_Q=O).

~
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 2C3 O
LDA in dry THF OLi ~C 1 CJ1LIT\K3 ~G3 The r eaction yield for 2C3 was 27 mg, 24.24%.

'H NMR ( CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 0.71 (3H, t, CHZCR), 2.05 & 2.40 (2H, 2 x br m, C112CH3) , 3.40 (2H, d, HC=CCHZ), 3.57 (2H, ab q, COC#i2), 6.34 (1H, br s, CII=C), 7.25 (8H, br m, 8 x Ar-Ii) =

I3C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 9.5 (CH&HA, 29.7, 38.4, 42.7 (3 x-CH2) , 62 . 5 (qg-), 120.7, 123.6, 124.5, 124.8, 125 . 2, 126.3, 127.7, 127.7, 129.9 (8 x Ar-g-H & 1 x C=QH), 136.7, 143.5, 143.9, 144.1, 149.7 (4 x Ar-_Q & 1 xC=CH), 216.1 (-Q=0) .

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 2C4 and 2C5 O
O
596 Pd/Charcoa!

EtUH
2C1 EtOAc -=-2C~

H

1 ~
2cs 2C1 (100 mg, 0.04 mmol) was dispersed in ethanol (10 ml) and ethyl acetate (5 ml) and to this was added 5%
Palladium on carbon (0.01 g). The mixture was stirred under nitrogen for 14 hours. The Palladium residues were removed by filtration and the solvent was removed to afford the crude reaction product. Flash column chromatography (eluent : petroleum spirits b.p. 40-60 C :
ethyl acetate 95:5) afforded 2C4 (83 mg, 83.0%) and 2C5 (10.0 mg, 10%).

SUBSTiTUTE SHEET (RULE 26) NMR data for 2C4 1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 3.30 (2H, br s, HCyCC!12), 3.69(2H, ab q, J= 7.43 Hz COCHZ), 5.38 (1H, d, J= 25.23 Hz C-~ICOCHZ), 6.94 (1H, d, J = 7.47 Hz 1 x Ar-H), 7.30 (8H, br m, 7 x Ar-H & 1 x C=C.L-ICHZ ).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 37.6 & 43.5 (2 x CH2) , 54.3 (_QHC=CHCH2), 120.6, 123.7, 124.7, 125.0, 125.1, 126.5, 127.5, 127.6, 136.5, (8 x Ar-_QH & 1 x C=_QH), 137.4, 141.7, 143.0, 143.4, 145.0, (4 x Ar-C, & 1 x_Q=CH) 215.7 (C=O).
NMR data for 2C5 ~H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 3.0, 3.02, 3.40 (8H, 3 x br m, 3 x CHZ & CH-CH), 4.65 (1H, br d, J = 2.19 Hz CHOH), 7.20 (7H, br m, 7 x Ar-H), 7.47 (1H, ab m, 1 x Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 38.4, 38.5 (2 x_QH2), 39.4 (1 xf.H), 41.2 (HHZ), 55.3 (QHZ), 75.6 (CHOH), 124.2, 124.2, 125.1, 125.2, 126.1, 126.1, 126.6, 126.7 (8 x Ar-_QH), 141.3, 142.8, 143.3, 143.6 (4 x Ar-Q).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 2C6 2C6: 1-(2-indenyl)-1-prop-2-enyl-2-indanone 2~6 The synthesis uses the same procedure as for 2C3, but using allylbromide rather than ethyl iodide.

1H NMR ( CDC13r 300 MHz) S.

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 38.3, 41.1, 41.9, 44.2 (4 x SU2), 57.3, 60.2 (2 X-CH), 118.6, 124.5, 126.2, 127.7, 130.5, 132.8, 133.6, 133.7 (8 x Ar-H) 143.0, 143.7, 143.9.
148.7 (4 x Ar-C), 217.8 (C=O).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 2C7 Alkylation of 2C1 0 u LDA in dcy THF

o Br Yield (57 mg, 42%).

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 3.22 - 3.80 (6H, m, CH2's ), 6.63 (1H, s, C.H=C), 6.83-7.42 (8H, m, 8 x Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 38.9, 42.8, 43.6 (3 xr-HZ), 63.4 (q-Q), 120.9, 123.6, 124.6, 124.7, 125.8, 126.3, 126.3, 126.4, 126.4, 127.4, 127.4, 127.7, 127.8, 129.5, 130.2 (13 x Ar-.QH & 2 x C=C.H), 136.1, 136.7, 143.3, 143.5, 149.2 (5 x Ar-_Q), 216.3 (_Q=O).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 2C8 2C7 (100 mg, 0.3 mmol) was dissolved in - ethyl acetate:ethanol (2:1, 10 ml) to this solution was added NaBH4 (100 mg). The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 2 hrs. The product was extracted into ethyl acetate and the product was purified by flash column chromatography being isolated as a mixture of diasteriomers 2C8 (0.067 g, 66.1%).

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) cg 2. 65-3 . 60 (6H, m, Cffz's ), 4.66 (1H, b m, CHO,U), 6.75 (1H, s, C=Cff), 7.00-7.39 (13H, m, 13 x Ar-li) .

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) cc 26.9, 29.7, 39.6 (3 x_QHz), 58.8, 60.3 (qC), 78.4, 80.4 (.QHOH), 120.5, 123.4, 124.0, 125.0, 125.6, 126.0, 126.3, 126.3, 126.5, 127.3, 127.6, 127.7, 128.1, 130.3, 130.5 (13 x Ar-CH & C=_QH), 138.2, 139.8, 142.9, 144.7, 145.5, 152.7 (5 x Ar-.Q & 1 xQ=CH).

OH
O

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 2C9 Usual procedure using 10% palladium on carbon.
(0.078 g, 76.5%).

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) aH 1.96 ( 1H, br s, CHOj;), 2.55 (1H, q, J=8 . 13, 12.4 Hz, CHOHCHZ ), 2. 69-2 . 83 (2H, m, C11ZCHCHZ ), 2.99 ( 1H, d, J=13.4Hz, 1H of AR-CIJZ), 3. 10-3. 21 (2H, m, CH2CHCH2), 3.19 (1H, d, JS13.4 Hz, 1H of Ar-CJ6), 3.28-3.36 (1H, m, CH of CHCH2), 3.48-3.56 (111, m, CH of CH2CHCjJ2) , 4.66 (1H, t, J=9 . 9Hz, C-UOH), 6.61 (1H, d, J=7 . 5Hz, Ar-CH), 6.84 (1H, t, J=2.OHz, Ar-CH), 7.09-7.38 (11H, m, Ar-ij).
i'C NMR (CDC13, 75.47MHz) vc 34.0, 35.3, 38.2, 39.3 (4 x S,Hi), 42.7 (.QH), 55.4 (q.Q), 75.7 (CHOH), 124.3, 124.3, 124.3, 125.7, 125.8, 125.9, 126.2, 126.8, 127.4, 131.0, 131.0, (13 x Ar-.QH), 139.1, 143.1, 145.4 (5 x Ar-Q).

0}I
O

O
,2 c 9 SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 2C10 ~==~ ~,,, _ AC
~-- ~
2Ca 2C8 (100 mg, 0.3 mmol) was dispersed in clean dry DCM (5 ml) to this was added triethylamine (0.1 ml), acetic anhydride (0.25 ml) and DMAP (0.05 g). The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 15 minutes. The crude reaction mixture was then passed through a column, eluting with petroleum ether:ethyl acetate, 9:1.

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) ag 2.34 (3H, 2 x s, COCgi), 2.89-3.65 (6H, m, 3 x CIJ2), 5.75 (1H, m, C#IOAc), 6.93 (1H, t, J=2.2Hz, C=Cji), 6.95-7.52 (13H, m, Ar-CH).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47MHz) vc 20.6, 21.0 (COCH3), 36.8, 37.4, 39.1, 39.4, 40.4, 40.6 (3 xfH2), 57.2, 58.7 (qf,), 79.40, 80.9 (CHOH), 120.4, 120.5, 123.2, 123.3, 124.1, 124.2, 124.5, 124.7, 125.5, 125.9, 126.0, 126.1, 126.2, 126.4, 126.6, 127.3, 127.3, 127.4, 127.5, 127.8, 127.7, 128.4, 128.4, 129.5, 129.8, 130.3, 130.8 (13 x Ar-.QH), 136.8, 137.5, 139.5, 140.2, 140.7, 142.8, 143.3, 144.3, 144.9, 145.1, 150.6, 151.7 (5 x Ar-f, and 1 xC=CH), 170.1, 170.2 ( .QOCH3 ) .

SUBSTiTUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 2C11 and 2CIS
/ ' ~ Sfl CH3 methane sulphonyl chloride ipr2NEt DCM

0"

\

To an iced cooled solution of 2C8 (0.10 g, 0.295 mmol) was added methane sulphonyl chloride (37.3 mg, 0.325 mmol) as a solution in DCM (1 ml). To this solution was then added dropwise a solution of diisopropyl ethylamine (42.0 mg, 0.325 mmol) in DCM (1 ml). The reaction solution was allowed to stir at 0 C for 1 hour. The solution was then loaded on to a column of flash silica. The product mesylate was eluted out with petroleum spirits:ethyl acetate 9:1. Evapaporation of the eluent left the mesylate 2C15 as a mobile oil (0.11 g, 89%). 2C11 was isolated as a side product in the reaction.

}

SUBSTiTUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 2C12 Coupling of 3-Bromo indan-l-one to the silyl enol ether of indan-l-one Br h C( TMS Triflate O
O DCM
+

O
OSiMe3 G t 'Z

To a stirred solution of the silyl enol ether of indan-l-one (0.8g, 3.92 mmol) and the corresponding 3-Bromo indan-1-one (0.82g, 3.92 mmol) in dichloromethane at -78 C, was added a catalytic amount of TMS Triflate (30 p1). The solution was left stirring at -78 C for 10 min and at room temperature for 3 hours. To this solution was then added solid sodium bicarbonate (approx 2 g) and the solution was stirred rapidly for 10 minutes. The solution was then filtered and the filtrate was evaporated to leave a mobile oil which was passed through a plug of silica elutant with petroleum ether : ethyl acetate, 9:2. After evaporation of the eluent, 2C12 was obtained as a yellow solid, 38%.
Low resolution mass spectra: Found M'262 Require M'262 iH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) Sa 1.91 (1H, dd, J=3 . 3 Hz, CH of CH2), 235 ( 1H, dd, J=4 . 05 Hz, CH of C.U2), 2.65 (1H, dd, J=7.8 Hz, CH of CliZ), 2.89 (1H, dd, CH of CH2), 3.36 & 4.22 SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) (2H, 2 x m, 2 x CHCH), 7.38 (3F-i, m, 3 x Ar-H), 7.53 (1H, dd, J=1.2 Hz, 1 x Ar-H), 7.60 (2H, m, 2 x Ar-H), 7.75 (2H, 2 x t, J=1.2 Hz, 2 x Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 27.6, 37.9 (2 x CHZ), 37.7, 49.7 (2 x CH), 123.6, 123.9, 125.1, 126.5, 127.6, 127.9, 135.0, 135.1, (8 x Ar-CH), 136.6, 137.3, 153.7, 156.4 (4 x Ar-f.), 205.1, 206.5 (2 x C=O).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 2C14 Acctic Anh%-dndc Et3N, DMAP
----~
OH

OH

The resultant alcohol from the sodium borohydride reduction of 2C12 (200 mg, 0.75mmo1) was dissolved in clean, dry DCM (5 ml). To this solution was added triethylamine (0.36 ml), DMAP (0.1g) and acetic anhydride (0.25 ml, 10 equivalents). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 15 minutes and passed through a plug of silica eluting with petroleum spirit (b.p. 40-60 C) : ethyl acetate (8:2) to afford 2C14 (140 mg, 53.3%).

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz ) SH 1. 94-2. 06 ( 1H, m, CI- of CH2), 2.07 (3H, s, OCOCH3), 2.08 (3H, s, OCOCHz), 2.70-3.00 (4H, m, CH, CH2 CH of CHa) , 3. 54-3 . 62 (1H, m, CHCHZCHO) , 6.17 (1H, t, J=2 . 85Hz, CHZCHO), 6.32 (1H, d, J=5 . 7Hz, CHCI,~O), 7. 21-7 . 52 ( 8H, m, Ar-CH) 13CNMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 22.4, 22.4 (2 x COHH3), 34.7, 36.7 (2 xQHZ), 41.9, 48.5 (2 x_QH), 76.8, 77.6 (2 x _QHOCOCH3), 124.0, 124.4, 125.4, 126.3, 126.6, 127.1, 129.0, 129.1 (8 x Ar-.QH), 140.9, 141.3, 143.7, 145.9 (4 x Ar-_Q), 170.8, 170.9 (2 x COCH3) SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 2C16 A QH
NHZOH.HC1 NI

pyridine MeOH

2C7 (100 mg) was dissolved in pyridine (0.5 ml) and to this was added hydroxylamine hydrochloride (300 mg) and methanol (3 ml) was added. The solution was then allowed to reflux for 1 hour. The reaction was then quenched with 2M aqueous HC1 (10 ml) and the product was extracted into ether and dried with Na2SO4. The crude reaction mixture was then passed through a flash silica column, eluting with petroleum ether:ethyl acetate, 8:2. On evaporation of the desired eluent 2C16 was obtained as a mixture of syn and anti isomers (80 mg).

IH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) aij 2. 86-3 . 76 (6H, br m, 3 x CHZ) , 6.80-7.36 (14H, br m, 13 x Ar-H, 1 x C=C,H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47MHz) crc 33.7, 33.9 (-QHZ), 39.1, 41.4 (.r.HZ), 46.3, 47.7 (CH2), 58.1, 58.6 (qC), 120.9, 123.5, 124.4, 124.6, 124.7, 124.8, 126.0, 126.1, 126.3, 126.4, 127.1, 127.1, 127.1, 127.3, 127.5, 127.8, 130.4, 130.4, 130.4 (Ar-CH and C=-QH), 136.7, 137.2, 138.5, 138.7, 143.5, 144.0, 144.5, 145.2, 152.8 (Ar-_QO, 167.4, 167.7 (_Q=N-OH).
ti SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Coupling reaction of the corresnonding si yi enol ether of indan-l-one to the corresponding dimethvl, acetal of ,indan-2-one. Synthesis of a silyl enol ether of indan-l-one CF3SO33Si(CH3)3 Et3N
0 O C OSi Me3 (5) To a stirred solution of indan-l-one (1.0 g, 7.57 mmol) and triethylamine ('0.84 g, 1.16 ml, 8.32 mneol) in dichloromethane at 0 C was added trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (1.68 g, 1.36 ml, 7.58 mmol).
The solution was left stirring at 0 C for 15 minutes and then the solution was rapidly passed through a plug of silica, eluting with petroleum ether (b.p. 40-60 C) : ethyl acetate 100 : 0.5. After evaporation of the eluent the silyl enol ether was isolated as a clear colourless oil (5) (1.0 g, 77.0%).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of dimethyl acetal of indan-2-one o MeOH / CH(OCH3)3 O:yMe C~i3C6H.~SO3H.H2O Me (6) To a stirred solution of indan-2-one (1.0 g, 7.57 mmol) in methanol (12 ml) was added trimethyl orthoformate (2 ml) and p-toluenesulfonic acid (approx 1 mol $). The solution was then allowed to stir at room temperature for 2 hours.
To this solution was then added solid sodium bicarbonate (approx. 0.50 g). The methanol was evaporated from the reaction mixture. The crude solid was then partitioned between ether : water (1:1) (50 ml). The organic layer was isolated and the aqueous layer extracted with ether (3 x 20 ml). The combined organic layers were dried with sodium sulphate. After evaporation of the solvent the crude product was then passed through a plug of silica, eluting with petroleum ether 100% grading to petroleum ether : ethyl acetate, 100 : 1. After evaporation of the eluent the dimethyl acetal of indan-2-one was isolated as a clear colourless oil (0.80g, 60%).

