New! View global litigation for patent families

CA2027224A1 - X-y controller with pivotally mounted transducers - Google Patents

X-y controller with pivotally mounted transducers

Info

Publication number
CA2027224A1
CA2027224A1 CA 2027224 CA2027224A CA2027224A1 CA 2027224 A1 CA2027224 A1 CA 2027224A1 CA 2027224 CA2027224 CA 2027224 CA 2027224 A CA2027224 A CA 2027224A CA 2027224 A1 CA2027224 A1 CA 2027224A1
Authority
CA
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
transducers
mechanical
axes
part
controller
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
CA 2027224
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
John L. Lautzenhiser
Original Assignee
John L. Lautzenhiser
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05GCONTROL DEVICES OR SYSTEMS INSOFAR AS CHARACTERISED BY MECHANICAL FEATURES ONLY
    • G05G9/00Manually-actuated control mechanisms provided with one single controlling member co-operating with two or more controlled members, e.g. selectively, simultaneously
    • G05G9/02Manually-actuated control mechanisms provided with one single controlling member co-operating with two or more controlled members, e.g. selectively, simultaneously the controlling member being movable in different independent ways, movement in each individual way actuating one controlled member only
    • G05G9/04Manually-actuated control mechanisms provided with one single controlling member co-operating with two or more controlled members, e.g. selectively, simultaneously the controlling member being movable in different independent ways, movement in each individual way actuating one controlled member only in which movement in two or more ways can occur simultaneously
    • G05G9/047Manually-actuated control mechanisms provided with one single controlling member co-operating with two or more controlled members, e.g. selectively, simultaneously the controlling member being movable in different independent ways, movement in each individual way actuating one controlled member only in which movement in two or more ways can occur simultaneously the controlling member being movable by hand about orthogonal axes, e.g. joysticks
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05GCONTROL DEVICES OR SYSTEMS INSOFAR AS CHARACTERISED BY MECHANICAL FEATURES ONLY
    • G05G9/00Manually-actuated control mechanisms provided with one single controlling member co-operating with two or more controlled members, e.g. selectively, simultaneously
    • G05G9/02Manually-actuated control mechanisms provided with one single controlling member co-operating with two or more controlled members, e.g. selectively, simultaneously the controlling member being movable in different independent ways, movement in each individual way actuating one controlled member only
    • G05G9/04Manually-actuated control mechanisms provided with one single controlling member co-operating with two or more controlled members, e.g. selectively, simultaneously the controlling member being movable in different independent ways, movement in each individual way actuating one controlled member only in which movement in two or more ways can occur simultaneously
    • G05G9/047Manually-actuated control mechanisms provided with one single controlling member co-operating with two or more controlled members, e.g. selectively, simultaneously the controlling member being movable in different independent ways, movement in each individual way actuating one controlled member only in which movement in two or more ways can occur simultaneously the controlling member being movable by hand about orthogonal axes, e.g. joysticks
    • G05G9/04785Manually-actuated control mechanisms provided with one single controlling member co-operating with two or more controlled members, e.g. selectively, simultaneously the controlling member being movable in different independent ways, movement in each individual way actuating one controlled member only in which movement in two or more ways can occur simultaneously the controlling member being movable by hand about orthogonal axes, e.g. joysticks the controlling member being the operating part of a switch arrangement
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05GCONTROL DEVICES OR SYSTEMS INSOFAR AS CHARACTERISED BY MECHANICAL FEATURES ONLY
    • G05G9/00Manually-actuated control mechanisms provided with one single controlling member co-operating with two or more controlled members, e.g. selectively, simultaneously
    • G05G9/02Manually-actuated control mechanisms provided with one single controlling member co-operating with two or more controlled members, e.g. selectively, simultaneously the controlling member being movable in different independent ways, movement in each individual way actuating one controlled member only
    • G05G9/04Manually-actuated control mechanisms provided with one single controlling member co-operating with two or more controlled members, e.g. selectively, simultaneously the controlling member being movable in different independent ways, movement in each individual way actuating one controlled member only in which movement in two or more ways can occur simultaneously
    • G05G9/047Manually-actuated control mechanisms provided with one single controlling member co-operating with two or more controlled members, e.g. selectively, simultaneously the controlling member being movable in different independent ways, movement in each individual way actuating one controlled member only in which movement in two or more ways can occur simultaneously the controlling member being movable by hand about orthogonal axes, e.g. joysticks
    • G05G2009/04703Mounting of controlling member
    • G05G2009/04707Mounting of controlling member with ball joint
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05GCONTROL DEVICES OR SYSTEMS INSOFAR AS CHARACTERISED BY MECHANICAL FEATURES ONLY
    • G05G9/00Manually-actuated control mechanisms provided with one single controlling member co-operating with two or more controlled members, e.g. selectively, simultaneously
    • G05G9/02Manually-actuated control mechanisms provided with one single controlling member co-operating with two or more controlled members, e.g. selectively, simultaneously the controlling member being movable in different independent ways, movement in each individual way actuating one controlled member only
    • G05G9/04Manually-actuated control mechanisms provided with one single controlling member co-operating with two or more controlled members, e.g. selectively, simultaneously the controlling member being movable in different independent ways, movement in each individual way actuating one controlled member only in which movement in two or more ways can occur simultaneously
    • G05G9/047Manually-actuated control mechanisms provided with one single controlling member co-operating with two or more controlled members, e.g. selectively, simultaneously the controlling member being movable in different independent ways, movement in each individual way actuating one controlled member only in which movement in two or more ways can occur simultaneously the controlling member being movable by hand about orthogonal axes, e.g. joysticks
    • G05G2009/0474Manually-actuated control mechanisms provided with one single controlling member co-operating with two or more controlled members, e.g. selectively, simultaneously the controlling member being movable in different independent ways, movement in each individual way actuating one controlled member only in which movement in two or more ways can occur simultaneously the controlling member being movable by hand about orthogonal axes, e.g. joysticks characterised by means converting mechanical movement into electric signals
    • G05G2009/04748Position sensor for rotary movement, e.g. potentiometer
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T74/00Machine element or mechanism
    • Y10T74/20Control lever and linkage systems
    • Y10T74/20012Multiple controlled elements
    • Y10T74/20201Control moves in two planes

Abstract

Abstract of the Disclosure X-Y CONTROLLER WITH PIVOTALLY MOUNTED TRANSDUCERS
An X-Y controller (10) includes a first part (12) that is spherically guided by a second part (20). First and second shafts (26) of first and second transducers (24) are secured to the spherically guided first part (12). First and second levers (54) are mounted to first and second bodies (28) of the first and second transducers (24). The levers (54) each include a slot (58) which engages a respective one of first and second pins (60) that are inserted into the second part (20).
In response to a first one of the mechanical inputs (X or Y), both of the shafts (26) of the transducers (24) are rotationally positioned proportional to the first mechanical input. In response to the second one of the mechanical inputs (Y or X). both of the potentiometers (24) are rotationally positioned about the other axis (Y or X); and the levers (54) and the pins (60) cooperate to rotationally position the bodies of both transducers (24) proportional to the second mechanical input (Y or X). Optionally, by locating the pins (60) at various distances (76, 78, or 80) from the transducers (24), proportionality is changed with respect to one of the mechanical inputs (X or Y).

Description

X~ ONTROI,I,ER Wl~l~TI PIVO'I'AIIL.~- M()lJN'i'EI) 'rR~NSDUC,ERS

HackF,ro~ (l of the Inven!,i(?r Field of the Invention The present invent ion relat,es generally to controllers In which X
5 and Y OUtpllts ~re prodllced proportional to X an(i Y inputs, More particularly. t,he present, inven~,ion relates to X-Y controllers in lNhich electric~ql outpllls. proportional l;o X and Y rnechzlnical inputs. are prodllce(l, arl(l in which proportiorlalitie.s are sele( ~.ively charlY,eable.

Descril~l,ion of the Relal,e(l Arl, ~-Y controllers ~re used for a variety of purposes, ranging frorn llSf? with vidf?o ~arnes l,o conl,rollin~ movements of heavy pieces of industrial equiprrlerlt. Tn all of these applicatiorls, rnechanicAI inputs with respect to X an(3 Y a,Ye.s ale convert,f?(i into electrical rcsistances by rot,atl~ shafl,s of first and sec(-ll(l potenl,iollletel s.
16 For a~-pllcal,iolls involvillg tht? safety of personrlel and the safety of expensive eqllipment. higll degrees of reliability arld durability are required. In a(i(tition, the X-Y controller should be able to withstan~
rough handling and impacts f'rom foreign obJects, For instance. when used for controlling left an(l rl~ht motors of electrlcally propelled 20 wheelchairs, the controller should be at)le to withstarld ~:he lmpact of the conl;rol handle heing driven under a table with no more damage than bendin~ the control handle. Ilowever. in ~)rior art designs, s~lch an impact has completelv destroyed the X-Y cont,roller.
T,vpicaliy. in X-Y controllers of prior art configurations, a control 25 handle has been rnounte(i for pivo~.sl rmovemenl; aboll~. the intersectlon of X and Y a~es. Fi rst and secon(l rotary potent,iometers have been mount,ed along respective ones of the X and Y axes; and some mechanical mechanlsm. such as s]otted y okes. has been u.sed to trarlslate X and Y
movement of the control harldle into rotary movemerlt for respective ones 30 of the transdllcers.
Variations in this typical tyl)e of X -Y cont1 oller are taught by Hayes. U.S. Pat,ent 4.489..~04. issue(l Decerrlber l 8. 1984: hirn. U.S, Patent 4.687,610. i~ssued May 6. 1986: and llayes, U.S. Patent ~.fi2n~l76~ Issued October 28, 1986.

