CA2101159C - Manifold antenna structure for reducing reuse factors - Google Patents

Manifold antenna structure for reducing reuse factors

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Publication number
CA2101159C
CA2101159C CA 2101159 CA2101159A CA2101159C CA 2101159 C CA2101159 C CA 2101159C CA 2101159 CA2101159 CA 2101159 CA 2101159 A CA2101159 A CA 2101159A CA 2101159 C CA2101159 C CA 2101159C
Authority
CA
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
communication
resource
coverage
service
sector
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
CA 2101159
Other languages
French (fr)
Other versions
CA2101159A1 (en )
Inventor
Eugene J. Bruckert
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Motorola Solutions Inc
Original Assignee
Motorola Solutions Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W72/00Local resource management, e.g. wireless traffic scheduling or selection or allocation of wireless resources
    • H04W72/04Wireless resource allocation
    • H04W72/044Wireless resource allocation where an allocation plan is defined based on the type of the allocated resource
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q1/00Details of, or arrangements associated with, antennas
    • H01Q1/12Supports; Mounting means
    • H01Q1/22Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles
    • H01Q1/24Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles with receiving set
    • H01Q1/241Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles with receiving set used in mobile communications, e.g. GSM
    • H01Q1/246Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles with receiving set used in mobile communications, e.g. GSM specially adapted for base stations
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q21/00Antenna arrays or systems
    • H01Q21/06Arrays of individually energised antenna units similarly polarised and spaced apart
    • H01Q21/08Arrays of individually energised antenna units similarly polarised and spaced apart the units being spaced along or adjacent to a rectilinear path
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W16/00Network planning, e.g. coverage or traffic planning tools; Network deployment, e.g. resource partitioning or cells structures
    • H04W16/02Resource partitioning among network components, e.g. reuse partitioning
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W16/00Network planning, e.g. coverage or traffic planning tools; Network deployment, e.g. resource partitioning or cells structures
    • H04W16/02Resource partitioning among network components, e.g. reuse partitioning
    • H04W16/12Fixed resource partitioning
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W28/00Network traffic or resource management
    • H04W28/16Central resource management; Negotiation of resources or communication parameters, e.g. negotiating bandwidth or QoS [Quality of Service]
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W16/00Network planning, e.g. coverage or traffic planning tools; Network deployment, e.g. resource partitioning or cells structures
    • H04W16/24Cell structures
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W16/00Network planning, e.g. coverage or traffic planning tools; Network deployment, e.g. resource partitioning or cells structures
    • H04W16/24Cell structures
    • H04W16/28Cell structures using beam steering
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W16/00Network planning, e.g. coverage or traffic planning tools; Network deployment, e.g. resource partitioning or cells structures
    • H04W16/24Cell structures
    • H04W16/30Special cell shapes, e.g. doughnuts or ring cells
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W74/00Wireless channel access, e.g. scheduled or random access
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W84/00Network topologies
    • H04W84/02Hierarchically pre-organised networks, e.g. paging networks, cellular networks, WLAN [Wireless Local Area Network] or WLL [Wireless Local Loop]
    • H04W84/04Large scale networks; Deep hierarchical networks
    • H04W84/042Public Land Mobile systems, e.g. cellular systems

Abstract

A system is offered of increasing signal quality within a cellular communication system through the use of directional antennas (500, 501, 502, 503) and random assignment of communication resources.