IH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 3.21 (4H, s, 2 x CliZ), 3.35 (6H, s, 2 x l3OCH3), 7.22 (4H, s, 4 x Ar-ii,).

13C NMR (CDC13i 75.47 MHz) Sc 41.2, 41.2 (.QH2), 49.4, 49.4 (2 x O-CH3), 111.4 (C~'(OMe)Z), 124.5, 124.5, 126.5, 126.5 (4 x Ar-_QH), 139.8, 139.8 (2 x qQ).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C1 TMS Triflate OMe OSiMe3 DCM
~ ~ ..
-1- _Sp C O

a::)< OMe OMe (6) 3C1 To a stirred solution of the silyl enol ether of indan-l-one (5) (0.80g, 3.92 mmol) and the corresponding dimethyl acetal of indan-2-one (0.70g, 3.92 mmol) in dichloromethane at -78 C, was added a catalytic amount of TMS Triflate. The solution was left stirring at -78 C for 3 hours and then allowed to reach -50 C for 1 hour. To this solution was then added a 5% solution of sodium bicarbonate (approx 20 ml). The organic layer was isolated and the aqueous layer extracted with dichloromethane (2 x 20 ml). The combined organic layers were dried with sodium sulphate. After evaporation of the solvent, the crude product was passed through a plug of silica, eluting with petroleum ether 100% grading to petroleum ether : ethyl acetate, 100:4. After evaporation of the eluent 3C1 was isolated as a slightly coloured oil (0.50 g, 50.5%). On addition of ether to the oil 3C1 crystallised out as white crystals.

IH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 3.06 (3H, s, OCH3), 3.10 (1H, m, Cli), 3.37 (2H, q, J=17, CHCIj2), 3.21 (2H, s C-CHZ), 3.30 (2H, br t, CR2), 7.16 (4H, m, 4 x Ar-H), 7.57 (1H, t, 1 x Ar-ij), 7.59 (1H, d, 1 x Ar--~i), 7.59 (iH, t, 1 x Ar-H), 7.73 (1H, d, 1 x Ar-li).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc: 29.7, 40.6, 41.7 (3 x CHZ), 51.1 (CH), 53.5 (OCH3), 87.4 (qC), 123.9, 124.1, 124.3, 126.4, 126.49, 126.52, 127.2, 134.7 (8 x Ar-CH), 137.7, 140.9, 141.5, 153.7 (4 x Ar-C), 206.3 (C=O).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C2 OC
Triflic acid MeOH : DCM
O O
3C.1 ~'G2 3C1 (200 mg, 0.689 mmol) was dissolved in methanol (3 ml) and DCM (1 ml), to this stirring solution triflic acid (45 N1) was added. The reaction mixture was allowed to reflux for 1 hour, a precipitate formed. The solution was then cooled in an ice bath, filtered and the solid was dried.
Analysis of this yellow solid provided to be 3C2 (100 mg, 50%).

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 3.65, 3.90, 4.40 (6H, 3 x br s, 3 x CHZ), 7.20 (2H, m, 2 x Ar-li), 7.35 (3H, m, 3 x Ar-fi), 7.52 (2H, m, 2 x Ar-#i), 7.84 (1H, d, J=7.7 Hz, 1 x Ar-fi).
13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) SC 31.9, 39.3, 40. 2( 3 xQHZ) , 123.8, 124.4, 124.9, 126.1, 126.6, 126.9, 127.3, 135.4 (8 x Ar-QH), 129.1, 139.1, 139.7, 142.2, 148.4, 154.8 (4 x Ar-_Q & 2 x C=C), 193.5 (.Q=O).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Preparation of 3C3 LDA in dry THF
\

3 C2 78 C pV
CH==CHCH:8 r .3C3 IH NMR (CDC13i 300 MHz) SH 2.62 - 2.90 (2H, m, CHZ=CHCH2) , 3.28 - 3.68 (4H, m, 2 x CH2), 4.99 - 5.21 (2H, m, CH=CHZ), 6.69 (1H, s, C=C#jCH2), 7.05-7.30 (3H, m, 3 x Ar-H), 7.34 -7.42 (2H, m, 2 x Ar-H), 7.48 - 7.56 (1H, dd, J=.87 Hz, 7.3 Hz, 1 x Ar-H), 7.56 - 7.67 (1H, m, 1 x Ar-H), 7.71 - 7.79 (1H, m, 1 x Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 38.3, 38.6, 41.3 (3 x CHZ), 55.8 (qC), 118.7 (CH=_QHZ), 120.5, 123.4, 124.7, 126.3, 127.6, 127.9, 133.7, 135.1, 135.3 (8 x Ar-CH & 1 x CH =
CHZ), 143.2, 144.2, 148.9, 152.5 (4 x Ar-C), 205.9 (C=O).
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C4 Reduction of 3C3 .. / ~ /
+ wilkinsons /
catalyst EtOH
o 0 F~OAc 3G3 3C,L+

3C3 (100 mg, 0.351 mmol) was dissolved in ethanol (20 ml) and ethyl acetate (10 ml). To this stirring solution Wilkinsons catalyst (0.1 g) was added. The reaction mixture was then stirred under hydrogen for 20 hours. An additional quantity of Wilkinsons catalyst (200 mg) was then added. The reaction was allowed to stir under hydrogen for a further 12 hours. The solvent was then removed and the crude product was purified by flash column chromatography to yield 3C4 (90 mg, 90%).

iH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 1.00 (3H, t, J=1 . 6Hz, CH,CH2CH3) , 1.33 (2H, m, CH2CIHZCH3) , 1.90 (1H, m, CH of C~-IZCH2CH3) , 2.10 (1H, m, CH of CHZCHZCH3 ), 3.45 (2H, ab q, CH=C-CjjZ ), 3.54 (2H, ab q, J = 17 . 7Hz , C-CHZ), 6.71 (1H, s, CH=C-CH2 ), 7.14 (1H, dt, J=1.5Hz & 5.7Hz, Ar-H), 7.25 (2H, br m, 2 x Ar-I-~), 7.36 (2H, br t, 2 x Ar-H), 7.52 (1H, br d, Ar-H), 7.63 (1H, dt, J=1.OHz, 7.9Hz, Ar-H), 7.77 (1H, br d, J=7.7Hz, Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 14.5 (CH3), 18.3, 38.6, 39.0, 39.5 (4 x CHZ), 56.5 (qC), 120.5, 123.5, 124.7, 125.1, 126.2, 126.2, 127.0, 127.7, 134.9 (8 x Ar-CH & 1 x C=CH), 135.5, 143.3, 144.4, 149.5, 152.5 (4 x Ar-C & I x CH=C), 206.6 (C=O).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C5 Alkylation of 3C1 r ~ ~ y ether ~ + 'BuOK +
p p 'BuOH
Br r 3C1 (400 mg, 1.44 mmol) was dissolved in ether (12 ml) and tbutanol (2m1), to this benzyl bromide (1.0 g, 0.66 ml, 5.76 mmol) was added. To this stirring solution, potassium tert-butoxide (160 mg, 1.44 mmol) in tbutanol (7 ml) was added dropwise over 20 minutes. The solution was allowed to stir for 3 hours. To this solution saturated aqueous ammonium chloride solution (20 ml) was added and the organic phase was extracted with ether (2 x 50 ml).
The organic layers were combined, dried and the crude product was purified by flash column chromatography to yield 3C5 (388 mg, 80%).

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SA 3.48 (2H, ab q, J=13.OHz, CHZ), 3.45 (2H, d, J=7.4Hz, CliZ), 3.65 (2H, d, Cffi), 6.78 (1H, d, J=0.7I-Yz, CIJ=C), 7.22-7.45 (11H, br m, 11 x Ar-H), 7.54 (1H, dt, J=1.2Hz & 7.6Hz, Ar-ii), 7.81 (1H, d, J=7.2Hz, Ar-H)= .
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) 13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 37.5, 38.8, 42.2 (3 x CH2), 57.2 (gC), 120.5, 123.4, 124.1, 124.3, 124.5, -125.9, 126.2, 126.4, 127.4, 128.1, 128.3, 129.9, 134.8, (13 x Ar-CH & 1 x C=CH), 135.1, 137.3, 143.1, 144.1, 149.1, 152.4 (5 x Ar-C & 1 x C=CH), 205.9 (C=O).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C6 & 3C7 Sodium borohydride reduction of 3C5 h NaBH4 EiOH
O EtOAc OH
3 G 5 3c 3C5 (0.50 g, 1.48 mmol) was dissolved in ethyl acetate :
ethanol (2:1, 21 ml) and sodium borohydride (0.50 g, 13.15 mmol) was added to the reaction. The reaction was stirred .at room temperature for 3 hours. Evaporation of the solvent left a white solid to which was added DCM (2 ml) and the slurry passed through a plug of silica, eluting with petroleum spirit (b.p. 40-60 C) : ethyl acetate, 100:1.
The first pair of enantiomers 3C6 were eluted and evaporation of the solvent gave a white solid (0.24 g, 96%). The second pair of enantiomers 3C7 were then eluted and evaporation of the solvent gave a mobile oil (0.24 g, 96%).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) 1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 2.99 (2H, dd, CH2 ), 3.21 (2H, dd, CHZ), 3.45 (2H, ab q, CIiZ), 5.05 (1H, m, CHOH), 6.68 (1H, s, J=0.5Hz, Cfi=C-CH2) , 6.96 (2H, m, 2 x Ar-H), 7. 16-7 . 45 (11H, br m, 11 x Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 38.4, 40.4, 43.4 (3 x CHZ), 56.4 (1 x qC), 81.8 (1 x CHOH), 120.6, 123.5, 124.3, 124.9, 125.0, 126.3, 126.3, 126.9, 128.0, 128.0, 128.7, 130.2, 130.2, 130.4 (13 x Ar-CH & 1 x C=CH), 138.1, 141.7, 143.3, 143.7, 144.5, 151.0 (5 x Ar-C & 1 x C=CH).

1H NMR (CDC13 300 MHz) Sh 2.32 (1H, br m, CHOF~- ), 2.75 &
3.20 (2H, dd, J=13.4Hz, CHZ), 3.17 (2H, ab q, J=15.7Hz, CHZ), 3.55 (2H, ab q, J=22.6 Hz, CHZ), 5.25 (1H, br s, CHOH), 6.52 (1H, d, J=0.4Hz, C=CH), 6.91 (2H, dd, 2 x Ar-H), 7.20 (4H, br m, 4 x Ar-HO, 7.30 (5H, br m, 5 x Ar--~I), 7.50 (2H, br m, 2 x Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 29.9, 39.9, 40.4 (3 x CH2), 55.8 (qC), 83.8 (CHOH), 120.4, 123.5, 123.9, 124.0, 124.9, 126.0, 126.3, 126.8, 127.7, 127.9, 128.3, 128.6, 130.1, 130.4 (13 x Ar-CH & 1 x C=CH), 138.3, 140.6, 142.9, 143.8, 144.7, 153.2 (5 x Ar-C & 1 x C=CH).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C8 & 3C9 by reduction with Lithium tri-tert-butoxyaluminohydride LiA!{OC(CEP3)3 14 ~ ~ 1 ------O THF

OI-I
3c. 5 +
3c.g OH

3C5 (200 mg, 0.593 mmol) was dissolved in dry THF (5 ml) and to this was added lithium tri-tert-butoxyaluminohydride (0.50 g, 1.97 mmol). The solution was allowed to stir for 3 hours. The solvent was removed and the crude reaction mixture was filtered and purified .by flash column chromatography to yield 3C8 (90 mg, 96%) and 3C9 (90 mg, 96%). SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) jH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 2.99 (2H, dd, J=13.7 Hz, CHZ) , 3.21 (2H, t, J=4.4Hz, CHZ), 3.45 (2H, abq, J=22.6Hz, CHZ), 5.05 (1H, m, CHOH), 6.68 (1H, s, CH=C-CHZ), 6.96 (2H, m, 2 x Ar-H), 7.16-7.45 (11H, br m, 11 x Ar-li).

I3C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 38.4, 40.4, 43.4 (3 x CHZ), 56.4 (qC), 81.8 (1 x CHOH), 120.6, 123.5, 124.3, 124.9, 125.0, 126.3, 126.3, 126.9, 128.0, 128.0, 128.7, 130.2, 130.2, 130.4, (13 x Ar-CH & 1 x C=CH), 138.1, 141.7, 143.3, 143.7, 144.5, 151.0 (5 x Ar-C & 1 x C=CH).

IH NMR (CDCI3i 300 MHz) SH 2.32 (1H, br m, CHOH), 2.99 (2H, dd, J=13.4Hz, CH=C-CH2), 3.17 (2H, ab q, J=15.7Hz, CHZ), 3.55 (2H, ab q, J=22.6Hz, CHZ), 5.25 (1H, br s, CHOH), 6.52 (1H, d, J=0.4Hz, C=CH), 6.91 (2H, dd, 2 x Ar-H), 7.20 (4H, br m, 4 x Ar-H), 7.30 (5H, br m, 5 x Ar-H), 7.50 (2H, br m, 2 x Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 38.4, 38.5, 40.0 (3 x CHZ), 55.8 (qC), 83.8 (CH0H), 120.4, 123.5, 123.9, 124.0, 124.9, 126.0, 126.3, 126.8, 127.7, 127.9, 128.3, 128.6, 130.1, 130.4 (13 x Ar-CH & 1 x C=_QH), 138.3, 140.6, 142.9, 143.8, 144.7, 153.2 (5 x Ar-C & 1 x C=CH).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C10 c Ac~etic Anh.dride Ey /

N. DMAP / ~ OI3 OCOCH3 3CS + 3ce .3C1a 3C8 & 3C9 (50 mg, 0.15 mmol) was dissolved in clean, dry DCM (5 ml). To this solution was added triethylamine (0.1 ml), DMAP (0.05g) and acetic anhydride (0.25 ml, 10 equivalents). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 15 minutes and passed through a plug of silica eluting with petroleum spirit (b.p. 40-60 C) : ethyl acetate (8:2) to afford 3C10 (45 mg, 80.05%).

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 2.24 (3H, s, COCHI), 3.05 - 3.40 (6H, m, 3 x C~2), 6.40, 6.53 (2H, 2 x s, C=Cff and CIJOCOCH3), 6.93 - 6.95 (2H, m, 2 x Ar-li) , 7.13 - 7.17 ( 11H, m, 11 x Ar-11) 13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 21.3 (OCO.CH3), 39.6, 40.6, 40.7 (3 x_CHZ), 54.4 (qC), 82.8 (-QHOCOCH3), 120.5, 123.4, 124.2, 124.5, 125.7, 126.2, 126.3, 126.8, 127.9, 127.9, 128.9, 128.9, 129.4, 129.9, (13 x Ar-_QH, vinylic -CH), 138.1, 140.6, 142.5, 142.7, 144.5, 151.8, (5 x Ar-.C and 1 xfH=CH2 ), 170.8 ( O.QOCH3 ) SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C11 Alkylation of 3C1 OMe 0 OqOMe + + 'BuOK
0 ether 'BuOH
Br 3c. ~

O
MeO

\
O
3c ~ ~

3C1 (200 mg, 0.719 mmol) was dissolved in ether (6 ml) and tbutanol (1 ml), to this solution methyl-4-(bromomethyl) benzoate (660 mg, 2.88 mmol) was added. Potassium tert-butoxide (80 mg, 0.719 mmol) was dissolved in tBuOH (6 ml) and ether (1 ml). The 'BuOK solution was added over a period of 3 hours. The solution was allowed to stir for a further 2 hours. To this solution, aqueous ammonium chloride (20 ml) was added. The organic phase was extracted with ether and the crude reaction mixture was purified by flash column chromatography to yield 3C11 (230 mg,.82%).