Wh~n t;ll(~se prior-art t~vpe Or controllers are llsed ~o control a pair of elec~ric pr~ lsiori mo~,r)rs. l ne X-Y c0tl~ rolll?r is rotated 45 degree.s about a i, a~;ls. Movelnelll: Or t~le col-ltrol harldle away from the operator, that Is~ in a forwnrd dircction between the X an(i ~ axes, 5 provides OlltpUtS from bot:ll pot:erl~iometer.s 1;hat, are equal and thP~t areproportiorlnl t.o movement from 1,he irlt;ersect.iorl Or the X and Y axes~
In llke rnanner~ movement. of tlle control halldle toward the operator, that; i9. in the reverse direction. provi(~es outputs from both of the potentiometers that are equal. that are proportional to movemerlt 10 from the intersectioll of the ,~ and Y axes. anli t hat are in the same directiorl. but that are in the onPosite direction from the out.puts produce(i when l.he control harl(ile is moved in a forward direction.
When the control handle is moved to the right or to the left, the OUtplltS from the potentiometers, while remainlrlg proportional to input of 16 the control han(lle from the intersection of the X and Y axes, are opposite in direction.
In movernerll:s of the control llarl(lle forward frorn the intersection of the X and ~ axes. in movements of tlle control h.lndle rearward, and in movements of the control handle to the left or to the right, the 20 proportionality of output to input is the sarne.
Thus, when this prior art :tevice is used to control a conveyance such as an ele~trically-propelled wheelchalr, this prlor art conl;roller provldes the sarne magnltude of electrical output vs. input for reverse propulsion as for forward propulsion. Obviously, this Is not deslrable, 25 since. for safety, the maximum speed In reverse should he lower than the maximum forward speed.
Thls equallty in proporl:ionality of electrical output to mechanlcal Input is a more serious drawback of this t,vpe of X-Y controller when turns are consldered.
Typlcally, an electrically-propelled wheelchalr is steered by changing the speed of left and right propulsiorl motors, as taught In Lautzenlll.~er et al., U.~. r'atent 4,90fi,906, issued 6 March 1990.
This rnethod of steering provides the capabillt.y of making pivot turns. That i9, when one wheel rotates In one directlon, and the other a~ wheel rotates in the opposite direct;ion at the sf~me velo( it,y, the wheelchalr pivots abollt a substantlall,v statlonaly axis that intercepts the wheelchair.

f~

liowever. the ability t;o Imalie piv()t lurrl.s. withOut some method of limitin~ t:hhs m.lllellver as a furlr ~ ion of ~sl)ee(i~ cnn make an electrically prol)elle(l corlveyance extremeiv dan~ ls to the operator.
~ )f ad(iitional collceln i9 ~.he fact that. with this prior art type of5 ~-Y cont;roller. ~he maxirnllrn outl-llt of the pot(?nl;iometers does not occur when the con~lol hnlldle is move(t in t~le fnrw.~rd direction, nor in the reverse directioll. nor At ri~llt arl~le~s to these uirectiolls. Instead.
ma.Yiml]rll ou~pli~s of tlle po~entiometer~s orcllr at ~5 degree~s to any of tllese direcl;iolls.
Therefore~ wllerl makiTlg <~ t;lrn In which t.he control handle is moved from an extrelrle forwar(3 positiorl to a position between the extrerne forwar(l pn.sition nnd an ext.reme rightward positiorl, ~ he forward output signal from the left-motol potentiometer is increase(l by approximately forl.y-olle percent~ Unh?ss the wheelcllair llns already 16 been operal;irl~ at rnaxilrlllm power. .sllctl a maneuver increases the powerto the left-whef?l motor, c au~sill~ all ovelspeedillg of l;he left-wheel motor. and cau~in~ a dallgel ously frls~ turn.
That is, for a safe l;urn. the motor ro~.atillg the wheel on the outside of a t.urn shonld rotale more slowly, in adciitioll to the motor for 20 the inslde wheel rotating rnore slowl~,n Instead, the prlor art controller inherently increases the output si~nal that controls the outslde motor.
This increa.se in outllut si~nal is an inherent Functioll of the îact that the X-Y controller has been ro~;ated 45 degrees ahollt the Z axis to make it more or less suitable for controlling electrically-propelled 25 wheelchairs.
Because of thls rotation of 45 degrees about the 7~ axis, the output from both of the potent.inrrletel s, in forward, rearward. righl; turn, or left turll positinns, is equal to thelr maxirrllim outplltS multlplie(l by the sine of 45 de~rees. That is. they produce ahout 70 percent of tlle 30 maximum outplll: when ~;he control handle is moved to these positions.
Ilowever. since the X-Y controller has beell rotat:ed, with respect to the operator, ~5 degrees around a Z axis, when the control handle is movect In a directlon that is 45 degrees away from dkectly forward, directly rearward. or dlrectlv ~o one side, it Is move-i at 0, 90, 180, or 35 270 de~rees with respect to the X-~ controller.
Thus, wshen the control harldle is moved in a direction that is ~5 de~rees away from forward. one of the poteslti-)meters produces a maximlJrrl ou1;put. and the other potPn~;iometer does not prodllce any C I J .' V J

