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Custom character-coding compression for encoding and watermarking media content

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Publication number
CA2236227C
CA2236227C CA 2236227 CA2236227A CA2236227C CA 2236227 C CA2236227 C CA 2236227C CA 2236227 CA2236227 CA 2236227 CA 2236227 A CA2236227 A CA 2236227A CA 2236227 C CA2236227 C CA 2236227C
Authority
CA
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
data
content
media
portion
frame
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
CA 2236227
Other languages
French (fr)
Other versions
CA2236227A1 (en )
Inventor
John Blakeway Lacy
Schuyler Reynier Quackenbush
James H. Snyder
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Chanyu Holdings LLC
Original Assignee
AT&T Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N21/00Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television, VOD [Video On Demand]
    • H04N21/80Generation or processing of content or additional data by content creator independently of the distribution process; Content per se
    • H04N21/83Generation or processing of protective or descriptive data associated with content; Content structuring
    • H04N21/835Generation of protective data, e.g. certificates
    • H04N21/8358Generation of protective data, e.g. certificates involving watermark
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T1/00General purpose image data processing
    • G06T1/0021Image watermarking
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B20/00Signal processing not specific to the method of recording or reproducing; Circuits therefor
    • G11B20/00007Time or data compression or expansion
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B20/00Signal processing not specific to the method of recording or reproducing; Circuits therefor
    • G11B20/00086Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B20/00Signal processing not specific to the method of recording or reproducing; Circuits therefor
    • G11B20/00086Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy
    • G11B20/0021Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy involving encryption or decryption of contents recorded on or reproduced from a record carrier
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B20/00Signal processing not specific to the method of recording or reproducing; Circuits therefor
    • G11B20/00086Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy
    • G11B20/00884Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy involving a watermark, i.e. a barely perceptible transformation of the original data which can nevertheless be recognised by an algorithm
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N19/00Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N21/00Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television, VOD [Video On Demand]
    • H04N21/20Servers specifically adapted for the distribution of content, e.g. VOD servers; Operations thereof
    • H04N21/23Processing of content or additional data; Elementary server operations; Server middleware
    • H04N21/238Interfacing the downstream path of the transmission network, e.g. adapting the transmission rate of a video stream to network bandwidth; Processing of multiplex streams
    • H04N21/2389Multiplex stream processing, e.g. multiplex stream encrypting
    • H04N21/23892Multiplex stream processing, e.g. multiplex stream encrypting involving embedding information at multiplex stream level, e.g. embedding a watermark at packet level
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T2201/00General purpose image data processing
    • G06T2201/005Image watermarking
    • G06T2201/0053Embedding of the watermark in the coding stream, possibly without decoding; Embedding of the watermark in the compressed domain

Abstract

A method of compressing media content in which a first predetermined portion of a media content is compressed using a first data-based compression algorithm and inserted into a first portion of a data frame. A second predetermined portion of the media content is compressed using a second data-based compression algorithm and is inserted into a second portion of the data frame. The second predetermined portion of the media content is different from the first predetermined portion of the media content, and the second data-based compression algorithm is different from the first data-based compression algorithm. At least one of the first and second data-based compression algorithms is a private data-based compression algorithm. A plurality of data frames are generated and are made available for distribution, for example, by transmission over a computer network, such as the Internet.

Description

CUSTOM CHARACl'ER-CODING COMPRESSION FOR
ENCODING AND WATERMARKING MEDIA CONTENT

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to the field of co~ u~ g. More particularly, the present invention relates to a method for protecting encoded media content for network distribution.

2. Description ofthe ~ .ted Art Recent technological advances involving digital data co",~ression, network bandwidth improvement and mass storage have made networked distribution of media content more feasible. That is, media content, such as ~ligiti~ed music, can be conveniently distributed over the Internet. To protect the intellectua] property rights associated with a particular piece of media content, it is desirable to obscure the media content to prevent pil~l,ng of the content.
Consequently, what is needed is a way for coln~?lessing media content for convenient network dislribution, while also securing the cou,p,essedmedia conltent against lln~llthorized use.