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 3.29-3.61 (6H, m, 3 x C,#12.), 3.84 (311, s, COZCU, 6.73 (1H, br s, CH=CCHZ) , 7.14 (1H, dt, J=1.5Hz & 7.2Hz, Ar-li), 7.20 (6H, m, 6 x Ar-l[), 7.35 (1H, SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) d, J=7.6Hz, 1 x Ar-H), 7.53 (1H, dt, J=1.2Hz & 7.4Hz, Ar-H), 7.75 (1H, d, J=7.6Hz, Ar-H), 7.85 (2H, d, 2 x Ar-H).
13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 37.5, 38.7, 42.1 (3 x CHZ), 51.8 (C02CH3), 56.9 (qC), 120.6, 123.4, 124.5, 124.6, 126.0, 126.3, 127.6, 128.3, 128.5, 129.3, 129.3, 129.9, 12 9. 9, 13 5. 0, (12 x Ar-CH & 1 x Ar-C & 1 x C=CH ) 14 2. 8, 142.9, 143.9, 148.6, 152.1 (5 x Ar-C), 166.7 (CO2CH3), 205.5 (C=O).

N
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C12 Coupling reaction Silyl enol ether of 4-Methoxy-l-indanone OMe OMe 1/ ~
+ Et3N + TMS Triflate DCM
O U C
OSiMe3 (1) To a stirred solution of 4-Methoxy-l-indanone (200 mg, 1.24 mmol) and triethylamine (0.15 g, 0.21 ml, 1.48 mmol) in dichloromethane at 0 C was added trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (0.27 g, 0.22 ml, 1.24 mmol).
The solution was left stirring at 0 C for 15 minutes and then the solution was rapidly passed through a plug of silica, eluting with petroleum ether (b.p. 40-60 C):ethyl acetate 100:0.5. After evaporation of the eluent the silyl enol ether (1) was isolated as a clear colourless oil (260 mg, 91%).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C12 OMe / I OMe zz:~' ~ TIViS Triflate oMe OSiMe3 DCM

+ (1) -78 C to -50 C 0 CKD< oMe oMe (2) To a stirred solution of the silyl enol ether of 4-Methoxy-I-indanone (200 mg, 0.854 mmol) and the corresponding dimethyl acetal of indan-2-one (180 mg, 1.03 mmol) in dichloromethane at -78 C, was added a catalytic amount of TMS Triflate (45 ul). The solution was left stirring at -78 C for 3 hours and then allowed to reach -50 C for i hour. To this solution was then added solid sodium bicarbonate (approx 2.0 g). The organic layer was decanted and the residual solid was extracted with dichloromethane (2 x 20 ml). The combined organic layers were dried with sodium sulphate. After evaporation of the solvent, the crude product was passed through a plug of silica, eluting with petroleum ether 100% grading to petroleum ether : ethyl acetate, 100:4. After evaporation of the eluent 3C12 was isolated as a slightly coloured oil SU13STiTUTE SHEET (RULE 26) (0.16 g, 61%). On addition of ether to the oil 3C12 crystallised out as white crystals.

iH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz ) SH 3.06 (3H, s, CHZC-OCH3 ), 3.07 (2H, m, CHZ ), 3. 25 (4H, m, 1 x CH of CH2 & 1 x CHCHZ & 1 x CHZ) , 3.50 ( 1H, ci, J=17 .OHz, CH of CHZ) , 3.92 (3H, s, ArOCH3), 7.03 (1H, t, J=4Hz, Ar-H), 7.15 (4H, m, 4 x Ar-H), 7.38 (2H, d, J=5.OHz, 2 x Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) SC 26.5, 40.5, 41. 6( 3 x_QHZ) , 51.0, 53.4, 55.4 (2 x OCH3 & 1 x -QH), 87.4 (q.Q), 114.6, 115.2, 115.3, 124.1, 124.2, 126.4, 128.7 (7 x Ar--QH), 139.1, 140.9, 141.5, 142.5, 156.8 (5 x Ar--Q), 206.3 (.~=O).
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C13 Alkylation of 3C12 OMe OMc Z + + 'BuOK
0 ether 'BuOH
Br OMt Oi,,ti ~
O

Usual procedure for alkylation of 8-methoxy carbonyl compounds. 3C13 was isolated (160mg, 80%).

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) Sg 3.26 (2H, ab q, J=17.8Hz, CR2), 3.45 (4H, m, 2 x Cffi) , 3.85, 3.86 (6H, 2 x s, COZCH3 & Ar-OCIL), 6.73 ( 1H, br s, C=Clj), 6.98 (1H, m, Ar-H), 7.21 (1H, dt, J=1.8Hz & 6.7Hz, Ar-li), 7.23 (7H, br m, 7 x Ar-li), 7.83 (2H, br d, 2 x Ar-li).

t3C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 34.2, 38.8, 42.2 (3 x_QH2) , 51.9, 55.4 (1 x O-QH3 & CO2CH3), 56.9 (q-Q), 115.2, 116.1, 120.7, 123.5, 124.5, 126.3, 128.5, 129.2, 129.4, 129.4, 130.1, 130.1 (11 x Ar-.QH & 1 xCH=C), 128.4, 136.6, 140.9, 142.9, 143.1, 144.1, 148.7, 156.5 (7 x Ar-.Q & 1 xQ=CH), 166 . 9 (QO2CH3) , 205.8 (JQ=0) .

SUBSTiTUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C14 Coupling reaction Silyl enol ether of 5-Methoxy-l-indanone OMe OMe + Et3N + TMS Triflate DCM
0rC
0 OSiMe3 (3) To a stirred solution of 5-Methoxy-l-indanone (200 mg, 1.24 mmol) and triethylamine (0.15 g, 0.21 ml, 1.48 mmol) in dichloromethane at 0 C was added trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (0.27 g, 0.22 ml, 1.24 mmol).
The solution was left stirring at 0 C for 15 minutes and then the solution was rapidly passed through a plug of silica, eluting with petroleum ether (b.p. 40-60 C):ethyl acetate 100:0.5. After evaporation of the eluent the silyl enol ether (3) was isolated as a clear colourless oil (240 mg, 85%).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C14 OM
e, ~ ~ ? TMS Triflate OMe OMe OSiMe3 DCM

+ (3) -78''C to -50 C 0 OMe OMe (2) 3C j 4. .

To a stirred solution of the silyl enol ether of 5-Methoxy-l-indanone (3) (200 mg, 0.854 mmol) and the corresponding dimethyl acetal of indan-2-one (180 mg, 1.025 mmol) in dichloromethane at -78 C, was added a catalytic amount of TMS Triflate (45 pl). The solution was left stirring at -78 C for 3 hours and then allowed to reach -50 C for I hour. To this solution was then added solid sodium bicarbonate (approx. 2 g). The organic layer was decanted and the residual solid extracted with dichloromethane (2 x 20 ml). The combined organic layers were dri,ed with sodium sulphate. After evaporation of the solvent, the crude product was passed through a plug of silica, eluting with petroleum ether 100% grading to petroleum ether:ethyl acetate, 100:4. After evaporation of the eluent 3C14 was isolated as a slightly coloured oil SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) (100 mg, 40.5%). On addition of ether to the oil 3C14 crystallised out as white crystals.

iH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 3.05 (3H, s, CH2C-OCH3), 3.06 (1H, m, CU), 3.25-3.47 (6H, br m, 3 x CHZ), 3.89 (3H, s, Ar-OCH3), 6.90 (2H, m, 2 x Ar-H), 7.15 (4H, m, 4 x Ar-H), 7.65 (1H, d, J=8.3Hz, Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) SC 29.4, 40.5, 41.6 (3 x CHZ), 51.1, 53.5, 55.6 (2 x OCH3 & 1 x CH), 87.4 (qC), 109.5, 115.3, 124.1, 124.3, 125.6, 126.5, 126.5 (7 x Ar-CH), 131.2, 141.0, 141.5, 156.6, 165.3 (5 x Ar-C), 204.3 (C=O).
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C15 Coupling reaction OH
OC1=K-5 NaHCO3 iodododecane MeOH : H,O DMF
O
O
~2) To a stirred solution of 4-hydroxy-l-indanone (0.5 g, 3.38 mmol) in methanol : water (10 : 1, 40 ml) was added sodium hydrogen carbonate (0.30 g, 3.57 mmol). The solvent was evporatored to dryness and to the salt which remained was added DMF (20 ml) and 1-iodododecane (2.0 g, 1.67 ml, 6.67 mmol). The solution was allowed to stir at reflux for 2 hours and then additional amount of 1-iodododecane (2.0 g) and sodium hydrogen carbonate (0.38 g) were added. The solution was allowed to stir at reflux for 1 hour. The reaction solution was allowed to cool and ether : water (1 : 1, 40 ml) was added. The organic phase was isolated and the aqueous layer was washed with ether. The combined organic layers were dried with Na2SO4 and the crude reaction mixture was purified by flash column chromatography to yield dodecylether (1) (660 mg, 62%). SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE
26) Synthesis of the silyl enol ether OCc E6 oc t_E~s DCIvt + Et3N + TMS Ttit7ate C
O
OSiJ [e 3 (Z) (3) Usual procedure for silyl enol ether synthesis.
Yield (200 mg, 92%).

Synthesis of 3C15 5 Coupling reaction OC1y F1Z OCizHzs O%te TMS Triflate ONie -78 C
OSiVte3 0 (3) (2) 3c ~S
Usual procedure for coupling synthesis.
Yield (90 mg, 41%).

IH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 0.91 (3H, m, (CH2)IOCH2CH3), 1.28 (18H, m, OCHZCHz ( CHZ ) yCH3 ), 1.86 (2H, m, OCH2CH2 ( CH2 ) 9CH3 ), 10 3.52, 3.91, 4.37 ( 6s-i, 3 x br s, 3 x C11Z) , 4.05 (2H, t, SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) J=13.OHz, OCHZCHZ(CH2)9CH3) , 6.98 (1H, d, J=7.3 Hz, Ar-H), 7.35 (6H, br m, 6 x Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) SC 14.1 (_CH3), 22.7, 25.9, 26.1, 28.9, 29.2, 29.3, 29.4, 29.6, 29.7, 31.9, 39.2, 40.3 68.3, 65.9 (14 xCH2), 115.3, 115.4, 124.4, 124.9, 126.6, 126.9, 128.7 (7 x Ar--QH), 129.2, 137.4, 139.3, 141.2, 142.3, 154.7, 156.2 (5 x Ar-C & 2 x209.1 (C=O).
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C16 Alkylation of 3C15 OC12Ha + t BuOK + BrCEECOOMe 'BuOH
O ether 3 G 15 OC,2H Zs OMe OcO
O

3Lib.
Usual potassium tert-butoxide method.
Yield (120 mg, 51%).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C17 Synthesis of the silyl enol ether of Bromo-indanone + TMS Trittate + F13N ~ ~
~9qo DCM
Br O~,C Br ~ ?Cf$A %it3 To a stirred solution of 6-Bromo-5,7-dimethyl-l-indanone (0.5 g, 2.11 mmol) in DCM (3 ml) at 0 C was added triethylamine (0.21 g, 0.29 ml, 2.08 mmol) and TMS
triflate (0.466 g, 0.38 ml, 2.09 mmol). The solution was left stirring at 0 C for 10 min and then the solution was passed through a plug of silica eluting with petroleum ether to give the silyl enol ether of 6-Bromo-5,7-dimethyl-l-indanone as a mobile oil (0.62 g, 95%).

Synthesis of Bromo-methoxy dimer / oMo TMS Triflate / Ol~c Br ~ + ~ oNiC ~ I
DCM
Br osi.iie3 -78 C to RT o .3Cf-I

To a solution of the dimethyl acetal of 2-indanone (0.50 g, 2.81 mmol) and the silyl enol ether of 6-Bromo-5,7-dimethyl-l-indanone (0.50 g, 1.76 mmol) in DCM at -78 C was added a catalytic amount of TMS triflate (40 pl). The reaction was then allowed to slowly warm to room temperature and then left stirring at room temperature for SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) 4 hours. To this solution at room temperature was added solid sodium bicarbonate (1.0 g) and the heterogenous mixture left stirring for 15 minutes. The mixture was then passed through a plug of silica and the Bromo-methoxy dimer 3C17 was isolated as a yellowish solid, which rapidly crystallised from diethyl ether to give white crystals of the titled compound (0.3 g, 49.2%).

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 2.50 (3H, s, Ar-CH3 ), 2.80 (3H, s, Ar-CH3 ), 2.95 (3H, s, OCI-~3 ), 3.18 ( iH, br m, COCHCHZ ), 3.16 (2H, br m, CH2), 3.28 (2H, br m, CHZ), 3.30 (2H, ab q, J=12.6Hz, CCHZ) , 7.15 (4H, m, 4 x Ar-H), 7.24 (1H, br s, Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) SC 17.5, 25.1 (2 x CH3), 29.6, 40.6, 41.6 (3 x CHZ), 51.1, 54.2 (1 x CH & 1 x OCH3), 87.4 (qC), 124.1, 124.3, 125.7, 126.5, 128.1, 134.1, 139.0, 140.9, 141.5, 141.8, 144.8, 153.1 (5 x Ar-CH, 4 x Ar-C &
2 x ArC-CH3i 1 x ArCBr), 205.7 (C=O).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C18 Alkylation of 3C17 OMe Br + 'BuOK + 9-1 ether r ' B uO[t 3C1-t .~
&

3G j g To a solution of Bromo-methoxy 3C17 (200 mg, 0.519 mmol) in ether (6 ml) was added benzyl bromide (0.30 g, 0.20 ml, 1.75 mmol). To this solution at room temperature was added dropwise a solution of potassium tert-butoxide (0.05 g, 0.439 mmol) in LBuOH (6 ml). Analysis of this solution indicated that all of the bromo-methoxy 3C17 was converted to the bromobenzyl 3C18 with a second product having a slightly lower Rt than the starting bromo-methoxy 3C18.
The crude reaction mixture was purified by flash column chromatography to yield 3C18 (0.12 g, 52%).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C19 i 3C20 by reduction with Lithium tri-tert-butoxyaluminohydride p ~ + LiAI{OC(CH =)3}3H
Bt p THF
3G+8 +
~~
~ ~
oH oH
3C + + 3c~~

3C18 (200 mg, 0.451 mmol) was dissolved in dry THF (5 ml) and to this was added lithium tri-tert-butoxyaluminohydride (0.50 g, 1.97 mmol). The solution was allowed to stir for 3 hours. The solvent was removed and the crude reaction mixture was purified by flash column chromatography to yield the two diasteriomers 3C19 (90 mg, 96%) and 3C20 (90 mg, 96%).

IH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) dH 2.40 (3H, s, CH3), 2.48 (3H, s, CIL), 2.80 (111, d, J=13.6 Hz, CH of CH2), 3.00 (214, ab q, Js15.6 Hz, CH of CHZ), 3.23 (1H, d, J=13.6 Hz, CH of CHZ), SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) 3.54 (2H, ab q, J=22 . 6 Hz, CH2), 5.18 ( 1H, br m, CIJOH) , 6.52 (1H, br s, C=CH), 6.89 (2H, m, 2 x Ar-H), 7.20 (5H, m, 5 x Ar-H), 7.30 (3H, 2 x Ar-H), 7.45 (1H, d, J=6.0 Hz, 1 x Ar-H).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C21 Coupling reaction O
OSi Nfe3 DC~t + TMSTriflate + Et3(~J
Br 0 C Br To a stirred solution of 5-Bromo-4,6-dimethyl-l-indanone (0.5 g, 2.11 mmol) in DCM (3 ml) at 0 C was added triethylamine (0.21 g, 0.29 ml, 2.08 mmol) and TMS
triflate (0.466 g, 0.38 ml, 2.09 mmol). The solution was left stirring at 0 C for 10 min and then the solution was passed through a plug of silica eluting with petroleum ether to give the silyl enol ether of 5-Bromo-4,6-dimethyl-l-indanone as a white crystalline solid (0.60 g, 94%).

