New! View global litigation for patent families

CA2113381C - Fast changing heating-cooling device and method - Google Patents

Fast changing heating-cooling device and method

Info

Publication number
CA2113381C
CA2113381C CA 2113381 CA2113381A CA2113381C CA 2113381 C CA2113381 C CA 2113381C CA 2113381 CA2113381 CA 2113381 CA 2113381 A CA2113381 A CA 2113381A CA 2113381 C CA2113381 C CA 2113381C
Authority
CA
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
gas
heat
temperature
invention
surface
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
CA 2113381
Other languages
French (fr)
Other versions
CA2113381A1 (en )
Inventor
Ben-Zion Maytal
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd
Original Assignee
Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B29/00Combined heating and refrigeration systems, e.g. operating alternately or simultaneously
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B18/02Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by cooling, e.g. cryogenic techniques
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B9/00Compression machines, plant, or systems, in which the refrigerant is air or other gas of low boiling point
    • F25B9/02Compression machines, plant, or systems, in which the refrigerant is air or other gas of low boiling point using Joule-Thompson effect; using vortex effect
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B2017/00017Electrical control of surgical instruments
    • A61B2017/00137Details of operation mode
    • A61B2017/00154Details of operation mode pulsed
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B2018/00005Cooling or heating of the probe or tissue immediately surrounding the probe
    • A61B2018/00041Heating, e.g. defrosting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B18/02Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by cooling, e.g. cryogenic techniques
    • A61B2018/0231Characteristics of handpieces or probes
    • A61B2018/0262Characteristics of handpieces or probes using a circulating cryogenic fluid
    • A61B2018/0268Characteristics of handpieces or probes using a circulating cryogenic fluid with restriction of flow
    • A61B2018/0281Characteristics of handpieces or probes using a circulating cryogenic fluid with restriction of flow using a tortuous path, e.g. formed by fins or ribs
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B18/02Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by cooling, e.g. cryogenic techniques
    • A61B2018/0231Characteristics of handpieces or probes
    • A61B2018/0262Characteristics of handpieces or probes using a circulating cryogenic fluid
    • A61B2018/0268Characteristics of handpieces or probes using a circulating cryogenic fluid with restriction of flow
    • A61B2018/0281Characteristics of handpieces or probes using a circulating cryogenic fluid with restriction of flow using a tortuous path, e.g. formed by fins or ribs
    • A61B2018/0287Characteristics of handpieces or probes using a circulating cryogenic fluid with restriction of flow using a tortuous path, e.g. formed by fins or ribs the fluid flowing through a long thin tube with spiral shape
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F7/00Heating or cooling appliances for medical or therapeutic treatment of the human body
    • A61F2007/0059Heating or cooling appliances for medical or therapeutic treatment of the human body with an open fluid circuit

Abstract

A method for creating a surface having a fast changing temperature, comprises providing a heat exchanger coupled to an orifice opening into a jacket which is in contact with the surface to be heated and cooled, the said jacket forming a reservoir capable of housing a fluid in contact with the surface to be heated and cooled, and providing two gas sources, each gas source being independently connected to the said heat exchanger, one source providing a first gas, which liquefies when it expands through the said orifice, and the other gas source providing a second gas, having an inversion temperature lower than the temperature obtained by the liquefaction of the first gas, and causing the exhaust gas flowing out from the said jacket, to flow through the said heat-exchanger to preheat or precool the inflowing gas, as the case may be, and further causing the said first and the said second gas alternately to flow through the said heat exchanger and orifice, to cool or to heat the said surface; means being provided for allowing and stopping the flow of each gas through the said orifice.

Description

24521H/92+

FAST CHANGING HEATING-COOKING DEVICE AND METHOD
Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for obtaining fast changes in the temperature of a variable temperature element, and to the use of such method and apparatus. More particularly, the invention is directed to a method and apparatus which permit to cool a given, area in the cryogenic range, and to heat the same area to relatively high temperatures, within very short periods of time, and nice versa.
Background of the Invention The ability to cause fast changes in temperatures, particularly between very low temperatures and room or higher temperatures, on a desired surface and at a desired location, is of practical importance in many uses.
Fast temperature changes can be exploited, for instance, in the treatment of various materials, for sealing or surface curing purposes, etc.
Cold and hot surfaces are used also for medical uses. For instance, cryogenic techniques are employed to destroy malignant tissues, or fox plastic surgery. One example of such a use is presented in SU 774,549, which relates to a thermal treatment of biological tissues by passing heat carriers through a cryosurgical probe. The method is said to be useful in the cryo-suxgery of 'the human brain. This method, however, involves passing a heat carrier through a surgical probe, its subsequent heating and repeated passage through the probe. Acetone or alcohol are used as the heat carrier. Prior to its passage through the probe the heat carrier is either cooled to -70-75°C, or heated to +70-90°C.

