OPTICAL DEVICES VVITH ELECTRON-BEAM
EVAPORATED MULTILAYER MIRROR
Field of the Invention The invention conf e,-l.s Vertical Cavity Surface F.mitting Lasers.
5 Back~round of the Invention Stacks of ~l~ern~ting high and low rcirl~ c~ index layers serve as miIrors in Vertical Cavity Surface F.mitfing Lasers, hereinafter referred to as VCSELs. The task is to find suitable materials for the high and low index layerswhich maximize a ratio of the high index refractive order to the low index refractive 10 order, and which could he ~eposil~d in a Ill~mer comratihle with the semirQn~ ctor device processing A VCSEL is attractive as a device in which the lasing cavity is perpen-lir.ll~r to the top surface of a laser chip, which is small and which may be produced by planar technology. This can lead to a pl~ ;ng future in high densit 15 laser arrays, high data tr~nsmic~ion in optical co,...,~"ir~tion ~y~t~ ms, ultra high parallel processing in optical co~ nir~tit~n ~y~ ls, as well as supplying a route for data tr~n~mi~sion be lw~n electronic chips. Fullll~lllole, dhe circular-like nature of their beams allows one to efficiendy couple dhe laser light into circular optical fibers.
In dhe VCSEL dhe light output is in dhe film growth direction which is usually parallel to dhe direction of dhe injection current. Due to dhis feature, the mirror through which dhe emi~siQn takes place and dhe electrical contact physically occupy the same side of the laser structure, i.e. either the top or the bottom of the device. The mirror is located a~pl~imately in the center of dle surface while the 25 electrode is located peripherally of dhe mirror. An example of a surface emitting laser widh a coplanar lllill~,./electrode arrangement in which a gold layer with a thirl~ness of a few tendhs of a micr~ ,t~,r acts as the mirror dlrough which laser-emi~sion takes place, may be found in articles by H. Soda et al., enfitlç~l "GaInAsP/InP Surface F.mitting Injection Lasers," J~ nrsc Journal f Applied 30 Physics, Vol. 18, No. 12, 1979, pp. 2329-2230; and by H. Soda et al. entitled"GaInAsP/InP Surface F.mit~ing Injection Lasers widh Short Cavity T Pngth," IEEEJournal f Quantum Electronics, Vol. QE-l9, No. 6, June 1983, pp. 1035-1041.
However, S. Kinoshita pointed out that such mirrors lead to low quantum efficienr-y primarily due to absorption of lasing emission by dhe gold mirror and suggested the 35 use of a stack of pairs of dielectric layers as the top mirror, one layer of each pair ~' having a higher index of refracdon than the other layer of the pair. See an ardcle by Susumu Kinosl~ et al. endtled "GaAlAs/GaAs Surface F.mining Laser with High Relleu,li~c, TiO2/SiO2 Muldlayer Bragg E2PflP~tor," Jar~nese Journal f Applied Physics, Vol. 26, No. 3, March 1987, pp. 410-415; L. M. Zinkiewicz et al., "High5 Power Verdcal-Cavity Surface-Fmitting AlGaAs/GaAs Diode Lasers," Appl. Phys.
Letters, Vol. 54, No. 20, 15 May 1989, pp. 1959-1961; and KPni~hi Iga, "Recent Advances of Surface F.mitting Semi~Q~ ct~r Lasers," Ol,loele~l,oi1ics-Devices and Technolo.~ies, Vol. 3, No. 2, Decernher 1988, pp. 131-142.
TiO 2 and ZrO 2 quarter-wave ( 4~ ) dielectric layers have been typically 10 paired with SiO2 quarter-wave layers. The number of pairs is selected to obtain a IllaXilllUIll pelrO....~n~e reflecdvity. However, the mirror structures of alternadng TiO2 (or ZrO2) and SiO2 quarter-wave layers have not yielded expected pelrollllance, in terms of reflecdvity. Theoretically, the opdcal ~lrO. .n~nce of a stacked mirror structure should a~r~ach 100 percent. Unrol~ui1aLely, plesel,lly 15 obtainable pelro~ ance falls within a broad range of from 90 to 99 percent. The problem resides, primarily, with the high index layer m~t~n~l~ This shorLfall is, most likely, due to the diffirulty in obtaining suffi~içntly high quality TiO2 (or ZrO2) layers on a reproducible basis. Electron-beam deposidon of co~ ting~, such as TiO2 (or ZrO2), l~Uil~S a~lition of oxygen in the d~silion process to get the 20 proper stoiciometry for a desired refracdve index. ~ liti~n of oxygen is needed to avoid formadon of unwanted, oxygen-defi~ient phases, such as Ti, TiO, Ti 2 3, Ti3 Os, which occur due to an oxygen shortage. This ~ui~ nt makes it difflcult to reproducibly form the TiO2 layer.