out~-ut. I hl.s C.'IIIS('S l.he o~lt,side wl~eel of an elertric Illy~propelled wheelchair to overspeed when makilig tl3rns.
In an at~:elnl)~. t.o obvial e this overpower con(litior1 that occurs dlll`illg t;~lrll.S, fl horizontally-disr)ose d plate with a diamond-shaped 5 open31lg has been used in some prior art; desiKns to prevent mo~/ement of the contro1 halldle into the areas in which overspeeding occurs during turns.
ilowever, limil,ir1g movemcrlt of the conlrol halldle to 1;his diamond-shaped area has the disa lvant,~ge of llmiting maximnm forward 10 ~speed to an apex fo-med by thhs di7lmond-sllaped path. Therefore, as the conveyance tends to drift to the left or to the right. as caused by slightly uneqllal loa(i.s of the left aIl i rigilt proplllsiorl motor.s, it has been irnpossihle to move the cont.r()l handle to the left or t,o the right to compen~sate for thi.s drift. without also moving ~.lle control ha!ldle 15 rearward toward a Ic)wer forward speed.
In an attelmpt tn eliminate this drlft ~o one side, an(t thereby to overcome the con~rol-harldle lirnitations imposed up(-n the X-Y controller by a diamond-shai)e(i openirlg, at least one manuractllrer has resorted to synchronizing the rotational veloc;ties of the two proplllsion wheels. In 20 addition to the origirlal cost and complexity of sucll an arrangement, maintenance costs have also 3 ncreased.
In a prior art ~-Y conl.roller of common inventorship entity to the present inventlon, a differential-gear arrangement was used to provlde OUtpllt.S from two potentiometers proportional to input.
In this prior art X- Y- controller, the bodies of two potentlometers were mounted onto a frnmework with ttle shar~.6 of t.he pol.ent;iorneters coaxial and ~acing each ot.her, an(l with a bevel genr mourlte(i onto the shaft of each potentiometer. A cas1e was pivo~;Ally mounted onto l;he potentiomet.er shafts so t.hat thf? cage colJl(i pivot freely abont one axis;
30 and a gear ~shaft was mol.lrl~;ed ~;o the cage a~; rigilt anKles to the r)ot;entiometer shAfts and the t.wo hevel geals. ~hil(3 ~nd fonrth gears where mounte(3 t;o the gear shaft, and me.she(3 with the first and seconci gears on oppo~si~,e side thereof. A cont.rol hflrl(lle was conrlected to the fourth gear.
~5 When the cnr1troi handle w~s moved alorlg one axis, the fourth gear was rotat.e(l about the p.ear shaft. t11ereby rot:ating the t.hird and fourth ~ears In o~pnsite direciions, ~nd theret-y rota~ing l;he first and ,r, second ~ears, tnge~llel~ with the p(!tell~,iome~er shafts, ln opposite iil ~?Ct~o~
~ YIle~ ? COn~.rnl h:lrl(ile W.~S moved Pllong tile other axls, the third an(i fourtll gears along with ~ lle c~ge were rot.atinnally positlorled 5 e~bou~ t.lle othel axis, theret) - rot:atlng I oth nf the shaft:s nf the pOtelltiOllleterS in the ~Salllt? (~il'e('tlOrl Wilile ~,he geal'S remained in fixed rotational pOSi~;iOll.s.
l~}lile thi~s ~ corlt;roller of common irlventorship entity was unique, it did not, overcnme the prol)lem of incurring greater outputs at 10 direct.ions intermediate of the l)a~sic forward, reverse, and pivot-turn positions. Also~ it had some ot;her limitatiorls whlch the present invention overc()mes~ Namel,v, sillce the cage was mounte(l onto the potentiomet:er shafts. the desigll had mecharlical-strength limitations in that the poteIlt.iometers were subject to damage from e.Ycessive loads 15 placed onto the control han(lle. ~\lso, since the corltlol handle also placed loads on tlle meshing ~enrs. the deslgrl had mecharlical-strength limi t,ations.
In cont.rast to the prior art designs, the presellt invention is extremely resistant to excessive con~;rol handle loading. provldes 20 dlfferent propor~;i()nalities between movement along X and Y axes, thereb,y provlding safe and gentle turns when used to control electrlc wheelchairs, allows changing the proportionali~;y of input to output with respect to movement of the control handle along one axis to compensate for limitations in motor skill of the operator, and allows changing the ~5 proportlonality with respect to one transducer without changing the proportionall~;y wit11 respect to the other tran.sducer, thereby further allowing compensation for limltat;iorls of motor skill of the opelatom ~ummary of the Invention In the presellt invent:ion, arl X-Y controller is provlded which 30 incll]des a first part having a sphel ical sllrface, a cage havirlg a cooperating con~;our tha~; gl3ides ~.he l`irst part in plvotal movement around the intersectlon of X and Y axes. the fil st and second shafts of first and secon(l rotary tran~sducers b?ing secured to the first, part with the shafts dispose(l on the X aYiS arld with the ~shafts being on the same 36 axis alld ,acln,g each other, firs~, an(i ~second levers being attached to bodies of r esr)ec~:ive ones nf the trans(lucers, nn(i first arl(i second pins beinF, inserted int.o fir~st and secorld ~loles in the cage arl(l engaglng firstand .secorl(i slo~s in respective ones of the first an(l second levers.
~ 'hen a mechanicRI input at)ollt the X axis is applied to the first part, the shaft.~ of both transducers, being disposerl one the X axis, are 5 rotatlorlally posi1;i(!ned about the X axis.
When a mecharlical inpllt; abolIt. the ~ axhs is applied to the first part, both of t;lle transdllcers~ both bodies arld shafts. are rotationallY
positioned ab()llt t:he lr axi~s. T~lis positionirlg of the transducers around the Y axis rotat.iorlally positions the transdllcer bodies with respect to 10 the pins that enf~a~e respective ones of the levers.
Thlls~ as t.he transducers are positione(l Witll respect to the pins, the transducer bodies are rol;ationally positioned by levers and plns; so that the transdllcer bodies are rotationall ~y positioned with respect to their shaft.s~
16 l`he invent,ion described l.h1lS far provides X an(i Y outputs that are pror)ortiorlal to X and Y mechanical input;s. This proportiorlalitY can be chan~,e(i wil;ll respect; to t.he Y axis by selectively posil;io1lirlg one orboth of the pins in alternate holes that are protrided in the c age.
Charlgill~, the pins to holes which are nearer the bodies of the 20 transducers effectlvely decreases the length of the levers, thereby increasing the ouT,put versus mecharlical inplIt; whereas changing the pins to holes which are farther from the transdl]cers effectively increases the lerlgth of the levers, thereby decreasillg the output versus mechanical input.
26 Therefore~ t,he proportion.llity of mechanical input to electrlcal OUtpllt cQn be chanr~ed with respect t.o movelrlerlt. of t.hl? control handle along one axis while Inallltairlirly a differerlt. prol)ortlonallty of rnechani(al inplIt t,o elect.rieal ou~,pllt Wi~;ll re~ ect t.o movelTIerlt Or the control han(ile alon~ the ntller axis.
~0 Further, since the effective lenr,th of ~;he levers can be changed Indivi(iually by locatlng the pirls In holes closer or far~.her flom the transducers, the proportiorlalities of inpllt t.o out~put can ~e changed wlth re~ard to one trarlsducer whiie maintaining anottler proportionality with regard to the other transducer~
The present invention provides excellent rellabllity and hlgh resistance to damage~ The first part and the cage provide rotational plvoting ai~out; the X and Y axes that c;3n withstand lleavy loads or Impacts from i he handle along X, Y, and Z axes an(l in directions that J_ ale at: ~lnV colllhinatiorl nf Ihese axes. ~urther, movement of tlle control ilalldle itl ~ ~llUi ~ dil`l?CtiOTIS, nr ally rorrlhinat,i(lrl of these directions, is reslst.e(i by ~,he sllnrt of t:ile hnll(ile st.rikir1g the cage, By m.ikirlg thecage of high st,rellgt,ll rna~:el ial, sll(~h as 71 sllrrace-ilar(lerle(l aluminum, a 5 force or impact. l.llat, will bend a 0.2G0 (tiameter stainless st.eel shaft does not do an~ illterrl.ql dalnage. Thlls, repalring tlle X-Y controller to ori~lnal (lualit.y is acl~ieved b,v merelv replacirl~, the handle shaft. ~ his can be done wit.hollt. disa~ssemblinF. the X-Y con~,roller.
In a first aspect of the pre.sent invel-ltion, a controller Includes a 10 mechanlcal inpllt d(?vice; first an(i second transdllcers; means, comprislng mechanical conrlectiorls between the mechanical Input device and the transducers, for producillg olltr)llts from the transdllcers that are proportional to dispiacement of t.he mechanical input device with respect to X and Y axes: and mealls for selectively cllanging tlle proportionality 15 with respect to movement of ~,ile mecilanical inpllt device alollg one of ~;~le a~Y~?s.
In a secl)ll(l afipeci: of ~;he present inv(?-ltiorl. a controller includes a first part,: means. comprising a ~second part, for guiding the first part in movement abollt ,Y an(l Y axes; first and second transducers each 20 havlng first and second relativel,v rotatable portions; means. comprising mounting the flrst and second transducers onto t,he flrst part, for positiorllng the trarls(lucers ahout one of the axes in accordQnce with selectlve positionlIlg of the first part about the one axis; an(l means, comprislng first and second rnechanlcal connections between the second 25 part and respective ones of the t:ransducers, for provlding mechanlcal inputs to the trans(lucers that nre proportional to displacemerlt of the first ps3rt about one of tlle axes.
In a tlllrd aspect of t,lle present invenl;ioll, a method incllldes providlnR two OUtplltS that are proportional, wlth respect; to ,Y and Y
30 axes, to mecllanical ~ anrl Y inputs: and selectlvely changirlg t.he proportionality wlth re.spect to one of the axes.
In a fourtih aspect. of the preserlt irlverltion. a met.hod includes gul(ling a first part for posit:ionirlg abollt the int.ersectiorl of X and Y
axes; mollntirlg first and second transducers onto the first part; and ~5 provldlng mechanical Inputs to the trans(iucers that are proportional to mechanical ~ arld Y inputs, In a fifth aspect oi l.he presellt invent,lorl, a contloller for providin~ outplll.s t.hat are proporl.ional to mechanical ~ alld Y inputs f.~ '~J ~