24521H192+

Devices of this type present severe drawbacks, inasmuch as they have long lags in temperature changes, they require cumbersome heating/cooling apparatus outside the probe, and are complicated and expensive to use.
Cryosurgical instruments having both crycooling and heating capabilities are also known in the art. One such device and its medical use have been described by Andrew A. Gage ["Current Issues in Cryosurgery", Cryobiology 19, 219-222(1982), at pp. 220-21]. The device described therein was cooled by liquid nitrogen and electrically heated, to provide hemostasis. The electrical heating, however, by its nature is a relatively slow procedure.
Another device is described in SU 1,217,377, which exploits the expansion of gases through an orifice. However, simple expansion of gas through an orifice provides relatively slow temperature changes, and the changes in temperature are relatively mild. Thus, for instance, in the device of SU
1,217,377 it is not possible to liquify nitrogen. Additionally, this prior art device employs helium at room temperature which, expanding from a pressure of about 300 atmospheres, will attain a heating of merely about 30°C. In any case, in the single pass expansion described in this reference, liquefaction of nitrogen cannot be achieved. However, helium has an inversion temperature of about 45K, which renders it possible to employ neon or hydrogen as the second gas, as is done in this reference.
The highest inversion temperature of neon is about 200K, and of hydrogen is about 130K. Accordingly, these gases cannot be used while 2462/H/92+
- ~d~.13~~1 using nitrogen as the first gas, because the temperature of liquid nitrogen is 80K, and thus the heating obtainable with neon and hydrogen is low.
Additionally, neon and hydrogen may be found at an inversion temperature lower than their maximal temperature, so that no heating is obtained. However, neon is expensive and hydrogen is dangerous, and the obtainable temperatures are unsatisfactory for many uses, which accounts for the lack of success of the above-mentioned device.
Prior art devices and methods have so far Failed to provide simple arid effective fast temperature changing means which can be used in order to exploit the potential of cryogenic techniques, in industry and in medicine.
It is therefore clear that it would be highly desirable to be able to exploit such methods in as many as possible applications.
Summarv of the Invention It is an object of the present invention to provide a method by means of which a fast and periodic change of surface temperature, even down to cryogenic range, can be created, at the desired location, in a simple and effective manner.
It is another object of the invention to provide a device exploiting the method (hereinafter referred to as "probe", far the sake of brevity), which is simple and inexpensive in construction and in operation, and which overcomes the drawbacks of prior art devices.
Other objectives of the invention will become apparent as the description proceeds.

24s2~xn~+
-4- ~~
The method for creating a surface having a fast changing temperature, according to the invention, comprises providing a heat exchanger coupled to an orifice opening into a jacket which is in contact with the surface to be heated and cooled, the said jacket forming a reservoir capable of housing a fluid in contact with the surface to be heated and cooled, and providing two gas sources, each gas source being independently connected to the said heat exchanger, one source providing a first gas, which liquefies when it expands through the said orifice, and the other gas source providing a second gas, having an inversion temperature lower than the temperature obtained by the liquefaction of the first gas, and causing the exhaust gas flowing out from the said jacket, to flow through the said heat-exchanger to preheat or precool the inflowing gas, as the case may be, and further causing the said first and the said second gas alternately to flow through the said heat exchanger and orifice, to cool or to heat the said surface; means being provided for allowing and stopping the flow of each gas through the said orifice.
The selection of appropriate gases to be used according to the invention is crucial. For instance, the maximum inversion temperature of helium is 43K. Thus, even when somewhat precooled by boiling nitrogen at 77.3K, it still will warm up when undergoing Joule-Thomson expansion.
Furthermore, providing a preheating or precooling of the infl.owing gas is not just a matter of efficiency or saving, but is an essential part of the invention, since processes and devices employing a one-pass heating or cooling, without utilizing an exchange of heat via an appropriate heat-exchanger, will not provide sufficiently low or sufficiently high 2452/H/92+

temperatures, and will result in a temperature change which is excessively slow. As stated, the fast change from one extreme temperature to the other is an essential feature of the invention.
Heat exchangers can be of any type, and may be, e.g., a finned tube heat-exchanger of a porous-matrix heat-exchanger, e.g., of the type described in British Patent No. 1,422,445. The device described in this British patent provides only for the cryocooling of the probe, the purpose being to maintain the temperature of the probe below -80°C, thus avoiding altogether the need for heating the probe. It should be mentioned that, according to the teachings of this patent, heating was necessary, when operating at temperatures above -80°C, for the purpose to prevent the probe from sticking to the tissue. However, when operating according to the invention, with fast cooling-heating cycles, the heat exchanger can be utilized also for heating purposes.
In one preferred embodiment of the invention, the fast change in temperature is periodic. In another preferred embodiment of the invention the fast change is controlled and effected at the time selected by the operator.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the first gas is selected from the group consisting essentially of argon, nitrogen, air, krypton, CFA, xenon and N20, and the second gas is helium.
Cryogenic liquefaction occurs at the tip of the cold extremity of the device operating according to the invention as will be more fully explained _ ~ 2452/H/92+
hereinafter, under the cooled metal surface. The Linde-Hampson method is applied, using the Joule-Thomson effect for cooldown to liquefaction.
The invention also encompasses an apparatus for the cryocooling and the heating of surfaces, comprising:
1) a heat exchanger coupled to an orifice, the said orifice opening into a jacket;
2) a jacket which is in contact with the surface to be heated and cooled, the said jacket forming a reservoir capable of housing a fluid in contact with the surface to be heated and cooled;

3) two pressurized gas sources, each gas source being independently connected to the said heat exchanger;

4) means for allowing and stopping the flow of each gas through the said orifice.
According to one embodiment of the invention, the pressurized gas sources are gas reservoirs containing gas under pressure. According to another embodiment of the invention, the gas sources comprise one or more compressors, which draw gas from a reservoir containing gas at a lower pressure than desired.
The surface which is heated and cooled may have any desired shape.
According to one preferred embodiment there are provided changeable elements which are mounted on the jacket, having different shapes, according to the use which it is desired to make of the probe.

2462/H/92+
-It should furthermore be understood that for some uses it is important to obtain a high frequency of temperature change, while it is less important to reach extreme temperatures. Thus, for instance, one may which, for a given application, to oscillate between temperatures of -50°C and +100°C
only. As wail be understood by the skilled person, limiting the upper and/or the lower limit of the desired temperature permits to oscillate between them much more quickly, and the invention also comprises providing such quick oscillations with non-extreme and non cryogenic temperatures. Of course, the skilled engineer will be able to select the appropriate gases to be used for a given application, depending on the temperatures which it is desired to use.
The invention is also directed to a method of selectively destroying a plurality of cells of a living organism, comprising bringing into contact with the surface where the cells to be destroyed are located, a probe according to the invention, and causing extreme temperature changes to take place at the contact surface thereof. It should be noted that, unlike the methods of the prior art in which heating was performed by electrical means, to obtain cauterization, or for avoiding the sticking of the probe to the cells, according to the invention the change in heating is an essential part of the method, and is this change which, apart from the advantages mentioned above, permits to control the depth of penetration of the cold front, and to provide the temperature shock to the cells.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the treated sua-face is the epidermis. According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, the treated surface is the human brain or eye.