Several single crystal sçmicontluctors with high index of refracdon, 25 such as Al ,~ Ga 1 _ ~ As or GaInP, which possess the desired plu~l lies whenepitaxially del)o~;t~l may be used in place of TiO 2 or ZrO 2 layers; however, the epitaxial growth of these mqt~i~ uil~S le.ll~latures of - 600-800C along with sophisdcated, e~ 1si~,e growth app~lus. These m~tçri~l~ are poorly suited for deposition in a device post-p~cessing wherein ~"lperatures above 300-350C are to 30 be avoided. Th~"~fole, there is sdll a need for high stability, high ~,Çol,ll~ce mirrors for use in VCSELs with high quality coadngs which are easily reproducible at con~litio~ co...~ ible with the device pl~)cess;ng and which could be also produced in a simplified Illalmer utili7ing planar te~hnology.
-Summary of the Invention This invention embodies a VCSEL with a top mirror co~ lising at least one pair of quallel~ave layer, each pair collsis~ g of a low index of refraction layer and a high index of refraction layer, the high index of refraction layer being a 5 semiconductor chosen from GaP and ZnS and the low index of refraction layer being chosen form borosilicate glass (BSG), CaF2, MgF2 and NaF. Especially useful in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers are mirrors formed by a stack of a plurality of pairs of GaP/BSG or ZnS/CdF2. Such mirrors are produced by e-beam deposition in the absence of oxygen and have a high reflectivity chara~-tçri~ti~s required for an 10 efficient operation of the laser. The GaP/BSG or ZnS/CaF2 mirror structures represent a considerable improvement over previous designs for VCSELs in terms of ultimate reflectivity, low loss, and post growth processing co.l-~ ,ility.
In accordallce with one aspect of the invention there is provided an optical device colll~lisillg a semiconductor m~ri~l selected from the group co~
15 of III-V and II-VI semiconductors, collllJlising a lasing cavity and top and bottom metal electrodes for applying electric field to the lasing cavity, said lasing cavity comprises a bottom mirror, a bottom collfll~illg region, an active region, a top collfll~ g region and a top mirror, said top mirror comprising a plurality of pairs of qual~cl~vàve layers, each pair of layers col~ ing of a low index layer and a high index layer20 arranged in an allç...~ g sequçnre beginning with the low index layer, wherein said high index layer is a semiconductor selected from the group consisting of GaP and ZnS, and said low index layer is of a m~tçri~l chosen from the group of materials selected from borosilicate glass (BSG), CaF2, MgF2 and NaF.
In accordance with another aspect of the invention there is provided a 25 method of fabricating a laser device colllllisillg a semiconductor material selected from the group consisting of III-V and II-VI semiconductors, said device COlll~ illg a lasing cavity and top and bottom metal electrodes for providing electric field to the læing cavity, said lasing cavity inrlurling a bottom mirror, a bottom confining region, an active region, a top collflllillg region and a top mirror, said top mirror colll~lishlg a plurality 30 of pairs of quarterwave layers, each pair of layers col.~ g of a low index ofrefraction layer and a high index of refraction layer, which COlll~liSCS dc~osiLing said quarterwave layers of the top mirror by electron-beam deposition from corresponding source materials in a vacuum en~dloll,llcll~ with ~"l.~l~"li~l absence of oxygen, said high -3a-index of refraction layer is selected from the group consi~li,lg of GaP and ZnS and the low index of refraction layer is selected from the group co~ g of borosilicate glass (BSG), CaF2, MgF2 and NaF.
