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Apparatus for determining battery type and modifying operating characteristics

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Publication number
CA2010232C
CA2010232C CA 2010232 CA2010232A CA2010232C CA 2010232 C CA2010232 C CA 2010232C CA 2010232 CA2010232 CA 2010232 CA 2010232 A CA2010232 A CA 2010232A CA 2010232 C CA2010232 C CA 2010232C
Authority
CA
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
battery
type
voltage
charge
equipment
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
CA 2010232
Other languages
French (fr)
Other versions
CA2010232A1 (en )
Inventor
Robert M. Johnson
Michael P. Metroka
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Motorola Solutions Inc
Original Assignee
Motorola Solutions Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date
Family has litigation

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M6/00Primary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M6/50Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance, e.g. maintaining operating temperature
    • H01M6/5066Type recognition
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/42Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance of secondary cells or secondary half-cells
    • H01M10/48Accumulators combined with arrangements for measuring, testing or indicating condition, e.g. level or density of the electrolyte
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/0003Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries with provision for charging different types of batteries
    • H02J7/0006Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries with provision for charging different types of batteries using passive battery identification means, e.g. resistors, capacitors
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/007Regulation of charging current or voltage
    • H02J7/0072Regulation of charging current or voltage using semiconductor devices only
    • H02J7/0077Regulation of charging current or voltage using semiconductor devices only the charge cycle being terminated in response to electric parameters
    • H02J7/008Regulation of charging current or voltage using semiconductor devices only the charge cycle being terminated in response to electric parameters with the battery connected to the charge circuit
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W52/00Power management, e.g. TPC [Transmission Power Control], power saving or power classes
    • H04W52/02Power saving arrangements
    • H04W52/0209Power saving arrangements in terminal devices
    • H04W52/0261Power saving arrangements in terminal devices managing power supply demand, e.g. depending on battery level
    • H04W52/0274Power saving arrangements in terminal devices managing power supply demand, e.g. depending on battery level by switching on or off the equipment or parts thereof
    • H04W52/0277Power saving arrangements in terminal devices managing power supply demand, e.g. depending on battery level by switching on or off the equipment or parts thereof according to available power supply, e.g. switching off when a low battery condition is detected
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M6/00Primary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M6/50Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance, e.g. maintaining operating temperature
    • H01M6/5044Cells or batteries structurally combined with cell condition indicating means
    • Y02D70/00

Abstract

A battery type detector for battery-using and battery-charging equipment is disclosed. The battery type detector produces a predetermined one of a plurality of sense levels corresponding to a battery type, and detects the predetermined one of a plurality of sense levels produced. Operational characteristics of the using and charging equipment are modified in accordance with the battery type detected.

Description

APPARATUS FOR DET~ uTNING
BATTERY TYPE AND MODIFYING OPERATING
CHARACTERISTICS

R~r.kFround of the Invention This invention generally relates to the method and apparatus for detel...i..i.~g the type of battery supplying power to battery operated equipment and being charged by battery chargers. This invention more particularly relates to a method and apparatus which will detect the type of battery connecte~l to a circuit of the battery operated equipment on the basis of a predetermined voltage potenti~l supplied at a test terminal of the battery and which will select one or more operating parameters for the using or charging equipment to optimize battery performance.
Operationally, batteries of different types (such as those characterized by chemical components - Lithium, NiCd, Lead Acid, ~lk~line~ etc. - and those characterized as rechargeable or non-rechargeable) exhibit different end of life voltage characteristics and effect*e series resistances. Since different types of batteries can be interchangeably used to provide power for the same equipment (i.e. for a Cellular Portable Telephone), knowledge of the type of battery may be useful to the eqllipment in est~bli~hing operating parameters such as transmitter output power or in warning the user of a 'low battery" condition.
Nonrechargeable battery types should not be subjected to recharging attempts. Battery types that can be charged should be charged at differing rates and with differing conditions. A battery charger which accepts all battery types 2~10232 ideally should adapt the rate of charge (charge current) and the types of charge controls used in accordance with the battery type. Although it is known that the charge rate of a battery may be optimized in accordance with the charge 5 capacity of the battery (U.S. Patent No. 4,006,396 discloses a battery and charger apparatus which employs an electrical element within the battery housing itself to provide a signed characteri,stic of the battery's charge state and which is employed by a charger circuit to control the rate of charge for 10 the battery). This opt;mi7~t;on iB not changeable based on battery type and i8 limited to rate-of-charge determin~tion.
Therefore, it would be useful for a battery charger to tom~t;cally recognize the battery type which is to be charged and adapt its charging par~meters accordingly.
Summ~ry of the Invention It is, therefore, one object of the present invention to detect which type of battery is coupled to battery using or 20 charging equipment.