2452/H/92+
?~.~.3~81 _$_ Also encompassed by the invention is a method for generating a fast cyclically change of temperature, said method comprising sequentially cooling/heating of a surface by alternate gas supply to a Joule-Thomson liquefaction device.
Brief Description of The Drawin~s_ Fig. 1 is a schematic representation of an apparatus according to the invention, which is used to illustrate the method;
Fig. 2 is a detailed representation of a probe, according to one preferred embodiment of the invention, shouni in cross-section;
Fig. 3 shows the results of a heating/cooling experiment carried out with the probe of Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is the result o~heating experiments;
Fig. 5 schematically shows a portion of a finned tube;
Fig. 6 is a schematic cross section of a device according to one preferred embodiment of the invention, the heat exchanger being shown;
Fig. 7 schematically shows a probe according to one preferred embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 8 schematically shows a probe according to another preferred embodiment of the invention.
Detailed Description of Preferred Embodiments Looking now at Fig. l, numeral 1 generally indicates a probe, comprising a heat-exchanger 2, an orifice, 3, and an isolated jacket 4, which together constitute a Joule-Thompson device. Two gas reservoirs, 5 and 6, containing gas under pressure of about 40 MPa are connected to the said 2462IH/92+

heat-exchanger 2, via line 7, through one-way valves 8 and 9, and on-off valves 10 and 11. Alternatively, two compressors can be provided, to compress the gases of reservoirs 5 and 6.
When an on-off valve (10 or 11) is opened, gas flows through line 7 into heat exchanger 2, and exits orifice 3 to form a cryogen pool, indicated by numeral 12. Probe surface 13 is either cooled or heated by this pool, depending on the gas used at the tame, and cools the surface of the object schematically indicated at 14, which is brought into contact with it.
The design of a probe, according to one embodiment of the invention, is more fully illustrated in Fig. 2. An isolating sleeve 15 houses the various parts of the probe, which include a steel encapsulation 16, containing a cryocooler 17. High pressure gas is supplied through a supply line 18, and expands through an orifice (not shown). The hot or cold gas creates a pool 19, which is in contact with the heatingJcooling surface 20, which is the surface used to apply cold and heat to the treated body. An additional sleeve 21 is provided for holding the cryocooler 17 in place, and the exhaust gas leaves the probe through the empty space 22 therein.
Fig. 5 schematically shows a segment of a finned tube 23 of a heat exchanger used in connection with the invention. The fins 24 are distributed along the tube. Gas at a high pressure, Pl, flows within tube 23, towards orifice 25, , while exhaust gas, at a lower. pressure P2, flows across the tube, as shown by the arrows.

2452/H/92+
-lo- ~~.~.33~~
In Fig. 6 the heat-exchanger is seen to be made of high pressure tubes 23, with fins 24, which are contained within an inner mandrel 26 and an outer mandrel 27. Gas backflowing from the cooled or heated surface 20, indicated by arrows B, flows into the heat-exchanger and comes into contact with the outer surface of the finned tube 23, thus exchanging heat with the gas flowing within it.
As stated, the invention can be exploited in a variety of medical uses.
Some of the advantages obtained with the invention are:
a. Living cells destruction is more effective when operating with temperature cycles than when using cryogenic probes, as done according to the known art, which only cools the affected area.
b. Because temperature cycles are applied, the low temperature front does not penetrate too deep into healthy layers of the human body, in contrast to what happens when prior art cryogenic probes are used.
Therefore, longer treatments of a superficial affected area are possible, according to the invention, while reducing the damage to healthy cells. In other words, the depth of cold front penetration is limited and controlled by the cycling frequency and, furthermore, it is independent of contact duration.
As will be appreciated by persons skilled in this art, by harmonic surface temperature profile, the depth of penetration obtained is proportional to (a ~ i)1~2, a being the thermal diffusivity and T the time period. This is --. 2452/H/92+

