CA2231749A1 - Low-nox combustor and gas turbine apparatus employing said combustor - Google Patents

Low-nox combustor and gas turbine apparatus employing said combustor

Info

Publication number
CA2231749A1
CA2231749A1 CA002231749A CA2231749A CA2231749A1 CA 2231749 A1 CA2231749 A1 CA 2231749A1 CA 002231749 A CA002231749 A CA 002231749A CA 2231749 A CA2231749 A CA 2231749A CA 2231749 A1 CA2231749 A1 CA 2231749A1
Authority
CA
Canada
Prior art keywords
air
gas
combustor
turbine
compressor
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
CA002231749A
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Shigemi Mandai
Tetsuo Gora
Hiroyuki Nishida
Mitsuru Inada
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd
Original Assignee
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to JP9-066250 priority Critical
Priority to JP9066250A priority patent/JPH10259736A/en
Application filed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd filed Critical Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd
Publication of CA2231749A1 publication Critical patent/CA2231749A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C3/00Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of combustion products as the working fluid
    • F02C3/20Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of combustion products as the working fluid using a special fuel, oxidant, or dilution fluid to generate the combustion products
    • F02C3/30Adding water, steam or other fluids for influencing combustion, e.g. to obtain cleaner exhaust gases
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C3/00Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of combustion products as the working fluid
    • F02C3/34Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of combustion products as the working fluid with recycling of part of the working fluid, i.e. semi-closed cycles with combustion products in the closed part of the cycle

Abstract

A low-NOx combustor and gas turbine apparatus which, while using a fuel containing nitrogen components, suppresses the rate at which these components are converted to NOx by mixing the air which supports combustion with a gas having an oxygen concentration which is lower than that of the atmosphere so that the oxygen level in the resulting air mixture is maintained between 13 and 17%, preferably between 14 and 16%. In a gas turbine apparatus, the aforesaid oxygen-poor air mixture may be generated using the combustion exhaust gas from the turbine by installing a cooling device to reduce the temperature of the combustion exhaust gas from the turbine and supplying the cooled gas to the inlet of an air compressor, or by installing an exhaust gases compressor on the exhaust gas duct of the turbine and supplying the pressurized gas to the inlet of the combustor.

Description

LOW-NOx COMBUSTOR AND GAS TURBINE APPARATUS EMPLOYING SAID
COMBUSTOR

Backgrollnd F IELD OF THE INVENTION
This invention concerns a low-NOx combustor for decreasing the NOx in a fuel gas which contains a nitrogen component (fuel N) such as ammonia (NHl), i.e., the sort of fuel gas obtained by gasifying coal. More specifically, it concern-; a low-NOx combustor employed in a gas turbine and the gas turbine apparatus in which the combustor is employed.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ART
As can be seen in Figure 4, a gas turbine apparatus is a velocity-type heat engine which employs air and combustion gases as its operating medium. It primarily comprises air compressor 2, which compresses the gas adiabatically;
combustor 3, which heats the gas under constant pressure; and turbine 5, which allows -the gas to expand adiabatically.
Coal gas turbine apparatuses have been used in the past in combustors of the type mentioned above. As their fuel these turbine apparatuses use gases containing nitrogen components (fuel N) such as ammonia (NH~), which are obtained by gasiiying coal.

In gas turbine apparatuses of this sort, atmospheric air 1 is compressed in air compressor 2 and introduced into combustor 3. Coal gas produced in a gasification plant (not shown) is used as fue:L 4, which is combined with the compres:,ed air and combusted in combustor 3. The high-ternperature gases produced by this combustion are conducted into turbine 5, where they are allowed to expand before being discharged. These gases may be used to drive a generator or like. Once they have performed their work in the turbine 5, these hot gases are normally exhausted to the exterior as exhaust gas 6.
A~nonia components contained in the coal which is the raw material for the coal gas remain in the gas after gasifica,tion. When combusted, these components are converted to NOx. These gases are known as "fuel NOx". It is the presence of these nitrogen components in the fuel that causes a high concentration of NOx in the exhaust from the plant.
For connbustors which burn a fuel containing nitrogen components such as ammonia, this has been an unavoidable problem.
Th:is is why combustors currently in the public domain use such methods as t]-e so-called two-stage combustion process, combusting their excess fuel to promote the conversion of NO to N2 in à first stage and then fully combusting the remaining uncombusted component in a second stage. To give an example, which is a result of experimentation with the conditions of compression and combustion, it has been observed that the concentration of NOx in the combustion gas is a few ppm if the gas, which components are equivalent to a gasified coal, does not contain ammonia. On the other hand, if the concentration of NH3 in the fuel is approximately 900 ppm, then the concentration of NOx in the combustion gas will be increased to approximately 140 ppm. Thus there is a great demand for low-NOx combustion.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
In such a case it is recommended that the atmospheric air drawn into the compressor be pre-combusted in order to generate low-oxygen air. Preferably, the exhaust gas from the combustion in the turbine discussed above, which has a low concentration of oxyqen, should be used.
With this invention, a portion of the exhaust gas from the combustor itself, which reduces the concentration of oxygen, or from the turbine is recirculated and introduced into the combustor as the low-oxygen gas. The temperature of the combustion exhaust gas from the turbine may be lowered by passing it through a cooling device before it is supplied to the inlet of the air compressor, or the combustion exhaust gas from the exhaust duc1 of the turbine may be pressurized in a compressor before it is supplied to the inlet of the combustor .
In the low-NOx combustor according to this invention, a certain amount of a gas with a lower concentration of oxygen than the atmosphere, which may be the exhaust gas from either the combustor itself or the turbine, is introduced into the air used for combustion. This should reduce the oxygen content of the air in the combustion chamber to between 13 and 17%, preferably to between 14 and 16%.
If the oxygen conte!nt of the air is decreased so that it is within the aforesa:id range, the rate at which the NH3 in the iuel is converted to NOx by combustion will be lower than it would be with normally oxygenated air. In this way it is possible to decrease the concentration of NOx which is exhausted from a plant such as a turbine.