Description

z~~1~~9 ~;
MANIFOLD ANTENNA STRUCTURE FOR REDUCING
REUSE FACTORS
is Field - of the Invention -This invention relates to communication systems and more specifically to franked communication systems:
' Background of the Invention Trunked cellular communication systems are known.
Such systems are typically divided over geographical areas into 2 s substantially contiguous service coverage areas, each served from a base ~ site. Mobile communication units passing through a xrvice coverage area served by a base site typically transmit service requests to the base sites, which requests are answered with a resource allocation dedicated by the base site for use by 3o the requesting communication unit. Such a system is typically referred to as a frequency division multiple access system (FDMA).
Communication resources used by a base site and allocated to the communication system may consist of a WO 92l15179 PCTlUS921010~(1 r~
_2_ frequency spectrum divided for use by the system into a number of communication resources. Each communication resource may consist of a pair of frequencies. The pair of frequencies may be used by a communication unit to transmit s and receive information.
Communication resource use by a base site may also be divided by function with at least one resource) in some systems) reserved for the two-way transmission of control information between the base site and communication units passing through the service coverage arcs of the base site.
Other resources may be reserved for use ~ by communication units for communication transactions following allocation of a resource for such use following request and allocation by the base site.
~ s Since a limited number of communication resources may exist within a frequency spectrum the reuse of communication resources is necessary within the geographic area served by the communication system. Reuse, on the other hand, is often limited by mutual interference between communication units) 2o and base sites, operating on the same frequency in the same system.
Reuse of a communication resource within a communication system is limited by a number of factors. Chief among the factors, specifically in a communication system 25 having an omnidirectional antenna structure) is distance between reusing transmitters and the power of the transmitted signal. Where transmitting power is fined within communication units by design then the remaining factor determining reuse is distance. The distance between reusing 3o communication units is often specified in terms of the ratio of the distance {D) between the centers of nearest, neighboring co-channel cells to the radius {R) of a cell. The reuse ratio, D/R) specifies the proximity of the closest reusing base site.

WO 92/15179 ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ PCT/US92/01090 Another factor affecting reuse is the transmitted power of a communication signal. As the power of the transmitted signal is reduced the proximity between reusing base sites becomes smaller and smaller. One patent teaching of such an approach is that of Cunningham et al. (U.S. Patent No.

4) 144,496). Cunninghsm teaches of a method of subdividing a large cell into a number of smaller cells. Communication resources aasigaed to the large cell are divided among the smaller cells. Directional antennsa are also used in Cunningham t 0 to isolate reusing base sites in an effort to reduce co-channel interference.
The use of directional antennas was alao--taught in Graziano (U.S. Patent No. 4.128,740) as a method of reducing the reux factor. Directioosl antennas were used in Graziano in combination with a resource assignment algorithm tQ produce a co-charnel reux ratio of 4:
Graziano and Cunningham rely upon fixed assignment methods and directional antennas to reduce the incidence of interference. The incidence of interference) on the other hand, 2o is not a constant phenomenon. Reuse= of communication resources) as is known; may occur whenever the incidence of interference is below a threshold relative to the desired signal, based on measured signal parameters.
Meaanred pusmeters determining reux factors for a system may be based upon a determination of signal to interference (S/I) for a desired transmitter in the presence of as interferer and where interference is a combination of thermal and co-channel interfering signals. (An alternate term, C/I, or carrier to interference, is more frequently used in determining reuse factors.) A minimum reuse factor, as is known for analog radios) may be achieved whenever the measured signal from the desired transmitter (C/I ratio) is 17 dB above measured interference.