Brief Des~ tion of the Dl~w;~ .c FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of a structure of a VCSE laser;
FIG. 2 is a chart representing a Reflectivity versus Wavelength curve "l~asuled for a mirror with 6 pairs of ZnS/CaF2;
FIG. 3 is a chart representing a Reflectivity versus Wavelength curve measured for a mirror with 3 pairs of GaP/borosilicate glass; and FIG. 4 is a chart l~lese,l~ g the Illc~uled optical data for a 40rJm thick GaP film on borosilicate glass in terms of tr~nsmission and reflection.
Detailed Description The applicants have discovered that such semiconductor materials as GaP and ZnS represent an excellent choice for the high index layers in mirrors for use in VCSELs especially if combined with such low index dielectric layers as CaF2, MgF2, NaF and borosilicate glass (BSG). The index of refraction of GaP is 3.45, of ZnS is 2.35, and of BSG, CaF2, MgF2, NaF the index of refraction is 1.46,1.42,1 .389, and 1.317,re~ecliv~1y. GaP and ZnS are compound semiconductors which can be deposited by electron-beam (E-beam) evaporation in the form of amorphous layers, at 2 0 relatively low ~ulJ~llale tell,~eldlules and without the need for oxygen supply during the deposition. E-beam evaporation, a relatively in~el~ive technique, produces no .signifi~nt damage to the semiconductor surface and permits in situ lll~nilolillg of the layer thickness. E-beam ~val~oldlion is well-known in the art and, thus, does not need any further elaboration. For an example of a suitable ~paldlUS for a two layer 2 5 deposition by e-beam technique see the article by Susumu Kino~shit~ et al., supra, or U.S. Patent 3,984,581 issued to Herman R. Dobler et al.
on October 5, 1976.
E-beam d~ ;ol- of GaP and ZnS in absence of oxygen leads to deposits which are in an ~~ ,hous rather than crystalline state if the substratete~ tule is ~ inl~in~d during deposition at a ~lll~la~ within a range of from S room ~ e~ G to 250C. These ~e..~ res are conlr~tihle with present co.. ~.-ly used device pl~)cesses, such as oxide d~,posilion or m~t~lli7~tion~
~lthough the deposited layers are not single crystal, absorption losses are low for wavelengths within a range of from 0.5 to 1.6 ~m, preferably from 0.5 to 1.1 ~m and most preferably from 0.85 to 0.88 ~lm (emission ~. a~,eleAgth of bulk GaAs).10 Good quality GaP and ZnS layers are obtained in~ependently of the substrate material making such mirror structures as GaP/BSG or ZnS/CaF2 readily reproducible. In contrast to the use of TiO2 or nnmodifiecl ZrO2, in combinationwith SiO 2 layers, control of film stoi~hiom~try using GaP or ZnS as a high index coating is not a problem, and leads to an eYcell~nt reproducibility.
FIG. 1 is a schf .. ~;c .~ ,se .-~l;on of a VCSEL according to this invention, denomin~te~l generally as 10. For reasons of clarity elements of the VCSEL are not drawn to scale. VCSEL 10 co,-~.ises a substrate 11; a quarter-wavestack of a plurality of pairs of semiconduc~or layers forming a bottom mirror, 12, one layer of each pair having a refractive index difr~lcnt from the .~r.a~ re index of 20 another layer of the pair, a first co~rl~ing layer, 13; an active layer, 14; a second co~lr~ g layer, 15; a highly-doped contact layer, 16; a metal ring which acts as a non-alloyed ohmic top electrode, 17, of the device; a second quarter-wave stack of a plurality of pairs of layers forming a top mirror, 18, one layer of each pair having a refractive index dirr~ t from the refractive index of another layer of the pair, and a 25 bottom electr~de, 19, in contact with the bottom surface of substrate 11. While not shown, ~ddition~l confining and buffer layers may be included into the laser structure. The number of pairs of layers is ~billa,ily shown as being 3; however, this number may be anyone within a range of from 2 to 20.
Construction of VCSEL 10, in acco~lce with the invention, may be 30 described as being generally as follows:
Substrate 11 is an n+ - type III-V or II-VI æmicontluctor~ such as GaAs, GaInAs, InP, GaInP, GaInPAs, AlAs, AlGaAs, AlGaInAs, AlInP, AlInPAs, AlGaInPAs and other related group III-V or II-VI co-.-~owld æmiconductors.