It is another object of the present invention to select and modify use parameters in battery powered equipment according to the type of battery connected.
It is a further object of the present invention to select and modify charge control parameters in battery charging equipment according to the type of battery connecte-1.

In accordance with one aspect of the present invention there is provided a battery powered equipment comprising circuitry having at least one operating parameter defining an operational state thereof.
The battery powered equipment comprises a battery having one of a S plurality of battery types; means for producing a predetermined one of a plurality of sense levels corresponding to the battery type, the means at least partially disposed within the battery; a detector for ietecting the one of a plurality of sense levels; and control cil~;uill~
for controlling the battery powered equipment in accordance with the 10 at least one operating parameter responsive to the detector and the battery type.
In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a battery type detector for determining which type of portable battery is coupled to a battery charger. The portable 15 battery has a first set of contacts and a housing. The battery charger has a second set of contacts and a housing. The battery type detector comprises means for producing a predetermined one of a plurality of sense levels corresponding to a portable battery type when the first set of contacts is coupled to the second set of contacts; means for 20 detecting the predetermin~d one of a pluMlity of sense levels; and means, responsive to the means for ~letecting, for enabling a predetermined battery charging control in the battery charger corresponding to the portable battery type.

Brief Description of the Drawin~s Figure 1 is a block diagram of a portable radiotelephone transceiver and battery which may employ the present invention.
2a Figure 2 is a block diagram of a battery charger and battery which may employ the present invention.
Figure 3 i9 a s-hem~tic diagram of a window detector which may be employed as a battery type detector for the 5 radiotelephone of Fig. 1 and/or the charger of Fig. 2.
Figure 4 is a sçh~m~qtic diagram of a control circuit for the battery charger of Fig. 2.
Figure 5 illustrates the various voltage windows which may be sen~e-l by the battery type ~letect~r of the present 1 0 invention.
Figures 6a through 6d are flowcharts which indicate the response of the portable radiotelephone of Fig. 1 to a detected battery type.
Figure 7 is a graph of a norm~li7ed battery terminal 15 voltage versus battery charge level for various battery types.
Figure 8 is a flowchart which indicates the response of the battery charger of Fig. 2 to a detected battery type.
Figure 9 is a graph of battery terminal voltage illustrating battery load change response, threshold 20 hysteresis, and transmitter power output reduction which may be employed in the present invention.