WO 92/15l79 PCT/US92/01090 In the past reuse factors could be determined by placing a desired transmitter at the edge of the service coverage area of a home cell and measuring the distance to an interferes in cell diameters to achieve the 17 dB difference in signal s strengths. Under past advances in technology) however, reuse factors are calculated based upon computer simulations.
Advances (described in Cunningham)) . resulting in a reduced reuse factors) have been the development of directional antennas and selective assignment of frequencies.
1 o Past developments (as in Graziano) hare -included cells divided into as many as six sectors with a 60 degree sector antenna providing coverage within each sector. The selective assignment of resources then precluded reassignment of adjacent channel resources within adjacent sectors. Use of the 1 s 60 degree sector antennas) and the selective assignment of frequencies) as mentioned, have resulted in reuse. factors as low as four.
Digital communication systems such as code division multiple access (CDMA) are also known. Such systems may 20 operate in a frequency hopping mode under which transmitting and receiving units transceive on a given communication resource for only a short period before indexing to a new resource in a list of assigned resources. CDMA communication systems, as is known) have a much greater resistance to 25 interference than FDMA or TDMA communication units. The greater resistance to interference of CDMA systems may be attributable to the limited transmission time on any given resource and the spectrum limited scope of interference sources. Other sources of resistance to interference within 3 o CDMA systems arise from the broad range of coding techniques for the CDMA signal and the variable signal content of coded speech. Digital communication systems) as is known, are capable of proper operation in C/I environments of at least -s-9 dB 9096 of the time or C/I environments of at least 17 dB
5096 of the time.
Because of increasing competition for a limited frequency spectrum a need exists to allow operation of competing s communication systems on identical frequencies without mutual interference and with a minimum roux factor. Such a communication system must have an increased sensitivity to a desired signal or a reduced susceptibility to interference.
l0 Summary wof the Invention Under one embodiment of the invention a -method is offered of improving signal quality of a signal communicated on a communication resource within a communication system 1 s between a communication unit located within s service coverage area of a base site of 'a plurality of basis sites within the communication system and the base site. The method includes dividing each xrvice coverage area into at least two sectors, inclusive of the service coverage area, with each sector 20 substantially covered by a directional antenna. The method further includes providing communication access to the communication unit located within the sector through the directional antenna covering the sector on a communication resource randomly xlected from a plurality of ' communication 2s resources within the system.
Brief Description of the Drawing FIG. 1 depicts a cellular communication system in a 30 geographic context.
FIG. 2 comprises a block diagram of communication equipment serving a subsector of a service coverage area.
FIG. 3 depicts sectorization of a service coverage area.

~w FIG. 4 depicts the service coverage areas of a communication system sectorized in a substantially identical) orientation specific pattern.
FIG. 5 depicts four subsectors served by VNBAs within a sector.
FIG. 6 depicts results of a computer simulation of operation of a communication system ~ under the invention with a 1 cell repeat pattern.
FIG. 7 depicts results of a computer simulation of operation of a communication system under another embodiment of the invention with a 1 cell repeat pattern.
FIG. 8- depicts results of a computer simulation of operation of a communication system _under the invention with a 3 cell repeat pattern.
FIG. 9 depicts reaulta~ of a computer simulation of operation of a communication system under snoth~r~
embodiment of the invention with a 3 cell repeat pattern.
FIG. 10 depicts results of a computer simulation of operation of a communication system under the invention with 2o a 4 cell repeat pattern.
FIG. 11 comprises a table of results of the computer simulations.
FIG. 12 comprixs a block diagram of a matrix switch for an antenna system.
Brief Description of a Preferred Embodiment Pursuant to one embodiment of the invention a communication system (FIG. 1) is divided into a number of 3o service coverage areas (10 through 14)) each with a centrally located base site (100 through 104) within the service coverage area. Service coverage areas within the communication system (FIG. 1 ) are sub-divided or sectorized about the base sites ( 100 through 104) into 120 degrees arcs (FIG. 3, sector 1, sector 2) WO 92/l5179 PCT1US92/01090 - ~~0 g159 and sector 3). Adjacent service coverage areas are sectoriud with the dividing lines of corresponding sectors of adjacent service coverage areas being snbatantially parallel) thereby forming substantially identical) orientation specific patterns of s at least three sectors per xrvice coverage area (FIG. 4).
Available within the communication system is a set of communication resources) F) which have been subdivided into three subsets) Fl ) F2) and F3. The subxta of resources (F 1, F2) and F3) are assigned to the three xctora of each xrvice 1 o coverage area in a substantially identical, orientation specific pattern wherein: anbxt Fl is assigned to sector 1, subset F2 is assigned to sector 2) and subset F3 is assigned to sector 3.
Each sector of each xrvice coverage area is provided with at least four very narrow beam antennas (VNBAs)) located ~ s at the bane site which radially divide each sector into at least four partially overlapping anbsectora (FIG. 5) 500) 501, 502) and 503). The four snbsectors (500) 501) 502, and 503) are inclusive of the sector (2) FIG. 3). By design a VNBA serving a subsector (500) 501) 502) or 503) amplifier aignsla originating 2o within the snbsector served (500, 501) 502) or 503) and attenuate= signals ori'ina~ting outside the snbsector.
Shown (Fig. 2) is a block diagram of communication equipment serving a sector of a base site (100, 101, 102, 103, or 104). Located at the base site are a number of transceivers (301, 303, 305, and 307), a number of 25 ~n~ol transceivers (302, 304, 306, and 308), and a site controller (300).
Each transceiver (301, 303, 305, and 307) and each control transceiver (302, 304, 306, and 308) are depicted with an antenna designation indicating the subsector (500, 501, 502, and 503) served.
The sector seared by the communication equipment (FIG. 2) is that 30 of sector 3. The communication equipment depicted (FIG.2) may be extended to cover sectors 1 and 2 through the addition of a transceivers (301, 303, 305, and 307) and control transceivers (302, 304, 306, and 308) for each subsector for sectors 1 and 2.