SUMMAI~Y OF THE INVENTION
2 o The present invention provides a method for compressing media content for convenient public distribution, such as over a co~ ul~,r network, while also securing the media content for controlling distribution of the.media content and for preventing lln~llthorized use of the media content. The advantages of the present invention are provided by a method of colllpressillg media content in which a first pred~le~lnilled portion of a media content is colllplessed using a first data-based compression algorithm and inserted into a first portion of a data frame.
5 A second predetermined portion of the media content is compressed using a second data-based compression algorithm and is inserted into a second portion of the data frame. The second predete~ ed portion of the media content is different from the first predete ~ cl portion of the media content, and the second data-based col~ ession algolilhlll is dirrele.ll from the first data-based 10 compression algoli~l.ll. Preferably, at least one of the first and second data-based cc,lll~"ession algoli~ ,ls is a private data-based col~l~,ssion algo,illl-ll. The first and secondi portions of the data frame are separated by a pred~ cl header code, or can be sepal~ted by relative positions of the first and second predelelll~lled portions of compresxed media content within the data frame.
The present invention also provides a method for inserting a data stream not associated with the media content into a compressed media content bit stream. T:he inserted data stream is carried by at least one symbol in at least one initial data set associated with the OBCA. A preferential implen~llldlion uses designated symbols in one or more T~ n codebooks for embedding a 2 o ~dte.lllark in the colll~,~,ssed bit stream. The value of the wdte.ll~k bits recovered from the bit stream depend upon either the values associated with the symbols or alt~.l~Liv~ly the position of the symbol in the compressed bit stream.
According to the invention, a plurality of data frames are gell~rdted and are made available for distribution, for example, by trancmi~sion over a computer network, such as the Inte:rnet. Alternatively, the data frames can be made publiicly available for storage in a memory device, such as a CD ROM.
A plurality of predetelmilled portions of the media content can be 5 compressed using data-based colllpression algolil~ s and grouped into a respectively dirr.,.e.lt portion of the data frame. Each respective predetermined portion of the media content is dirr~ l~,nt from the first and the second predetermined portions of the media content. Similarly, the data-based compression algorithm used to co~ ress a l~esL~Ii~e portion of the media content 0 is dirr~ from the first and the second data-based col~-ession algo~ s.
Preferably, at least one of the data-based col~lession algo~ llls is a private data-based compression algoli 11ll,.
Initial data associated with each private data-based compression algolillllll is ellc"~pled and made publicly available when the data frames are made 15 available. The el~lylJted initial data is grouped into a data envelope within a data frame that is preferably available no later than a first data frame cont~ining media content compressed using the private data-based comp~ssion algo~ lll with which the encrypted initial data is associated, but can be made available during a later data frame. Examples of init~al data associated with at least one private data-20 based collll~ression algolitll.ll include a H-lrflll~ code-book and/or a vector qll~nti~tion code-book.
According to the invention, the media content can include audio content, such as music and/or spee;ch, images, video content, graphics and/or textual content.

BRIEF DE~'SCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING
The present inventiom is illustrated by way of example and not 5 limitation in the accolllp~lyillg figures in which like reference numerals intlicate similar ele]~ents and in which:
Figure 1 shows a flow diagram for a media content compression process according to the present invention;
Figure 2 shows an a~ g.~ nt of data in a data frame accoldh~g to 10 the presenl invention; and Figure 3 shows a flow diagram for illsc.l~ng a data stream not associated with the media content into a co l.pressed media content bit stream according to the present invention.

