CA2107536A1 - Process for the driving of a tunnel and tunnel borers therefore - Google Patents

Process for the driving of a tunnel and tunnel borers therefore

Info

Publication number
CA2107536A1
CA2107536A1 CA 2107536 CA2107536A CA2107536A1 CA 2107536 A1 CA2107536 A1 CA 2107536A1 CA 2107536 CA2107536 CA 2107536 CA 2107536 A CA2107536 A CA 2107536A CA 2107536 A1 CA2107536 A1 CA 2107536A1
Authority
CA
Canada
Prior art keywords
explosive charge
obstacle
hard rock
tunnel
launcher
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
CA 2107536
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Friedrich Wilhelm Paurat
Roland Paurat
Ernst Lill
Original Assignee
Friedrich Wilhelm Paurat
Roland Paurat
Ernst Lill
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE19924233186 priority Critical patent/DE4233186C1/en
Priority to DEP4233186.2-24 priority
Application filed by Friedrich Wilhelm Paurat, Roland Paurat, Ernst Lill filed Critical Friedrich Wilhelm Paurat
Publication of CA2107536A1 publication Critical patent/CA2107536A1/en
Abandoned legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/10Making by using boring or cutting machines
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C37/00Other methods or devices for dislodging with or without loading
    • E21C37/005Other methods or devices for dislodging with or without loading by projectiles

Abstract

ABSTRACT

A process for the driving of a tunnel into geological rock formations including hard rock obstacles includes the steps of cutting rock in forward direction from the head wall of the tunnel being driven, stopping the cutting operation when a hard rock obstacle is encountered, firing an explosive charge at the hard rock obstacle encountered for disintegration thereof and removing the disintegrated hard rock. A
self-propelled tunnel borer is used which includes a loose rock removal arrangement. The tunnel borer includes at least one explosive charge launcher which is loaded with an explosive charge. When a hard rock obstacle is encountered in the head wall, the explosive charge launcher is aimed at the obstacle and the explosive charge fired at the obstacle for the disintegration thereof. The size and type of the explosive charge, the distance of the explosive charge from the hard rock obstacle upon detonation (blasting) and the explosive charge detonation itself are selected in such a way that the disintegrated hard rock can be removed with the rock removal arrangement of the tunnel borer. Thus, when a hard rock obstacle is encountered, it is no longer necessary to back the borer off the head wall for the employment of special obstacle removal equipment so that the cost and time associated with the tunnel driving operation are reduced.