SUBST{TUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of Bromo-methoxy dimer 3C21 OSi4fe3 O
O,% fe TNiS Tritlate ~ O;~Ir ~ + ~

Br ' ONlc DCI~i Br ~ \
-78 C to RT

3G~

To a solution of the dimethyl acetal of 2-indanone (0.50 g, 2.81 mmol) and the silyl enol ether of 5-Bromo-4,6-dimethyl-l-indanone ( 0. 50 g, 1.76 mmol) in DCM at -78 C was added a catalytic amount of TMS triflate (40 pl). The reaction was then allowed to slowly warm to room temperature and then left stirring at room temperature for 4 hours. To this solution at room temperature was added solid sodium bicarbonate (1.0 g) and the heterogenous mixture left stirring for 15 minutes. The mixture was then passed through a plug of silica and the Bromo-methoxy 3C21 was isolated as a yellowish solid, which rapidly crystallised from diethyl ether to give fine white crystals (271 mg, 40%).

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) 6A 2.54 (6H, br s, 3 x overlapping Cffi), 3.10 (3H, s, OCHI), 3.12 (1H, m, CHCHZ), 3.21-3.38 (5H, m, 2 x CH2 & 1 x CH of ChZ), 3.73 ( 1H, d, CH of CHZ) , 7.16 (4H, m, 4 x Ar-H), 7.44 (1H, s, Ar-H).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C22 Alkylation of 3C21 O
OMe r + 'BuOK +
\ \ ~

3G ~ ~ ether r 'BuOH

O

Br ~ \ [

To a solution of Bromo-methoxy dimer 3C21 (200 mg, 0.519 mmol) in ether (6 ml) was added benzyl bromide (0.30 g, 0.20 ml, 1.75 mmol). To this solution at room temperature was added dropwise a solution of potassium tert-butoxide (0.05 g, 0.439 mmol) in 'BuOH (6 ml). Analysis of this solution indicated that all of the bromo-methoxy dimer was converted to the bromobenzyl dimer 3C22 and a product having a slightly lower Rf than the staring bromo-methoxy dimer. The crude reaction mixture was purified by flash column chromatography to yield 3C22 (0.14 g, 61%).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C23 & 3C24 by reduction with Lithium tri-tert-butoxyalum.inohydride O
Br + L!A){OC(CH3)3}3N

TNFF
OH
OH
Or 3Ca3 L+

3C22 (200 mg, 0.451 mmol) was dissolved in dry THF (5 ml) and to this was added lithium tri-tert-.
butoxyaluminohydride (0.50 g, 1.97 mmol). The solution was allowed to stir for 3 hours. The solvent was removed and the crude reaction mixture was purified by flash column chromatography to yield 3C23 (90 mg, 96%) and 3C24 (90 mg, 96%).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C25 Acetic Anhydride EIO Dimethytaminopyridine Triethylamine DCM C1-13 (i) 3-Chloropropionyl chloride CSz Aluminium chloride n HO H=SO; \ ~ + ~ ( (4) O O

V aHCOj (2) (3) Benzyt bromide major product minor product D'IF

TL[S Triflate O ~ El OSi-% te 3 O
DCM (6) - (~
O
N fe 0:~Xo\le TtIS Triflate Olklie = / ~ / ~
O
O

3C, aS

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C25 2,6-dimethylphenol (5.0 g, 0.041 mol) was dissolved in DCM
(20 ml) and to this was added triethylamine (8.29 g, 11.41 mi, 0.082 mol) and acetic anhydride (6.28 g, 5.80 mi, 0.0615 mol). To this stirring solution was added dimethylaminopyridine (500 mg, 0.0041 mol). The reaction mixture was allowed to stir at room temperature for 1 hour. The solvent was removed and the product was purified by flash column chromatography to yield compound (1).

Aluminium chloride (15.55 g, 0.116 mol) was suspended in CS2 (30 ml) and to this f3-chloropropionyichloride (6.36 g, 0.05 mol) was added dropwise over 20 mins. The suspension was cooled to 0 C and compound (1) (6.85 g, 0.042 mol) in CSZ (6 ml) was added dropwise over 20 min. The reaction was allowed to stir at room temperature for 3 hrs. The reaction was quenched with iced water and the organic phase was extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layers were combined and dried over Na2SO4. The solution was filtered and the excess solvent was removed by distillation. The crude product was purified by flash column chromatography to yield compound (2).

Compound (2) was placed in a round bottomed flask and to it was added conc. HZSO4 on addition of the acid the solution turned red. The solution was allowed to stir at room temperature for 3 hrs. The reaction mixture was then poured onto iced water and the organic phase was extracted with ethyl acetate and washed with water (2 x 20 ml). The excess solvent was removed and the crude reaction mixture was purified by flash column chromatography. Compound (4) was isolated as a yellow powder.

To a stirred solution of 5,7-dimethyl-6-hydroxy-indan-l-one; compound 4 (1.0 g, 5.68 mmol) in DMF (15 ml) was added sodium bicarbonate (2.0 g, 23.5 mmol) and benzyl bromide (2.0 g, 11.6 mmol). The mixture was left stirring SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) at reflux for 3.5 hours. At this point benzyl bromide (1.0 g, 5.8 mmol) and solid sodium bicarbonate (1.0 g, 11.7 mmol) were added gradually to the refluxing mixture.
The reaction was then left refluxing for 1 hour. After cooling the reaction mixture to room temperature, Ether (50 ml) and water (50 ml) were added. The organic layer was extracted and the aqueous phase re-extracted with 2 x 25 ml of ether. The combined organic layers were dried with sodium sulphate. Filtration followed by evaporation left a mobile oil which was passed through a plug of silica eluting with petroleum ether grading to petroleum ether:ethyl acetate 98:2. Evaporation of the eluent left the benzyl ether as a mobile oil compound (5) (1.20 g, 80%).

To a stirring solution of compound (5) (200 mg, 0.75 mmol) in dry DCM (10 ml), to this was added triethylamine (84 mg, 0.115 ml, 0.83 mmol) and TMS triflate (0.158 g, 0.136 ml, 0.76 mmol). The solution was allowed to stir at 0 C
for 15 mins and was then passed through a plug of silica, eluting with petroleum ether. Evaporation of the solvent afforded compound (6) as a mobile oil (0.19 g, 81%).

To a stirring solution of compound (6) and dimethyl acetal of indan-2-one in DCM (10 ml) at -78 C was added TMS
trif late (45 }il). The mixture was allowed to stir at room temperature for 2 hours. The crude reaction mixture was then passed through a plug of silica, eluting with petroleum ether:ethyl acetate 98:2. This then afforded 3C25.

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) Sg 2.37 (3H, s, Ar-Cb3), 2.62 (3H, s, Ar-Cffi), 3.08 (3H, s, OMe), 3.09-3.52 (7H, m, 3-Ci & 1 x Cli), 4.79 (2H, s, PhCH2O-), 7.16-7.43 (LOH, 2 x br m, Ar-ff) =

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 11.2, 17.5 (2 x Ar-CH3), 28.6, 40.6, 41.5 (3 xQHZ), 51.1, 54.2 (CH & O-CHA, 74.4 (Ph.QHZ), 87.4 (Q-OMe), 124.2, 124.5, 125.9, 126.2, 126.2, 127.8, 127.8, 128.2, 128.8, 128.8 (10 x Ar--QH), 131.2, 134.5, 137.1, 138.9, 141.1, 141.6, 150.1, 155.0 (8 x Ar-Q).
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C26 Alkylation of 3C25 OA
'BuOK. benzvt broaside.
e:l~c,r : ' uOH.

/

To a stirring solution of 3C25 (50 mg, 0.12 mmol) in ether/'butanol 6:1 (7 ml) at room temperature was added potassium-tert-butoxide (13.8 mg, 0.12 mmol) dropwise over 2 hours. To this solution was then added a saturated aqueous solution of ammonium chloride (20 ml) and ether (25 ml). The organic layer was isolated and the aqueous layer extracted with ether (2 x 20 ml). The combined organic layers were dried with sodium sulphate and filtered. Evaporation of the solvent left an oil, which passed through a plug of silica, eluting with petroleum ether:ethyl acetate 98:2. Evaporation of the solvent left the product 3C26 as an oil (40 mg).

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 2.31 (3H, s, ArCH3), 2.61 (3H, s, ArCH3 ), 3. 13-3 . 56 (6H, m, 3 x CH2), 4.74 (2H, s, PhCHZO), 6.71 (1H, br s, CH=CCH2), 7.12 (15H, br m, 15 Ar-H).

13 C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 11.4, 17.5 (2 xC-H3), 36.6, =
38.9, 42.4, 57.9 (4 x_QH2), 74.4 (fH), 120.6, 123.5, 124.3, 125.4, 125.9, 126.3, 126.4, 127.8, 128.1, 28.1, 128.6, 129.9, 131.9, 137.1, 137.8 (15 x Ar-CH) 139.2, 143.3, 144.4, 148.9, 149.8, 155.2 (6 x Ar-.Q), 206.3 (C=O).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Unthesis of 3C27 and 3C28 OMR
0 f0'ir PdC ia EtO EtOAo 3c2s oM.
ho ~ 1 !
Aoeie aoh~+dr~t ~ 3C2T
~ o 3G'24 To a stirring solution of 3C25 (0.20 g, 0.49 mmol) in EtOH: EtOAc 1:1 (10 ml) was added 10% palladium on carbon (0.20 g). Hydrogenolysis of the benzyl ether of 3C25 was carried out under an atmosphere of hydrogen at room temperature and 1 atm pressure. After stirring the mixture for 24 hr, the solvent was evaporated off, and to the residue was added ether (20 ml). The mixture was then filtered and evaporation of the solvent left the phenol 3C27 as a mobile oil (0.12 g, 76%). To a solution of the phenol 3C27 (0.10 g, 0.31 mmol) in dry DCM (3 ml) was added triethylamine (63 mg, 2 eq.) acetic anhydride (63 mg, 2 eq) and a catalytic amount of DMAP (10 mol%). The solution was left stirring at room temperature for 3 hr.
The solution was then passed through a plug of silica eluting with petroleum ether:ethyl acetate 98:2. After SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) evaporation of the solvent 3C28 was isolated as a mobile oil.

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) S1, 2.22 (3H, s, OC=OCH ), 2.35 (3H, s, ArCH3), 2.45 (3H, s, ArCH3), 3.05 (3H, s, OCH3), 3.08-3.50 (7H, br m, 3 x C-I2 & 1 x CH), 7.15 (5H, br m, 5 x ArH).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of Chloroketone AtCI3 cE

cI 0 A'-'~Cl (1) To a solution of aluminium chloride (6.28 g, 47.2 mmol) in carbon disulfide (30 ml) was added 3-chioropropionyl chloride (6.0 g, 47.2 mmol). The mixture was left stirring at 0 C for 1 hour and then to the mixture was added m-xylene (5.0 g, 47.2 mmol). The mixture was left stirring for a further half hour. At this point a TLC
indicated that all of the starting material was consumed.
The mixture was then added to approx. 200 g of crushed ice and the resulting mixture partitioned using ether. The organic layer was obtained and the aqueous layer extracted with ether (2 x 100 ml). The combined organic layers were dried and concentrated in vacuo to leave a mobile oil, which was passed through a plug of silica, eluting with petroleum spirits (40-60 C): ethyl acetate 9:1, to yield chloroketone (1) after evaporation of the eluent as the major product (5.50 g, 59.4%).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 5,7-dimethvl-l-indanone Cl H,SO4 ~ ~ -O
O
(1) A solution of the chloroketone (1) (5.0 g, 25.5 mmol) in concentrated sulphuric acid (100 ml) was heated to 95 C and left stirring for i hour. The solution was cooled and then it was added slowly to 700 g of crushed ice. The crude'product was then extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 200 ml). The combined organic layers were washed with water and the resulting organic solvent was dried with sodium sulphate. The solvent was filtered and evaporation of the solvent left a mobile oil, which was passed through a plug of silica yielding the 5,7-dimethyl-l-indanone (3.80 g, 93%) as the major product.

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) S8 2.34, 2.56 (6H, 2 x s, 2 x CH3), 2.59, 2.98 (4H, 2 x br m, 2 x C#L), 6.86, 7.03 (2H, 2 x s, 2 x Ar-11).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 18.1, 21.7 (2 x_QH3), 25.0, 36.8 (2 xQHZ), 124.3, 130.1 (2 x Ar-_QH), 132.1, 138.3, .144.8, 156.4 (4 x Ar-.Q), 207.3 (.Q=O).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of the silvl enol ether of 5 7-dimethyl 1-indanone Trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate Triethylamine DCM OSiMe3 To a stirring solution of 5,7-dimethyl-l-indanone (0.50 g, 3.12 mmol) in DCM (5 ml) at 0 C was added triethylamine (0.374 g, 0.525 ml, 3.77 mmol) and a 25% solution of trimethyl silyl trifluoromethanesulfonate in DCM (0.55 ml, 3.70 mmol) was added dropwise. The solution was left stirring at 0 C for 10 min and analysis by TLC indicated that the formation of the silyl enol ether was approx 75%
complete as judged by TLC with only starting material present. The solution was then rapidly passed through a plug of silica. Evaporation of the eluent left the silyl enol ether of 5,7-dimethyl-l-indanone as a mobile oil (0.51 g, 70.4%).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Coualinqof the corresnondina silyl enol ether of 5.7-dimethyl-l-i.ndanone to the dimetthvlacetal of 2-indanone Ohte OSiAQe3 TMS Trillatc O
~ Ohte DC%[

\ I Ohte 3c30=
To a stirred solution of the silyl enol ether of 5,7 dimethyl-l-indanone (0.50 g, 2.16 mmol) and the corresponding dimethyl acetal of indan-2-one (0.50 g, 2.81 mmol) in DCM (5 ml) at -78 C was added a dilute solution of TMS Triflate (25 ml in I ml DCM). The solution was left stirring at -78 C for half an hour and then the temperature was allowed to reach room temperature and the reaction was allowed to stir at this temperature for 18 hours. To this solution was then added solid sodium bicarbonate approx 0.5 g and the mixture was stirred rapidly for 10 mins.
The mixture was filtered and purified by flash column chromatography. After evaporation of the eluent the expected dimer 3C30 was isolated as a mobile oil, (0.15 g, 22.6%).

1H NMR (CDC13i 300 MHz) Sf, 2.41, 2.58 (6H, 2 x s, 2 x Cff3), 3.06 (1H, m, COCIJ), 3.07 (3H, s, OCIL), 3.20 (5H, br m, 1 x C112 & 3 x CH of CK2), 3.50 (IH, d, J=15 Hz, CH of C.UZ), 6.91 (1H, s, 1 x Ar-#i), 7.10-7.20 (4H, br m, 4 x Ar-ji). SUBSTITUTE SHEET
(RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C31 Same procedure as for the synthesis of 3C5.
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) $y_nthesis of 3C32 & 3C33 3C31 3032 + 3G33 To a stirring solution of the benzyl dimer 3C31 (0.10 g, 0.27 mmol) in the THF (4 ml) at 0 C was added lithium tri-tert-butoxyaluminohydride (0.20 g, 0.79 mmol). The mixture was left stirring at 0 C for 1 hour and then at room temperature for 2 hours. To this solution was then added (80 mg, 0.31 mmol) of lithium tri-tert-butoxyaluminohydride and the mixture left stirring at room temperature for 3 days. The solvent was then evaporated off and the residue was taken up in DCM (2 ml). The cloudy mixture was then passed through a plug of silica to remove the lithium tri-tert-butoxyaluminohydride. The eluent containing the mixture of alcohols was evaporated off to dryness to leave an oil which was then taken up in the minimum amount of DCM. The two pairs of diasteriomeric alcohols were separated from each other by flash column chromatography to leave both pairs of alcohols as mobile oils 3C32 & 3C33, total combined yield (95 mg, 95%).