Typically, the thi~ness of the substrate ranges from 100 to 500 llm and the doping 35 concentration of the substrate ranges from 1 x 1017 to 1 x 10l9 cm~3. In someapplic~fion~, such as opto-electronic integrated cil~;uill~, substrate 11 may be first grown on a master substrate of silicon, which is in co.-~.--on to a numbe. of devices grown on the master substrate.
Quarter-wave stack 12 is compose~ of a plurality of pairs (or periods) of layers of n + - type se-miron~ ctor, such as GaAs, GaInAs, InP, GaInP, GaInAsP, S AlAs, AlGaAs, AlInP, AlGaInP, AlGaInAsP, the semiron~lctl~r layers forming a bottom multilayer distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mi~or with a number of pairstypically ranging from 10 to 40. One sem -on~l~]ctor layer in each pair has a higher index of refraction than the other semicQn~luctor layer of the pair. The thickness of each semi~Qn~ ctor layer in the pair equals 4~, wl~elein A is the optical ~a~elength 10 of the laser device and n is the refractive index of the layer. For example, for a device with an active region lasing at ~ ~ 0.87 ~m, such as a GaAs-based laser, a quarter-wave stack of pairs of such semicond~ctors as GaAs and AlAs with ~Ll~li. indices of 3.64 and 2.97, le~ ly, will consist of 60 nm thick GaAs layer and 73 nm thick AlAs layer while a stack of Alo.os GaO.gs As and AlAs will15 consist of pairs of layers 62 nm and 73 nm thick each, l~s~cli~rely.
First co~.fining layer 13 and second conrnil-g layer 15 are provided to confine acdve region 14 and to adjust the length (L) of an optical cavity (that is, the thirl~ness of the active region). The optical cavity length should be 2L=N-~, wL~leill N is an integer and ~ is an ope-a~-ng optical wavelength of the laser.
20 Typically, the thirl~nçss of each conrnh~g layer ranges from 0 to 3 llm. To obtain constructive in~lrel~ince, the thir~ness of the conr..-il-g layers should be a multiple of 4~ . In the plefell~d embo~limrnt the co n r ,.i ng regions are of Al ,~ Ga I _ " As, with x ranging &om 0.1 to 0.4.
Active region 14 is a region in which electrons (-) and holes (+) 25 recoll,bille providing, under proper stimlll~tiQn a lasing emission~ In the pl~rell~,d e.llbo~li...r-nt, the active region is a lightly doped (1 x 10l6 - Sx 10l7 cm-3) layer of GaAs with a thir~nrss within a range &om 0.1 to 1 ~lm. The single layer may be aho...o~;~ neous semicQn(l~lctor or a single or multiple quantum well (QW) structure, composed of a n~l~w.,l gap semirQ~ lctor confined by a wider gap semiconductor.
30 ~ltern~tively, the single layer forming the active region may be replaced by a s~lperl~ttire structure which is a multiquantum well structure with very thin barriers.
Highly doped contact layer 16 is provided in thin~ness of from 0.01 to 0.1 llm to f~cilit~tr establishing a non-alloyed ohmic contact between conrl-ling layer 15 and ring electrode 17. Typically, the doping concentration in the contact 35 layerrangesfrom 1x10l9 to lxl020cm-3.
Elec~ de 17 is a non-alloyed ohmic cont~ct Electrode 17 is of a metal selected from such metal colllpo~ite,s as AuBe and AuZn de,po ,ited in a thirl~nPss of from S to 400 nm thick in the form of an ~nnnlll~ with from 1.0 to 50 ~m outer moter and from 0.5-25 ~m inner ~ ~ter. Such contacts are del)os;t~ cl by S e~a~,~ on at t~,lJ~.~IUI~S ranging from 20C to 500C, preferably from 20C to250C. Higher te,l~ ul~s could result in undesi~ble alloying of the metal into the semiconductor. ~d~lition~lly~ a thin layer of such metal as Pt may be position~
.~n contact layer 16 and the metal comros;te.