Description

7 r^ ~ i$

P~OCESS FOR TH~ DRIVTNG OF A TUNNEL AND TUNNEL BORERS THEREFORE

The invention relates to proce~ses and apparatus for the driving of a tunnel into geologlcal rock formations which include hard rock obstacles.
One method of driving a tunnel into a rock formation includes cu~ting and removing the rock at the head wall of the tunnel being driven, whereby a self-propelled tunnel borer with loose rock r~moval arrangement is used. The term tunnel is intended to include also mining tunnels or drifts. The term rock includes all geological formations which are encountered during the driving of a tunnel. Different ~unnel driving machines are known for She cutting and removal of rock at the head wall of the tunnel being driven. For example, partial cro~-section tunnel driving machines are known which cut the rock at the head wall in 15 only a portion of the tunnel cross-section. One type of such partial ~;
cross-section borers has a swivelled arm and cutting heads which rotate in axial or transverse direction of the arm. Other types of partial cross-section tunnel driving machines in the form of shield apparatus are also known. Continuous-miner type machines are a further cla~s of ~unnel borers wh~ch include at least one scraping roller that extends transverse to the tunnel driving direction. Finally, full cross-section borers are known which cover the whole tunnel cross-section with an appropriate full section cutting head and include roller chisels or scraper chisels.
Problems are often encountered in the driving of a tunnel in the above described geologic formations when the tools used for the cutting of the rock encounter a hard rock ob~tacle. The term hard rock obstacle in thi~ context refers to portions in the geological formations which are made of very hard rock that can~ot be removed or only with difficulty with the tools conventionally used on tunnel borers. If conven~ional tunnel driving equipment encounters a hard rock obstacle in the head wall of a tunnel being driven, the driving operations for which the tunnel borer is equipped must be interrupted. For example, the tunnel driving machine must be completely backed off the head wall under great cost and the hard rock obstacle removed at further cost with additional equipmene which is not integrated in the tunnel driving machine and the function of which does not blend into those of the tunnel drivin8 machine.
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2 :~ 3 ~ ! 3 ~ xplo~ive charges are known from other areas of technology and originally from the area of weapon technology (see the Journal "Gluckauf"
128 (1992), Nr. 8, page~ 623 to 626). ~xplo~ive charges are used sometimes for the disintegration of rock obstacles. However, the integration of plosive charge technology with tunnel driving processes has not been realized to date.
It is now an ob~ect of the inven~ion to provide a process for the driving of a tunnel ~nto geological rock formation~ including hard rock obstacles, by which any hard rock obstacles encountered can be removed at low cost and without total interruption of the tunnel driving process.
It i8 a further ob~ect of the invention to provide tunnel driving machines adapted for carrying out that proces~.
This ob~ect is achieved in accordance with the invention with a process wherein a tunnel iB driven lnto a geological rock formation with a conventional tunnel borer which is equipped with an explosive charge firing means for the blasting of any hard rock obstacles encountered by firing an explosive charge at the obstacle and removing the disintegrated hard rock of the obstacle with the loose rock removal arrangement of the tunnel borer.
hccordingly, the invention provides a process for the driving of a tunnel into geological rock formations which include hard rock obstacles, the process comprising the steps of:
a) driving the tunnel into the formation by cutting rocks in forward directlon from the head wall of the tunnel being driven and removing loose, cut-off rock, b) stopping the cutting operation when a hard rock obstacle is encountered, c) firing at least one explosive charge at the hard rock obstacle to disintegrate the hard rock obstacle and removing the resulting di~inteBrated hard rock, whereby the size and type of the explosive charges, the distance of the explosive charge from the hard rock obstacle upon detonation (blasting) and the detonation itself of the explosive charge are selected such that the disintegrated hard rock can be removed with the apparatus used for the cutting of the head wall and removal of the loose, cut-off rock.

.: :

- . -~, ~, 6~ 3 Very different effects can be achieved with explosive charges of different types and sizeq (see the Journal "Gluckauf" suDra). Thus, with appropriate selection of the type and size of ehe explosive charge a very controlled disintegration of the hard rock of any hard rock obstacles encountered can be achleved so that the disintegrated hard rock can be removed with the loose rock removal arrangement already provided on conventional tunnel borers. The required size of the explosive charge which depends on the hardness of the rock encountered can be easlly determined by experiment or can be calculated by known method3 (see Journal of Explosives and Propellants. ~.O.C. - Taiwan 7, 9-24, 1991).
It is surprising that the charge can always be ~elected such that the disintegrated hard rock can be removed with the loose rock removal arrangement already included in known tunnel borers. Furthermore, the aiming of the explosive charge at the hard rock obstacle can be achieved or assisted by the tunnel borer itself either by ad~ustment of the cutting arm to which a launcher for the charge i9 mounted or by re-positionning the whole borer apparatus.
In particular, several possibilities exist for carrying out or optimizing the process in accordance with the invention. In one preferred embodiment, a partial cross-section tunnel borer is u~ed which include~ at least one movable cutting arm and a cutting head mounted thereon as well a~ an explosive charge launcher that is mounted on the cutting arm and aimed at the hard rock obstacle by ad~ustment of the cutting arm position and, if required, by re-positionning of the tunnel borer. The cutting arm position may be ad~ustable in horizontal and/or vertical directlon. It will be readily appreciated by an art skilled person that the explosive charge launcher may also be movably affixed to the arm to allow ad~ustment of the launcher position in three dimensions. With this constructiDn, the explosive charge launcher can be ~ -easily and exactly aimed at the hard rock obstacle. It is further possible with thid construction to aim at least one explosive charge launcher which is mounted on the side of the tunnel borer at the hard rock obstacle. A continuous-miner type tunnel borer can also be used which has at least one explosive charge launcher mounted on the side of the tunnel borer machine frame. In this preferred arrangement, the explosive charge launcher position is al~o ad~ustable in three ~ 3 ~