Descri~tion of the Preferred Embodiment This invention is particularly adapted for use in and with electrical equipment which can interchangeably couple to two or morè different types of batteries. This equipment (for example, a portable radiotelephone) may "sink" power from a battery and deplete the battery charge. Alternatively, the eql)ipment may be equipment which "sources" power to the battery in order to recharge the battery! The present invention is inten~le~l to power portable electronic equipment which provides low battery alerting to the user and which may vary the operational characteristics of the equipment . In a - portable cellular radiotelephone, one operational characteristic which may be varied is that of transmitter power output level. The present invention is also inten~led to be used in battery chargers having the capability of charging 5 two or more di~relellt battery types.
A block diagram of a portable radiotelephone which may utilize the present invention i8 shown in Fig. 1. A battery 101 is shown coupled to a radio transceiver 103. There may be at least three electrical connect;ons between the battery 101 10 and the transce*er 103; these connections supply primary battery power (105), ground (107), and sense input (109).
Within the battery 101 is found a conventional electrochemical cell or cells 111 which provide direct current electrical energy from a chemical reaction. The electrochemical cell type may 15 be determined by capacity, effective resistance, physical construction, type of chemiRtry, or any other parameter pertinent to its use. A battery may have any number of like cells or combination of different cells. In some conditions, however, different batteries may have different characteristics 20 but their use in a specific application may be identical enough for the batteries to be considered the same battery type.
Nevertheless, when batteries of different characteristics perform L~elltly in the specific application, they are considered herein to be different battery types.
A sensing electrical component 113 (such as a resistor, a thermistor, an open circuit, a short circuit, or other elements which may provide auxiliary sensing capability) is utilized in the present invention to provide an electrical tllre indication of battery type. In the preferred embo~im~nt the senRing element 113 is connected between sense input cont~ct 109 and ground contact 107 of the battery 101, however, other connect;ons may provide equally useful senRing capabilities.

The transceiver 103 (which may be a model F09HGD8453AA portable cellular radiotelephone available from Motorola, Inc.) consists of a conventional radio transmitter 117 a conventional radio receiver 119, a user 5 interface 121 (which may further include an earpiece and microphone, ~i~ling and control mechAni~m~, and visual and/or aural indicators such as an LED light or a bar graph on a display or a numerical indication of battery charge), logic and control functions 123 (which in a cellular portable 1 0 radiotelephone of the aforementioned type may utilize a MC68HCllA8 microprocessor or equivalent and ~so~i~te~l memory and circuitry), and a battery type detector 125.
The battery type detector 125 must be compatible with and capable of identifying the battery type electrical signature 1 5 created with the selection of the electrical component 113 within the battery 101. The battery type detector 125 measures a sense input signal which is generated from a regulated voltage reduced in proportion to the ratio of resistor 127 and the effective impedance of electrical component 113 in the 20 battery 101. The electrical component 113 i8 given a different electrical parameter value for each different battery type.
Thus, in the preferred embodiment, the sense input is determined by the voltage divider formed by resistor 127 (having a resistance value of 15K Ohms) and resistor 113 25 (having a value as shown in Table 1). Since resistor 113 is given a different value of resistance for each battery type, the sense input voltage is a different value for each battery type.
Based upon the value of the sense input a~ measured by detector 125, the radio transceiver 103 determines which 30 battery type i8 connected and adjust its operating parameters accordingly.

2010~32 Battery TypeComponent 113 Valll~ (Ohm~) 0 (manual test) 0-lK
1 (NiCd) lK-2K*

4 5K-lOK
N (default) >lOK
*thermistor One of the operating parameters which may be adjusted is that of the low battery alert which is provided to the 15 transceiver user via user interface 121. Conventionally, battery voltage is measured by the electrical equipment and when the battery voltage drops below a predetermined threshold, a light is lit or other indication is given to the user that the battery has reA~he~ the end of its useful battery 20 charge. The equipment, typically, will be allowed to operate only for a limited duration after the low battery detection is made. A second battery voltage threshold may be included in a conventional circuit which entirely turns off the equipment thereby protecting such battery types as NiCd or lithium types 25 which cannot be ~iischArged below a certain charge without permAnent ~1~mAge to the electrochemical cells. Non-rechargeable batteries, howevel-, do not require this minimum ~lis~h~Arge voltage protection and can be fully ~iis~hP~rged. A
third battery alert parameter, the hysteresis voltage, may be 30 included in a conventional circuit. Hysteresis is used to keep the unit from exiting low battery alerting when the equipment changes modes causing the battery discharge rate to change.