inclll(ltnq firs~, all(l st?cOrl(~ t.rarls~ ers n acll hrl\ in~ flr~st arld second port;l(lrls t,hat alf r~?lat;ivel,y rot.at.ionally posi~,lonable: mearls~ l~elrlg opera~ ely conrlect,f d to hot,fl of tlle trallsdllcf!l s~ for rot,ationally posit;iorling one nf ~,he portinll.s Or t)otll o.' ~,he ~,rarl.s(illcf?r~s proportlotlal to 6 one of the mechani( al inpul:~s: all-l rnearls for ro~,a~,ionall,Y posit,ioning the other of ~,he portion~s nt no~.h of ~;he transducers proporti )nal t,o the other of the mt?chanic.ll input,s In a si~ h aspect of ~,ihe inverl~,ioll~ a cont,roller fnr providing output.s t.hat are proportional to mec~lnnical ,Y an(i Y inpu~.s includes first 10 and ~second tran~s tucr?ls eacfl havin~ first and second portiorls that are relatit~el, ro~at,loll7,11y ,nosil;ionable: mearls. CompriSirlg a mechArllcal input device. fnr posi~,ionin~ thf? first arl(i second t;rans(lllcers arourld one axisproportlon~l to one of the meclflallical inpl]ts; means for rotationally positiolling on(? of t,he portiorls of bo~,h of the transdllcers proportional to15 the other of t;he mechanical inpllts; arld means, beirlg operatively connect:ed to bo~,h nf t.he l,rans(lllcel s~ for rotationAlly positioning the other of the pOl'tiOllS of both of t,he transdllcers proportiollal to the one mechanical inpl~
In a seventh aspect of the invention, a method for producing X
20 and Y outputs from first and second rotary transducers that are proportional to mechanical X and Y Inputs comprlses rotationally posltloning one portion of both of the transducers proportional to one of the mechanical inputs, and rotatlonally positionlng another portion of both of the transducers proportk)nal to the other of the mechanlcal 25 inputs.
In an el~nth aspect of tlle present Invent,ion, a rmeth()d for producing outr)ul,s from first and seconti rotary transdllcel s that are proport.ional to mecrlarllcal ,`~ and ~ Inl)llts comprises rotationally positionin~ both nf the t.ran.sduct!rs about one axis proport;o-lal to sald 30 mechanical X and Y inpllts. rotationally posii;ionin~ a first portion of both of the trarls(illcers proport:innal to one of tne mechanical input,s, and rotal,ionally posltloTllng a second porl;ion of both of the transducers proportional to the other of the mechnnical inputs.
In a ninth aspect of the present invent,ion~ a controller Includes 35 a mechanical input device: first and second transdllcers each having a rotary shaft an(i a body; means. comprlsing mearls for mechanically coupling the snafts coaxially w3th l;he bodit!s distal from one another, anfi cnmr-ri.sing mean~s fnr mecharlically connect.ing the mechanical Input device t.o t,he t,r~ns(illcels, for prodllcillp~ out.~ t,s rrOm the trarlsducerst.hat r re proportiorl~l t,o (I jS1!1aC(?ITI( I ~; Or ~he mecll,qIli( al irlpllt, devlce with resp?ct, t:o ,`i and ~ axes.
In a t.ent,ll n~spect, of ~,he pr(?seIlt irlvenl,ion, a mel,ho l for 5 producinR outpllts from rirSt an(l secor d trarus(lucers 1ha1, each include a ro~,ary shalt ~ntl a hod,v comprises mal~ng t~le ~shafts rotate as a single shaft, provi(ling X an(t ~ mech<qnical inpllt.s to the t;ransducers. an(i producin~ outplltS frolll the trans(lllcers that ~re proportional to the and Si mecharlic.,l irlput,s.
In an eleventh aspect of the present inventiorl, a controller comprises means. comprising first and second transducel s, alld comprising a mechanical input device that is operatively connected to the transducers, for producing OUtpllt;S from the transducers that are proportional to dlsplacement of the mechanica] input device from the 15 intersection of ,~ and r axes: means for limit,ing mo~ernent of the mechanical illpLll~ device to a subst,ant,ially rircular pnth about the int,ersection of tlle axes. an(l meaIls for mechanicAl]y changiTlg the proportionallty wit,h respect to one of the axes.
In a twelfth aspect of the present invention, a method for 20 controlllng out,pllt,s trom first, and second transducers, in which the outputs are proportlonal to clisplacement of a mechanical input devlce from the intersection of X and Y axes, comprises limiting movement of the mechanical input device to a substantially clrcular path about the intersection of the axes, and mechanlcally changing the proportionality 25 with respect to one of the axes.
In a thirteent;h aspect of the present Invention, a contloller comprises flrst and second trans(lucel s; a mechanlcs~l lnput (levlce belng operativel,v contlect;ed t,o hoth of tl~e trans(31lcers; mealls, comprislng the operative connection of the mecharlical input device to the transducers, 30 for producing outputs from the transducers that are proportlonal to displacement of tlle mech7lnlcal irlpllt devlce from the intersection of X
and Y axes; arld means for selectively changing the prol)ortionality of one of the trans(tucers from a first proportionAlity to a second proportionality wlth respect; to movement of the mechanical input devlce 35 along one of the a~es withollt the necessity of changing the proportionality of the other of the trallsducers.
In a first variatioll nf the thirteerlth aspect. the c ontroller comprises rneans fnr changing t;he pr()port;ionality of the otner of the r ~ J
1~) transducl?rs ~ a t,hird prol~or~.ion.llity wi~ respect t:o movelnerll; of the mechanical innll~, devlce along t,he nne axis without ~,he neces~sity Or changilIg the sec0Ild propolt.ionalit:y of the on-? trarl6-3ucer.
Tn n secorld variatioIl of tlle t.hirteen~.h a.:pect,, the c ontroller 5 comprises mearls for pro ucing arl outpllt from l~oth of ttle f;ransducers that i.s to a fol3rth proportiollality witll respec~: to movemerlt of the mechanical input ~?vice alon~ tile nth~!r of t:tle axe~s.
In a fourteenth as,nect of the preseIlt invention, a controller comprises first an(i second ~;rans(lllcers: a mecllarlical inplit device being 10 operativel,Y connected to the transducers: mealls, comprisirlg the operative connection~ for producirlg outputs from tlle transdurers that are proportional to movement of the mecharIical iTlpllt device from the Intersect,ion of X and Y axes. an(l means for producirlg outputs from the transducers that are to a differerl~; propor~.iorlalit,v wit:h respect to 15 movement of the me( harlicAI inI)l3t r,ievice alorlg one of the axes than theproportionality with re~spect ~;o movemel-lt of the mechanl( al input device along the other of the axes.
In firs~; variation of ~.he fourt;eellttl aspect, the controller comprlses means for selectively changing the r)roport.ionallty of one of 20 the transducers with respect to movement of the mechanicai input device along one of the axes without the n~cessity of chan~lrlg the proportionalit;y of the other of the tr ansducers with r espect to movement of the mecharlical input device along the one axis.
In a sec()nd variation of the fourteeIlth aspect, tlle rneans for 25 changing the proport,ionality of l;he one transduc(?r comprises means for changin~ the proportionality Wit.tlOllt affectirlg ttle pr()portionAlity with respect to movement of the me( haIlicRl inpllt device along the othel of the axes.
In a fifteenth aspect of ~;he present invention, a met.hod 30 comprises producing outpllts from first an(l second t,ransdl,lcers that are proportionai ~;o dispiacemen~; of a Inecilanical inpllt device from the Intersectlon of X and Y axes, and selectively changing t,he proportionality of one of the tran.sducers from a first proportiorlality to a second proportionality wi~;h respect to rnovemerlt of the mechanical 35 input device along the one axis without the necessity of changlng the proportionality of the other of the transducers.
In a sixte~nth aspect of the present Invelltion, a metilod comprises produr ing OUt,pllts from fir~st an(i second trans-3ncers that are proportion~l to movement of a mechanical ilIput device from the int:ersectiotl of ~ an(i Y a,~es. an-l pro(iucillg olltpllts from the transdl1cers that are to a different proportiollalil.y wi~ respect to m()vement of the mechanical inpllt device along one nf the axes.

Brief Description of the Drau~ings FlGURE 1 i9 a front elevation of an X-~ controller made in accor~ance Wittl t.he teaching of the present Inventiorl:
FIGURE 2 is a side eJevation of the ,Y-Y contl oller Of FIGURE 1, taken substantially as shown bv view line 2-2 of FIGURE 1;
FICURE 3 is a horizontal clOss section of ttle embodiment of FIGURES I and " taken substan~.ially as showrl by section line 3~3 Of FIGURE 1:
FIGURE ~1 is a cross sectional elevation taken substantially the same as FIGIJRE 1. Alld QiSo taken substantiall~, ~s shown by section line 15 ~1-4 of FIGURE 2:
FIGIJRE r~ is a cross .sectional e]eva~;ion taken substantially the same as FIGIJRE 2. and also taken substantially as shown by section line 5-5 Of FIGURE 1:
F~GIJR~ f~ is a front elevation taken sut stantially t.he same as FIGURE 1. but with the control harld]e thereof rnove(l to an X input position;
Fl('~URE ~ is a c ross sect,iorla] elev:3tiorl taken substaIlt.ially the same as FIGURE fi. and with the conl;rol harltlle thereof moved to the X
input posit.ion of Fl(lURE 6;
26 FIGURE 8 ls a side elevatinn of the erIlt)odiment of FIGI)RE 1, taken substantially t.he same as r~lGlJRr` 2, bl,lt wit;h l.he control handle thereof moved to a Y inpllt positioll;
FIGURE 9 is a cross sectloIlal eleva~:ion taken substantially the same as FlGURE 8. and with the control handle t,hereof moved to the Y
30 input position of FIGURE 8;
FIGURE 10 is a fragmentary cross section. taken substantially the same as FIGURE 3, and showing the proportionality Of one output changed by moving one pin closer to the transducer; and FIGURE 11 is a îragmentary c ross section. tsken substantislly the 35 same as FIGURE 3. alId showing the proportlorlality Or one output chan~ed by moving one pln fartller from the trallsducer.

l~es( r iption Or the I~referred ~mlJ-)dinlen~;s Referrlll~ now to i~ liRT~ 5. an X~~ corlt;roller 10 includes a first l arl. 1'~ havirlp~ a spl~f?rical ronl;ollr ] I arlll a first surface lfi. 'rhe first part 1" is insert.e(i int:o a c~l~rl(irlcal bore 18 of a second part or fi cage~ 2~ rl-e rirst pRr'l. 12 i9 Fuided for sphel lcal movelnel1t around the intel section Or ~ 1~ . and 7 axe~s by the sp~lerical contour 14 of the first.
patt 12 enFagil1~ a step. or sholllrler. 22 Or tlle second part 20.
The X-S controller 10 incllldes first an(l sec( nd rot;ary transducers or rotary potentiolnetels 24 eacl1 havir!g a fir~st relatively 10 rotatable portion. or rotarv shaft. 2fi and each having a second relativelY rotatable portion. or body. 28.
The shafts 26 are insel ted into respective ones of holes 30 in the first part 12: so that both of the shafts 26 are rotatiollally positioned when the first part 12 is rotat;ionally positioned about the X
15 axis of a pivot axis 32 at t;he inl;ersec~;ion of the X Y and Z axes; and so that both of the transdLlcers 2~ including both shaft 26 and body 28 are rotatiorlallY positiorled abollt the Y axis of the pivot axis 32 when the first part Is r otationally po~sit ioned about the Y axis.
The shafts 26 e.ctend inwardly through respectivf? ones Or slots 20 34 that are longitudinally disposed in the secolld part 20. The slots 34 allow the shafts 26 to move vertically as the first part 12 is rotated in an X directlon about the ~ axis.
The second part 20 also includes slots. 36 and 38 which are longitudinally disposed. A pin 40 which is installe(l in a hole 42 of the 25 first part 12 slidably engages the slot 36 tl-ereby allowing the first part 12 to rotate about the X axis as the pin 40 moves vertlcally in the slot 3fi. Engagement of the pirl ~10 with the slot ~fi whlle allowlng rotatlonal positloning abo~lt the X axis. prevents rotatlorlal movement about the Z
axis.
A third part 44 that Is generally cylindrical in shape includes a second surface. or cooperating su! face. 46. The thlrd part 44 is inserted Into the cylln(irical bore 18 of the second part 20 ar1d the second sulface 4fi of the third part 44 is resiliently llrged into contact with the first surface 1 fi of the first part ] 2 by three .sprlng.s 48. The springs 35 48 are attached to the second part 20 b y respective ones of three holes 50 and by respective ones of three pins 52 th7lt are Inserted Into the thlrd part 44.