dimension3. It can further be aimed at the hard rock obstacle by re-positionning the whole continuous-miner type tunnel borer. In another preferred embodiment of the inventlon, a full cross-section tunnel borer is used which include~ a full ~ection cutting head and a firing opening therein for the passage of an explosive charge, and an explosive charge launcher mounted on the machine frame whereby the firing opening can be po~itioned in front of the launcher and the launcher aimed at the hard rock obstacle through the firing opening when the cutting head is stopped. The me&ns required for the aiming of the explosive charge launcher and the alignment of the firing opening of the cutting head can be readily achieved with modern drive, transmission and control technology components.
In a further preferred embodiment of the process of the inventlon the tunnel borer i~ provided with a hard rock ob3tacle locator and the aiming of the explosive charge can be controlled according to the location data detected by the locator. The location data are preferably input into a computer which then controls the aim of the explosive charge launcher and/or the po~ition of the cutting arm and/or the whole borer depending on the location data. The s1ze and/or type of the explosive charges, the distance of the explosive charges from the hard rock obstacle upon detonation and the explosive charge detonation itself are controlled by the computer in accordance with a program that take~ the respectively encountered hard rock type into consideration. The explosive charges are preferably automatically fed to the explosive charge launcher.
The invention also provides tunnel borer~ which are especially suited for carrying out the proces~ in accordance with the invention.
Accordingly, the invention further provides a tunnel borer which includes at least one movable cutting arm and a cutting head mounted thereon, an explosive charge launcher mounted on the borer for aiming at a hard rock obstacle encountered. The launcher may be mounted on the cutting arm and/or on a machine frame of the borer and aimed at the obstacle by movement relative to the arm, movement of the arm or re-po~itionning of the borer.

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Tunnel borers in accordance with the invention are further described in the following by way of example only and with reference to the attached schematic drawings wherein, Figure 1 illustrates a side elevation of a partial cross-section tunnel borer ln accordance with the invention;
Figure 2 is a top view of the embodiment shown in Figure l;
Figure 3 is a side view of another embodiment of a partial cross-section tunnel borer in accordance with the invention;
Figure 4 is a top view of the embodiment shown in Figure 3;
Figure 5 is a side view of a further embodiment of a partial cross-section tunnel borer in accordance with the invention;
Figure 6 is a top view of the embodiment of Figure 5;
Figure 7 is a side view of a modified partial cross-section tunnel borer of the type shown in Figure l;
Figure 8 is a top view of the embodiment of Figure 7;
Figure 9 is a side view of a continuous miner tunnel borer in accordance with the invention;
Figure 10 i9 a top view of the embodiment of Figure 9;
Figure 11 is a side view of another continuous miner tunnel borer;
Pigure 12 is a top view of the embodiment of Figure 11;
Figure 13 is a front view of a full cross-section tunnel borer; and Figure 14 is a ~ection taken along line A-A through the embodiment shown in Figure 13.
The tunnel borers illustrated in the attached figures always include -an undercarriage 1, a machine frame 2, a cutting arrangement 3 for the production of the rock and a rock removal arrangement 4. The latter -con~ists of a loading arrangement and a conveyor.
In the embodiments according to Figures 1 to 8, the tunnel borer i8 a partial cross-section borer and includes a self-propelled machine frame 2, at least one movable cutting arm 5 and a cutting head 6 mounted thereon. At least one explosive charge launcher 7 is mounted on the cutting arm 5, whereby the explosive charge launcher is aimed at the hard rock obstacle by ad~ustment of the cutting arm position. The arrows in these drawings indicate the degree of free movement of the explosive charge launchers 7 which allows aiming of the explosive charge launcher and, thus, an explosive charge 8 supported thereon, at a target. In the r y~c~r~