This discharge rate change may change the battery terminal voltage enough so that it will now exceed the low battery alert voltage threshold and alerts will stop. By A~1~1ing the hysteresis voltage to the low battery alert threshold voltage, the 5 eqllipment will not exit low battery alerts. A second set of these voltage par~meters may be used in a conventional circuit where there are two distinct modes of operation such as receive and transmit. Furthermore, different battery types have different characteristics of terminal voltage and amount 10 of fli~ch~rge (See Fig. 7.). Thus, a predetermined and fixed voltage threshold for indication of low battery charge or equipment turn off may be optimum for one battery type but non-opt;mllm for another battery type.
The o~ l of detector 125, then, can inform logic and 1 5 control function 123 of the type of battery connected. Logic and control function 123 will scan its associated memory for one or more voltage threshold values which are optimum for the battery type co~nected and detected (See the first six rows of Table 2). Comparison of the battery voltage to the optimum 20 eshhlishe~l voltage thresholds may thus be used to provide a user indication of battery life at an optimum point determined by battery type.
~ imilArly, other radio parameters may be adjusted in accordance with battery type. In the preferred embodiment of 25 the invention used in a cellular portable radiotelephone, the output power of transmitter 117 can be adjusted to a mA~rimum power level determined by the particular battery type connected to the radio transceiver 103. The mobile or portable subscriber equipment for cellular radiotelephone 30 application has the capability of a plurality of transmitter o~l~ut power levels, one of which is selected by the fixed site equipment. (see Fisher, "A Subscriber Set for the Equipment Test", Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. 58, No. 1, January 1979, pp. 123-143, showing early multiple transmitter o~ll,ut power level cellular equipment). Thus selection, which may be changed during the course of a radiotelephone call, is based upon the signal level received by the fixed site eqnipmçnt A received signal which is too strong will cause 5 the fixed site equipment to comm~n~l the mobile or portable to reduce the transmitter output power by one or more power level steps. Likewise, a received signal which is too weak will cause the fixed site eqllipme~t to comm~n~l the mobile or portable to increase the transmitter output power level one or 10 more step (up to a m~ mum output power for the class-mobile a portable - of subscriber unit). EIA Interim Standard, IS-3-D (March, 1987), "Cellular System Mobile Station-Land Station Comp~tibility Specification" defines six 4dB power level steps from -2dBW to -22dBW for portable radiotelephone 15 equipment (paragraph 2.1.2.2). Each of these power level steps has a given tolerance or +2dB/-4dB from the nominal level.
Although some radiotelephone systems place stringent minimum transmitter power output requirements on user 20 equipment, other systems may utilize the selectable transmitter output to enhance user equipment battery life. As the battery charge becomes depleted with use in the portable radiotelephone, the voltage available at the battery power cont~qct 105 decreases. Each battery type has a different voltage 25 versus charge characteristic which is shown generally in Fig.
7. The control and logic function 123 (of Fig. 1) may utilize knowledge of the battery type derived from battery type detector 125 and component 113 to detelmine which battery type characteristic is expected and to adjust the transmitter output 30 power m~X;..~ characteristics according to the battery charge rem?.ining (as implied by the battery terminal voltage).
Furthermore, the operational life of the battery may be extended by reducing the transmitter m~imum output power level at particular battery charge levels depen~ling upon battery type. In a preferred embo-liment of the present invention, three power output levels are employed for some battery types. These unique transmitter output power features may be better understood while referring to the seventh row of 5 Table 2. Thus a battery type having a voltage versus time characteristic exhibiting a sharp drop off of voltage output after a particular amount of battery charge depletion can have the transmitter m~Yimum output power level maintained at the m~Yimum transmitter output power level for a long period 10 of time with subsequent power output reductions. A battery type having a relatively linear decrease in output voltage versus battery charge will have the transmitter output power level reduced sooner.
Different battery types present different battery terminal 15 voltage changes with changes in the load presented to the battery. When battery terminal voltage thresholds are est~hlished, the effect of load change must be considered and a hysteresis must be developed for the threshold battery terminal voltage. The value of battery load change hysteresis 20 may be apprehçn~ied from Fig. 9. When the transmitter is operating, the battery terminal voltage decreases with time (curve 901). If the transmitter reduces its power output level at battery terminal voltage points determined in accordance with one aspect of the present invention, the reduced load on 25 the battery will collventionally cause the battery terminal voltage to increase. Without hysteresis, such an increase in battery terminal voltage will cause the transmitter to reenter the higher power mode which causes the battery terminal voltage to decrease, etc. Hysteresis of the a~lopl;ate value 30 for the particular battery type supplying power to the transmitter will prevent such a bistable oscillator from occurring. Thus, when the battery terminal voltage (901) re~hes the voltage threshold (Vthl) between transmitter output power level 1 and power level 2 (at 903), the transmitter is changed to power level 2. In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, the value of threshold Vth1 is increased by the selecte-l hysteresis value Vh (as shown at 905). A