The present invention provides a method for co..l~fessing media content for convenient distribution, such as over a col.l~uter network, while also securing tlle media content for controlling distribution of the media content and for preventing pirating of the media content. Compression algoli~ l, as used herein, 2 o is an algo~ill-lll that accepts an input data stream and produces a coll~i.ponding output data stream having substantially fewer bits. A data-based colllplession algolillu.. (DBCA) is an algolill--ll that is a subset of compression algoli~ -s in general. The action of a DBCA, together with associated data, depends on a number of initial data values that have been determined before the colll~ression operation begins (that is, without any knowledge of the particular input data sequence to be compressed). The initial data values may represent parametric values or rnay be used as lookup tables (i.e., as code-books) by the algorithm.
5 Typical D]3CAs are noiseless comp~ression (e.g., Huffman) algo.i~ ls and vector q~-~nti7~tion (VQ) algorithms. The initial data values may be static, i.e., the initial data values do not change, or dynamic, i.e., the initial data values adapt to the input data stream during the course of col..l)lession. Two DBCAs are dirrcl., if the initial data values are dirr~.ll, ~llclller the algolill~ s are dirr.,;e~.
0 Figure 1 shows a flow diagram of a media content cc~ ,ssion-decompression process 10 according to the present invention. At step 11, a media content, such as audio signals, are sampled using well-known analog-to-digital techni~ es, or the input may be a digital r~rese ~ l ion of an analog signal. At step 12, tbe time-domain s~les obtained in step 11 are co~ d to frequency-15 domain salmples using well-known Fourier l.a.~rulltechniques.
At step 13, a selected portion of the frequency-domain samples of the media content are collll)lessed in a well-known manner using a publicly available l)BCA, such as a DBCA having a public ~,,rr...,,. code-book as initial data. Each binary character code or token of the public DBCA lep~esents at least 2 o one dirre~ q~nti7~d re~lcsellla~ion of the frequency-domain samples. When the media content is music, the selectecl portion of the frequency-domain samples that are co,.ll~essed using the public DBCA co.l.,;,pollds to a sele~ted frequency band of the audio content frequency Spe~ lnl, for example, 300 Hz to 3 kHz. In video transform coding, DC coefficients would be encoded with the standard table, whille the AC coefficients would be encoded with the custom (private) table.
The selected portion of the media content, according to the invention, may be null.
At step 14, the rem~inin~ frequency-domain samples corresponding to the remainder of the audio content frequency spectrum are similarly compressed in a well-known ..~ er using a private DBCA, that is, a DBCA in which the initial data is not publicly available. Examples of initial data for private DBCA
include private ~llffm~n code-books and private VQ code-books. Alternatively, 10 the compression pe-ru.l...ed in steps 13 and 14 can be done by any well-known greedy-type algo-ill~ that converts data into tokens or character codes, such as a VQ algo-ilh~, as long as at least one of the two comp~ssion steps is pe.ro....ed by a priva~:e greedy-type algo.;lll.... Of course, the present invention provides that the data cc,~ .ession of each step 13 and 14 can be ~.ro....ed by a private 1 5 DBCA.
At step lS, the tokens for the frequency-domain samples that were co~ ressed using the public DBCA are inserted into a first pre~lete ~l~inP~ portion 31 of a dala frame 30, shown in Figure 2. A data frame, as used herein, is an enrars~ tion of related data, for e.cample, data associated with a given time 2 o period, frequency bandwidth, spatial domain or cepstral domain. A data envelope, as used herein, is an encaps~llation of a subset of the data within a given data frame. For example, a data frame in a perceplual audio coder might contain a co.~ressed rep~s~ nn of 1024 conse~ live samples of audio data. A data envelope ~within that particular data. frame might contain a representation of the frequency interval DC to 300 Hz. Encapsulation, as used here, may be explicit or implicit. An example of an explicit ellcapsulation is use of a predetermined character code or a header. An implicit encapsulation, that is, an encapsulation 5 without a header, can be defined by relative positions of the encap~ulated data within the data frame.
At step 16, the tokelLs for the frequency-domain samples that were compressed using the private DBCA are inserted into a second portion 32 of data frame 30. According to the invention, second portion 32 can be explicitly or 10 implicitly e.~ tPcl within data frame 30. When second portion 32 is explicitly e ncapsulated within data frame, a header 33 formed by a predet~llnilled character code or predete, ..-in~d sequence of character codes Cont~ining infollllation relating to the private DBCA, such as escape characters and/or the number of characters co~ illed in second portion 32.