WO 92/15l79 PC1'/US92/01090 ~w ~.~
_g_ In requesting communication services a communication unit (FIG. 1) 200) located in service coverage area 11) sector 3, subsector 500 first transmits a resource request (400) to a control transceiver (302). Since subsector 500 is covered by a s VNBA located at base site 101 the resource request is received exclusively by control transceiver 302.
The resource request (400) may include an ID of the communication unit (200) and a number of a target (not shown). The site controller (300) upon receiving the resource request (400) through the control transceiver (302) decodes the request and responds with a resource allocation (401 ) transmitted to the communication unit (200) through the control transceiver (302). The transmitted resource allocation (401 ), in addition to information relative to the requesting communication unit (200)) may contain information identifying a resource to be used by the communication unit (200) during the communication transaction.
In conjunction with transmission of the resource allocation (401 ) the site controller (300) may also allocate a 2o transceiver (301) to service the communication transaction.
Upon receipt of . the resource allocation (401 ) the communication unit (200) tunes to the allocated resource and begins transmitting a transaction signal (402). The transceiver (302) receives the transaction signal (402) and communicates 2s the signal (402) to the target (not shown).
The resource allocated in the above example within sector 3 comprised a resource from within subset F3.
Allocation of a resource from F3 to the communication unit (200) in service coverage area 11, sector 3, subsector 500 3o precludes reuse of the resource in the remaining subsectors (501, 50Z, or 503) of sector 3. Assignment of a resource to a subsector within a sector) on the other hand, is performed on a random basis (within the sector) or under a suitable algorithm WO 92/15179 ~ ~ ~ ~, ~ PCT/US92/01090 _g_ entered into the site resource controller (300) controlling resource assignment within the sector.
Use of VNBAs limits transmission and reception of a signal on a resource to an area of approximately 2596 of a s sector. Ux of a VNBA limits the potential for mutual interference to an area radially disposed from the base site.
Since assignment within a sector is on a random basis reux of the same resource in another service coverage area providing a mutually interfering signal is significantly reduced.
t o Operation of a communication unit within a communication system from any of a number of base sites (as described above) depends upon a sufficient C/I ratio. Use of a VNBA within a sector increases average C/I by attenuating signals originating outside an arc defined by the subsector of t s the VNBA and in other nearby xrvice coverage areas.
Increasing the C/I ratio) by definition, allows for a reduced reuse factor since an increase in C/I allows bax sites operating on the same resource to operate in cloxr proximity.
Shown (FIG. 6) is a computer simulation of a cellular 2o communication system under the invention for a slow hopping CDMA communication system. The simulation assumes a one cell repeat pattern (reuse factor), 3 sectors per service coverage area) four VNBAa per sector) and 18 interfering communication units. The plot above) and to the left, 2s represents a probability distribution factor of interference.
The curve to the right, and below, indicates a projected C/I
experienced by a communication unit operating under the described conditions. The first line in FIG. 11 represents a summary of the information shown in FIG. 6. As shown (FIG.
30 11) the C/I ratio (FIG. 6) exceeds 5.6 dB 9596 of the time, exceeds 10 dB 9096 of the time and exceeds 17.6 dB 5096 of the time.
FIG. 7 represents another embodiment of the invention.
In FIG. 7, for a one cell repeat pattern, the 3 sectors in each WO 92/15l79 PCT/US92/01090 ~~~~ _ t'r~,: ~.'' ~ - to -service coverage area have been divided into 6 subsectors, each served by a 20 degree VNBA. FIG. 11, line 2, in this embodiment (FIG. 7) indicates a C/I ratio exceeding 7.5 dB 9596 of the time, 10.9 dB 9096 of the time) and 18.8 dB 5096 of the time.
FIG. 8 reprexnts results under the invention for a 3 cell repeat pattern, 3 sectors per cell, and four subaectors per sector. As shown (FIG. 11) line 3) C/I exceeds 12.9 dB 9596 of the time) 15.7 dB 9096 of the time) and 25.5 dB 5096 of the time.