æimil~r threshold change occurs at point 907.
Another radio parameter which may be adjusted in accordance with battery type is that of the state-of-charge indicator type. In the ~eferled embo~imsnt of the invention used in a cellular portable radiotelephone, a state of charge indication is visually provided to the user via user interface 121. Conventionally, a battery state of charge indicator makes its detel ...;,.~tion of the amount of charge in the battery by the battery terminal voltage. It uses the battery terminal voltage to determine into which of a finite number of state of charge ranges the battery is in (such as 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, 20%, or 1 5 0% of full charge). Howevel, different battery types have different characteristics of terminal voltage relative to the percentage of charge left (see Figure 7). Thus, a predetermined and fixed voltage vs. percentage of charge characteristic may be accurate for one battery type but inaccurate for another battery type. Thus, an important feature of the present invention uses a different voltage vs.
percentage of charge characteristic for each battery type. The characteristic is selected based upon the battery type which is detected as previously described.
An alternative charge state indicator is one which determines the state of charge by keeping track of the time the unit is used, calculating the amount of charge used, comp~ring the amount of charge used against the full capacity of the battery and providing the charge state to the user via user interface 121. The equipment being operated can draw different amounts of charge per unit time depen-ling upon the battery type being used and different battery types may have different amounts of charge capacities. Thus, a predetermined and fixed calculation of charge state may be optimum for one battery type but non-optimum for another battery type. An alternative implementation of the present invention uses a select~hle set of charge capacities and charge depletion rates for each battery type.
A battery charger which may employ the present invention is shown in the schemAtic block diagram of Fig. 2.
A battery charger such as charger 201 may employ conventional rectifier circuitry 203 and conventional current sourcing and reg ll~ting circuitry 205. Such circ.~i~l ~ may be found in previously disclosed documents such as aforementioned U.S. Patent No. 4,006,396. A battery charger which employs the present invention utilizes a battery type detector 207 and charge control circuitry 209. The battery type detector 207 measures the voltage potential generated across 1 5 component 113 of the voltage divider of resistor 210 and electronic component 113. Battery type detector 207 determines the battery type from the sense input potential and communicates the battery type to control circuit 209. Control circuit 209 contains predetermined information about the battery type and it will est~hliah the rate and types of charge controls to provide an optimum rate of charge for a rechargeable battery while not charging a non-rechargeable battery type.
In the preferred embodiment of the present invention in a battery charger, a charge state indicator may operate as described previously. The battery terminal voltage is used to determine the battery percqnt~ge capacity. However, when a battery is being charged the terminal voltage may not be monotonic with the percentage charge in the battery. This effect occurs in NiCd batteries being rapid charged and has been used in some chargers to terminate the rapid charge cycle (this technique is commonly known as "~V charging").
A battery charger may charge one battery type differently than another battery type and the terminal voltages vs. percent~ge capacities may be different. Thus, one set of terminal voltages vs. percentage charge may be optimal for one battery type but not for another. The present invention selects a different set of terminal voltages vs. percentage charge for each battery type.
Referring to Fig. 3, a schem~tic of one type of detector which may be employed as battery type detectors 125 or 207 is shown. The configuration shown in Fig. 3 i8 that of a "window" detector using comp~rators and NOR/AND gates.
Alternatively, an analog to digital converter and microprocessor may be used to perform the same sort of battery type detection. One conventional microprocessor (an MC68HCllA8, available from Motorola, Inc.) internally cont~inR an analog to digital converter and may be progr~mme-l to perform the required comparison. In Fig. 3, 1 5 a regulated voltage is serially voltage divided by resistors 301, 303,305, 307,309, and 311 to produce N voltage levels which are applied to the positive input port of N conventional comp~rators 313, 315, 317, and 319. The sense input signal is applied to the negative input of comparators 313, 315, 317, and 319. The outputs of the comparators are applied to inputs of AND and NOR gates 321, 323, 325, and 327 as shown in order to provide detection windows for the battery types. The output ~ign~l~ from battery type detectors 125 and 207 are on N output lines. In general, a resistor used as electronic component 113 in the battery enables the detection of a number of battery types limited primarily by the decision of the detector.
A battery charger control circuit 209 is shown in more detail in the schem~tic diagram of Fig. 4. A microprocessor 401 (such as an PIC16C55 available from Microchip, Inc.) is used in the present invention to control the charging conditions for the battery based upon the battery type detected and applied to microprocessor 401 via detector output line 403.
Upon detection of a particular battery type, microprocessor 401 recalls form its internal memory the charging characteristics of the particular battery type cQnnecte~ to the battery char~er 201. The battery terminal voltage is sensed by conventional voltage detection techniques and input to microprocessor 401 where it is compared with the battery terminal voltage charge 5 characteristic curve recalled from storage and the a~o~-iate amount of current is allowed to enter the battery termin~l~ as determined by microprocessor 401 and current source 205.