Top Spot 1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SR 2.38, 2.45 (6H, 2 x s, 2 x CH3), 2.80 (2H, ab q, J=13.4 Hz, CHZ), 3.00 (2H, ab q, J=15.9 Hz, C112), 3.65 (2H, ab q, C112), 5.03 (1H, s, CIJOH), 6.58 (1H, s, C=CH), 6.80 (2H, br m, 2 x Ar-H), 6.93 (1H, s, 1 x Ar-H), 7.15-7.23 (6H, br m, 6 x Ar-H), 7.47 (1H, d J=3.0 Hz, 1 x Ar-H).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C36/3C37 + M-I20H.HCl + pyridine MeOH
~I e +

N N
bH OH

Dimer 3C1 (100 mg, 0.359 mmol) was dissolved in pyridine (0.5 ml) and to this hydroxylamine hydrochloride (300 mg, 4.34 mmol) and methanol (2 ml) were added. The reaction solution was then allowed to reflux for 3hrs. The reaction was quenched with 2M aqueous HCl (10 ml) and the organic phase was extracted into ether. The organic layers were combined and dried over NaZSO4. The crude reaction mixture was passed through a flash silica column, eluting with petroleum ether:ethyl acetate, 9:1. The product was isolated as an oxime mixture of 3C36 and 3C37.
1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) Sg 3C37 3.02 (1H, dd, J=2.6, 16.9 Hz, CH of CIjZ), 3.23 (2H, q, J=16.0 and 7.3 Hz, CIjZ), 3.52 (1H, dd, J=8.6 and 8.6 Hz, CH of CIJ2), 4.59 (1H, dd, J=8.6 and 1.4 Hz, CIJCHZ), 6.08 (1H, s, CaCIJCHz), 7.16-7.40 (8H, br m, 8 x Ar-H), 7.94 (1H, d, J=7.8 Hz, 1 x Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13r 75.47 MHz) cc 37.2, 37.6 (2 x CH2), 39.8 (i x CH), 118.9, 123.4, 123.9, 124.9, 125.6, 126.0, 127.4, 128.0, 132.3 (9 x Ar-QH and 1 x C=QH).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C38 and 3C39 / eo ,. 9 I +

potassium tcrt-butoxide tBuOH ~

6r +

g o ,- _ Oxime mixture 3C36 and 3C37 (200 mg) was dissolved in 'BuOH
(10 ml) and to this was added benzyl bromide (1.16g, 0.82 ml). To this stirring solution potassium tert-butoxide (0.76 g) in tBuOH (10 ml) and ether (2 ml) was added SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) dropwise over a period of 2 hrs. The reaction was then quenched with aqueous ammonium chloride solution and the organic phase was extracted into ether. The organic phases were combined and dried over Na,SO4. The crude reaction mixture was passed through a flash silica column, eluting with petroleum ether:ethyl acetate, 7:3. This afforded 3C38 and 3C39.

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) SH 3.00 (1H, d, J=2.2, 14.9 Hz, CH
of CH2), 3.22 (2H, br d, J=6.6Hz, CHz), 3.55 (2H, dd, J=16.8, 8.8Hz, CH of CHZ), 4.62 (1H, br d, J=7.OHz, CH), 5.12 (2H, s, PhCHZO), 606 (1H, d, J=1.32Hz, C=CHCH2), 7.25 (12H, br m, 12 x Ar-H), 7.81 (1H, br d, J=6.OHz, 1 x Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47MHz) Sc 37.0, 37.5 (CHZ), 39.0 (CH), 76.11(PhCH20), 119.3, 121.8, 123.8, 124.5, 125.6, 126.0, 127.1, 127.4, 127.8, 127.8, 128.0, 128.0, 128.0, 130.4, 136.2, 138.1, 143.3, 144.1, 144.6, 146.6, (5 x Ar-C and C=CH), 162.7 (PhCHzON=C).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C40 f N N
I
CH

3C36 ether 3C37 nBuLi Z

er N

I~
3C4~
Oxime mixture 3C36 and 3C37 (200 mg) was dissolved in dry ether (10 ml). The reaction flask was then cooled to -78 C and N-butyl lithium (1 ml, 2.5 M) was added. After mins benzyl bromide (1 ml) was added. The reaction was 5 allowed to stir at -78 C for 2 hrs. The reaction was allowed to stir at room temperature for 3 hrs. Aqueous HC1 and ether were added to the reaction flask. The organic layer was isolated and dried over NaZSOd. The crude reaction mixture was passed through a flash silica column eluting with petroleum ether:ethyl acetate 8:2 to afford 3C40.

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) IH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) Sil 3.65, 3.81 and 4.0 (6H, s, CHZ), 5.40 (2H, s, PhCHZO), 7.21-7.40 (16H, br m, 15 x Ar-H and 1 x C=CHCH2), 7.53 (2H, br d, 2 x Ar-H) , 8.47 (1H, d, J=7 . 7 Hz, 1 x Ar-H).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 3C43 A

e0 The silyl enol ether of 4-propi-2-enyloxy indan-l-one (1.0 g, 5.3 mmol) and the dimethyl acetal of indan-2-one (1.0 g, 5.6 mmol) were dispersed in clean dry DCM and cooled to -78 C. To this TMS triflate (25 pl) was added and the reaction was stirred at -78 C for 3 hrs and allowed to stir at room temperature for a further hour. The crude reaction mixture was then passed through a flash silica column, eluting with petroleum ether:ethyl acetate, 9:1.
The afforded 3C43 (1.37 g, 77.4%).

1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) aH 3. 04-3. 08 (4H, m, 2 x CH2), 3.24-3.54 (6H, m, CHCHZ, CjJCHZ, OCH), 4.64 (2H, d J=5 . 31Hz, CHZCHCHZ) , 5.43 (2H, dq, J=1. 3Hz 17.25Hz, CH=CHZ) , 6.06-6.17 (1H, m, CHOCHZCHCH2), 7.03 (1H, dd, J=1.3 & 7.05 Hz, Ar-H), 7.15-7.36 (6H, m, Ar-CH).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) 6c 26.4, 40.5, 41.5, 68.7 117.7 (5 x CHZ) , 50.9 (CH), 53. 3(OCH3) , 87.3 (qC), 115.4, 115.9, 123.9, 124.2, 126.3, 128.5, 132.7 (7 x Ar-CH), 139.2, =
140.9, 141.4, 142.7, 155.7 (5 x Ar-C), 206.1 (C=O).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 25) Synthesis of 4C1 O\~j TMS triflate + d DCM
/
-0Si(CH3)3 4CI
Silyl enol ether of indan-2-one (ig, 4.9 mmol) and the cyclic ketal of indan-l-one (1 g, 5.6 mmol) were dispersed in clean dry DCM. The solution was cooled to -78 C and TMS
triflate (25 ml) was added. The reaction was stirred at -78 C for 2 hours and allowed to come to room temperature.
The product was extracted into ethyl acetate. Column chromatography was used to isolate the desired product, eluting with petroleum ether:ethyl acetate, 8:2. 4C1 was isolated (1.07 g, 70.9%).

1H NMR (CDC13 SH 2. 01 ( 1H, br s, CH2OH) , 2. 94-3. 04 (4H, m, CHZCHZ), 3. 67-3. 70 (2H, m, CHa), 3.78 (2H, s, COCHZ), 4.13 -4.18 (2H, m, C-I2), 7.06 (1H, t, COC-~i), 7.23 - 7.34 (6H, m, Ar-ii), 7.50 (1H, d, J=7.4Hz, Ar-I-~), 7.64 (1H, t, J=4.6Hz, Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 30.5, 39.3, 60.9, 66.3 (5 x -QHa), 116.0 (-QH), 120.3, 125.3, 126.6, 126.8, 127.2, 128.4, ,. -128.5, 130.4 (8 x Ar-CH), 132.5, 137.5, 141.9, 145.7, 146.1 (4 x Ar-C and l x q_Q), 171.9 (C=O).
r Low resolution mass spec Requires M+308 Found M+308 SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 4C2 Coupling of 3-Bromo indan-l-one to the silyl enol ether of indan-2-one Br /
~.. ~ TMS Triflate DCM
+ -78 C
O
OSiMe3 -4-2..
To a stirred solution of the silyl enol ether of indan-2-one (0.8 g, 3.92 mmol) and the corresponding 3-Bromo indan-l-one (0.82 g, 3.92 mmol) in dichloromethane at -78 C, was added a catalytic amount of TMS Triflate (30 M1). The solution was left stirring at -78 C for 10 min and at room temperature for 3 hours. To this solution was then added solid sodium bicarbonate (approx 2 g) and the solution was stirred rapidly for 10 minutes. The solution was then filtered and the filtrate was evaporated to leave a mobile oil which was passed through a plug of silica elutant with petroleum ether : ethyl acetate, 9:2. After evaporation of the eluent, 4C2 was obtained as a yellow solid, 45%.

Low resolution mass spectra: Found M*262 Require M*262 IH NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz) 6Lj 2.14 ( 1H, dd, J=3.4 Hz, CHCHZ, 2.64 (1H, dd, J=7.68 Hz, CHCH2), 3.42 (2H, q, J= 23 Hz, COCIJ2 ), 4.10 (1H, br s, CHCOCH2 ), 4.18 (1H, m, CH2CI) 6.25 (1H, d, J=7.7 Hz, 1 x Ar-ii), 6.97 (1H, t, 7.2 Hz, 1 x Ar-h), 7.25 (2H, m, 2 x Ar-fl) , 7.45 (2H, m, 2 x Ar-ii), 7.70 SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) (1H, t, J=7.2Hz, 1 x Ar-ii), 7.80 (1H, d, J=7.0 Hz, 1 x Ar-.
~i) =

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 MHz) Sc 38.6, 43.2 (2 x CHz), 39.5, 55.5 (2 x CH), 123.6, 124.4, 125.0, 125.2, 127.4, 127.5, 128.1, 128.1, 134.9, 137.4, 137.8, 155.2 (8 x Ar-CH & 4 x Ar-C), 204.5, 215.6 (2 x C=O).

SUBSTiTUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Synthesis of 4C3 Sodium Borohydride Reduction of 4C2 O HO
NaBH4 EtOH : EtOAc 2: i O OH

4-C. 3 To a stirred solution of dione 4C2 (100 mg, 0.38 mmol) in ethyl acetate : ethanol (2:1, 9 ml) was added sodium borohydride (100 mg). This solution was left stirring at room temperature for 1 hour. The solution was then concentrated on the rotary evaporator and the concentrate was then passed through a plug of silica eluting with petroleum ether (b.p. 40-60 C) : ethyl acetate 9:1 grading to ethyl acetate. Evaporation of the eluent left the diol 4C3 as a white solid (90 mg, 90%).

Low resolution mass spectra: Found M'262 Required M'262 'H NMR ( CDC1õ 300 MHz) SH 1. 50 - 3.81 (6H, m, CH & CH2's ), 4.73 and 5.02 (2H, m, 2 x CHOH), 7.38 (3H, m, 3 x Ar-H), 7.53 (1H, dd, J=1.2 Hz, 1 x Ar-H), 7.60 (2H, m, 2 x Ar-H), 7.75 (2H, 2 x t, J=1.2Hz, 2 x Ar-H).

13C NMR (CDC13, 75.47 Mhz) Sc 39 . 1, 41. 2( 2 x CH2), 42 . 0, 51.5 (2 x CH), 74.5, 74.9 (2 x CHOH), 124.0, 124.4, 124.7, 124.9, 125.1, 126.1, 127.0, 128.0 (8 x Ar-CH), 141.3, 141.8, 144.7, 145.1 (4 x Ar-C).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) It will be appreciated that the compounds include pharmacologically acceptable salts, esters, isomers and solvates thereof. One example of a possible ester is a salicylate in at least one and possibly several suitable positions on the compound. This opens up the possibility of a combination therapy using an indane dimer and aspirin in a single molecule. The weight ratio of the base indane dimer to aspirin may be selected by providing a salicylate at a number of selected positions on the dimer.

It will be appreciated most of the compounds have one or more chiral centres and hence exist as a pair of enantiomers or as a mixture of diastereomers. This may have an effect on the pharmacological properties. For example, 3C8 above is a mixture of enantiomers. 3C9 is also a mixture of enantiomers. The two enantiomers in 3C8 are diastereomers of the two enantiomers in 3C9. As shown by the data below, the two enantiomers in 3C8 are apparently more pharmacologically active than the two enantiomers in 3C9. Indeed, one of the enantiomers in 3C8 may be more pharmacologically active than the other.

SUBSTiTUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Pl1ARMACOLOGY
Introduction The indane dimers according to the invention have potent mast cell stabilising activity, smooth muscle relaxing activity, and anti-inflammatory activity. The compounds are, therefore, potential anti-asthmatic agents with bronchodilator activity. The mast cell stabilising activity of the compounds suggests their potential use in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis and other anaphylactic or allergic conditions. The anti-inflammatory activity may have applications in gout, rheumatic diseases, ankylosing spondylitis, polymyalgia rheumatica, temporal arteritis, polyarteritis nodosa, polymyositis and systemic lupus arteriosis and other inflammatory conditions. Topical applications may include: atopic excema, weeping excemas psoriasis, chronic discoid lupus erythematosus, lichen simplex chronicus, hypertrophic lichen planus, palmar plantar pustulosis. They may also have potential in the treatment of some malignant diseases and as immunosuppressants.

The smooth muscle relaxing activity of the compounds may have potential in the treatment of hypertension and peripheral vascular disease, such as intermittent claudication and Reynaud's syndrome, as well as other cardiovascular disorders, such as congestive heart failure, angina pectoris, cerebral vascular disease and pulmonary hypertension. Such compounds are also indicated for potential use in the treatment of certain disorders of the gastro-intestinal tract, such as diverticular disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Similarly, these compounds may have potential as agents for the treatment of disorders of the genito-urinary tract, such as premature labour, incontinence, renal colic and disorders associated with the passage of kidney stones. Members of this group SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) of compounds may also have potential as diuretics, analgesics, antipyretics, local anaesthetics, central nervous system depressants and hypoglycaemic agents-.

The compounds were assessed for their ability to stabilize mast cell membranes in vitro. Mast cells treated with the compounds and un-treated mast cells were stimulated to release histamine. A reduction in histamine release by the treated cells compared to the un-treated cells indicates stabilisation of the membrane. The compounds were assessed for their ability to relax smooth muscle in vitro. Smooth muscle was stimulated to contract, using calcium chloride, and subsequently treated with the compounds, and relaxation of the contraction was measured for each compound. The compounds which showed the most activity in these assays were tested for mutagenicity using the Salmonella mutagenicity test (plate incorporation assay). One of these (3C8) was further assessed using an in vivo asthma model. Sensitised rats were treated with the drug by aerosol prior to challenge with allergen and alterations in respiration were recorded. As a result of this study further tests were carried out to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of 3C8. In the rat paw oedema test, the drug was administered systemically prior to inducing inflammation by the injection of carageenan below the plantar aponeurosis of the hind paw. The volume of the paw was determined both before and after treatment as an index of oedema. In the mouse ear oedema test, the drug was administered topically prior to inducing inflammation by the topical application of arachidonic acid. The width of the ear was determined both before and after treatment as an index of oedema. The ability of 3C8 to prevent oedema was determined.

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) There follows protocols of each of these assays and a summary of the results.

ABBREVIATIONS
BSS buffered salt solution CaCIZ calcium chloride COz carbon dioxide DMSO dimethyl sulphoxide DSCG disodium cromoglycate dH2O distilled water HC1 hydrochloric acid HEPES N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N-2-ethanesulphonic acid KC1 postassium chloride lem emission wavelength IeX excitation wavelength M Molar MgC12 magnesium chloride min minutes ml microliters mM milli-molar NaCl sodium chloride NaHCO3 sodium hydrogen carbonate NaH2PO sodium hydrogen phosphate NaOH sodium hydroxide 02 oxygen oPT o-phthaldialdehyde S.E.M. standard error of mean w/v weight per volume v/v volume per volume SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) METHODS
Histamine Release Assay The buffered salt solution (BSS) was prepared in advance (NaCl 137 mM; KC1 2.7mM; MgC12 1.OmM; CaC1Z 0.5mM; NaH2PO4 0.4mM; Glucose 5.6mM; HEPES 10 mM). This was dispensed into test tubes and heated to 37 C, each test tube contained 4.5m1 BSS. The solvent blank was supplemented with 0.5% (v/v) dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) or 0.5% (v/v) distilled water (dHZO). The two positive controls were supplemented with 0.5% (v/v) dH2O / 2x10-5M disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and 0.5% (v/v) DMSO / 2x10-SM DSCG.
The test compounds' incubation tubes contained 2x10-5M test compound / 0.5% (v/v) DMSO. The basal release, maximum release and total histamine content incubation tubes contained no additions.