Top mirror 18 is a multilayer Bragg ,~ ol inclufling from 2 to 20 10 pairs of high index and low index layers stacked one upon another in a cohlmn~r f~hion In one p,~,ftl,~d el~bofl;...~ nt the high index layers are GaP and the low index layers are borosilir~tr glass (BSG) such as Vycor~. In another pl~re.l~d embo~li.... ......R,n~, the high index layers are ZnS layers and the low index layers are CaF2 layers.
Metal elc~ de 19 from 1 to 10 ~m thick is formed on the bottom surface of substrate 11 to provide for current flow perpendicularly through the active region to cause lasing emi~sion The laser may be mounted with electrode 19 in contact wit,h a heat-sink plate, e.g. of copper or some other heat-conductive material which does not con~ e the mat,erials of the laser.
Sem:^onductor layers 12 through 16 can be grown upon substrate 11 by such known method$ as metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE), also known as metal organic chrmir~l vapor deposition (MOCVD), or by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) or by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (VPE). In the p,~fell~d emb(Ylimrnt, theVCSEL struct,ures are grown by the MBE t,echnology in a Varian Gen II MBE
system on heavily doped GaAs substrates 11. After layers 12 t,hrough 16 are grown, the partially formed slluclu,e is transferred to a separate high vacuum chamber where a metal layer is deposited by electron beam tvap~ ion on exposed portions of contact layer 16 as a non-alloyed ohmic contact in a thir~ness sllmrient to provide desired electric~l conductivity. Electrode 17 may be deposited through a30 photolithographically formed mask or through a shadow mask blocking off areas on which depo~ilion of the metal electrode is to be eYrl-lded, such as the centrally located area of the contact layer. Following the top electrode deposilion step, the top mirror stack is deposited in absence of oxygen through a shadow mask by electronbeam e~,alion either in the same or in another chamber. Bottom electrode layer 35 19, e.g., of In, may then be formed on the bottom surface of substrate 11. Finally, the bottom side of the la~ser may be ~ untcd via the In electrode or by means of a co~ adhesive, such as epoxy, on a copper slab which serves as a heat sink inCO~1J11 on to other devices.
The flow of elc~llvns from top ele~ vde 17 may be le~l,icli~ely directed to the active layer through a small contrally located window (not shown) defined in S CO~ l~ning layer 15. This central area preferably cO~ subst~nti~lly to the central opening in the annular electlvde. It maybe produced con~,eniel lly by ion-implanting the ~lil,hel~l area of co~ ing layer 15 with ions which do not affect the con~ ctivity type of the material in which they are implanted. Proton ions, such as H+ ,O+ or He+ are implanted typically in concentrations ranging from 1 x 10l8 to10 5 x 10 19 per cm3 . They are implanted into the peripheral area of confining layer 15 prior to the deposllion of contact layer 16, thus defining a window for the centrally restricted flow of electrons to active layer 14.
In the exemplary plefel.~d embod~llent, the VCSEL is an Al " Ga 1 _ ,~ As laser structure, with x ranging from 0 to 1.0, compri~ing in an ~cen-ling se~uence 1 15 to 2 llm thick In electrode 19, about 500~m thick (001)-ori~nte~ heavily doped (2x 10l8 cm~3 ) n+ -GaAs substrate 11, bottom mirror 12 con~i~ting of a quarter-wave stack of 30 pairs of n+-type (Sx 10l7 - Sx 10l8 cm~3) semicon~luctor layersforming multilayer distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror, each pair of the stack con~i~tin~ of a 73 nm thick layer of n+ - AlAs and 62 nm thick layer of 20 Alo 05 GaO 95 As. The reflectivity s~~ ll of this DBR structure, as measured with a Perkin-Elmer ~ ~mh~lfl 9 UV/VISINIR Sp~;ll~hololl~t.,~, showed a broad high reflectivity band cente.~d at -0.8711m with a reflectivity > 99 percent. The bottom mirror is followed by first co~ nt layer 13 of n+ -Al0.20Gao.80 As (SxlOl7cm~3) about 3 ~lm thick, lightly doped (SxlOl6cm~3) acdve layer 14 of 25 p~ -GaAs about 0.6 ~m thick, and second confin~ment layer 15 of p+-Al0.30GaO.70As(SxlOl6cm~3)aboutO.Sllmthick. Aheavilydoped(5 xlOl9cm~3) contact layer 16 of p+ -AlO.lOGao.goAs, about 0.06 ~m thick, is deposit~d on c~ -g layer 15 for ohmic contact purpose. Electrode layer 17 of AuBe about 200 nm thick is formed, through a suitable mask, on top of contact layer 30 16 under co~iitiQns leading to a non-alloyed ohmic contact. Electrode layer 17 is in the form of an ~nnlllus with from 1.0 to 50.0 ~m, preferably 5 to 25 ~m, outer m~ter and about from 0.5 to 20 ~m, preferably 2 to 20 ~m, inner ~ .,.. t~-r.