The aforement.ioned U.S. Patent No. 4,006,396 discloses a technique of determining battery charge rates by detecting a 10 particular battery type. Different battery types also require type-specific charge controls to realize optimum charge performance. For example, the present invention may be employed in the selection of charge control controls such as:
voltage cutoff (in which the charging is terminated when the 15 battery terminal voltage exceeds a selected threshold), time (when the battery charging is termin~te-l or reduced to a trickle charge after a selected period of time), temperature cut off (in which the fast rate charging is ter nin~t~d when the electrochemical cells exceed a selected temperature), 20 temperature-controlled voltage cutoff (in which the selected voltage cutoff threshold is selectively temperature compensated for electrochemical cell temperature), and ~v - charging (in which a selected slope of battery terminal voltage versus time is employed to determine the time at which 25 charging is reduced or terminated). These charge controls are further shown in Table 3.
Some types of batteries (for example NiCd cell batteries) are susceptible to ~l~m~e if rapid charging is not carefully controlled. High temperatures generated during rapid 30 charging may cause i~m~ge to the battery and, in e~llel,le situations, may cause the battery to explode. Furthermore, as disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 4,727,306 (showing a dual charge rate battery charger having charge rate control), a battery being charged at a rate less than its m~rimllm rate but greater than its minimum may also csuse ~l~m~ge to the battery. Each battery type, then, in the present invention has its optimum m~imum and minimum charge rates recalled snd applied during its charging cycle.
Fig. 5 illustrates the various voltage windows which are generated across electronic component 113 (within the battery) when a known regulated voltage i8 applied to a voltage divider including electronic component 113.
Fig. 6a is a flowchart employed by the microprocessor of 1 0 a portable radiotelephone in its logic and control function 123 in the preferred embodiment of the present invention. This method shows how the radiotelephone responds to a determin~tion of a particular battery type and sets the ap~rop~;ate low battery alert thresholds and software turn off 1 5 thresholds for the battery end of life. It is anticipated that each different battery type can have an indep~n-l~nt set of thresholds. Following turn on of the radiotelephone equipment at step 601, the detector input is read at step 603. (If an analog to digital converter is used in the realization of a battery type detector, step 603 would entail the re~-ling of the out~ul value generated by the analog to digital collvel ler). A
determination that the detected level is greater than one volt (as in~liç~te~l from test 605) results in a test of whether the level is between one volt and an incr~ment~l voltage (~v) over one volt, at test 607. If the sense input level exceeds one volt plus ~v a test is made to see if the sense input is between one volt plus ~v and one volt plus 2 ~v (at test 609). The determination of the sense input voltage window continues in a simil~r m~nner until the window is found. Upon detection of the sense input voltage being within a particular window results in the battery threshold and end of life thresholds for the particular type of battery detected. This is indicated in steps 611 or step 613 of this process. Once the thresholds have been recalled and set, the process continues with its normal turn on sequence at 615.
A unique process occurs if the sense input i8 detected in the window between zero volts and one volt. In one 5 implementation of the preferred embo-lim~nt a "manual test"
subroutine is entered (at 617). This manual test subroutine allows servicing personnel to manually energize the transceiver functions and is particularly useful when the radiotelephone transceiver 103 is placed in an ~lopl;ate test 10 power supply and en~hles a service technician to determine problem areas within the radiotelephone 103. A fail-safe system is also employed to pLevent rl~m~ge to a battery by deep discharge if the sense contact 109 is broken or mis~li ned.
The radiotelephone transceiver 103 assumes low battery alert 15 and turn off default values so chosen that no ~l~m~e will occur to any of the various battery types used in the system.
A simil~r method of detection is used to set the transmitter power step amount (see Fig. 6b) to establish the battery terminal voltage versus level of charge characteristics 20 stored for particular battery types (see Fig. 6c). Likewise, the battery load change hysteresis time constant and expected voltage step for each particular battery type (see Fig. 6d) may be selected. A portable radiotelephone transceiver 103 may utilize one or more of these methods simultaneously in order 25 to establish the operating characteristics of the portable radiotelephone transceiver.
The general shape of the battery terminal voltage versus battery charge level characteristics are shown in the graph of Fig. 7. Several battery types are represented in the three 30 curves shown.
The method employed by microprocessor 401 of a battery charger employing the present invention is shown in the flowchart of Fig. 8. Upon determining that a battery is present at step 803, the detector output is read and the battery type i8 determined at step 805. The optimum battery charge rate is determined from the memory of microprocessor 401 from the look-up table, at step 807. The look-up table in the memory of 5 microprocessor 401 is further searched to find the charge controls for the particular battery type determined at step 805, in step 809. In the ~lefel,ed emhorliment> the charge control parameters and values used in the battery charging process are shown in Table 3. The battery is then charged at the rate 10 determined from the charge rate look--up table and with the controls also determined from the control look-up table, at step 811.