Female Wistar rats (200-300g) were killed in an atmosphere of saturated COZ. Pre-warmed BSS (lOml) was injected i.p.
and the abdomen was massaged for 3 min. The BSS, with suspended mast cells and other cells, was aspirated following a mid-line incision. The aspirate was centrifuged for 5 min at 400g and the supernatent removed.
The cells were re-suspended in BSS, at 4 C, and centrifuged as before. The cells were washed in this manner a total of three times. Following the final wash, the pelleted cells were stored at 4 C, for use as soon as possible.
The cells were re-suspended in 7ml BSS. From this, 0.5m1 aliquots were transferred to each of the incubation tubes.
After 10 min at 37 C, with gentle agitation, Compound 48/80 was added to a final concentration of 2mg/mi, in order to stimulate histamine release. The cell stimulation was stopped after 2 min by the addition of 0.5m1 ice cold BSS, the incubation tubes were transferred to an ice bath. The SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) cell suspensions were centrifuged for 5 min at 400 g. The "total histamine content" tube was placed at 100 C for 2 min prior to centrifugation. The supernatants were retained for histamine assay.

To 2 ml of supernatent from each tube was added 0.4 ml of 1M NaOH and 0.lm1 oPT (1% (w/v) in methanol). This was incubated at room temperature for 4 min. The reaction was stopped by the addition of 0.2 ml of 3M HC1. The supernatant from each incubation tube was assayed in duplicate and run simultaneously with a standard curve in the range 0-1000ng/ml. The presence of the fluorescent product of the reaction was measured using a Shimadzu RF-1501 spectrofluorophotometer set at Atx=360nm, ;Lm=450nm.
Each drug was tested on at least five animals (n = 5).
The results were expressed as a percentage of maximum inhibition of compound 48/80 induced-histamine release in the solvent blank sample. Each drug was compared to DSCG
on the same tissues. The basal histamine release in untreated cells was noted, expressed as a percentage of the total histamine content of the cells in suspension.
The maximum histamine released by the cells in response to compound 48/80, in the relevant solvent blank sample, was expressed in the same manner. Overall, the mean basal release was 9.60% (S.E.M. = 1.02) of total histamine content of the cells (n = 55). The maximum stimulated histamine release was 67.38% (S.E.M. = 2.90) in the presence of 0.5% (v/v) dH2O and 54.87% (S.E.M. = 2.69) on the presence of 0.5% (v/v) DMSO of total histamine content of the cells (n = 55).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Smooth Muscle Effects Guinea pigs (350g approx.), of either sex, were killed in an atmosphere of saturated COZ. The abdomen was opened by a mid-line incision and the small intestine was removed.

Segments of ileum (1-1.5cm) were suspended in a high potassium, no calcium Krebs buffer (NaCl 160.4mM; KC1 45mM; MgC12 0.54mM; NaHZPO4 0.89mM; NaH2CO3 24.9mM; Glucose 11.1mM). This was maintained at 37 C by a jacketed organ bath and gassed with 95% 02 and 5% COZ. The tissues were anchored by thread to the bottom of the organ bath and suspended from force displacement transducers under a resting tension of ig approx. Isotonic contractions were recorded using a MacLab/4e system in conjunction with the Chart 3.3.1 software package. Surplus tissue was stored at 4 C in Krebs buffer (NAC1 236.5mM; KC1 4.7mM; CaC12 2.5mM; MgC12 0.54mM; NaH2PO4 0.89mM; NaHCO3 24.9mM; Glucose 11.1mM), for a maximum of 48 hours.

Four segments of tissue were suspended and observed concurrently. Contractions were initiated by the addition of 25pl of 1M CaC12 (a final concentration of 2.5mM). The contractions stabilized with time, 10-15 min, and could be maintained for up to 45 min. from the addition of the CaClZ.

Stock solutions of drug were prepared at 10-3M in 50% (v/v) DMSO. These were diluted to give; 10-4M in 5% (v/v) DMSO
and 10-5M in 0.5% (v/v) DMSO. In cases of poor solubility the 10-3M stock was made up in higher concentrations of DMSO. Solvent "blank" solutions were prepared containing 50%, 5% and 0.5% (v/v) DMSO (or as appropriate). The drug solution was added to the organ bath once a stable contraction of the tissue had been achieved. A cumulative dose-response assay was carried out in the range 5x10-8M to SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) WO 97/20802 PCT/dE96/00080 10-SM. The organ bath was washed out and the tissue allowed to relax. A second cumulative dose-response assay was carried out using DMSO "blank" solutions only.

Each drug was tested, in duplicate, on at least three different animals (n=3). The results were expressed as percentage inhibition of the CaCl2induced contraction, for each tissue, at each concentration of drug in DMSO. The effect of DMSO, for each tissue at each concentration, was substracted from the effect of the drug in DMSO, to give the effect of the drug alone. A log dose vs. response curve was plotted for each drug using the mean and the standard error of the mean for the cumulated results.
Salmonella Mutagenicity Test The compounds were tested for mutagenicity under the protocol designed by Ames et al. (Mutation Res. 31, 347-364, 1975) and modified by Maron and Ames (Mutation Res.
113,, 173-215, 1983). The Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 histidine requiring strains TA98, TA100, TA102 and TA1535 were used for mutagenicity testing. These strains contain a number of other mutations which greatly increase their ability to detect mutagens. These are (1) a mutation ( rfa+) causing partial loss of the lipo-polysaccharide cell wall, thus increasing the permeability of the cell to larger molecules and (2) a deletion ( uvrB-) causing loss of the DNA excision repair systems. TA102 retains the excision repair system (uvrB}), rendering it capable of detecting mutagens needing this system. In addition, TA102 contains the PAQ1 plasmid, with the his G428 mutation, confering tetracycline resistance to this strain. TA98, TA100 and TA102 also embody an R factor plasmid, PKM101, containing an ampicillin resistance gene.
Mutation of the genome, causing revertion to histidine independence can be detected using selection media.

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Solutions of the test compounds were prepared in DMSO in the range 0-50 mg/ml. Top agar (2m1), held at or above 45 C, containing 0.5mM L-histidine HC1 / 0.5mM biotin, was distributed into sterile 5mi sample vials. Fresh overnight culture of the relevant strain (0.1m1) was added along with the test compound (0.1m1). Rat liver microsomal enzymes may also be included (0.5m1s of S9 mix) in order to test for mutagenic metabolites of the test compounds. The contents of the sample vial were transferred onto minimal glucose agar plates and left stand to dry for one hour. The plates were inverted and incubated at 37 C for 48h. Cell growth take place only in the event of a mutation occuring. The number of revertant colonies on each plate were counted. Six negative control plates, including DMSO, and six positive control plates, including a diagnostic mutagen, were tested concurrently with each compound. Three to four test plates were conducted for each compound at each of five different ocncentrations. A significant rise in the number of revertant colonies on a test plate compared to the background revertion rate would indicate that the test compound was mutagenic. Significance testing was carried out using Dunnett's multiple comparison test (Dunnett C.W., Jnl. Am. Statist. Assoc. 50, 1096-1121, 1955).

In Vivo Bronchial Asthma Model Experiments were performed in male Wistar rats aged 10-12 weeks (200-250g). Sensitisation was by the injection (lml s.c.) of ovalbumin (lmg/ml)/aluminium hydroxide (200mg/ml) and Freunds complete adjuvant (lml i.p.).

.
Three weeks following sensitisation, each animal was sedated with sodium phenobarbitone (40mg/kg i.p.), sedation was maintained with supplemental injections SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) WO 97/20802 PCT/dE96/00080 (5mg/kg i.p.) as required. The nose was occluded by surgical tape to prevent deposition of aerosols. The animal was placed in a respiratory chamber, respi,ratory =
parameters were measured by a differential volumetric transducer. Animals were treated by an aerosol of ethanol (50% v/v as a negative control), DSCG (5mg/ml in ethanol 50% v/v as a positive control) or 3C8 (5mg/ml in ethanol 50% v/v). The animals were subsequently challenged by an aerosol of saline (negative control) or ovalbumin (5%
w/w). Changes in respiration were monitored for three hours. Each animal was given three further such treatments to induce bronchial hyper-reactivity, a condition more closely resembling bronchial asthma.

Three to four weeks after the initial treatment, the experiment was repeated. The animals were exposed to an aerosol of acetyl-methyl-choline (metacholine) at a dose (8mg/mi), which stimulates a significant response in hyper-reactive airways only. None of the animals were pre-treated with drug. Changes in airway responses were monitored for one hour.

In vivo Inflammation Models The rat paw oedema model was performed using female Wistar rates (180-200g). The animals were sedated with sodium pentobarbitone, 40-70mg/kg i.p. The animals were treated by the i.p. injection of one of a range of concentrations of test drug (0-100mg/kg in 50% DMSO) or hydrocortisone (100mg/kg in 50% DMSO) or indomethacin (100mg/mk in 50%
DMSO). After 30 min, oedema was induced by the injection of carageenan (100p1 at 2% w/v) below the plantar aponeurosis of the hind paw. The volume of the paw was measured, both before and 60 min after treatment, by displacement of water in a graduated cylinder. Paw oedema was calculated by comparing the paw volume before and SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) after induction of oedema and expressed as percentage normal.

The mouse ear oedema model was performed using Laca mice (25-35g), of either sex. The animals were sedated with fentanyl/fluanizone (Hypnorm, Janssen). One ear was treated by the topical application of one of a range of test compounds, indomethacin or dexamethazone (all at 300pg ear in acetone) drug. After 30 min, oedema was induced by the topical application of arachidonic acid (10}.tl at 0.4g/ml in acetone). The thickness of each ear was measured, both before and 60 min after the induction of oedema, using a micrometer screw guage. Ear oedema was calculated by comparing the ear width before and after induction of oedema and expressed as percentage normal.

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) RESULTS
Mast Cells Stabalisatin and Smooth Muscle Relaxation =
The findings of the histamine release and the smooth muscle effect assays are summarised in the acompanying tables of results. The results from some of the compounds are illustrated in the accompanying graphs. The results indicate that these compounds show a wide variety of smooth muscle relaxing and mast cell stabilising activity, and that these two effects are not related (i.e. a good mast cell stabiliser is not necessarily a good smooth muscle relaxant and vice versa).

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Results for Histamine release assay and Smooth muscle Percentage Inhibition of:
Histamine CaC12 Induced Contractions Release (t S.E.M.) (t S.E.M.) Conc. Sx10j 10a 5x10a 20j 5x104 10j 2x10j ilvl) 1C1 0.39 0.03 0.79 0.66 1.83 7.95 3.62 t 0.79 t 0.90 t 0.66 t 0.68 t 1.46 2.47 4.69 1C2 0.91 0.29 1.92 6.45 21.62 41.27 15.55 1.23 t1S2 3.07 3.86 3.91 3.84 3.23 1C3 1.89 229 2.45 5.71 15.50 29.52 15.98 t 1.38 f 1.36 t 2.48 f 320 3.55 t 4.79 t 1.90 1C4 -1.03 -2.36 -3.00 -4.03 -3.75 -5.17 23.05 0.99 t0.59 0.91 1.63 t2.06 t2.46 2.24 1C5 3.04 4.75 "5.43 13.13 27.07 44.86 1.16 2.13 3.24 4.46 t3.86 3.73 1C62.8 3.88 5.11 9.84 21.91 4550 6õ13 t0.50 t0.54 1.02 f211 t2.63 t4.04 t3.93 1C12 2.60 1.28 2.60 3.68 33.09 51.26 16.64 t2.18 1.71 1.65 t2.30 3.49 t1.99 t1.71 1C13 1.73 2.64 8.55 14.68 39.34 51.70 37.79 0.72 1.14 2.17 t2.66 3.10 3.71 4.85 1C24 0.72 1.07 2.36 3.05 12.38 18.86 24.72 f0.61 t0.74 1.22 1.40 t2J0 t3.17 t3.22 1C25 & 0.19 1.48 3.22 5.97 21.32 36.14 41.40 IC26 t 0.61 t 0.92 1.22 1.48 t 320 t 2.82 t 8.33 1C28 0.31 3.29 -1.05 -3.21 -226 -249 10.27 0.94 0.90 t0.83 0.68 t1.11 0.58 3.73 1C29 0.76 0.34 0.44 2.37 12.47 21.00 21.62 t 137 1.22 0.60 f 0.74 t 3.44 3.69 3.90 1C31 1.22 -0.61 0.80 4.90 12.95 31.53 -27.78 t1.09 1.08 1.77 t2.06 2.25 t253 7.68 1C36 -0.56 -1.29 -0.05 -3.09 -1.26 -131 16.63 t0.50 0.69 0.96 1.23 t226 f3.54 2.15 2C2 1.07 0.45 1.09 3.31 22.42 33.36 22.41 0.48 0.66 t1.47 t129 t5.00 4.62 4.99 SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Percenta e Inhibition of:
Histamine CaC12 Induced Contractions Release (t S.E.M.) {f S.EM.) Conc. 3x10j 10'' 3x1e 10, 3x10j 10i ?x1 j (M) 1C8 35.93 t 8.06 (n-4) ;C9 64.14 t 3.87 iC10 1.15 1.40 4.35 9.48 26.53 49.64 19.43 f0.55 t1.05 0.86 1.59 1.78 1.71 1.98 1C12 0.22 1.67 1.29 2.77 9.59 23.38 -557 t 0.60 t 0.62 t 1.13 1.62 1.66 t 1.81 t 720 1~.'14 0.63 1.86 2.51 3.72 8.53 21.68 24.80 t0.35 t0.79 t0.54 t0.66 t138 t2.65 t3.93 1C15-T -0.45 1.14 3.27 5.82 12.45 26.88 -21.64 0.67 t 0r88 t 141 t 191 f 238 4.08 4.61 1C13-B 3.48 4.95 9.73 22.12 41.97 79.51 -3552 1.78 1.90 t 1.21 t 330 2.42 2.60 f6.32 1C16 74.45 t 3.06 1C17 -1.40 -1.98 -1.58 0.31 8.02 35.19 -23-14 0.90 1.62 t1.30 2.43 t3.30 2.85 t 9.73 1C18 1.73 1.46 3.27 6.09 2204 39.54 -28.83 f0S2 t0.43 0.87 1.21 t3.35 6.91 t 2.15 1C19 27.77 t7.40 1C20 -1.80 1.79 3.60 4.25 6.81 19.90 3249 0.88 1.55 t2.44 t295 t2.84 t1.44 3.05 1C21 1.32 0.72 1.94 3.73 5.06 17.95 -3.17 1.44 t 1.59 2.24 ' t 3.63 3.68 2.92 t12.02 =
1C22 1.17 1.16 1.72 2.68 7.43 26.78 42-90 1.19 1.99 2.86 t 3.64 4.81 6.06 6.13 1C23 0.05 -0.72 0.06 3.37 6.63 24.42 56.53 t 1.11 t 0S3 t 0.60 0.60 t 1.03 1.99 8.04 SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Percentage Inhibition of:
Histamine CaC12 Induced Contractions Release (t S.E.M.) (t S.E.M.) Conc. 3x10' 10a 3x10a 10' 3x10' 10j 2x10'8 (M) 1C27 23.52 t 8.35 1C30 2.63 4.54 6.79 12.32 20.27 36.26 8,65 1.68 1.66 1.81 f 1.85 2.11 3.61 5.09 1C32 0.89 0.99 2.90 2.27 0.73 2.90 10.26 t 037 t 0.75 t 0.78 t 0.77 t 0.88 t 3.99 t 227 1C33 1.03 2.22 5.06 6.54 10.24 20.53 21.87 t 0.71 .t 0.70 t 1.86 t 1.95 t 2.14 1.44 4.40 1C35 -1.94 -4.01 331 -4.43 -232 -2.45 4.48 1.16 1.60 t 2.58 t 3.09 3.01 t 358 t 3.24 IC38 0.95 2.23 2.95 5.29 7.18 16.84 33.73 0.44 0.86 1.19 1.62 1.40 t172 t5.28 1C39 1.00 3.10 4.12 4.23 4.50 2.59 21.03 0.62 0.89 0.97 t 0.71 0.87 1.43 8.27 1C40 2.19 2.57 4.62 5.78 737 14.10 26.78 1.00 t 1.41 t 1.33 t 0.98 131 t 2.69 t 7,04 IC42 78_44 t 4.25 2C1 1.51 2.52 3.21 3.60 4.80 9.07 14.96 t0.78 t0.92 1.19 t1.31 t1.15 1.49 t5.27 2C4 2.01 2.45 3.21 4.85 11.03 23.16 16.16 t0.95 1.51 t1.41 1.50 t1.68 1.37 t11.54 t2.03 2C9 26.78 t 7.71 3C1 0.10 -1.01 0.09 2S9 5.71 21.35 9,50 0.26 0.62 t0.84 t1.27 1.44 f2.06 2.49 SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Percentage Inhibition of :