known, e.g., from H. S. Carslaw and J. C. Jaeger, "Conduction of Heat in Solids", Chapter 2.6, Clavendon Press, Oxford, 1959.
c. At the end of the treatment cycle the probe can be heated to a temperature where there is no adhesion of the epidermis to the probe surface. Thus superficial damage is avoided, in contrast to what happens when attempting to remove a cool cryogenic probe from the skin.
As will be appreciated by the skilled person, probes according to the invention can be made of varying sizes for different uses, ranging from very thin probes to relatively large area probes, because the heating/cooling device can be accomodated even in very small volumes since no space-consuming parts are requires, such as electric heaters.
Thus, for instance, Fig. 7 illustrates a flat, laxge area probe, such as may be suitable, e.g., for treatment of the epidermis or for non-medical applications. Fig. 8, on the other hand, shows a thin, pointed probe, such as may be used for penetration, e.g., into the liver for cancer therapy.
Looking at Fig. 7, and using the same numerals as in Fig. 6, for ease of understanding, the cooled and heated surface 20 is positioned near the heat-exchanger tubes 23, located between an inner mandrel 26 and an outer mandrel 27. Gas flows to the probe extremity through gas pipes located within outer sheat 28, which may contain two or more pipes, as well as electric wires, if desired. Pneumatic and electric connections can be effected, e.g., through connector 29 (the connections not being shown in detail). Flow of gases is controlled, according to this particular embodiment of the invention, through push-buttons or switches 30, 2452/H/92+
-12- ~~.~3~~~
positioned on the probe holder, so that the functioning of the probe is easily contralled by the user without having to shift the hand and without stopping the operation. Control lights 31 can also be provided, to indicate, e.g., when the heating or cooling gas is flowing, or when the operation of the probe has been altogether stopped.
Similarly, in Fig. 8 a thin probe is seen, in which the contact surface 20 is pointed and not flat. Because of the thinner of the probe, the inner and outer mandxels are reduced in thickness, and are not shown for the sake of clarity. The probe holder 32, in this embodiment of the invention, can be located far from the pointed end of the probe, and can also be provided with buttons and indicating lights (not shown), as in Fig. 7.
Of course, many different shapes and sizes of probes can be provided, depending on the use for which they are intended, and the examples given above are only provided for the purpose of illustrating two of the possible different probes.
The invention will now be further illustrated through the following examples.
Exammle 1 Heating-Cooling Cycles The device described above was used in an experiment in which heating-cooling cycles were generated, and the temperature obtained at the surface (13) of the probe was recorded. The diameter of the heat-2452/H/92+
_13_ exchanger (2) was 5.2 mm, and it was kept under vacuum in excess of 100 Pa. The diameter of the orifice was 0.12 mm.
Helium at 10,000 psi (680 atm) was employed. Nitrogen was at 6000 psi and its flow rate was about 50 GLPM.
Heating was effected from room temperature, until a temperature of 120°C was reached, after which the gas was changed and the probe was allowed to cool down to _190°C. The cooling and the heating times were almost the same, and the total cycle took about 30 seconds. This, as will be appreciated by the skilled person, is a surprisingly short tame for such a cycle, which can hardly be obtained with prior art devices. The results are shown in Fig. 3.
Example 2 Heating Experiment The same probe as in Example 1 was tested for fast heating. Under the same conditions as described with reference to Example 1, the probe was allowed to heat up to 170°C. The result is shown in Fig. 4, from which it can be seen that heating from room temperature to 170°C was achieved in 6.5 seconds. This result illustrates the effect of the inversion temperature, and proves that heating can be obtained using helium. The experiment was also repeated with a temperature limit of 205°C, and comparable results were obtained, with a heating time of 12 seconds.

2452JH/92+
~~.~.3~~1.

All the above description and examples have been provided for the purpose of illustration, and are not intended to limit the invention in any way. Many modifications can be effected in the various parts, shape and construction of the device of the invention. Likewise different gas pairs and gas mixtures can be used, and different low and high temperatures exploited, all without exceeding the scope of the invention.

Claims (9)

1. A method for creating a surface having a fast changing temperature, comprising:
a) providing a heat exchanger coupled to an orifice opening into a jacket which is in contact with said surface to be heated and cooled, said jacket being shaped to form a reservoir capable of housing a fluid in contact with said surface;
b) providing a first and second gas sources, each gas source being independently connected to said heat exchanger and operable to supply a flow of gas through said heat exchanger and subsequently through said orifice into said jacket, said supplied gas further subsequently being exhausted from said jacket through said heat exchanger;
c) providing, by said first gas source, a first gas which liquifies when said first gas expands through said orifice into said jacket;
d) providing, by said second gas source, a second gas having an inversion temperature lower than a temperature obtained by liquefaction of said first gas;
e) providing means for allowing and stopping the flow of each of said first as and said second gas through said orifice; and f) alternately, i) causing said first gas to flow through said heat exchanger and said orifice into said jacket, thereby cooling said surface, said first gas subsequently exhausting from said jacket through said heat exchanger, thereby precooling said first gas, and ii) causing said second gas to flow through said heat exchanger and said orifice into said jacket, thereby heating said surface, said second gas subsequently exhausting through said heat exchanger, thereby preheating said second gas;
thereby alternately cooling and heating said surface.
2. ~A method according to claim 1, wherein said alternate cooling and heating of said surface is periodic.
3. ~A method according to claim 1, wherein said alternate cooling and heating of said surface is controlled and effected at a time selected by an operator.
4. ~A method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein said first gas is selected from a group consisting essentially of argon, nitrogen, air, krypton, CF4, xenon and N2O, and said second gas is helium.
5. ~A probe for cooling and heating adjacent objects, comprising:
a) a surface to be heated and cooled, operable to exchange heat with said adjacent objects;
b) a heat exchanger coupled to an orifice opening into a jacket which is in contact with said surface to be heated and cooled, said jacket being shaped to form a reservoir capable of housing a fluid in contact with said surface;
c) first and second gas sources, each gas source being independently connected to said heat exchanger and operable to supply a flow of gas through said heat exchanger and subsequently through said orifice into said jacket, said supplied gas further subsequently being exhausted from said jacket through said heat exchanger, said first gas source being operable to supply a first gas which liquifies when said first gas expands through said orifice into said jacket, and said second gas source being operable to supply a second gas having an inversion temperature lower than a temperature obtained by liquefaction of said first gas; and d) means for allowing and stopping flow of said first gas and of said second gas through said orifice, said means being operable to rapidly alternately between flow of said first gas and flow of said second gas, said apparatus being operable to allow said first gas to flow through said heat exchanger and through said orifice into said jacket, thereby cooling said surface, and to exhaust from said jacket through said heat exchanger, thereby precooling said first gas, said apparatus being further operable to allow said second gas to flow through said heat exchanger and said orifice into said jacket, thereby heating said surface, and to exhaust through said heat exchanger, thereby preheating said second gas.
6. A probe according to claim 5, wherein said first and second gas sources comprise gas reservoirs containing gas under pressure.
7. A probe according to claim 5, wherein at least one of said first and second gas sources comprises a gas compressor.
8. A probe according to claim 5, wherein said heat exchanger is selected from a group consisting of a finned tube and a porous matrix.
9. A probe according to claim 5, wherein configuration of said surface to be heated and cooled is changeable.
CA 2113381 1993-01-25 1994-01-13 Fast changing heating-cooling device and method Expired - Fee Related CA2113381C (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
IL104506 1993-01-25
IL10450693 1993-01-25

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
CA2113381A1 true CA2113381A1 (en) 1994-07-26
CA2113381C true CA2113381C (en) 2003-11-25