A plurality of alternating layers of GaP and BSG or ZnS and CaF2, forming top mirror 18 are then d~,positcd by e-beam evaporation. These layers are 35 deposited through a mask so as to form a cylindrical column of alternating layers.
The deposition begins with a BSG (or CaF2) layer followed by the deposition of ~083 1 22 GaP (or ZnS, lc,i.~li~ely) layer and repetiti~n of the deposit se~uel ce until adesired nulllber, e.g., 20, of BSG-GaP (or CaP2 - ZnS) pairs are deposil~3 The stack is then preferably capped off with another BSG (or CaF2) layer.
The source mqteriql for dcpo~ilion of GaP layers was pol~l ~lline 5 GaP and for deposition of BSG layers was fused BSG. Similarly, the source material for del)o~;lion of ZnS layers was crystalline ZnS and for deposition of CaF2 layers was crystalline CaF2. After bolllba~ nl of the source materials was initiqted, an about 150 nm thick BSG (about 153 nm thick CaF2) layer was pe ..~ ,d to be ~lepos~ A on an a~ ce.-l central region of contact layer 16 and in 10 pardally overlapping reladon on e,-posed pordons of contact 17 while the deposidon of GaP was avoided by means of a shutter. Theleart4r about 64 nm thick GaP (about 93 nm thick ZnS) layer was d~,posite~ while the d~posilion of the BSG layer was inle~ pled. This procedure sequence was le~at~,d undl a desired nu.ll~r of pairs(periods) of BSG and GaP (or CaF2 and ZnS, respecdvely) layers was d~posit~d.
15 During the deposition, the vacuum was kept within a range of from 1 x 10-4 to 1 x 10-7 Torr. Outer ~liqm~t~or of the stack was larger than the inner fliqm~ter of ele~:l,ode 17 so as to overlap the cle~ )de by from 0.2 to 5 ~m. During the deposition the substrates were held at t~lll~latures of 125C - 250C. These ~ pelalul~s are co...~ ;ble with device processes, such as oxide d~posilion or 20 metqlli7vtion, co.-....ollly used as a post semicond~lctor growth processin~ These t4lll~lalul~,s are also con~lcive to the formqtion of amorphous films of GaP andZnS in absence of an oxygen al---o,l,h~ . E-beam e~apolation of allel,laling GaPand BSG layers or ZnS and CaF2 layers in accol~lce with this invendon produces desired index of refracdon without introducdon of oxygen into the evaporadon 25 chqrnber. Thus, there was no need to introduce oxygen into the chamber, and none was introd~lce~l FIG. 2 shows a l~inu;~ivi~ versus wavelength curve measured for a six pair ZnS/CaF2 quarter-wave mirror on Si. A reflectivity of >97% is obt~Lih~ed at a ~a.elength range of from 0.80 to 0.90 ~Lm.
FIG. 3 shows a reflecdvity versus wavelength curve measured for a 3 pair GaP/BSG quarter-wave mirror on Si. A reflectivity of >97% is obtained at a wavelength of about 0.87 ~lm. Ad~litir~nqlly~ a ll~ul~d opdcal data in terms of trn~mi~sion and reflection is shown in FIG. 4 for a 400A GaP film deposited at asubstrate ~-ll~lature of 250C. Over the wavelength range of 0.7 - 1.1 ~lm no 35 measurable absorpdon takes place in the GaP film.