Therefore, a battery type detector has been shown and 15 described. Different battery types exhibit different discharging and charging characteristi-cs. To optimize battery use and lifetime in battery powered equipment, operating characteristics of the battery powered equipment are modified in accordance with the detected battery type. Likewise, to 20 optimize battery charging operations, charge control parameters of battery chargers are modified in accordance with a detected battery type. While a particular embo-liment of the invention has been shown and described, it is to be understood that the invention is not to be taken as limited to 25 the specific embodiment herein and that changes and modifications may be made without departing from the true spirit of the invention. It is therefore cont~mpl~ted to cover the present invention, and any and all such changes and modifications, by the appended claims.
We Claim:

- ~10~3Z

BATTERY OPERATED EQUIPMENT PARAM~;l'~;~S

D~AUT.T TYPF~A TYPEB TYPF'.C TYP~, N
Low Bat Warning Threshold 1 0 Receive Mode 5.80 5.75 5.65 5.60 5.80 Low Bat Turn Off Threshold Receive Mode 520 5.20 5.20 5.20 5.10 Low Bat Warning Threshold Transmit Mode 5.50 5.50 5.40 5.30 535 Low Bat Turn Off Threshold Transmit Mode 520 5.20 5.20 5.10 5.10 Low Battery Threshold Hysteresis Conttqnt0.40 0.40 032 0.20 025 Charge State Parameter(s) }:Iigh 6.05 6.05 6.55 5.85 5.90 _ow 5.65 5.65 6.05 5.35 5.50 Max Transmitter OdB -3 -1 0 0 PowerOutput -3 4 -3 -2 0 Parameter(s) -6 -6 -5 4 0 TX Hysteresis Voltage 0.1 0.08 0.15 0.20 0.10 -20~0232 5 BATTERY CHARGER CHARGE CONTROLS PARA~; ~