Therefole. the springs 48 cooperate with rhe first surfqce 16 of the first part 12 all(l the secon(l surface 16 of the third part 44 to resillently ur~e the flrst part 12 to ~ neutral posltion with respect to the X and ~ axes.
First and secor-ld levers ~4 are secured l.o the second portlons 28 of respective ones of the rotary transducers 24 by respectlve ones of transducer nuts 5~. Flrst and second slots 58 are dlsposed in the flrst and second levers 54 dlstal from the attachment of the first and second levers 5~ to the rotary transducers 24. I he first and second slots 58 10 are engaged by flrst and second pins 60 that are dlsposed in flrst and second pln holes fi2 In the second part 20.
The X-Y controller 10 also includes a top plate 64 that is securely attached to the second part 20 by anv ~sultable means a handle rod 66 that preferably is screwed Into the flrst part 12 as shown in 16 FIGURE 4. a control handle. or mechanical Input devlce fi8 that prererablY Is screwed onto the rod 6f) as shown in FIGURE 1 and a floating cover plate 70 t hat. slldably receives the handle rod 66 and that is posltioned wlth respect to the X an(l Y aYes by the handle rod 66. The cover plate ~0 provides a cover over the cylindrlcal bore 18 20 thereby e:cclu(linR forel~ll matter from the cylindrical bore 1~ and the first part 12.
Finallv t.he second part 20 Includes ~:wo pin holes 72 that are closer to respectlve ones of the rotary transducers 24 than are the pin holes 62 and the second part 20 includes two pin hnles 74 that are 25 farther from respectlve ones of the rotary transducel s 24 thal1 are the pln holes fi2.
Referrln~ now ~o FICURES 2. 8 and 9 In operation. movement of the handle 68 in the Y direction as shown irl Fl(;URES 8 and 9 rotates both of the snafl.s 26 of respective ones of ttle rotqry transdl1cers 24 30 but the levers 64 remain alif~ned as shown in FIGURES 2 and 8.
Referrln~ now to FIGURES 1 6 and 7. when the handle 68 ls moved In an X dlrection as shown by FIGURES fi and 7 one of the rotary transducers 24 Is moved upwardly and the other of the rotary transducers 24 Is moved downwardl y as shown in FIGUR~S 6 and 7.
35 Since respectlve ones of the pins fiO engage respective ones of the slots 58 of the levers 4. thls ur ward arld downwar(l movement of r espective ones of the rotary transdllcers 21 cal]ses rotary po.sitioning of the bodles 28 of the transdllcel s 24.

f ~

'l`helefore. as (leseril-ed ah<-ve. movemenl of lhe han(ile fi8 in the ~ direction aboll~ tile .~ axis rotatiotuqllv po.sil;inrls ~he flrst part 12 andthe shafts 26 of the rnta!~ trans(lllcers 24 abol~t t;he X axis.
Movement of l;he handle f,8 in the X direction about ~he Y axis 6 rotationall~ r-ositions the rotary trans(lllcers 24. b ot;h shaft 26 and body 28 about the ~ axis: an(l l;his rotational posltiorlitlg of tlle rotary transducers 2~ abont t;he ~Y a?~is eooperates wi~;h the levers 54 and the pins 60 t.o rol;ate the bo(ties 28 oi` t.he rotary transdllcers 24 with respect to their shafts 26 an(i in opposite directions as shown in 10 FIGURI~i 6 anci ~ .
Referring now l:o FICURES ~3. 6 and 7~ if 1 he pins 60 are removed from the pin holes fi2 and inserte(i in the pirl holes /2 which are closer to the rol;.qry tral1s(3ucers 24. therl for a given rotatinn of the first part 12 and the transducers 24 about l;he Y axis. the hodies 28 of' l;he 15 transdltcers 24 wi!l be rot;ated a ~reater anglllar dist.atlce.
Collverselv. if t;he pins fin are inserted into t;he pill holes /4 which are fartller from tlle rn~;ary trarlsdllcers 24. then for a given rotation of the first part 12 and the trRns(illcers 24 about. the Y axi~.
tile bodies 28 of the t.ransd1]( ers 24 will be rotat.ed a lesser angular 20 distance.
The x-Y colltroller 10 a1so incllldes pin holes 82 and 84. The pin hole ~2 is dispose(i above the pin holes fi2 72 and 74; whereas the pin hole 84 is disposed l~elow the pin holes 62. 72~ and /4.
As cal1 be seen by inspection. or as can be calculated by 25 trlgonometry. disposing one of the pins 6() in the pin hole 8~ which is dlsposed above the pin hole G2. or disposin~ one of the pins 60 in the pin hole R4 which ls cilsl)ose(i l)elow t;lle pin hole fi2~ effecti~els changes the proportionalitv of lnput to out;put for one of the potentiolneters 24 wlth respect tc movement of the cont;roi hall(ih? 68 about one of the 30 axes.
From the preceding descript;ion it can be .seen that the handle 68 serves as a mechanical input device and that the present invention provldes meatls for producing OUtplltS from the rotary transsiucers 24 that are proportional to displacement of the han(ile 68 with respect to X
35 and Y axes.
Referring now to FIGURES 3~ 6 10 and 11 it can be seen that the pins 60 cooperate with the holes 62 ~2~ / 4~ 82 and 84 provide means for selectivelv changing the proportionalit~Y with respect to l l;
rotat,ion of t,he fir~s~, part, 12 :3bout tlle ~ a,Yis. 'I'llat is. in FIGIJRE 3, the pin fi0 engages the slot; 5~ nl; a first effec~.ive disl;allce 7fi from t,herotary trans(iu(ler 2~: in ~I~,UR~ 10 the pin 6(~ ellga~es the slot 58 at a second and smaller effective (lis~ nce 78 frorn the trans(lucer 24; and in 5 Fl(JURE 11 the pin fio en~aKes the slot 68 a~. a third and larger effective distance 80 from the transducer 24.
Therefore. ~.he pins 60 and the holes 62, ~2, ~, 80, and 82 provide rneans for selectivel,Y challgillg the effective lengths of the levers 54, and provide means for selectively challging tlle proportionality 10 of inpllt to out.put, with respect to one of the axes.
As described above, the pre.sent invention provides means for positioning the transdllcels 24 abollt X and Y AXeS in accordance with selective positioning of ttle first part 12 about the X and Y axes, provides means for provi(iinf~ 0utpll~,s that ai e proportlonal to X and Y
15 Inpllt~, provldes means for selectively chclnF,irlF, the ploport.iona]ity with respec~, l;o one of the axes, and provide6 means for challging the proportlonalit!, witll respect to orle tran6r,illcer withollt, t,he necessit,y of changin~ the proportionality with respect to the othel transducer.
By si7.in~ the first surface 16 arldior the second surface 46, the 20 force required to move the control hf3ndle 68 can be de61gned t:o provide:
a constant force irrespective of the distance from the centem a force that is a function of the distallce moved from the intersection of the X
an(i Y axes. an increasirlF~ force when rnoved from the center, a decreasing force when moved fr()m t,he center, or a locking position that 25 is distal from the center, which may be in any p0SitiOII, Further, by cont.ollring the f'irst; surface 1 fi and/or t,he second surface 46, dlffererll; operat,in~ force6 can be provided with respect to one movement along one axis as opposed to movemerlt with res; ect to the other axis. Or, by e.Yterldirlg the spherical contour 14. and thereby 30 eliminating the first surface 16. the corltrol handle 68 will not have a preferred position. Inste~d. the control harldle fi8, will be retained by friction in an,v selected posit:ion.
The force required to actuate the control han(ile fi8 can be charlged by merely substitlltirlg ~;ofter or firmer sprinKs 48, Whlle a 36 single sprinF" not shown. could be use(i and centered on the Z axis, the use of three Spl in~s 48 is preferl ed because of the ease of c han~ing the control handle force as a service furlction. ,~lso, the use of three sprlngs 48 pr()vi(ie.s better reliahility for critical uses, slnce nne or t.wo ~ fi of the ~splirl~s 4~3 will ~lold the contrll ~landle fi8 In a cell~.ere(t positior even if one or ~,wo sprirl~s 48 sholll i break.
Since the hqndle rod ~,~, and ~,he control harl(lle 68 are easlly replaceable b~ merel~ UnSCreWinF~ the handle rod fi6. if damaged they can 5 be replaced easily, or if a k)rl~er or short,er handle rod 66 is needed, the change can be m~de easil~ arld rapidly as a service operation, Further. since the controller 10 is e~t.remely resistant ~,o damage from lar~e forces beirl~ applied t;o the control handle 68, it is practical to use lon~ rod 1erlgths to provlde better control for operat,ors having 10 poor motor skills; even tholl~h those with poor rnotor skills are likely to place undulv lar~e forces on the control harldle 68.
The controller of the pre~ent invention may be used as a conventional ~;- r axis controllel by rotating the shafts 26 to a 45 degree position. When installed in l;llis position, the proportionality of 15 input to Outpllt. with r espect, to one of the a,Ye.s, can l-e varied simultaneollsl~ or indeT)endent;ly from the proportionality with r~spect to the other axis.
When use~i to control a riual drive, such as used to propel an electric wheelchair. the rate of chall~e of either Inotor can be changed 20 simultaneously or independently of t.he other. Thls carl greatl,Y assist a handlcapped person who may overcolltrol or un(iercontl ol in one dlrection or the other, Furt,her. whell used to control an electric wheelchqir ~,hat is capable of relativel,v high spee(is, the pins 60 may t)e positlone(l to limit 25 the forward and reverse power in pivotal turns, thereby reducing the maxlmum rate of turnlrlg. Also. t,his po~sitionirlF~ Or the pins 60 reduces the speed of t;he outsi(1e whecl wh(?rl mqkillg t,llrns, therel)y reducing lhe risk of u~set.
Preferably, the pin hole /2 provides 100 percent power, the pin 30 hole 62 provides 72 percent: power. and the pin hole ~ 4 provldes 40 percent power.
When tl e pillS 60 are placed into holes, ~s2 or 84. that are either higher or lower than the pin holes fi2. the quadrqllts are distorted, That is. the are a of movement of the control han ile fi8 for forward 3~ propulsion will be dlfferent t,han the area of movemerlt for re rerse movement,. This can help handicapped people who have trol~ble in over controllln~.