t o FIG. 9 reprexnts a 3 cell repeat pattern with 6 subsectors per sector. FIG. 11, line 4 indicates a C/I above 14 dB 9596 of the time) 17.25 dB 9096 of the time) and 26.S dB
9596 of the time.
FIG. 10 represents a 4 cell repeat pattern with 4 t s subsectors per sector. FIG. 11, line 5 indicstes a C/I of 15.6 dB
9596 of the time) 19 dB 9096 of the time) and greater than 30 dB
5096 of the time.
In another embodiment of the invention the VNBA may be comprised of a steerable antenna with the steering function 2o and dire tional signal detection accomplished through phase processing of the received signal. The steerable antenna function may also be obtained through multiple antennas with steerable nulls.
In another embodiment of the invention an identical set 25 of system communication resources are assigned to service coverage arena without restriction as to ux within the three actors. Service requests may be received on any one) of twelve VNBAs covering the service coverage area with such request transferred to the site controller {300) along with the 3 o identify of the VNBA receiving the request. A communication resource is identified at random or though a suitable algorithm for allocation to the requesting communication unit. Service is provided to the requesting communication unit through the WO 92/15I79 '~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ '~ PCT/US92/01090 YNBA serving the area where the communication unit is located.
Shown (FIG. 12) is a blocr diagram of a matrix switch for providing service to a communication unit in an area served by s a VNBA and exclusively through the VNBA. Included within the matrix switch assembly is a number of antennas ( 1 A
through NA)) a number of linear PAa ( 1 through 1~) a number of distribution amplifiers ( 1 through I~, a transmit matrix switch (Tx matrix), a receive mstris switch (Rx matriu)) a 1 o transmit buffer (600) within memory (300b)) and a receive buffer (601 ) within memory (300b).
As shown (FIG. 12) a sesvice request (400) from a requesting communication unit (200) is received by antenna 1 A. The service request (400) is received through distribution 1 s amplifier 1, encoded with the identity of the originating VNBA
( 1 A) within the receive matrix switch (Ru mstriu)) and stored within a buffer (601 ) within memory (300b) of the site controller (300). 1'ha site controller (300) responds with a resource allocstion (401) that is stored within a buffer (600) 2o within memory (300b) of the site .controller (300). The resource allocation (401 ) is transferred through the matrix switch (Tx matrix). and transmitted to the requesting communication unit (200) through a linear PA ( 1 ) and antenna 1.
2s Upoo allocating a resource to service a communication transaction between the communication unit (200) and a target unit (not shown) the site controller may allocate a transmit bufftr location Tx 1 (600) and a receive buffer location Rx 1 (601 ) to service the transaction. Allocation of the transmit 30 (Txl) and receive (Rxl) buffer locations allow communication information to flow through the VNBA (lA) servicing the area in which the requesting communication unit (200) is located.
In the above embodiment where a communication resource is allocated to a communication unit (200) through a VNBA (lA) 'WO 92/1S179 PGT/US92/01090 -'2- ~~ D ~ ~ 59 on a random basis throughout the service coverage area the statistical chance of mutual interference from a surrounding service coverage area is very low.
In another embodiment of the invention communication s access is available to a communication wait (200) within a service coverage area through one of at least two directional antennas inclusively covering the service coverage area within which the communication unit (200) is located. Resource assignments to the requesting communication unit (200) are on a random basis from a plurality of communication resources available within the system to requesting communication units.
Mutual interference is suppressed by the random nature of the reso~ce assignments and by the directional nature of the communicating sntenna. Mutual interference may be farther ~ s suppressed through a suitable encoding technique such as CDMA so as to produce a rwue fsetor of one among the service coverage areas. Use of the CDMA encoding technique and at least two directional antennas also allows re-use of commonicsrion resources in adjacent anbaectors ss well as 2o adjacent strvice coverage areas.
A