Family

ID=11064445

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CA 2113381 Expired - Fee Related CA2113381C (en) 1993-01-25 1994-01-13 Fast changing heating-cooling device and method

Country Status (5)

Country Link
US (3) US5522870A (en)
EP (1) EP0608927B1 (en)
JP (2) JP3510914B2 (en)
CA (1) CA2113381C (en)
DE (2) DE69425914D1 (en)

Families Citing this family (119)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5522870A (en) * 1993-01-25 1996-06-04 State Of Israel, Ministry Of Defense, Rafael-Armaments Development Authority Fast changing heating-cooling device and method
US6161543A (en) * 1993-02-22 2000-12-19 Epicor, Inc. Methods of epicardial ablation for creating a lesion around the pulmonary veins
US5540062A (en) * 1993-11-01 1996-07-30 State Of Israel, Ministry Of Defence, Rafael Armaments Development Authority Controlled cryogenic contact system
GB2283678B (en) * 1993-11-09 1998-06-03 Spembly Medical Ltd Cryosurgical catheter probe
US5603221A (en) * 1994-06-30 1997-02-18 State Of Israel, Ministry Of Defense, Rafael-Armaments Development Authority Multiprobe surgical cryogenic apparatus
US6530234B1 (en) 1995-10-12 2003-03-11 Cryogen, Inc. Precooling system for Joule-Thomson probe
US5897553A (en) 1995-11-02 1999-04-27 Medtronic, Inc. Ball point fluid-assisted electrocautery device
US6505629B1 (en) 1996-07-23 2003-01-14 Endocare, Inc. Cryosurgical system with protective warming feature
US5800487A (en) * 1996-07-23 1998-09-01 Endocare, Inc. Cryoprobe
US6270494B1 (en) 1996-12-26 2001-08-07 Cryogen, Inc. Stretchable cryoprobe sheath
US5910104A (en) 1996-12-26 1999-06-08 Cryogen, Inc. Cryosurgical probe with disposable sheath
US6096037A (en) 1997-07-29 2000-08-01 Medtronic, Inc. Tissue sealing electrosurgery device and methods of sealing tissue
US5885276A (en) * 1997-12-02 1999-03-23 Galil Medical Ltd. Method and device for transmyocardial cryo revascularization
US5978697A (en) 1998-01-05 1999-11-02 Galil Medical Ltd. System and method for MRI-guided cryosurgery
US6378525B1 (en) 1998-01-29 2002-04-30 American Medical Systems, Inc. Combined cryotherapy and hyperthermia method for the treatment of airway obstruction or prostrate enlargement
US6251105B1 (en) 1998-03-31 2001-06-26 Endocare, Inc. Cryoprobe system
US6126684A (en) 1998-04-21 2000-10-03 The Regents Of The University Of California Indwelling heat exchange catheter and method of using same
US6716236B1 (en) 1998-04-21 2004-04-06 Alsius Corporation Intravascular catheter with heat exchange element having inner inflation element and methods of use
US8128595B2 (en) 1998-04-21 2012-03-06 Zoll Circulation, Inc. Method for a central venous line catheter having a temperature control system
US6419643B1 (en) 1998-04-21 2002-07-16 Alsius Corporation Central venous catheter with heat exchange properties
US6589271B1 (en) 1998-04-21 2003-07-08 Alsius Corporations Indwelling heat exchange catheter
US6537248B2 (en) 1998-07-07 2003-03-25 Medtronic, Inc. Helical needle apparatus for creating a virtual electrode used for the ablation of tissue
US6409722B1 (en) 1998-07-07 2002-06-25 Medtronic, Inc. Apparatus and method for creating, maintaining, and controlling a virtual electrode used for the ablation of tissue
US6706039B2 (en) 1998-07-07 2004-03-16 Medtronic, Inc. Method and apparatus for creating a bi-polar virtual electrode used for the ablation of tissue
US6450990B1 (en) 1998-08-13 2002-09-17 Alsius Corporation Catheter with multiple heating/cooling fibers employing fiber spreading features
US6673098B1 (en) * 1998-08-24 2004-01-06 Radiant Medical, Inc. Disposable cassette for intravascular heat exchange catheter
US6405080B1 (en) 1999-03-11 2002-06-11 Alsius Corporation Method and system for treating cardiac arrest
US6368304B1 (en) 1999-02-19 2002-04-09 Alsius Corporation Central venous catheter with heat exchange membrane
US6299599B1 (en) 1999-02-19 2001-10-09 Alsius Corporation Dual balloon central venous line catheter temperature control system
US6458150B1 (en) 1999-02-19 2002-10-01 Alsius Corporation Method and apparatus for patient temperature control
US6582398B1 (en) 1999-02-19 2003-06-24 Alsius Corporation Method of managing patient temperature with a heat exchange catheter
US6179831B1 (en) 1999-04-29 2001-01-30 Galil Medical Ltd. Method of cryoablating benign prostate hyperplasia
US6165207A (en) * 1999-05-27 2000-12-26 Alsius Corporation Method of selectively shaping hollow fibers of heat exchange catheter
US6287326B1 (en) 1999-08-02 2001-09-11 Alsius Corporation Catheter with coiled multi-lumen heat transfer extension
US6447474B1 (en) * 1999-09-15 2002-09-10 Alsius Corporation Automatic fever abatement system
US7097641B1 (en) * 1999-12-09 2006-08-29 Cryocath Technologies Inc. Catheter with cryogenic and heating ablation
US8221402B2 (en) 2000-01-19 2012-07-17 Medtronic, Inc. Method for guiding a medical device
US7706882B2 (en) 2000-01-19 2010-04-27 Medtronic, Inc. Methods of using high intensity focused ultrasound to form an ablated tissue area
US8048070B2 (en) 2000-03-06 2011-11-01 Salient Surgical Technologies, Inc. Fluid-assisted medical devices, systems and methods
EP1435867B1 (en) 2001-09-05 2010-11-17 Salient Surgical Technologies, Inc. Fluid-assisted medical devices and systems
DE60111517T2 (en) 2000-04-27 2006-05-11 Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis Vibration-sensitive ablation
US6514250B1 (en) 2000-04-27 2003-02-04 Medtronic, Inc. Suction stabilized epicardial ablation devices
US6926669B1 (en) 2000-10-10 2005-08-09 Medtronic, Inc. Heart wall ablation/mapping catheter and method
US20020068929A1 (en) 2000-10-24 2002-06-06 Roni Zvuloni Apparatus and method for compressing a gas, and cryosurgery system and method utilizing same
US6706037B2 (en) 2000-10-24 2004-03-16 Galil Medical Ltd. Multiple cryoprobe apparatus and method
US7740623B2 (en) 2001-01-13 2010-06-22 Medtronic, Inc. Devices and methods for interstitial injection of biologic agents into tissue
US7959626B2 (en) 2001-04-26 2011-06-14 Medtronic, Inc. Transmural ablation systems and methods
US6699240B2 (en) 2001-04-26 2004-03-02 Medtronic, Inc. Method and apparatus for tissue ablation
US6663627B2 (en) 2001-04-26 2003-12-16 Medtronic, Inc. Ablation system and method of use
US6807968B2 (en) 2001-04-26 2004-10-26 Medtronic, Inc. Method and system for treatment of atrial tachyarrhythmias
US6767346B2 (en) 2001-09-20 2004-07-27 Endocare, Inc. Cryosurgical probe with bellows shaft
US6936045B2 (en) * 2001-09-20 2005-08-30 Endocare, Inc. Malleable cryosurgical probe
US6572640B1 (en) 2001-11-21 2003-06-03 Alsius Corporation Method and apparatus for cardiopulmonary bypass patient temperature control
WO2003053496A3 (en) * 2001-12-19 2004-02-05 Ran Yaron Miniature refrigeration system for cryothermal ablation catheter
US7479139B2 (en) * 2002-01-04 2009-01-20 Galil Medical Ltd. Apparatus and method for protecting tissues during cryoablation
US7967816B2 (en) 2002-01-25 2011-06-28 Medtronic, Inc. Fluid-assisted electrosurgical instrument with shapeable electrode
US7294143B2 (en) 2002-05-16 2007-11-13 Medtronic, Inc. Device and method for ablation of cardiac tissue