Histimine CaC12 Induced Contractions Release (t S.E.M.) (t S.E.M.) Conc. 3x10s 10a 3x10a 10{ 3x10'6 10j 2z10a (M) 3C2 3.47 3.92 4.70 6.74 9.01 17.70 26.78 t 1.44 1.65 t 2.07 t 3.26 2.94 2.83 7.04 3C3 2.25 4.69 5.91 8.50 15.22 31.76 4.56 0.78 1.21 1.70 t2.70 3.76 2.78 4.63 3C4 -0.20 -1.56 0.13 4.46 9.40 23.36 22,81 t 0.42 t 1.22 t 1.37 t 1.69 1.49 t 2.03 8.44 3C5 0.54 2.38 0.86 2.91 7.50 14.57 7.10 t 0.64 1.49 t 1.33 t 1.69 t 1..55 1.94 t 6.21 3C6 0.33 1.76 6.00 10.95 23.92 45.47 57.88 f0.89 0.97 1.17 1.18 3.56 4.87 3.13 3C7 2.83 5.23 8.11 10.72 20.73 46.67 42.05 t1.54 f130 1.61 t1.79 3.18 6.02 5.87 3C8 6.69 9.36 10.35 14.46 22.15 53.37 88.69 1.28 1.29 t128 t237 t432 3.51 t 1S3 3C9 5.96 4.42 4.27 5.73 9.61 18.88 75.74 t1.41 1.71 1.89 1.80 t2.40 :12.16 2.22 3Ci0 22.59 t 4r80 3C11 2.52 1.79 1.62 3.25 4,75 10.90 -45.60 t 1.89 1.82 2.29 1.73 2.22 t 4.39 t 32.,,56 3C12 -0.74 -1.68 5.58 6.76 14.16 23.66 -3.91 t1.17 f232 3.00 t2.62 2.33 2.16 7.04 3C'13 2.51 3.47 6.41 7.98 11.18 24.34 16.98 0.72 0.85 1.26 t 1.88 1.67 2.36 t 4,97 3C17 0.90 -0.94 0.87 1.77 4.04 20.24 47.50 0.88 t 0.70 .t 0.45 t 0.80 2.06 f 2.78 t 10.49 3C18 -0.75 0.74 2.42 3.90 8.15 20.77 -59.75 t0.81 t1.98 t2.46 t331 t336 f3.73 t14.09 SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Percentage Inhibition of:
Histamine CaC12 Induced Contractions Release (t S.E.M.) ( S.E.M.) Conc. 3x10i 10a 340 ' IO, 3x104 10j 2x104 (M) 3C19 2.75 5.51 5.74 9.18 14.14 21.19 -18b9 0.85 t2.07 1.88 2.61 2.82 t2.04 t 5.71 3C20 0.81 1.40 1.04 0.90 2.76 10.30 -54.52 0.87 0.84 0.55 1.19 1.48 2.80 t 8.5,3 3C21 0.19 1.45 1.72 5.01 8.02 19.99 -14.48 t 1.32 t 1.59 1.92 t 2.43 t 3.82 t 4.90 t 4.50 3C25 3.02 3.03 5.92 10.49 17.33 3658 -0,46 1.29 1.24 2.40 3.54 1.71 2.43 2.61 3C34 1.85 3.31 4.87 7.24 14.41 31.71 -35.74 t048 030 0.83 1.15 t1S3 3.19 4.87 3C35 0.19 -0.12 0.80 2.13 7.59 15.27 -50.90 t039 0.89 0.67 1.05 2.08 2.46 t 534 3C43 64.04 8.37 (n=3) 4C2 4.91 8.13 11.95 16.86 26.28 40.11 15.73 t2.12 t3.07 t3.22 t3.07 3.02 1.04 t4.88 4C3 -1.43 -0.05 -0.46 -0.31 4.50 14.25 -2.20 t0.68 1.28 t1.10 1.44 1.95 3.01 4.61 SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Percereta e Irrlaibition of:
Histamine Ca02 Induced Contractions Retease ( S.E.M.) (t S.E.M.) Conc. 3x10j 10a 3x104 10j 3x104 1004, 2x104 (M) 2C12 5.32 8.59 8.56 11.67 17.31 32.77 -8.70 t1.61 t2.73 t2.50 t1S1 1.73 t3.84 t2.89 2C14 38.08 7.68 3C30 4.26 t 6.80 3C32 22,3,1 t 2S1 SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Toxicology = Following the salmonella mutagenicity test, 1C13,- 1C14, 1C25/26 and 3C8 did not significantly increase the number of revertant colonies in the Salmonella typhimurium LT2 strains TA98, TA100, TA102 and TA1535 at concentrations up to 5mg/plate, in the presence or absence of the liver microsomal enzymes (S9 mix). The compound 3C9 did not significantly increase the number of revertant colonies in the Salmonella typhimurium LT2 strain TA98, incubated without the S9 mix, at concentrations up to 5mg/plate. It was concluded that 1C13, 1C14, 1C25/26, 3C8 and 3C9 are not mutagenic, using the above mentioned concentrations and bacterial strains, according to the Ames salmonella mutagenicity test.

Bronchial Asthma Model All animals responded to aerosol treatment with a 30% drop in rate of respiration and a 50% drop in tidal volume, regardless of the content of the aerosolised solution.
This may well have masked the early response of animals exposed to ovalbumin, since none was observed. The animals were divided into four treatment groups:-Group I - Negative Control These animals were exposed to ethanol (50% v/v) by aerosol min prior to exposure to saline (NaCI 0.9% w/v), also 25 by aerosol. There was aÃall in respiration rate of 30%
and in tidal volume of 50%, in response to the aerosol.
Both parameters returned to normal within 10 min and remained normal throughout the monitoring period. (Fig.
1) Following exposure to metacholine the tidal volume 30 fell by 50% but the respiration rate rose by 10%. (Fig.
2) This may indicate a response to the metacholine SUBSTiTUTE SHEET (RULE 26) insufficient to overcome the expected response to the aerosol. A response to metacholine was not anticipated given that the animals were not treated with allergen.
Post-mortem examination revealed that the animals had all developed severe sterile peritonitis. This took the form of extensive, vascularised fibrosis within the abdomen, particularly around the liver and upper intestines. In addition, small, caseous nodules developed, again primarily around the liver, but also scattered throughout the abdomen with an occasional focus at the injection sites. This is thought to have developed as a result of multiple i.p. injections of phenobarbitone, an acidic irritant.

Group II - Positive Control These animals were exposed to ovalbumin (5% w/v) by aerosol. There was a fall in respiration rate of 35% and in tidal volume of 40%, in response to the aerosol. The early phase of the allergic response to the ovalbumin is masked by the aerosol effect. Both parameters returned to normal within 10 min and remained normal for 100 min. Two hours (120 min) following exposure to ovalbumin the rate of respiration rose by 35% and the tidal volume rose by 60%. This represents the late phase of the allergic response. Both parameters returned to normal within 30 min and remained normal for the rest of the monitoring period. (Fig. 1) Following exposure to metacholine the tidal volume fell by 35% but the respiration rate rose by 50%. This indicates a response to the metacholine sufficient to overcome the expected response to the aerosol and implies that multiple exposures to allergen (ovalbumin) have induced hyper-reactivity in the airway.
Both parameters returned to normal in 10 min and remained normal during the monitoring period. (Fig. 2) SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Wo 97/20802 PCT/IE96/00080 Post-mortem examination revealed that the animals had all developed severe sterile peritonitis. The nature and severity of the reaction was similar to that observed in Group I animals.

Group III - Treatment Control These animals were exposed disodium cromoglycate (5mg/ml in ethanol 50% v/v) and, 30 min later, to ovalbumin (5%
w/v) by aerosol. There was a fall in respiration rate of 30% and in tidal volume of 40%, in response to the aerosol. Both parameters returned to normal within 10 min, the tidal volume remained normal throughout the monitoring period. The respiration rate rose by 10% 90 min after ovalbumin exposure, this lasted about 15 min.
The major late phase peak did not occur in either parameter, indicating that the disodium cromoglycate pre-treatment has protected the animals from developing an asthmatic response to the ovalbumin. (Fig. 1) Following exposure to metacholine the tidal volume fell by 25% but the respiration rate rose by 5%. This may indicate a response to the metacholine insufficient to overcome the expected response to the aerosol. (Fig. 2) The reduced response to metacholine, compared to Group II controls, indicates that exposure to disodium cromoglycate has protected the animals from induced hyper-reactivity in the airway.

Post-mortem examination revealed that the animals had all developed severe sterile peritonitis. The nature of the reaction was similar to that observed in Group I and Group II animals. The reaction was less severe, as indicated by the absence of vascularisation of the fibrotic tissue, suggesting that disodium cromoglycate may have acted to protect these animals.

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Group IV - Treatment Tests These animals were exposed to 3C8 (5mg/mi in ethanol 50%
v/v) and, 30 min later, to ovalbumin (5% w/v) by aerosol.
There was a fall in respiration rate of 40% and in tidal 5 volume of 60%, in response to the aerosol. Both parameters returned to 90% of normal within 10 min, and fluctuated around 90% of normal for the remainder of the monitoring period. The major late phase peak did not occur in either parameter, indicting that the 3C8 pre-treatment has protected the animals from developing an asthmatic response to the ovalbumin. (Fig. 1) Following exposure to metacholine the tidal volume fell by 40% but the respiration rate rose by 10%. This may indicate a response to the matacholine insufficient to overcome the expected response to the aerosol. (Fig. 2) The reduced response to metacholine, compared to Group II controls, indicates that exposure to 3C8 have protected the animals from induced hyper-reactivity in the airway.

Post mortem examination revealed that none of the animals had developed the sterile peritonitis observed in the other groups. This would indicate that 3C8 has acted to protect these animals from an inflammatory response.

Conclusion The protocol used to induce allergic asthma and bronchial hyper-reactivity in male Wistar rats was successful, except in the monitoring of the early phase of the allergic reaction. The treatment control (disodium cromoglycate) was successful in so far as it blocked the measureable responses to allergen and prevented the developemnt of bronchial hyper-reactivity. The test compound (3C8) was equally successful, if not marginally SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Wo 97/20802 PCT/IE96/00080 better, at blocking the allergic response and preventing development of bronchial hyper-reactivity. In addition, 3C8 may be acting as an anti-inflammatory agent, as indicated by the complete absence of peritonitis in 3C8 treated animals.

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Inflammation models Rat Paw Oedema Model A range of doses of 3C8 compared to the response to single doses of indomethacin and hydrocortisone as follows:

Drug Concentration Paw Size Std. Error (mng/ kg) (% Normal) (n = 6) In omethacin 100 141.6 9.9 Hydrocortisone 100 115.4 4.8 3C8 100 107.9 7.8 3C8 30 120.0 7.8 3C8 10 99.85 6.6 3C8 3 137.3 5.7 Solvent Control 0 136.4 9.1 Mouse Ear Oedema Model Responses of the mouse ear to single doses of a range of compounds compared to the response to indomethacin and dexamethasone, each at a dose of 300pg per ear administered topically 30 min prior to administration of 400pg or arachidonic acid. Values are expressed as the percentage increase in ear thickness 1 hour after administration of arachidonic acid (all n=4 except 8C4 (n=5)) and solvent controls (n=8). The results suggest that anti-inflammatory activity is not linked to mast cell stabilising activity.
Compound Mean % S E M
Dexamethasone 37.9 8.5 Indomethacin 39.6 5.8 1C1 4S.9 6.4 1C25 32.1 11.9 2C7 49.8 10.8 ._......._._ ............ ...._._......
3C1 46~4 6.3 3C9 43.1 8.7 3C11 26.0 6.3 3C8 32.4 7.8 Solvent Control 78.8 15.2 SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) It will be appreciated that the compounds may have useful pharmacological properties other than those described above.

The invention is not limited to the embodiments hereinbefore described which may be varied in detail.
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED
A1C13 aluminium chloride aq aqueous b.p. boiling point BrCHZC6H4COZCH3 methyl 4- ( bromomethyl ) benzoate BrCH2CO2CH3 bromomethyl acetate BSS buffered salt solution CaClz calcium chloride C2H5I iodoethane C6H3 ( CH3 ) Br ( CH3 ) bromo-m-xylene C6H5CHZBr benzyl bromide CDC13 chloroform-d CF3SO3Si ( CH3 ) 3 t r i m e t h y I s i 1 y 1 trifluoromethanesulfonate (TMS triflate) CH(OCH3)3 trimethylsilyl orthoformate CH3C6H4SO3H. HZO p-toluenesul fonic CH3I iodomethane CLCH2CH2COC1 !3-chloropropionylchloride COZ carbon dioxide CS2 carbon disulfide [( C6H5 ) 3P J 3RhC 1 tris ( triphenylphosphine ) rhodium ( 1) chloride (wilkinsons catalyst) [( CH3 ) 3C0 J 3A1 aluminium tri- tert-butoxide DCM dichloromethane dH2O distilled water DMSO dimethyl sulphoxide DSCG disodium cromoglycate Et20 ether Et3N triethylamine EtOAc ethyl acetate EtOH ethanol HzC=CHCHZBr allyl bromide H2NNH2 . HZO hydrazine hydrate. monohydrate SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED CONTD.
H20 water H2SO4 sulphuric acid HC1 hydrochloric acid HEPES N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N-2-ethanesulphonic acid HOCHZCHZOH ethylene glycol IR infra red KC1 potassium chloride LDA lithium diisopropylamide M Molar MgC12 magnesium chloride min minutes ul microlitres mM milli-molar M.P. melting point N2 nitrogen NaBH4 sodium borohydride NaCl sodium chloride NaCN(BH3) sodium cyanoborohydride NaHCO3 sodium hydrogen carbonate NaHCO3 sodium bicarbonate NaH2PO sodium hydrogen phosphate NaOH sodium hydroxide Na2SO4 sodium sulphate NH4C1 ammonium chloride NMR nuclear magnetic resonance 02 o xyge n oPT o-phthaldialdehyde Pd palladium RT room temperature tBuOH tert butanol 'BuOlK potassium tert butoxide S.E.M. standard error of mean SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED CONTD.
THF tetrahydrofuran TLC thin layer chromatography Ft1 microliters Triflic Acid trifluoromethanesulfonic acid TMS Triflate trimethyl silyl trifluoromethanesulfonate v/v volume per volume w/v weight per volume Zn12 zinc iodide A-m emission wavelength ZeC excitation wavelength SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) iCl 2-(1'-indanylidene)-indan-l-one 1C2 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-methylindan-l-one 1C3 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-methylindan-l-one 1C4 2-(1=indanyl)-2-methylindane IC5 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-methylindan-l-ol 1C6 2-(1-indanyl)-2-methylindan-l-ol 1C7 1-(2-(2-methylindanyl))ind-l-ene 1C8 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-methyl-l-acetoxyindane 1C9 2-(3,3-dimethyl-l-ind-l-enyl)-2-methylindan-l-one 1C10 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-ethylindan-l-one ICil 2-(1-indanyl)-2-ethylindan-l-one 1C12 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-prop-2-enylndan-l-one 1C13 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-propylindan-l-one ICI4 2-(1-indanyl)-2-propylindan-l-one 1C15 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-prop-2-enylindan-l-ol 1C16 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-prop-2-enyl-l-acetoxyindane 1C17 2-(1-ind-lenyl)-2-propylindan-l-ol 1C18 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-propylindan-l-ol IC19 2-(ind-l-enyl)-2-propanyl-l-acetoxyindane 1C20 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-pent-2-enylindan-l-one 1C21 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-pentylindan-l-one 1C22 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-pent-2-enylindan-l-ol 1C23 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-pent-2-enylindan-l-ol 1C24 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-benzylindan-l-one 1C25 and 1C26 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-benzylindan-l-ol 1C27 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-benzyl-l-acetoxyindane 1C28 2-(1-indanyl)-2-benzylindane 1C29 2-(1-indanyl)-2-benzylindan-l-one 1C30 2-(1-indanyl)-2-benzylindan-l-ol 1C31 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-p-methoxycarbonyl-phenylmethyl-indan-l-one SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26).