Claims (4)

1. A method of improving signal quality of a signal communicated on a communication resource within a communication system between a communication unit located within a service coverage area of a base site of a plurality of base sites within the communication system and the base site, such method including the steps of:
A) sectorizing each service coverage area of the plurality of service coverage areas into substantially identical, orientation specific patterns of at least three sectors;
B) assigning at least some resources of the plurality of resources to each sector of the at least three sectors in a substantially identical, orientation specific pattern among the service coverage areas;
C) dividing each sector into at least four partially overlapping subsectors, inclusive of the sector, with each subsector substantially covered by a directional antenna;
and D) providing communication access to an at least one communication unit located within a subsector through a directional antenna, of the at least four directional antennas, covering the subsector in which a signal is received from the at least one communication unit on a randomly selected resource of the at least some resources assigned to the sector.
2. The method as in claim 1 further including the step of communicating the signal under a CDMA format.
3. An apparatus for improving signal quality of a signal communicated on a communication resource within a communication system between a communication unit located within a service coverage area of a base site of a plurality of base sites within the communication system and the base site, such apparatus comprising:
A) means for sectorizing each service coverage area of the plurality of service coverage areas into substantially identical, orientation specific patterns of at least three sectors;
B) means for assigning at least some resources of the plurality of resources to each sector of the at least three sectors in a substantially identical, orientation specific pattern among the service coverage areas;
C) means for dividing each sector into at least four partially overlapping subsectors, inclusive of the sector, with each subsector substantially covered by a directional antenna; and D) means for providing communication access on a randomly selected resource of the at least some resources assigned to the sector to an at least one communication unit located within a subsector through the directional antenna, of the at least four directional antennas, covering the subsector in which a signal is received from the at least one communication unit.
4. The apparatus as in claim 9 further including means for communicating a signal under a CDMA format.
CA 2101159 1991-02-22 1992-02-10 Manifold antenna structure for reducing reuse factors Expired - Fee Related CA2101159C (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US65977991 true 1991-02-22 1991-02-22
US659,779 1991-02-22
PCT/US1992/001090 WO1992015179A1 (en) 1991-02-22 1992-02-10 Manifold antenna structure for reducing reuse factors

Publications (2)

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CA2101159A1 true CA2101159A1 (en) 1992-08-23
CA2101159C true CA2101159C (en) 1999-08-10

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US (1) US5485631A (en)
CN (1) CN1027480C (en)
CA (1) CA2101159C (en)
DE (2) DE4290393C2 (en)
FR (1) FR2677198B1 (en)
GB (1) GB2270236B (en)
WO (1) WO1992015179A1 (en)

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GB2270236A (en) 1994-03-02 application
CN1027480C (en) 1995-01-18 grant
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CN1068690A (en) 1993-02-03 application
DE4290393T1 (en) 1994-04-28 grant
DE4290393T0 (en) grant
US5485631A (en) 1996-01-16 grant
WO1992015179A1 (en) 1992-09-03 application
FR2677198B1 (en) 1994-02-04 grant
GB2270236B (en) 1995-06-21 grant
DE4290393C2 (en) 1998-05-20 grant
CA2101159A1 (en) 1992-08-23 application

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