US7118566B2 (en) 2002-05-16 2006-10-10 Medtronic, Inc. Device and method for needle-less interstitial injection of fluid for ablation of cardiac tissue
US7393350B2 (en) 2002-08-06 2008-07-01 Erbe Elektromedizin Gmbh Cryo-surgical apparatus and methods
US6858025B2 (en) 2002-08-06 2005-02-22 Medically Advanced Designs, Llc Cryo-surgical apparatus and method of use
US7694693B1 (en) 2002-10-08 2010-04-13 Vitalwear, Inc. Mixing valve for a contrast therapy system
US8425579B1 (en) 2002-10-08 2013-04-23 Vitalwear, Inc. Therapeutic knee brace for a contrast therapy system
US7211104B2 (en) * 2002-10-08 2007-05-01 Vital Wear, Inc. Contrast therapy system and method
US8052628B1 (en) 2002-10-08 2011-11-08 Vitalwear, Inc. Spinal column brace for a contrast therapy system
US8216290B2 (en) 2002-10-08 2012-07-10 Vitalwear, Inc. Automated temperature contrast and dynamic pressure modules for a hot or cold wrap therapy system
US7083620B2 (en) 2002-10-30 2006-08-01 Medtronic, Inc. Electrosurgical hemostat
US7658205B1 (en) 2002-12-19 2010-02-09 Vitalwear, Inc. Systems for a fluid circuit coupler
US20040138621A1 (en) 2003-01-14 2004-07-15 Jahns Scott E. Devices and methods for interstitial injection of biologic agents into tissue
EP2904986A1 (en) 2003-01-15 2015-08-12 Cryodynamics, LLC. Cryotherapy probe and system
US7273479B2 (en) 2003-01-15 2007-09-25 Cryodynamics, Llc Methods and systems for cryogenic cooling
US7410484B2 (en) 2003-01-15 2008-08-12 Cryodynamics, Llc Cryotherapy probe
US20040158237A1 (en) * 2003-02-11 2004-08-12 Marwan Abboud Multi-energy ablation station
US7497857B2 (en) 2003-04-29 2009-03-03 Medtronic, Inc. Endocardial dispersive electrode for use with a monopolar RF ablation pen
US20050081541A1 (en) * 2003-10-17 2005-04-21 Gareth Copping Method and apparatus for supplying refrigerant fluid
WO2005063137A3 (en) 2003-12-22 2008-02-14 Ams Res Corp Cryosurgical devices for endometrial ablation
US8007847B2 (en) 2004-01-13 2011-08-30 Eytan Biderman Feeding formula appliance
US8333764B2 (en) 2004-05-12 2012-12-18 Medtronic, Inc. Device and method for determining tissue thickness and creating cardiac ablation lesions
WO2005112812A1 (en) 2004-05-14 2005-12-01 Medtronic, Inc. Method and devices for treating atrial fibrillation by mass ablation
EP1750606B1 (en) 2004-06-02 2010-05-05 Medtronic, Inc. Compound bipolar ablation device
EP1750607A2 (en) 2004-06-02 2007-02-14 Medtronic, Inc. Loop ablation apparatus and method
WO2005120376A9 (en) 2004-06-02 2006-06-29 Medtronic Inc Ablation device with jaws
EP1761188B1 (en) 2004-06-02 2011-07-20 Medtronic, Inc. Clamping ablation tool
US8409219B2 (en) 2004-06-18 2013-04-02 Medtronic, Inc. Method and system for placement of electrical lead inside heart
US8926635B2 (en) 2004-06-18 2015-01-06 Medtronic, Inc. Methods and devices for occlusion of an atrial appendage
US8663245B2 (en) 2004-06-18 2014-03-04 Medtronic, Inc. Device for occlusion of a left atrial appendage
US7846154B2 (en) * 2004-12-06 2010-12-07 Galil Medical Ltd. Gas-heated gas-cooled cryoprobe utilizing electrical heating and a single gas source
US20060155267A1 (en) * 2005-01-10 2006-07-13 Nir Berzak Thermal mapping of a cryoablation volume, for image-guided cryosurgery
US7850682B2 (en) * 2005-01-10 2010-12-14 Galil Medical Ltd. Systems for MRI-guided cryosurgery
US7114197B2 (en) * 2005-01-14 2006-10-03 Louis Garneau Sport Inc. Adjustable stabilization strap apparatus
CN1313062C (en) * 2005-06-30 2007-05-02 上海交通大学 Temperature-rising-reducing rate controllable cold-hot alternating tumour therapeutical system
US20100256620A1 (en) * 2006-01-12 2010-10-07 Galil Medical Ltd. Thin flexible cryoprobe operated by krypton
US20070191732A1 (en) * 2006-02-10 2007-08-16 Voegele James W Cryogenic probe
US20080039746A1 (en) 2006-05-25 2008-02-14 Medtronic, Inc. Methods of using high intensity focused ultrasound to form an ablated tissue area containing a plurality of lesions
CA2659261C (en) * 2006-07-28 2017-03-07 Centre Hospitalier Universitaire De Quebec Probe, sleeve, system, method and kit for performing percutaneous thermotherapy
WO2009086448A1 (en) 2007-12-28 2009-07-09 Salient Surgical Technologies, Inc. Fluid-assisted electrosurgical devices, methods and systems
US8821488B2 (en) 2008-05-13 2014-09-02 Medtronic, Inc. Tissue lesion evaluation
US9254168B2 (en) 2009-02-02 2016-02-09 Medtronic Advanced Energy Llc Electro-thermotherapy of tissue using penetrating microelectrode array
JP5592409B2 (en) 2009-02-23 2014-09-17 サリエント・サージカル・テクノロジーズ・インコーポレーテッド Fluid assisted electrosurgical devices and methods of use thereof
DE102009017370B3 (en) * 2009-04-14 2010-12-09 Erbe Elektromedizin Gmbh Adapter for overpressure protection, cryoprobe with corresponding adapter and cryosurgical device with overpressure protection
US20120184827A1 (en) 2009-06-16 2012-07-19 Shoulamit Cohen Shwartz Miniature disease optical spectroscopy diagnostic system
WO2011031748A1 (en) 2009-09-08 2011-03-17 Salient Surgical Technologies, Inc. Cartridge assembly for electrosurgical devices, electrosurgical unit and methods of use thereof
WO2011112991A1 (en) 2010-03-11 2011-09-15 Salient Surgical Technologies, Inc. Bipolar electrosurgical cutter with position insensitive return electrode contact
US20110295249A1 (en) * 2010-05-28 2011-12-01 Salient Surgical Technologies, Inc. Fluid-Assisted Electrosurgical Devices, and Methods of Manufacture Thereof
US9138289B2 (en) 2010-06-28 2015-09-22 Medtronic Advanced Energy Llc Electrode sheath for electrosurgical device
US8906012B2 (en) 2010-06-30 2014-12-09 Medtronic Advanced Energy Llc Electrosurgical devices with wire electrode
US8920417B2 (en) 2010-06-30 2014-12-30 Medtronic Advanced Energy Llc Electrosurgical devices and methods of use thereof
US9023040B2 (en) 2010-10-26 2015-05-05 Medtronic Advanced Energy Llc Electrosurgical cutting devices
US9427281B2 (en) 2011-03-11 2016-08-30 Medtronic Advanced Energy Llc Bronchoscope-compatible catheter provided with electrosurgical device
CN106456230A (en) 2014-03-11 2017-02-22 艾斯酷瑞医药有限公司 Phase separation of cryogen in cryosurgical instrument
WO2012154195A1 (en) 2011-05-11 2012-11-15 Icecure Medical Ltd. Coiled heat exchanger for cryosurgical instrument
US9039689B2 (en) 2011-05-11 2015-05-26 Icecure Medical Ltd. Phase separation of cryogen in cryosurgical instrument
CA2841863A1 (en) 2011-07-25 2013-01-31 Neurosave, Inc. Non-invasive systems, devices, and methods for selective brain cooling
US9750565B2 (en) 2011-09-30 2017-09-05 Medtronic Advanced Energy Llc Electrosurgical balloons
US8870864B2 (en) 2011-10-28 2014-10-28 Medtronic Advanced Energy Llc Single instrument electrosurgery apparatus and its method of use
CN103027742B (en) * 2012-12-31 2015-02-11 中国科学技术大学 Nuclear magnetic resonance compatible cold-thermal therapy system
US9084590B2 (en) * 2013-03-14 2015-07-21 Medtronic Cryocath Lp Device and method for improved safety and efficacy for cryoablation
US20140276698A1 (en) 2013-03-14 2014-09-18 Medtronic Cryocath Lp Method and apparatus for cryoadhesion
KR101563507B1 (en) 2014-01-24 2015-10-27 한국과학기술원 Cascaded open cryogenic Joule-Thomson refrigeration
US20160242835A1 (en) * 2015-02-20 2016-08-25 Galil Medical Inc. Cryoneedle