1C32 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-p-carboxyphenyl-methylindan-l-one 1C33 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-methoxycarbonyl- "
methylindan-l-one 1C34 2-(1-indenyl)-2-carboxymethylindan-l-one 1C35 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-sodium oxycarbonyl-methylindan-l-one 1C36 2-(1-indanyl)-indane 1C37 2-(1-indanyl)-indan-l-one 1C38 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-2-acetoxymethylindan-l-one 1C39 1-(2-(2-benzyl-l-(3,5-dimethylpehnyl) aminocarbonylloxy)indanyl)-1-ind-l-ene 1C40 1-(2-(2-benzyl-l-(3,5-dimethylphenyl) aminocarbonylloxy)indanyl)-1-ind-l-ene 1C41 2-(l-(6-bromo-5,7-dimethylindanyl-idene))-1-(bromo-5,7-dimethylindan-l-one) 1C42 2-(1-(1-(2-hydroxyethoxy)indanyl))-indan-1-one 1C43 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-indan-l-one ethylene ketal 1C44 2-(1-ind-l-enyl)-indan-l-one-oxime 2C1 1-(2-indanylidene)-indan-2-one 2C2 1-(2-indenyl)-1-methylindan-2-one 2C3 1-(2-indenyl)-1-ethylindan-2-one 2C4 1-(2-indenyl)-indan-2-one 2C5 1-(2-indanyl)-indan-2-ol 2C6 1-(2-indenyl)-1-prop-2-enylindan-2-one 2C7 1-(2-indenyl)-1-benzylindan-2-one 2C8 1-(2-indenyl)-1-benzylindan-2-o1 2C9 1-(benzyl-2-indanyl)-inden-2-ol 2C10 1-(benzyl-2-inden-2-enyl)-inden-2-acetoxy 2C11 2(2-benzyl-ind-l-enyl)-indene 2C12, 2-(2-(1-indan-l-onyl))-indan-l-one 2C13 3-(2-(1-hydroxyindanyl)-indan-l-oi 2C14 3-(2-(l-acetoxyindanyl))-1-acetoxyindane SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) 2C15 1-(2-indenyi)-1-benzyl-2-methan-sulfonylate-indane 2C16 1-(2-indenyl)-2-benzyl-indan-2-one oxime 3C1 2-(2-(2-methoxyindanyl))-indan-l-one 3C2 2-(2'-indanylidene)-indan-l-one 3C3 2-(2-indenyl)-2-prop-2-enylindan-l-one 3C4 2-(2-indenyl)-2-propylindan-l-one 3C5 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzylindan-l-one 3C6 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzylindan-l-ol 3C7 2-(2-i.ndenyl)-2-benzylindan-l-ol 3C8 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzylindan-l-ol 3C9 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzylindan-l-ol 3C10 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzyl-l-acetoxyindane 3C11 2-(2-indenyl)-2-p-methoxycarbonyl-phenylmethylindan-l-one 3C12 2-(2-(2-methoxyindanyl))-4-methoxyindan-l-one 3C13 2-(2-indenyl)-2-p-methoxycarbonyi-phenylmethyl-4-methoxyindan-l-one 3C14 2-(2-(2-methoxyindanyl))-5-methoxyindan-l-one 3C15 2-(2-indanylidene)-4-dodecyloxyindan-l-one 3C16 2-(2-indenyl)-2-methoxycarbonlmethyl-4-dodecyloxyindan-l-one 3C17 2-(2-(2-methoxyindanyl))-6-bromo--5,7-dimethylindan-l-one 3C18 2-(2-indenyl_-2-benzyl-6-bromo-5,7-dimethylindan-l-one 3C19 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzyl-6-bromo-5,7-dimethylindan-l-ol 3C20 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzyl-6-bromo-5,7-dimethylindan-l-ol 3C21_ 2-(2-(2-methoxyindanyl))-5-bromo-4,6-dimethyiindan-l-one 3C22 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzyl-5-bromo-4,6-dimethylindan-l-one SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) WO 97/20802 PC'Y'/IE96/00080 3C23 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzyl-5-bromo-4,6-dimethylindan-l-ol 3C24 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzyl-5-bromo-4,6-dimethylindan-l-ol 3C25 2-(2-(2-methoxyindanyl))-6-benzyloxy-5,7-dimethylindan-l-one 3C26 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzyl-6-benzyloxy-5,7-dimethylindan-l-one 3C27 2-(2-(2-methoxyindanyi))-6-hydroxy-5,7-dimethylindan-l-one 3C28 2-(2-(2-methoxyindanyl))-6-acetoxy-5,7-dimethylindan-l-one 3C30 2-(2-(2-methoxyindanyl))-5,7-dimethylindan-1-one 3C31 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzyl-5,7-dimethylindan-1-one 3C32 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzyl-5,7-dimethylindan-1-ol 3C33 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzyl-5,7-dimethylindan-1-oi 3C36 2-(2-(2-methoxyindanyl))-indan-1-one oxime 3C37 2-(2-indenyl)-inden-l-one oxime 3C38 2-(2-(2-methoxyindanyl))-indan-1-one oxime benzyl ether 3C39 2-(2-indanyl)-indan-l-one oxime benzyl ether 3C40 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzylindan-l-one oxime benzyl ether 3C41 2-(1-indanyl)-2-benzylindan-l-one 3C42 2-(1-indanyl)-2-benzylindan-l-one 3C43 2-(2-methoxyindanyl)-4-prop-2-enyloxyindan-1-one 4C1_ 1-(1-(2-hydroxyethoxy-l-indanyl))-indan-2- one 4C2 3-(1-(indan-2-onyl))-indan-l-one 4C3 3-(1-(indan-2-olyl))-indan-l-ol SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26)

Claims (22)

1. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of any of the formulae:

wherein in Formulae 1 and 3 R1, 1R1, R3, 1R3, R4 to R7, R9, R10, 1R10, R11 to R13, R14, 1R14 and R15 in Formula 2 R2, 1R2, R3,1R3, R4 to R7 , R9 to R13, R14, 1R14and are selected from one or more of the same or different of:

H, halo, hydroxy, alkoxy, aryloxy, acetoxy, carboxy, alkyl carbonyl, hydro carbonyl, amino, amido, alkylamino, hydroxylamino, C1-C10 alkyl or C3-C8 cycloalkyl groups, substituted alkyl or cycloalkyl in Formula 1 any one or more of R1, 1R1; R3,'R3; R10, 1R10 may together represent oxo;
in Formula 2 any one or more of R2, 1R2; R3,1R3; R14, 1R14; may together represent oxo;
in Formula 3 any one or more of R1, 1R1; R3, 1R3; R14, 1R14; may together represent oxo;
2. A compound of any of the Formulae 1 to 3 as defined in claim 1 disclaiming the following:

2-(1-indenyl)-indanone;
1-(2-indenyl)-indane;
1-(2-indenyl)-1-methyl-indan-2-one; and 2,2'-biindenyl.
3. A compound as claimed in claim 2 wherein in Formula 1 R1, 1R1; R3, 1R3;
and R10, 1R10 do not each represent oxo.
4. A compound as claimed in claim 2 wherein in Formula 2 R2, 1R2; R3, 1R3 ;
and R14, 1R14 do not each represent oxo.
5. A compound as claimed in claim 2 wherein in Formula 3 R1, 1R1; R3, 1R3;
and R14, 1R14 do not each represent oxo.
6. A compound as claimed in claim 2 wherein the alkyl or cycloalkyl are substituted with one or more of the same or different of halo, oxo, hydroxy, alkoxy, aryloxy, acetoxy, carboxy, carbonyl, amino, amido, alkylamino, hydroxylamino.
7. A compound as claimed in claim 2 wherein in Formula 1 R3, 1R3 to R7 are hydrogen.
8. A compound as claimed in claim 2 wherein in Formula 1 R10, 1R10 to R14 are hydrogen.
9. A compound as claimed in claim 2, wherein in Formula 1 R', 'R' independently represent H or OH.
10. A compound as claimed in claim 2 wherein in Formula I R15 represents a benzyl group.
11. A compound as claimed in claim 2 wherein in Formula 2 R3, 1R3 to R7 are hydrogen.
12. A compound as claimed in claim 2 wherein in Formula 2 R10 to R13 are hydrogen.
13. A compound as claimed in claim 2 wherein in Formula 2 R2, 1R2 independently represent H or OH.
14. A compound as claimed in claim 2 wherein in Formula 2 R15 represents a benzyl group.
15. A compound as claimed in claim 2 wherein in Formula 3 R4 to R' represent hydrogen.
16. A compound as claimed in claim 2 wherein in Formula 3 R10 to R'3 represent hydrogen.
17. A compound as claimed in claim 2 wherein in Formula 3 R','R' independently represent H or OH.
18. A compound as claimed in claim 2 wherein in Formula 3 R15 represents a benzyl group.
19. A compound selected from the following;
1C4 2-(1-indanyl)-2-methylindane 1C5 2-(1-ind-1-enyl)-2-methylindan-1-ol 1C7 1-(2-(2-methylindanyl))ind-1-ene 1C8 2-(1-ind-1-enyl)-2-methyl-1-acetoxyindane 1C9 2-(3,3-dimenthyl-1-ind-1-enyl)-2-methylindan-1-one 1C10 2-(1-ind-1-enyl)-2-ethylindan-1-one 1C12 2-(1-ind-1-enyl)-2-prop-2-enylindan-1-one 1C13 2-(1-ind-1-enyl)-2-propylindan-1-one 1C15 2-(1-ind-1-enyl)-2-prop-2-enylindan-1-ol 1C16 2-(1-ind-1-enyl)-2-prop-2-enyl-1-acetoxyindane 1C19 2-(ind-1-enyl)-2-propanyl-1-acetoxyindane 1C20 2-(1-ind-1-enyl)-2-pent -2-enylindan-1-one 1C21 2-(1-ind-1-enyl)-2-pentylindan-1-one 1C24 2-(1-ind-1-enyl)-2-benzylindan-1-one 1C27 2-(1-ind-1-enyl)-2-benzyl-1-acetoxyindane 1C31 2-(1-ind-1-enyl)-2-p-methoxycarbonylphenylmethyl-indan-1-one 1C32 2-(1-ind-1-enyl)-2-p-carboxyphenylmethylindan-1-one 1C3 3 2-(1-ind-1-enyl)-2-methoxycarbonylmethylindan-1-one 1C34 2-(1-indenyl)-2-carboxymethylindan-1-one 1C3 5 2-(1-ind-1-enyl)-2-sodium oxycargonylmethylindan-1-one 1C3 8 2-(1-ind-1-enyl)-2-acetoxymethylindan-1-one 2C3 1-(2-indenyl)-1-ethylindan-2-one 2C4 1-(2-indenyl)-indan-2-one 2C6 1-(2-indenyl)-1-prop-2-enylindan-2-one 2C7 1-(2-indenyl)-1-benzylindan-2-one 2C8 1-(2-indenyl)-1-benzylindan-2-ol 2C 10 1-(benzyl-2-inden-2-enyl)-inden-2-acetoxy 3C3 2-(2-indenyl)-2-prop-2-enylindan-1-one 3 C4 2-(2-indenyl)-2-propylindan-1-one 3C5 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzylindan-1-one 3C 10 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzyl-1-acetoxyindane 3 C 11 2-(2-indenyl)-2-p-methoxycarbonyl-phenylmethylindan-1-one 3 C 13 2-(2-indenyl)-2-p-methoxycarbonyl-phenylmethyl-4-methoxyindan-1-one 3C 18 2-(2-indenyl-2-benzyl-6-bromo-5,7-dimethylindan-1-one 3C22 2-(2-idenyl)-2-benzyl-5-bromo-4,6-dimethylindan-1-one 3 C31 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzyl-5,7-dimethylindan-1-one
20. A compound selected from the following stereoisomers:
1C 17 and 1C 18 2-(1-ind-1-enyl)2-propylindan-1-ol 1C22 and 1C23 2-(1-ind-1-enyl)-2-pent-2-enylindan-1-ol 1C25 and 1C26 2-(1-ind-1-enyl)-2-benzylindan-1-ol 3C6, 3C7, 3C8 and 3C9 2-(2-indenyl)-2-bnzylindan-1-ol 3C19 and 3C20 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benxyl-6-bromo-5,7-simenthylindan-1-ol 3C23 and 3C24 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzyl-5-bromo-4,6-dimenthylindan-1-ol 3C32 and 3C33 2-(2-indenyl)-2-benzyl-5,7-dimethylindan-1-ol
21. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of claim 2 and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
22. Use of a compound of any of Formulae 1 to 3 as claimed in claim 2 to achieve smooth muscle relaxing activity and/or mst cell stabilising activity and/or anti-inflammatory activity.
CA 2239694 1995-12-06 1996-12-06 Indane dimer compounds and their pharmaceutical use Expired - Lifetime CA2239694C (en)

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JP2001064202A (en) * 1999-08-25 2001-03-13 Kissei Pharmaceut Co Ltd Prophylactic and therapeutic agent of cardiac failure
DE10142662B4 (en) * 2001-08-31 2004-07-08 Aventis Pharma Deutschland Gmbh Derivatives of C2-substituted indan-1-ol systems and their use as medicaments
DE10142722A1 (en) * 2001-08-31 2003-03-27 Aventis Pharma Gmbh C2-substituted indan-1-one and their derivatives, processes for their preparation and their use as medicaments
DE10142665B4 (en) 2001-08-31 2004-05-06 Aventis Pharma Deutschland Gmbh C2-disubstituted indan-1-one and their derivatives
DE10142660A1 (en) 2001-08-31 2003-03-20 Aventis Pharma Gmbh Use of derivatives of C2-substituted indan-1-ol systems for the production of medicaments for the prophylaxis or treatment of obesity
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DE10142661B4 (en) 2001-08-31 2004-06-09 Aventis Pharma Deutschland Gmbh Multi-substituted indan-1-ol systems and their use as medicaments
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US20090318545A1 (en) * 2008-06-09 2009-12-24 Cornell Reasearch Foundation, Inc. Mast cell inhibition in diseases of the retina and vitreous
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