Further, wlth one Or the pins 6() set in pin holes, 72, 74, 82, or 84 of differell~; hel~ht~s, and/or different dist.arlces from the transducers 24, the quatir~rlts c~n be distort:eA a~ymmet.rlcally wit.h respect to the Y
axis, and/ol t;he proportionalities with respect. to movemerlt about the X
5 axis can be separ~qtely changed for the two transducers 24.
As can lle seell hy inspectiorl of the drawin~s, t ne cylindrical bore 18 of the ca~e 20 cooperates with the handle rod 66 to limit positionin~ of the control handle fi8 to a circular pa1.h 86. I'herefore, there are no preferred positions which limit the abillty to change the 10 speed of one rnotor, as is t;he case with l-rior art; designs in which a plate with a dismond-shaped openin~ prevents movement ln the X
direction when the contro] handle is moved to either maximllm Y position.
Preferably. the X-Y controller 10 incllldes an ad,justing screw 88, as shown in FIGURE 9. which cooperates with the pin 40 to limit the 15 output of the controller 10 in the direction which provides power to reverse arl electric wheelchair. That Is, the adjusting screw 88 limlts movement of the control han(lle 68 in the direction opposite to that which is shown, in which the pin 40 engages t.he adjusting screw 88.
1`he method of the present inventlon includes the steps of 20 providin~ outputs that are proportlonal to mechallical inputs about X and Y axes; and selectlvely chanS~ing the proportionality wlth respect to one of the axes.
Or. the method of the present invention includes gulding a first part 12 for spherlcal positionirlg abollt the intersection of X, Y, and Z
25 axes; mountirl~ first and second rotarY transdllcers 24 onto the first part 12: and providin~ mechanlcal Inputs to the transdllcers 24 that are proportlonal to spherical positionirl~ of t,he fir.st part 12 about the X and Y axes.
The X-Y controller 10 of the pre.sent invention comprLses flrst 30 and second l;ransducers 24. each havin~ first 26 and second 28 portions that are relativrlY rotat,i-)rlally positionable: means for rotationally positionln~ one of the portion~s~ 2fi or 28, of bot,h of the t}ansducers 24 proportlon.ll to a mecllarlical input with respect to one of the axes (X or Y); and means for rotational]v l!ositionin~ the other of the portions, 28 36 or 2fi, of hoth of the trarnsdllcers 24 proportlonal to a mechanlcal input with respect to the other of the axes (Y or X~.
Or. the X Y controller of the present inventiorl comprises first and second tran.sdllcers 21, each having first 26 and second 28 portions that are relat:ivel ro~ationflllv positiotlal)le: m(?alls ror sl)hericall~
posltiorllnp~ t.he fir~st arl(l secolld lrnrlsd1lcers 24 proportiollal to mecllanical ~)o~si~.ionil~ f arl inpu~. device ~8 with resl)ec~, to X and Y
axes; means for ro~;atlonally positiorlln~ one of the portlol)s, 26 or 28, of 5 both of the ttansdllcers 24 plo,rnrtional to positi()ning arollnd one of the axes (X or Y): and means for rotationally posltionirlg the ol;her of the portions. 28 or 2fi. of both of the transdl3cer.s 24 propo~t30na] to the positionlrlf~ abollt. the other of t;he axes (Y or X).
Ful ther, the present invention inclu(les a method for producing X
10 and Y outputs from rotarY transducers 24 tha~; are proportional to mechanical X and Y in~uts. which rnethod includes the steps of rotationallv positionln~ one port.ion, 26 or 2~3. of both of the transducers 24 proportlollal to mechanical input with respect to one oi the axes (X
or Y); and rotationally positiorlirl~ another port ion. 28 or 26, of both of 15 the transducer.s 24 proportional to me chanlcal inpllt with respect to the other of the axes (Y or X).
~ nd, the pleserlt lnven~,ion includes a method for prodllclng X
and Y outputs from rotary transducers 24 that are pr oportional to mechanlcal X and Y inputs. whlch method Includes ehe steps of 20 rotationally positioning both of the transducers 24 about a Y axis proportional to mechanlcal X and Y Inputs; ro~,atlonally posltioning one portion, 26 or 28. Or both of the transducers 24 proportlonal to mechanical input wlth respect to one of the axes (X or Y); and rotationally positlorlin~ another portion, 2~ or 2B, of both of the 25 transducers 24 pror~ortional to mechanical Inpllt with respect to the other of the axes (Y or X).
In the appended claims, X and Y axes refer t;o t,hose axes of control which are parallel and orthoF,onal to the shafts 26 of the transducers 24. andl .so X and Y axes in the appended clalms correspond 30 to conventional X-Y controllers that have been rotated 46 degrees about the Z axis to control conveyances that are propelled by left and rlght electrlc motors.
Further, whlle rotary potentlometels have been shown and descrlbed, the preserlt Invention is equally app!lcable to other types of 35 transducers, such as mechanical to inductive, and mechanlcal to optical.
Therefore, in the appended clalms, transdllcer should be l3nderstood to be any device that recelves a mechanical Input arl(l that produces an output t,hat is other tharl mechanlcal.

l 9 Whi]e specific npparatus arl(l met~od have been disclose(i In the precedin~ descrll)~,ion~ arl(l while par~, nurllbers have been irls(?rted parentheticall~y in~:o the clalrrls ~o facilitRte understandirlg of l,he clalms.lt should hl nrl(lerstood that ~;llese speclrics have been given for the 5 purr~ose of disclQsin~ the prirlc;ples of the present inventlon and that man~ varlatlons thereof will become apparent to those who are versed in the art~ Therefore, the scope of the present invenl,ion is to be determined by the appended clairms. and Wit;h-)llt; cllly limitatlon by the part numbers inserted pRrenttletically in the claims~

Industrial Applicabi~ity The present invent;lon is applicable to industrial, military, and consumer equipment In which precise and dependat)le electrical outputs, proportional to X and Y mechanical inpllts, are required~ Applications lnclude electricall~ propelled wheelchairs and ot;her conveyances that are 15 electricall,y propelled~ personnel lifl;irlg and positionlrlg devices commonly known as cherry plckers. set-up and maintenarlce controls for various dlgitally controlled machlnes~ and various other industrial and milltary equlpment

Claims (60)