Family Cites Families (31)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3398738A (en) * 1964-09-24 1968-08-27 Aerojet General Co Refrigerated surgical probe
US3477434A (en) * 1965-06-02 1969-11-11 Cvi Corp Cryosurgical apparatus
US3388128A (en) * 1965-09-03 1968-06-11 Allan R. Day Substituted 1, 4-diazabicyclo [4. 4. 9] decanes
US3823575A (en) * 1971-06-07 1974-07-16 Univ Melbourne Cryogenic apparatus
US3696813A (en) * 1971-10-06 1972-10-10 Cryomedics Cryosurgical instrument
US3800552A (en) * 1972-03-29 1974-04-02 Bendix Corp Cryogenic surgical instrument
US3782386A (en) * 1972-05-08 1974-01-01 Dynatech Corp Cryosurgical apparatus
DE2257855A1 (en) * 1972-11-25 1974-05-30 Draegerwerk Ag Kryomedizinisches instrument
US3924628A (en) * 1972-12-01 1975-12-09 William Droegemueller Cyrogenic bladder for necrosing tissue cells
DE2343910C3 (en) * 1973-08-31 1979-02-15 Draegerwerk Ag, 2400 Luebeck
DE2638206C2 (en) * 1975-08-26 1987-07-09 L'air Liquide, S.A. Pour L'etude Et L'exploitation Des Procedes Georges Claude, Paris, Fr
FR2322337B1 (en) * 1975-08-26 1979-06-22 Air Liquide
US3993075A (en) * 1975-12-24 1976-11-23 Dynatech Corporation Disposable, defrostable cryosurgical probe
FR2368264A1 (en) * 1976-10-21 1978-05-19 Luce Joseph Temperature controlled mattress for medical use - has heating and cooling unit with changeover valve providing selection of function
US4275734A (en) * 1977-08-12 1981-06-30 Valleylab, Inc. Cryosurgical apparatus and method
FR2482445B2 (en) * 1980-03-06 1984-04-13 Commissariat Energie Atomique
FR2477406B1 (en) * 1980-03-06 1984-02-17 Commissariat Energie Atomique
US4587959A (en) * 1985-04-02 1986-05-13 Ruderian Max J Hot and cold therapeutic applicator
DE3716746A1 (en) * 1987-05-19 1988-12-01 Hubert Ackert Device for the therapeutic application of heat
US5147355A (en) * 1988-09-23 1992-09-15 Brigham And Womens Hospital Cryoablation catheter and method of performing cryoablation
GB2226497B (en) * 1988-12-01 1992-07-01 Spembly Medical Ltd Cryosurgical probe
WO1990008148A1 (en) * 1989-01-23 1990-07-26 Pfizer Inc. Bis-aza-bicyclic anxiolytic agents
US4946460A (en) * 1989-04-26 1990-08-07 Cryo Instruments, Inc. Apparatus for cryosurgery
US5077979A (en) * 1990-03-22 1992-01-07 Hughes Aircraft Company Two-stage joule-thomson cryostat with gas supply management system, and uses thereof
US5139496A (en) * 1990-12-20 1992-08-18 Hed Aharon Z Ultrasonic freeze ablation catheters and probes
US5254116A (en) * 1991-09-06 1993-10-19 Cryomedical Sciences, Inc. Cryosurgical instrument with vent holes and method using same
GB9123413D0 (en) * 1991-11-05 1991-12-18 Clarke Brian K R Method of thawing cryosurgical apparatus
EP0632710B1 (en) * 1992-03-24 1998-07-15 Smt Spol. S.R.O. Method of carrying out cryosurgical interventions and device for this method
US5275595A (en) * 1992-07-06 1994-01-04 Dobak Iii John D Cryosurgical instrument
US5365750A (en) * 1992-12-18 1994-11-22 California Aquarium Supply Remote refrigerative probe
US5522870A (en) * 1993-01-25 1996-06-04 State Of Israel, Ministry Of Defense, Rafael-Armaments Development Authority Fast changing heating-cooling device and method