BRIEF DE~SCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Figure l is a system diagram of a gas turbine apparatus employing a low-NOx combustor which is a first preferred embodiment of this inven1ion.
Figure 2 is a system diagram of a gas turbine apparatus employing a low-NOx combustor which is a second preferred embodiment of this invention.
Figure 3 is a graph illustrating the relationship between the concentration of oxygen in the air used for combustion and the conversion rate of nitrogen components in the fue] to NOx. It shows a sample of experimental results which form the basis of lhis invention.
Figure 4 is a system diagram of a gas turbine apparatus belonging to the prior art.

DETAILEO DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS
We shall next give a detailed explanation of two preferred embodiments of this invention with reference to the drawings. Insofar as the dimensions, material, shape and relative position of the structural components which figure in the embodiments are not specifically disclosed, the scope of the invention is not limited to those shown. The embodiments are meant to serve merely as illustrative examples .
We shall explain in detail the preferred embodiments of this invention related to a gas turbine apparatus containing a low-NC)x combustor, with reference to Figures 1 and 2. In the gas turbine apparatus of this embodiment, atmospheric air 1 is compressed in air compressor 2 and conducted to combustor 3. Coal gas generated by a gasification plant (not pictured) is used as fuel 4, which is combusted in combustor 3 together with the aforesaid pressurized air. The resulting hot gases are conducted to turbine 5, where they are allowed to expand and released to the exterior. These gases may be used to drive a generator or the like. Once the hot gases have pe]formed their specified work in the turbine 5, they are normally released to the exterior as exhaust gas 6. In this regard the invention is identical to the prior art device shown in Figure 4.

FIRST EMBODIMENT
We shall next discuss the combustor in the first preferre!d embodiment of this invention, which is pictured in Figure 1. The focus of our discussion will be the aspects of the embodiment which diiEfer from the prior art technology discussed above.
In Figure l, 7 is a cooling device for cooling the combustion exhaust gas 6 which issues from gas turbine S.
Device 7 is placed on feedback line 7l, which bypasses exhaust gas line (exhaust duct) 60 from the gas turbine and air intake duct (atmospheric air intake line) lO to the air compressor.
72 and 73 are valves for controlling the volume of flow from the discharge port of the cooling device 7 and from the intake duct on the upst.ream side of where the bypass 7l rejoins line lO, respectively. 74 is a sensor for monitoring the concentration of oxygen. It is placed on air intake duct lO on th~e intake side of the air compressor downstream of the point where the bypass 7l rejoins duct lO. 75 is a controller which controls valves 72 and 73 based on a signal from oxygen sensor 74. The controller maintains the concent:ration of oxygen in the gas mixture (air + exhaust gases) clrawn into air compressor 2 at about 15%.
The exhaust gas 6 from gas turbine 5 has an extremely low concentration of oxygen and a high temperature. The tempera1ure of this gas is lowered as it passes through cooling device 7 on feedback line 7l. Through valves 72 and 73, the! gas is supplied to air intake duct lO of air compres;or 2. In the same way, this gas is mixed with atmospheric air l which has come through valve 73. In this way the! concentration of oxygen in the air sucked into compressor 2 can be decreased to the 15% level.
The air with a decreased oxygen level of 15% which enters compressor 2 is pressurized there and supplied to combustor 3 to be used for combustion. Coal gas is used as fuel 4,, which is combusted in combustor 3 with the pressur:ized air. In thi,s way the rate at which the NH3 in the fue] is converted to NOx when it is burned in combustor 3 can be lowered to approximately 30%.
Wit,h this invention, then, the exhaust gas from turbine 5, which has a lower concentration of oxygen than atmospheric air, is added to the air drawn into compressor 2. This will lower the rate at which the nitrogen components in the fuel are converted to NOx when the fuel-air mixture is burned in combustor 3.