Claims WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:
1. A controller (10) which comprises:
mechanical input device (68);
first and second transducers (24):
means (12, 30, 54, 58, 60, 62). comprising said mechanical input device being operatively connected to said transducers. for producing outputs from said transducers that are proportional to displacement of said mechanical input device with respect to X and Y axes; and means (72, 74, 82, or 84) for selectively changing said proportionality with respect to movement of said mechanical input device along one of said axes.
2. A controller (10) as claimed in Claim I in which said means for selectively changing said proportionality comprises mechanical means (72, 74, 82, or 84) for changing said proportionality.
3. A controller (10) as claimed in Claim 1 in which said controller comprises first and second levers (54) that are operatively connected to respective ones of said transducers (24).
4. A controller (10) as claimed in Claim 1 in which said controller comprises first and second levers (64) that are operatively connected to respective ones of said transducers (24); and said means for selectively changing said proportionality comprises means (72, 74, 82, or 84) for selectively changing the effective length of one of said levers.
5. A controller (10) as claimed in Claim 1 in which said transducers (24) comprise rotary transducers each having first (26) and second (28) relatively rotatable portions;
said mechanical connections comprise said mechanical input device (68) being operatively connected to one of said relatively rotatable portions of each of said rotary transducers:
said controller includes first and second levers (64) that are operatively connected to the other of said relatively rotatable portions of respective ones of said rotary transducers; and said means for selectively changing said proportionality comprises means for pivoting one of said levers selectively at first (76) and second (78 or 80)
6. A controller (10) as claimed in Claim 1 in which said means for producing X and Y outputs comprises said transducers (24) being mounted for positioning about a pivot axis (32).
7. A controller (10) as claimed in Claim 1 in which said transducers (24) comprise rotary transducers: and said means for producing X and Y outputs comprises said transducers being mounted for positioning about a pivot, axis (32).
8. A controller (10) as claimed in Claim 1 in which said transducers (24) comprises rotary transducers; and said means for producing X and Y outputs comprises said transducers being mounted for positioning about a pivot axis (32), and first and second levers (54) being operatively attached to respective ones of said transducers.
9. A controller (10) as claimed in Claim 1 in which said transducers (24) comprise rotary transducers;
said means for producing X and Y outputs comprises said transducers being mounted for positioning about a pivot: axis (32), and first and second levers (54) being operatively attached to respective ones of said transducers: and said means for selectively changing said proportionality comprises means (72, 74, 82, or 84) for selectively changing the effective length of one of said levers.
10. A controller (10) which comprises:
a first part (12);
means, comprising a second part (20), for guiding said first part in movement about X and Y axes;
first and second transducers (24) each having first (26) and second (28) relatively rotatable portions;
means, comprising mounting said first and second transducers onto said first part, for positioning said transducers about one of said axes (X or Y) in accordance with selective positioning of said first part about said one axis; and means, comprising first and second mechanical connections (54, 58, 60, 62) between said second part and respective ones of said transducers for providing mechanical inputs to said transducers that are proportional to displacement of said first part about one of said axes.
11. A controller (10) as claimed in Claim 10 in which said first part (12) includes a spherical contour (14); and said means for guiding said first part in movement about said X
and Y axes comprises said spherical contour and a cooperating surface (46) on said second part (20).
12. A controller (10) as claimed in Claim 10 in which said first part (12) includes a spherical contour (14) that is disposed around said X and Y axes and a Z axis;
said means for guiding said first part in movement about said X
and Y axes comprises said spherical contour and a cooperating surface (46) on said second part (20); and said controller includes means (36 40) for preventing rotational movement of said first part about said Z axis.
13. A controller (10) as claimed in Claim 10 in which said controller includes means (16, 46, 48) for urging said first part (12) about said X and Y axes toward a centered position.
14. A controller (10) as claimed in Claim 10 in which said controller includes means comprising a first surface (16) of said first part (12), comprising said second part (20) having a second surface (46) and comprising means (48) for resiliently urging said second surface against said first surface for urging said first part about said X and Y
axes toward a centered position.
15. A controller (10) as claimed in Claim 10 in which said first part (12) includes a spherical contour (14) that is disposed around said X and Y axes and a Z axis:

said means for guiding said first part in movement about said X
and Y axes comprises said spherical contour and a cooperating surface (46) on said second part (20):
said controller includes means (36, 40) for preventing movement of said first part about said Z axis: and said controller includes means comprising a first surface (16) of said first part comprising said second part having a second surface (46), and comprising means (48) for resiliently urging said second surface against said first surface for urging said first part about said X and Y
axes toward a centered position.
16. A controller (10) as claimed in Claim 10 in which said first and second mechanical connections comprise first and second levers (54) that are attached to respective ones of said first and second transducers (24).
17. A controller (10) as claimed in Claim 10 in which said first and second mechanical connections comprise first and second levers (54) that are attached to respective ones of said first and second transducer (24), and that respectively include first and second slots (56); and said controller includes means (60), being operatively attached to said second part (20), for engaging said first and second slots.
18. A controller (10) as claimed in Claim 10 in which one of said mechanical connections comprises a lever (54) that is attached to one of said transducers (24);
said controller includes means (60), being operatively attached to said second part (20), for operatively engaging said lever distal from said attachment thereof to said one transducer; and said controller includes means (72 or 74) for changing the effective distance (76, 78, or 80) between said one transducer and said distal attachment of said lever.
19. A controller (10) as claimed In Claim 10 in which said second mechanical connection comprises a lever (64) that is attached to one of said transducers (24) and that includes a slot (56) distal from said second connection to said one transducer:

said controller includes means, comprising a pin (60) that is inserted into a pin hole (62) in said second part (20), for operatively engaging said slot at a first effective distance (76) from said one transducer: and said controller includes means, comprising a second pin hole (72 or 74) in said second part, for selectively changing said first effective distance to a second effective distance (78 or 80).
20. A controller (10) as claimed in Claim 10 in which said controller includes means (72, 74, 82, or 84) for selectively changing said proportionality with respect to movement about one of said axes (X
or Y).
21. A method which comprises:
a) providing two outputs that are proportional, with respect to X
and Y axes, to mechanical X and Y inputs; and b) selectively changing said proportionality with respect to one of said axes.
22. A method as claimed in Claim 21 in which said selective changing step comprises mechanically changing said proportionality.
23. A method as claimed in Claim 21 in which said providing step comprises mechanically engaging a first transducer at a first distance from said transducer; and said selective changing step comprises changing said first distance to a second distance.
24. A method as claimed in Claim 21 in which said providing step comprises mounting first and second transducers for positioning about said one of said axes In response to one of said mechanical inputs.
25. A method as claimed in Claim 21 in which said providing step comprises:
a) mounting first and second transducers for rotational positioning about said one of said axes in response to one of said mechanical inputs; and b) mechanically applying said X and Y inputs to both of said transducers proportional to said mechanical X and Y inputs.
26. A method as claimed in Claim 21 in which said providing step comprises mounting first and second transducers s for positioning about said one of said axes in response to said mechanical X and Y inputs, and mechanically applying said X and Y inputs to both of said transducers proportional to said mechanical X and Y inputs; and said selective changing step comprises mechanically changing said proportionality.
27. A method which comprises:
a) guiding a first part for positioning about the intersection of X
and Y axes;
b) mounting first and second transducers onto said first part; and c) providing mechanical inputs to said transducers that are proportional to mechanical X and Y inputs.
28. A method as claimed in Claim 27 in which said method further comprises preventing said first part from rotating about a Z axis.
29. A method as claimed in Claim 27 in which said method further comprises resiliently urging said first part toward a neutral position with respect to said X and Y axes.
30. A method as claimed in Claim 27 in which said method further comprises:
a) preventing said first part from rotating about a Z axis; and b) resiliently urging said first part toward a neutral position with respect to said X and Y axes.
31. A method as claimed in Claim 27 in which said method further comprises changing said proportionality with respect to one of said mechanical inputs.
32. A method as claimed in Claim 27 in which said method further comprises:
a) preventing said first part from rotating about a Z axis; and b) changing said proportionality with respect to one of said mechanical inputs.
33. A method as claimed in Claim 27 in which said method further comprises:
a) resiliently urging said first part toward a neutral position with respect to said X and Y axes; and b) changing said proportionality with respect to one of said mechanical inputs.
34. A method as claimed in Claim 27 in which said method further comprises:
a) preventing said first part from rotating about a Z axis;
b) resiliently urging said first part toward a neutral position with respect to said X and Y axes; and c) changing said proportionality with respect to one of said mechanical inputs.
35. A controller (10) for providing outputs that are proportional to mechanical X and Y inputs, which controller comprises:
first and second transducers (24) each having first (26) and second (28) portions that are relatively rotationally positionable:
means (12), being operatively connected to both of said transducers, for rotationally positioning one of said portions of both of said transducers proportional to one of said mechanical inputs (X or Y);
and means (54, 58, 60, 62) for rotationally positioning the other of said portions of both of said transducers proportional to the other of said mechanical inputs.
36, A controller (10) as claimed in Claim 36 in which said one portion (26) of said first and second transducers (24) comprises first and second shafts (26); and said other portion (28) of said first and second transducers comprises first and second bodies (28).
37. A controller (10) as claimed in Claim 35 in which said controller comprises means (72, 74, 82, or 84) for changing said proportionality with respect to one of said mechanical inputs (X or Y).
38. A controller (10) for providing outputs that are proportional to mechanical X and Y inputs which controller comprises:
first and second transducers (24) each having first (26) and second (28) portions that are relatively rotationally positionable;
means (12) comprising a mechanical input device (68) for positioning said first and second transducers around one axis (X or Y) proportional to one of said mechanical inputs (X or Y);
means (12) for rotationally positioning one (26) of said portions of both of said transducers proportional to the other of said mechanical Inputs; and means (54, 58, 60, 62). being operatively connected to both of said transducers for rotationally positioning the other (28) of said portions of both of said transducers proportional to said one mechanical input.
39. A controller (10) as claimed in Claim 38 in which said one portion of said first and second transducers (24) comprises first and second shafts (26); and said other portion of said first and second transducers comprises first and second bodies (28).
40. A controller (10) as claimed in Claim 38 in which said controller comprises means for changing said proportionality with respect to said one mechanical input (X or Y).
41. A method for producing X and Y outputs from first and second rotary transducers that are proportional to mechanical X and Y
inputs which method comprises:
a) rotationally positioning one portion of both of said transducers proportional to one of said mechanical inputs; and b) rotationally positioning another portion of both of said transducers proportional to the other of said mechanical inputs.
42. A method as claimed in Claim 41 in which said method further comprises changing said proportionality with respect to said one mechanical input.
43. A method for producing outputs from first and second rotary transducers that, are proportional to mechanical X and Y inputs, which method comprises:
a) rotationally positioning both of said transducers about one axis proportional to said mechanical X and Y inputs;
b) rotationally positioning a first portion of both of said transducers proportional to one of said mechanical inputs; and c) rotationally positioning a second portion of both of said transducers proportional to the other of said mechanical inputs.
44. A method as claimed in Claim 43 in which said method further comprises changing said proportionality with respect to said one mechanical input.
45. A controller ( 10) which comprises:
a mechanical input device (68);
first and second transducers (24) each having a rotary shaft (26) and a body (28); and means, comprising means (14. 30) for mechanically coupling said shafts coaxially with said bodies distal from one another, and comprising means (14, 30, 64, 68, 60, 62) for mechanically connecting said mechanical input device to said transducers, for producing outputs from said transducers that are proportional to displacement of said mechanical input device with respect to X and Y axes.
46. A method for producing outputs from first and second transducers that each include a rotary shaft and a body, which method comprises:
a) making said shafts rotate as a single shaft;
b) providing X and Y mechanical inputs to said transducers; and c) producing outputs from said transducers that are proportional to said X and Y mechanical inputs.
47. A controller (10) which comprises:
means comprising first and second transducers (24), and comprising a mechanical input device (68) that is operatively connected to said transducers, for producing outputs from said transducers that are proportional to displacement of said mechanical input device from the intersection of X and Y axes;
means (84) for limiting movement of said mechanical input device to a substantially circular path (86) about said intersection of said axes; and means (72, 74, 82, or 84) for mechanically changing said proportionality with respect to one of said axes.
48. A method for controlling outputs from first and second transducers in which said outputs are proportional to displacement of a mechanical input device from the intersection of X and Y axes, which method comprises:
a) limiting movement of said mechanical input device to a substantially circular path (86) about said intersection of said axes; and b) mechanically changing said proportionality with respect to one of said axes,
49. A controller (10) which comprises:
first and second transducers (24);
a mechanical input device (68) being operatively connected to both of said transducers:
means (12, 80, 54, 58, 60, 62), comprising said operative connection of said mechanical input device to said transducers, for producing outputs from said transducers that are proportional to displacement of said mechanical input device from the intersection of X
and Y axes: and means (72, 72, 82, or 84) for selectively changing said proportionality of one of said transducers from a first proportionality to a second proportionality with respect to movement of said mechanical input device along one of said axes without the necessity of changing said proportionality of the other of said transducers.
50. A controller (10) as claimed in Claim 49 in which said controller comprises means (72, 74, 82, or 84) for changing said proportionality of the other of said transducers (24) to a third proportionality with respect to movement of said mechanical input device (68) along said one axis without the necessity of changing said second proportionality of said one transducer (24).
61. A controller (10) as claimed in Claim 60 in which said controller comprises means (14 30) for producing an output from both of said transducers (24) that is to a fourth proportionality with respect to movement of said mechanical input device (68) along the other of said axes.
62. A controller (10) which comprises:
first and second transducers (24);
a mechanical input device (68) being operatively connected to said transducers;
means (12, 30, 54, 58, 60, 62), comprising said operative connection for producing outputs from said transducers that are proportional to movement of said mechanical input device from the intersection of X and Y axes; and means (54, 58, 60, 62) for producing outputs from said transducers that are to a different proportionality with respect to movement of said mechanical input device along one of said axes than said proportionality with respect to movement of said mechanical input device along the other of said axes.
53. A controller (10) as claimed in Claim 52 in which said controller comprises means (72, 74, 82, or 84) for selectively changing said proportionality of one of said transducers (24) with respect to movement of said mechanical input device (68) along one of said axes without the necessity of changing said proportionality of the other of said transducers (24) with respect to movement of said mechanical input device along said one axis.
54. A controller (10) as claimed in Claim 53 in which means for changing said proportionality of said one transducer (24) comprises means (72, 74, 82, or 84) for changing said proportionality without affecting said proportionality with respect to movement of said mechanical input device (68) along the other of said axes.
55. A method which comprises:
a) producing outputs from first and second transducers that are proportional to displacement of a mechanical input device from the intersection of X and Y axes: and b) selectively changing said proportionality of one of said transducers from a first proportionality to a second proportionality with respect to movement of said mechanical input device along said one axis without the necessity of changing said proportionality of the other of said transducers.
56. A method as claimed in Claim 66 in which said method further comprises:
a) changing said proportionality of the other of said transducers to a third proportionality with respect to movement of said mechanical input device along said one axis; and b) optionally maintaining said second proportionality of said one transducer.
57. A method as claimed in Claim 56 in which said method further comprises producing an output from both of said transducers that is to a fourth proportionality with respect to movement of said mechanical input device along the other of said axes.
58. A method which comprises:
a) producing outputs from first and second transducers that are proportional to movement of a mechanical input device from the intersection of X and Y axes; and b) producing outputs from said transducers that are to a different proportionality with respect to movement of said mechanical input device along one of said axes.
59. A method as claimed in Claim 58 in which said method further comprises:
a) selectively changing said proportionality of one of said transducers with respect to movement of said mechanical input device along said one axis; and b) optionally maintaining said proportionality of the other of said transducers with respect to movement of said mechanical input device along said one axis.
60. A method as claimed in Claim 69 in which said method further comprises maintaining said proportionality with respect to movement of said mechanical input device along the other of said axes.
CA 2027224 1990-10-01 1990-10-10 X-y controller with pivotally mounted transducers Abandoned CA2027224A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US07/590,876 1990-10-01
US07590876 US5129277A (en) 1990-10-01 1990-10-01 X-Y controller with pivotally mounted transducers

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
CA2027224A1 true true CA2027224A1 (en) 1992-04-02

Family

ID=24364088

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CA 2027224 Abandoned CA2027224A1 (en) 1990-10-01 1990-10-10 X-y controller with pivotally mounted transducers

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (1) US5129277A (en)
CA (1) CA2027224A1 (en)

Families Citing this family (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5235869A (en) * 1992-03-23 1993-08-17 Adams Rite Manufacturing Company Valve control for vehicle and stationary equipment
US5499919A (en) * 1993-10-04 1996-03-19 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Aircraft control lever simulator
FR2728647B1 (en) * 1994-12-21 1997-02-28
GB2299154B (en) * 1995-03-22 1999-01-20 Still Gmbh A control arrangement for the actuation of control devices
US5619195A (en) * 1995-12-29 1997-04-08 Charles D. Hayes Multi-axial position sensing apparatus
US5767840A (en) * 1996-06-28 1998-06-16 International Business Machines Corporation Six-degrees-of-freedom movement sensor having strain gauge mechanical supports
US9594426B2 (en) * 1999-03-24 2017-03-14 Intellipro, LLC. Rate-of-change switches and controllable apparatus
CN100591611C (en) 2008-01-24 2010-02-24 苏胜起重机制造有限公司 Fork truck provided with single-rod governor mechanism
US8964352B2 (en) 2010-04-19 2015-02-24 Apple Inc. Mounting structures for components in electronic devices

Family Cites Families (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2700904A (en) * 1952-04-15 1955-02-01 James D Hough Control mechanism
US3286545A (en) * 1964-06-24 1966-11-22 Yankee Metal Products Corp Universal positioning mechanism
US3550466A (en) * 1968-11-26 1970-12-29 Byron Jackson Inc Multidirectional control
CA942866A (en) * 1970-11-18 1974-02-26 Shunzo Oka Device for simultaneously controlling rotary shafts of a plurality of variable resistors
US3807254A (en) * 1972-11-20 1974-04-30 Robertshaw Controls Co Control device having an adjustable range and method of making the same
US3942148A (en) * 1974-05-29 1976-03-02 Matsushita Electric Industrial Company, Limited Device for simultaneously controlling a plurality of variable resistors
US4572477A (en) * 1983-09-30 1986-02-25 Essex Industries, Inc. Regulated gas flow control valve
US4587510A (en) * 1983-10-19 1986-05-06 Wico Corporation Analog joystick controller

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US5129277A (en) 1992-07-14 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3391936A (en) Radio controlled, simulated football player pass receiving device
US4290228A (en) Toy vehicles with automatic banking
US5223776A (en) Six-degree virtual pivot controller
US4805712A (en) Wheelchair
US7370713B1 (en) Personal mobility vehicles and methods
US4927401A (en) Radio controllable spherical toy
US6601265B1 (en) Vacuum cleaner
Mori et al. Development of active cord mechanism ACM-R3 with agile 3D mobility
US5261291A (en) Ergonomic apparatus for controlling a vehicle
US4538476A (en) Cursor control assembly
US6886777B2 (en) Coaxial helicopter
US6820403B2 (en) Lawn mower rear drive
EP0326760A2 (en) Laser beam guidance apparatus
US4669146A (en) Caster
US4702331A (en) Self-traveling machine
US3927899A (en) Vehicle steering apparatus
US5730236A (en) Adjustable powered wheelchair
US4513832A (en) Wheeled chassis
US5980256A (en) Virtual reality system with enhanced sensory apparatus
US6677720B2 (en) Control system for vehicle seat
US5410479A (en) Ultrasonic furrow or crop row following sensor
US4537444A (en) Occupant&#39;s side holding device for the seat back of a seat
US4914976A (en) Five and six degree of freedom hand controllers
US5174569A (en) Route diverter for a slot racing track
US6675925B2 (en) Working vehicle

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
FZDE Dead