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
JP2004053247A (en) 2004-02-19 application
JPH07110175A (en) 1995-04-25 application
US5522870A (en) 1996-06-04 grant
EP0608927A3 (en) 1995-02-08 application
EP0608927B1 (en) 2000-09-20 grant
EP0608927A2 (en) 1994-08-03 application
US5891188A (en) 1999-04-06 grant
JP3510914B2 (en) 2004-03-29 grant
US5702435A (en) 1997-12-30 grant
DE69425914T2 (en) 2001-04-26 grant
DE69425914D1 (en) 2000-10-26 grant
CA2113381A1 (en) 1994-07-26 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3536075A (en) Cryosurgical instrument
US5658324A (en) System and method for the reduction of secondary trauma
US5281215A (en) Cryogenic catheter
US4335726A (en) Therapeutic device with temperature and pressure control
US6551274B2 (en) Cryoablation catheter with an expandable cooling chamber
US5899898A (en) Cryosurgical linear ablation
US6293106B1 (en) Magnetic refrigeration system with multicomponent refrigerant fluid forecooling
US5460628A (en) Heated balloon medical apparatus with fluid agitating means
US6475212B2 (en) Cryosurgical probe with sheath
US5281213A (en) Catheter for ice mapping and ablation
US6858025B2 (en) Cryo-surgical apparatus and method of use
US5787715A (en) Mixed gas refrigeration method
US5993444A (en) Method and device for trans myocardial cryo revascularization
US7641679B2 (en) Cryosurgical fluid supply
US3398738A (en) Refrigerated surgical probe
Yan et al. An optimal endoreversible three‐heat‐source refrigerator
US7854754B2 (en) Cooling device for removing heat from subcutaneous lipid-rich cells
US3736936A (en) Cryogenic heat transfer device
US3477434A (en) Cryosurgical apparatus
US7303554B2 (en) Closed loop catheter coolant system
EP0655225B1 (en) Cryo-ablation catheter
US20020147480A1 (en) Treatment of lipid pool
US6497703B1 (en) Cryoablation catheter for long lesion ablations
US7407501B2 (en) Apparatus and method for compressing a gas, and cryosurgery system and method utilizing same
US5833685A (en) Cryosurgical technique and devices

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
EEER Examination request
MKLA Lapsed

Effective date: 20140114