SECOND E~MBODIMENT
We shall next discuss the combustor shown in Figure 2, which is the second preferred embodiment of this invention.
We shal:L focus our discussion on the aspects of the device which distinguish it from that shown in Figure l.
In Figure 2, 8 is an exhaust gas compressor which is placed on feedback line 81. Line 81 connects exhaust line (exhaust duct) 60 from the gas turbine to the discharge side of the air compressor (the entry port of the combustor). 84 is a device for cooling the combustion exhaust gas 6 which issues from gas turbine 5. 82 is an oxygen sensor. It is placed c,n the intake side of the combustor downstream of the point where the bypass 81 rejoins the main line. 83 is a controller which regulate,s (i.e., controls the volume of gas in) compressors 2 and 8 in response to a signal from the oxygen sensor 82. To express it in a more basic way, the control:Ler regulates the volume of gas exhausted so as to keep the concentration of oxygen in the mixture of gases (air exhaust gases) conducted into the combustor at about 15%.
In this embodiment,. gas at the pressure produced in compressor 2 is supplied to the entry port of combustor 3.
Because this pressure is high, the exhaust gas from gas turbine 5, which is at the internal pressure of exhaust line (exhaust; duct) 60, cannol be supplied to combustor 3. This is why the exhaust gas from turbine 5 is cooled by device 84 before it is conducted into exhaust gases compressor 8. It is brought to a pressure which is equal to or greater than the pressure at which the air is discharged from compressor 2. The mixture of air and exhaust gas, whose oxygen level has bee:n reduced to 15%, is supplied to the entry port of combustor 3. There the coal gas which serves as fuel 4 is combusted together with the pressurized air. With this system, the rate at which the NH3 in the fuel is converted to NOx whe:n the fuel is burned in the combustor 3, which is approximately 30%, is lower than it would be if atmospheric air were used.
In this embodiment, then, the high-pressure exhaust gas 6 from gas turbine 5, which has a lower concentration of oxygen t;han the atmosphere, is added to the pressurized air introduced into combustor 3. When the fuel is combusted there, -this system allows the rate at which the nitrogen components it contains are converted to NOx to be kept low.

Claims (7)

1. low-NOx combustor into which an oxygen-containing combustion gas is introduced to support combustion of a fuel containing at least one nitrogen component, wherein said combustion gas has an oxygen concentration which is maintained in the range from 13 to 17%.
2. A low-NOx combustor according to claim 1, wherein said at least one nitrogen component comprises ammonia.
3. A low-NOx combustor into which an oxygen-containing combustion gas is introduced to support combustion of a fuel containing at least one nitrogen component, wherein said combustion gas is formed by admixing air with a gas having a lower concentration of oxygen than atmospheric air such that the combustion gas has an oxygen concentration which is maintained in the range from 13 to 17%.
4. A low-NOx combustor according to claim 1, wherein said at least one nitrogen component comprises ammonia.
5. A gas turbine apparatus wherein air pressurized in an air compressor and a fuel containing at least one nitrogen component are introduced into a combustor and combusted to produce hot exhaust gases, and the hot exhaust gases are conducted from the combustor to a gas turbine, allowed to expand in the turbine and discharged after performing work in said turbine, and wherein said pressurized air has an oxygen concentration maintained in the range from 13 to 17% by recycling a portion of the exhaust gases discharged from the turbine to the air either prior to or subsequent to pressurization of the air in the air compressor.
6. A gas turbine apparatus according to claim 5, wherein the recycled portion of the exhaust gases is conducted from a turbine discharge through a recycle line to an air intake of said air compressor and admixed with compressor intake air prior to compression of the air by the air compressor, said apparatus further comprising a cooling device on said recycle line for cooling the recycled exhaust gases prior to admixture with the compressor intake air.
7. A gas turbine apparatus according to claim 5, wherein the recycled portion of the exhaust gases is conducted from a turbine discharge through a recycle line and admixed with pressurized air from the air compressor prior to introduction of the pressurized air into the combustor, said apparatus further comprising an exhaust compressor on said recycle line for compressing recycled exhaust gases to a pressure at least equal to the pressure the pressurized air from the air compressor.
CA002231749A 1997-03-19 1998-03-11 Low-nox combustor and gas turbine apparatus employing said combustor Abandoned CA2231749A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP9-066250 1997-03-19
JP9066250A JPH10259736A (en) 1997-03-19 1997-03-19 Low nox combustor

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
CA2231749A1 true CA2231749A1 (en) 1998-09-19

Family

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
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Country Status (3)

Country Link
JP (1) JPH10259736A (en)
CA (1) CA2231749A1 (en)
DE (1) DE19810820A1 (en)

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