At step 17, the data frames are made publicly available, such as available for distribution by tran~mi~sion in a well-known manner over a colll~ .,r network, such as the Illt~ , or by storage in a user-owned storage device, such as a CD-R.OM, at a point-of-sale device. In one embodiment of the present invention, the initial h~l,llation associated with each private DBCA that is used is 2 o encrypted in a well-known ,l,an~lel using a secure el~cly~lion algoli~ll and is en-~aps~ d in the data frames preferably no later than the first data frame cont~ining media content compressed using the private DBCA with which the ellcly~led initial data is associated, but can be e~ap~,llated during a later data frame In ianother embodiment, the initial data for the public DBCA is made available with the encrypted initial data of the private DBCA In yet another alternative embodiment, both the initial data for the public and the private DBCAs are availab]le at the recipient of pub]icly available data frames 30 and are not s distributed when the data frames 30 are distributed Of course, for this embo~limPnt, the e~ ypled initial data of the private DBCA is secure and is not accessible lo lln~uthorized individuals. At step 18, the data frames and any initial data are received by the int~n~ed recipient At step 19, the tokens corresponding to the public DBCA in the 1 0 first portion 31 of each data frame are decl,~ressed using the public DBCA At step 20, the character codes corresponding to the private DBCA in the second portion 32 of each data frame are deco.~ essed using the private DBCA. When the first portion 31 of each data frame has been col-l~ssed by a private DBCA, portion 31 of each data frame is decol~lessed accordil~ly When e.l~.y~Led initial h.ro,., ation is el~ca~ lated in the data frames, the initial i.~..~.ation is decrypted prior to deco---~ression using the private DBCA At step 21, the frequency~domain samples resulting from the deco---l~ression steps 19 and 20 are re~csernhled to form frequency-domain samples of the frequency spectrum of the media signal l~.ese.lted by each data frame At step 22, the frequency-domain 2 o samples are ll~....ed to time-domain samples using well-known inverse Fourier transform t~chni~lues At step 23, the time-domain samples are converted to the media content using well-known digital-to-analog techni~ es When the initial data for the private DBCA is not known at step 20, steps 21-2'3 operate on only the portion of the media content that was contained in the first portion 31 of the data frames. In this way, a limited version of the media content is generated that may entice the recipient to ~llrchase the entire mediacontent because the fidelity of the media content is not satisfying.
s Figure 3 shows a functional block diagram 40 of a system for inserting a data stream not associated with the media content into a compressed media content bit stream. In block 41, analog media content is qu~nti7ed using well-known digital-to-analog qll~nti7ing techniques to for ~ iti7~d media content.
Al~ ati~ely, the input may already be a digital represe.l~lion of an analog signal. In block 42, the ~ligiti7e-l media content is l~ ~d from time-domain samples to frequency-domain samples using well-known Fourier transform and windowing techniques. In block 43, the floating point frequency-domain samples are converted into integer values in a well-known lllan~r. The qll~nti7er output is applied to a custom, or private, DBCA at block 44. A plurality of symbols are 1 5 output to a bit stream formatter at block 45 which outputs a bi~ .l of colll~)lessed media content. Functional blocks 4145 collcspolld to steps of 11-16 of method 10 shown in Figure 1.
Block 47 contains a data sequence as a string of bits that preferably l~resel~t~ w~term~rk data, but can lepleselll any information that is not 2 o associated with the media content. Block 48 contains control logic for selecting a wat~.ll~rk data site and sequencing w~lll~L data bits into custom DBCA 44, which emits symbols to the bi~lre~ll follllalL[ 45. According to the invention, private Dl3CA 44 can contain either a single data set (e.g., a single Hllrrl~n or VQ codebook) or a plurality of data sets (e.g., multiple Huffman or VQ
codebooks).
Control and timing 48 can be implemented in many ways For example, if the bit rate coming out of bit stream formatter 45 is N bits/sec, and M
watermark bits per second are desired to be inserted, and 1 bit per watermark site is inserted (without loss of generality), then timing and control 48 must insert a wate~.l~k bit on average every N/M bits corning out of bit stream formatter 45.
(Hence, the path co....frl;n~ the output of bit~lle~- fo-n~lLer 45 to control and timing 48 ) In this case, timing and control 48 can be implemented as a reloadable 10 dow.lco~ter that il~Ai~s an insertion when the dowllcou.,t, r reloads. In a more secure imple~lf ~ ;Qn, r~ 1Q~ s~ can be incorporated into control and timing 48 using a pseudo-random IlU~. ~e~.dt~r that causes an insertion on average every N/M bits.
More generally, private DBCA 44 may have a plurality of distinct 5 Hurrll~ codes devoted to w~ ;n~, for eYLq-mrle, k is equal to 2~ characters.
Then, up to K wa~ - ...~.1. bits can be inserted per special Hurrlndn symbol. For purposes of se.;ulily, more than one Huffman symbol devoted to the same bit sequence might be chosen. In the case of K wdt~ L bits per insertion, control and timing 48 causes an insertion on average every (N/M)*K bits. Alternatively, 2 o custom DBCA 44 may use one or more otherwise unused codebook indices for w~qt.orm~rk insertion. For example, when control and timing 48 in-lirqt~s an insertion, bit~lledlll folnlalt~ l 45 may put a w~ rk index and some predetermined llUlll~. of bits into the bi~ ,am. In this case, the w~ll~L