embodiment according to Figures 7 and 8 further explosive charge launchers 7 are mounted on both sides of the machine frame 2, which launeher~ can be aimed at a hard rock obstacle by movement of the cutting arm 5 and if required, re-positioning of the tunnel borer.
Figures 9 to 12 ~how continuous miner tunnel borers which are especially adapted for the practicinK of a process in accordance with the invention. An exploslve charge launcher 7 is positioned at both sides of the machine frame 2. The launchers 7 can be aimed at a hard rock obstacle in the manner de~cribed above and, if required, by re-positionning of the borer.
Figures 13 and 14 illustrate a full cross-section tunnel borer. A
firing opening 10 for the passage of the explo~ive charge 8 i9 provided in a full cross-section cutting head 9 of the apparatus. One explosive charge launcher 7 is integrated into the machine frame 2. The firing opening 10 can be positioned in front of the carrier by appropriate rotational movement of the cutting head 9. The explosive charge launcher 7 is aimed at the hard rock obstacle through the firing opening by taking into consideration the clearance provided by the firing opening 10. In order to allow the firing of explosive charge~ at any point on the head wall, ~everal firing openin4s 10 and explosive charge launchers 7 may be provided in the full section cutting head 9 and on the machine frame 2 respectively. A hard rock locator equipment 11 is preferably integrated into the borer ~hich locates hard rock obstacles in the head wall and the aim of the explosive charge launcher 7 i~ preferably controlled depending on the location data detected.
Changes and modificationx in the specifically described embodiments can be carried out without departing from the scope of ~he invention which iB intended to be limited only by the scope of the appended claims.

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Claims (17)

1. A process for the driving of a tunnel into geological rock formations which include hard rock obstacles comprising the steps of:
a) driving the tunnel by cutting rocks in forward direction from the head wall of the tunnel being driven and removing loose, cut-off rock, b) stopping the cutting operation at the head wall when a hard rock obstacle is encountered, c) firing at least one explosive charge at the hard rock obstacle encountered to disintegrate the hard rock obstacle, and d) removing the resulting disintegrated hard rock, whereby the size and type of the explosive charges, the distance of the explosive charge from the hard rock obstacle upon detonation and the detonation itself of the explosive charge are selected such that the disintegrated hard rock can be removed with the apparatus used for cutting rocks from the head wall and removing the loose, cut-off rock.
2. A process according to claim 1, wherein the apparatus used is a partial cross-section tunnel borer which includes at least one movable cutting arm and a cutting head mounted thereon, whereby an explosive charge launcher is mounted on the cutting arm and the explosive charge aimed at the hard rock obstacle by appropriate adjustment of the position of the cutting arm.
3. A process according to claim 2 wherein the explosive charge is aimed at the hard rock obstacle by appropriate adjustment of the cutting arm position and re-positioning of the whole tunnel borer.
4. A process according to claim 2, wherein at least one explosive charge launcher is mounted on a side of the tunnel borer for aiming at the hard rock obstacle.
5. A process according to claim 1, wherein the apparatus used is a continuous-miner type tunnel borer and at least one explosive charge launcher is mounted on a side of the tunnel borer for aiming at the hard rock obstacle.
6. A process according to claim 1, where the apparatus used is a full cross-section tunnel borer which includes a machine frame and a full cross-section cutting head, at least one firing opening being provided in the cutting head for passage of the explosive charge therethrough and an explosive charge launcher being integrated into the machine frame, the firing opening being appropriately located in the cutting head for positioning of the opening in front of the launcher and aiming of the launcher and an explosive charge supported thereon at the hard rock obstacle through the firing opening.
7. A process according to one of claims 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6, wherein the apparatus used in a tunnel borer which includes detector means for locating a hard rock obstacle in the head wall and means for controlling the aiming direction of the explosive charge launcher depending on obstacle location data detected by the detector means.
8. A process according to claim 7, wherein the location data are input into a computer which controls the aiming direction of the explosive charge launcher.
9. A process according to claim 8, wherein the computer controls the distance of the explosive charges from the hard rock obstacle upon detonation and the explosive charge detonation itself in accordance with a program taking into consideration the rock type of the hard rock obstacle encountered.
10. A process according to claim 9, wherein a plurality of explosive charges are stored in the tunnel borer and automatically fed to the explosive charge launcher.
11. A process according to claim 10, wherein the explosive charge launcher is loaded with different types and sizes of explosive charges depending on the type of rock in the hard rock obstacle encountered.
12. A partial cross-section tunnel borer for carrying out the process according to any one of claims 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 or 11 comprising an undercarriage, a self-propelled machine frame, a cutting arrangement, and a loose rock removal arrangement, the cutting arrangement including a movable cutting arm and a cutting head mounted thereon, whereby at least one explosive charge launcher for supporting and firing an explosive charge is mounted on the cutting arm and aimed at the hard rock obstacle by appropriate adjustment of the cutting arm position.
13. A partial cross section tunnel borer according to claim 12, having an explosive charge launcher which is provided on at least one side of the machine frame for aiming at the hard rock obstacle encountered.
14. A continuous-miner type tunnel borer for carrying out the process according to any one of claims 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10 or 11 having an explosive charge launcher which is provided on at least one side of the machine frame for aiming at the hard rock obstacle encountered.
15. A full cross-section tunnel borer according to any one of claims 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10 or 11 comprising a machine frame and a full cross-section cutting head, at least one firing opening being provided in the cutting head for the passage of an explosive charge therethrough and the machine frame including at least one explosive charge launcher, the firing opening being appropriately located in the cutting head for positioning in front of the explosive charge launcher, and aiming and firing of an explosive charge supported on the explosive charge launcher at the hard rock obstacle through the firing opening.
16. A tunnel borer according to any one of claims 11, 13, 14 or 15, further comprising a detector means for locating a hard rock obstacle present in the head wall, and a means for controlling the aiming direction of the explosive charge launcher depending on obstacle location data detected by the detector means.
17. A tunnel borer according to claim 12, further comprising a detector means for locating a hard rock obstacle present in the head wall, and a means for controlling the aiming direction of the explosive charge launcher depending on obstacle location data detected by the detector means.
CA 2107536 1992-10-02 1993-10-01 Process for the driving of a tunnel and tunnel borers therefore Abandoned CA2107536A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE19924233186 DE4233186C1 (en) 1992-10-02 1992-10-02 Process for driving a tunnel and tunnel driving machines set up for carrying out the process
DEP4233186.2-24 1992-10-02