D~AULT TYP~ A TYPli.R TYPl;.C TYP~. N
High Change Rate (Current Level) OmA400mA 60 mA700 mA 2000 mA

Low Charge Rate OmA60 mA 80 mA 10 mA 150 mA

Tempe,atu-e Cutoff 40C45C 55C 45C 40C
Voltage Cutoff OV DisableL 7.5V Disabled 8.2V

High to Low Char~e Rate Volgate Switch OV Dis~hlEd~isabled Disabled 7.9V
point Timer Omin Disabled 10 hrs. 8 hrs.Disable Charge Method No Charge DV Voltsge Temp. Tem and Cutoff Cutoff Cutoff ''emp. nd and and C utoff Temp. Timer Volta~e ~ual CutoffDual Cutoff ~
Rate Timer Rate Rate Change Voltage Dual Rate

Claims (10)

1. Battery powered equipment comprising circuitry having at least one operating parameter defining an operational state thereof, the battery powered equipment comprising:
a battery for providing power to the battery powered equipment, the battery having one of a plurality of battery types;
means for producing a predetermined one of a plurality of sense levels corresponding to the battery type, the means at least partially disposed within the battery, the predetermined one of a plurality of sense levels being independent of the power provided by the battery to the battery powered equipment;
a detector for detecting said one of a plurality of sense levels indicative of the battery type; and control circuitry for adjusting the at least one operating parameter responsive to the battery type.
2. Battery powered equipment in accordance with claim 1, wherein the at least one operating parameter includes a load change to hysteresis constant.
3. Battery powered equipment in accordance with claim 1, wherein the at least one operating parameter includes a voltage step characteristic.
4. Battery powered equipment in accordance with claim 1, wherein the at least one operating parameter includes a manual test mode.
5. Battery powered equipment in accordance with claim 1, wherein the at least one operating parameter is a transmitter output power level.
6. Battery powered equipment in accordance with claim 1, wherein the means for producing a predetermined one of a plurality of sense levels further comprises:

means for generating a regulated voltage;
a first resistive element disposed within a housing of the battery powered equipment, said first resistive element coupled between said means for generating a regulated voltage and a sense terminal; and an electrical component having a value selected in accordance with said battery type, disposed within a housing of the battery and coupled between the sense terminal and an electrical ground.
7. Battery powered equipment comprising circuitry having at least one operating parameter defining an operational state thereof, the battery powered equipment containing:
a battery comprising identification means, internally located within the battery, for providing an indication of a battery type of said battery to the battery powered equipment;
a memory containing a discharge characteristic for at least one battery type;
monitoring means for monitoring a current charge of the battery; and control circuitry, responsive to the monitoring means, the memory and the indication of the battery type, for control of the circuitry, wherein the control circuitry controls the battery powered equipment in accordance with the at least one operating parameter in response to the current charge of the battery, the identified battery type and a corresponding discharge characteristic therefore, to optimize performance of the battery powered equipment in the operational state.
8. Battery powered equipment in accordance with claim 1, wherein the at least one operating parameter is a low battery alert.
9. Battery powered equipment in accordance with claim 6, within the electrical component is a short circuit.
10. Battery powered equipment in accordance with claim 6, wherein the electrical component is an open circuit.
CA 2010232 1989-04-21 1990-02-16 Apparatus for determining battery type and modifying operating characteristics Expired - Fee Related CA2010232C (en)

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