index appears to in~ic~te an unused codebook. Similarly, the position of the w~ index may be used to in-lic~tr the value of the watelll~k data, for example, if the index occurs in an odd-numbered section in the bil~LIeall~, a " 1 " bit would be in-lir~tr~, whereas appearance of the index in an even-numbered section 5 in~1icates a "O" bit.
While the present invention has been described in connection with media havmg an audio content, such as music and/or speech, it will be appreciated and understood that the present invention is applicable to media having audio andlor image andlor video andlor graph and/or textual content, and that 10 modifications may be made without depalling from the true spirit and scope of the invention.

Claims (38)

1. A method of compressing media content, the method comprising the steps of:
compressing a first predetermined portion of a media content using a first data-based compression algorithm; and compressing a second predetermined portion of the media content using a second data-based compressing algorithm, the second predetermined portion of the media content being different from the first predetermined portion of the media content, and the second data-based compression algorithm being different from the first data-based compression algorithm.
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein at least one of the first and second data-based compression algorithms is a private data-based compression algorithm.
3. The method according to claim 2, wherein one of the first and second data-based compression algorithms is a public data-based compression algorithm.
4. The method according to claim 3, wherein the predetermined portion of the media content compressed by public data-based compression algorithm is a null portion of the media content.
5. The method according to claim 2, further comprising the steps of:
grouping the compressed first predetermined portion of the media content into a first portion of a data frame; and grouping the compressed second predetermined portion of the media content into a second portion of the data frame.
6. The method according to claim 5, wherein the first and second portions of the data frame are separated by a predetermined header code.
7. The method according to claim 5, wherein the first and second portions of the data frame are separated by relative positions of the first and second predetermined portions of compressed media content within the data frame.
8. The method according to claim 5, further comprising the step of making the data frame publicly available.
9. The method according to claim 2, wherein the media content includes audio content.
10. The method according to claim 9, wherein the audio content includes music.
11. The method according to claim 9, wherein the audio content includes speech.
12. The method according to claim 2, wherein the media content includes images.
13. The method according to claim 2, wherein the media content includes video content.
14. The method according to claim 2, wherein the media content includes graphics.
15. The method according to claim 2, wherein the media content includes textual content.
16. A method of receiving data, the method comprising the steps of:
receiving a publicly available data frame;
decompressing a first predetermined portion of the data frame using a first data-based compression algorithm, the first predetermined portion of the data frame representing a first predetermined portion of a media content; and decompressing a second predetermined portion of the data frame using a second data-based compression algorithm, the second predetermined portion of the data frame being different from the first predetermined portion of the data frame, the second predetermined portion of the data frame representing a second predetermined portion of the media content, and the second data-based compression algorithm being different from the first data-based compression algorithm.
17. The method according to claim 16, wherein at least one of the first and second data-based compression algorithms is a private data-based compression algorithm.
18. The method according to claim 17, wherein one of the first and second data-based compression algorithms is a public data-based compression algorithm.
19. The method according to claim 18, wherein the predetermined portion of the media content compressed by public data-based compression algorithm is a null portion of the media content.
20. The method according to claim 17, wherein the first and second portions of the data frame are separated by a predetermined header code.
21. The method according to claim 17, wherein the first and second portions of the data frame are separated by relative positions of the first and second predetermined portions of compressed media content within the data frame.
22. The method according to claim 17, wherein the data frame is received from a computer network.
23. The method according to claim 17, wherein the step of receiving the data frame includes the step of receiving the data frame by a memory device.
24. The method according to claim 23, wherein the memory device is a CD ROM.
25. The method according to claim 17, wherein the steps of the method are performed for a plurality of data frames.
26. The method according to claim 17, wherein the data frame includes a third predetermined portion, the third predetermined portion of the data frame being different from the first and second predetermined portions of the data frame, and the third predetermined portion of the data frame representing a third predetermined portion of the media content, the method further comprising the step of decompressing a third predetermined portion of the data frame using a third data-based compression algorithm, and the third data-based compression algorithm being different from the first and the second data-based compression algorithms.
27. The method according to claim 26, wherein at least one of the first, second and third data-based compression algorithms is a private data-based compression algorithm.
28. The method according to claim 17, wherein each private data-based compression algorithm includes encrypted initial data that is associated with the private data-based compression algorithm, the method further comprising the step of:
decrypting each encrypted associated initial data of at least one private data-based compression algorithm.
29. The method according to claim 28, wherein the encrypted initial data is contained in the data frame.
30. The method according to claim 28, wherein the initial data associated with at least one private data-based compression algorithm includes at least one Huffman code-book.
31. The method according to claim 28, wherein the initial data associated, with at least one private data-based compression algorithm includes at least one vector quantization code-book.
32. The method according to claim 17, wherein the media content includes audio content.
33. The method according to claim 32, wherein the audio content includes music.
34. The method according to claim 32, wherein the audio content includes speech.
35. The method according to claim 17, wherein the media content includes images.
36. The method according to claim 17, wherein the media content includes video content.
37. The method according to claim 17, wherein the media content includes graphics.
38. The method according to claim 17, wherein the media content includes textual content.
CA 2236227 1997-07-03 1998-04-30 Custom character-coding compression for encoding and watermarking media content Active CA2236227C (en)

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