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
CA2107536A1 true CA2107536A1 (en) 1994-04-03

Family

ID=6469503

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CA 2107536 Abandoned CA2107536A1 (en) 1992-10-02 1993-10-01 Process for the driving of a tunnel and tunnel borers therefore

Country Status (4)

Country Link
EP (1) EP0590527A1 (en)
JP (1) JPH06323089A (en)
CA (1) CA2107536A1 (en)
DE (1) DE4233186C1 (en)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103206220A (en) * 2013-03-29 2013-07-17 辽宁工程技术大学 Drilling device loaded on hard rock tunneling machine and hard rock tunneling method

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CA2381231A1 (en) * 1999-08-06 2001-02-15 Ltm Corporation Three dimensional multi-phase tunneling method and equipments thereof
CN101737049B (en) * 2008-11-25 2012-06-20 宝钢集团上海梅山有限公司 Multi-working face circulating development driving production organization method
IT1399278B1 (en) * 2010-03-10 2013-04-11 Fassa S P A Device for punctual prospecting of the subsoil
CN102261250A (en) * 2010-05-31 2011-11-30 三一重型装备有限公司 Hydraulic crushing-type excavator for hard rock
CN102305068B (en) * 2011-08-16 2014-04-23 三一重型装备有限公司 Development machine
CN102797467B (en) * 2012-08-09 2015-04-15 游天义 Automatic rock drilling device special for tunnel excavation
KR101518471B1 (en) * 2014-10-31 2015-05-15 권대륙 Mining method for stratigraphic ore in soft rock
CN104929516A (en) * 2015-06-24 2015-09-23 赵现红 Horizontal moving type rock drilling static blasting machine

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US3288532A (en) * 1964-03-10 1966-11-29 Union Oil Co Continuous mining machine and method
US3695715A (en) * 1970-04-01 1972-10-03 Physics Int Co Rock fracturing method and apparatus for excavation
DE2304021B2 (en) * 1973-01-27 1976-03-18 Driving machine for driving up routes or tunnels
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DE2621674C3 (en) * 1976-05-15 1978-11-09 Bochumer Eisenhuette Heintzmann Gmbh & Co, 4630 Bochum

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103206220A (en) * 2013-03-29 2013-07-17 辽宁工程技术大学 Drilling device loaded on hard rock tunneling machine and hard rock tunneling method
CN103206220B (en) * 2013-03-29 2015-01-14 辽宁工程技术大学 Drilling device loaded on hard rock tunneling machine and hard rock tunneling method

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
JPH06323089A (en) 1994-11-22
EP0590527A1 (en) 1994-04-06
DE4233186C1 (en) 1994-02-17

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