LAMP A8S15MBIY UTI~IZING S~
AN~ OERAM~C FI815R M~5H FoR COI~TAI~
i~ld o~ tbe ~nttent~on n~entlon relate~ to olectrl¢ lamps ~
~ore part~culacly, to dou~le-envelo~d ~amp~ ~h~
c~ bo ~ely oporo,ted wlthout t~e ~ood for en~lo~ng th~ l~mp w~th~n a pro~ect~-SQ f~xtur~ even ln the e~rent of ~ ~wrst of the ~ Qr l~ht-source c~6ul~ .
~acXqround of ~h~ Invontlon Elaotrlc lamps kr~o~ ~8 doul~lQ-en~ oped l~m~
ln~:lud~ ght-sourcs c~ lo, suoh a~ ~ ~rc t~, ~d ~ oute~ en~elo~ surrou~dlng tho llght-~our~ ~ap~ul~ such doubl~en~ lo~d l~mp~, th~re ~8 ~, sm~ll p~ob~ ty t~a~c tho l~ght-~o~r~ c~p~u~e will b~r~. When ~uch ~n o~r~rt eccur~, hot ~r~gments o gl~, or ~h~r~, ut~ othor ~a~ul~ p~t~ natlng 1!~ urst - :, c~p8ul~ are foroibly ~rop~ ns~c the out~r en~Qlope. lf the ou~er ~n~r~lope al~o ~haet~r~
tt~ere ls ~ ~ote~tl~l saf~ty h~zard to ~e~son~ or ~ro~erty in the ~nmed~ate ~urro~md~ngs. Fa~lur~ of ~he o~t~ onwlop~ lO~ a~ a Uoont~ nt f~.u~
One w~y to ~vold the ~af~ty baz~rd of conta~nment f~lure Is to o~erate the lamp w~th~n prot~ctlv~ ~lxture that i~ ~p~ble o~ conta~nlng such a fall~re. ~owever, a ~rotectlve f~xture usually lncuc~ additior~l co~t, pl~rtlcularly lf ~n ~xl~tlng ~xturo mll~t be modlfl~d or r~placed.
FurthQrmo~o, ~ protect~ n~ reduc~s tho llgh~
output of the ~ nd ~t ~sy b~ more dlff~cult ~nd oxpe~s~re to roplace ~ ap ~n a prot~ctlv~
f ~xture .
p~eferred 601utlon to t~Q c~nta~nment f~ilurQ
~roblem ~s ~ l~mp ca~bl~ of 6elf-conta~ ent. Ono ~nawn techni~ to maXe t~o ou~er env~lo~e stronger ~o that ~t ~ont~ln~ th~ ~attered l~qht-~ourco ca~8ul~. An out~r ~n~relop~ h~v~n~
thlc~ o~t~r ~ n ~ombln~t~n wlth a light-~ourc~ c~psule w~th t~.~n lnno~ wall ls d~closed ln U.8. P~tent No. ~,Sg8,22S l~sued July 1, l~J6 to Gagnon. A~oth~r prlo~ ~rt technl~ue ~s to shi~ld th~ outer envelo~ from tho eff~ct~ of a ~u~t l~ght-~ourc~ cap~ul~. Sn U.8. Pat~nt ~o.
~,5~0,989 los~od ~ , 1986 to ~ohl, ot ~
11ght-transmissive enclosure located within an outer envelope surrounds a light-source capsule and shields the outer envelope. See al~o U.8. Patent No. ~,281,27~ issued July 28, 1981 to ~echard, et al. Still another technique for containment is to reinforce the outer envelope or the shield. In U.S. Patent No. ~,721,876 issued January 26, 1988 to White, et al, a light-transmissive shield is reinforced by a wire mesh. Wire mesh reinforcement of a light-source capsule i8 disclosed in U.8.
Patent No. ~,625,1~0 is~ued November 25, 1986 to Gagnon. Containment technigues are also diw losed in pending application Serial No. s75,877-7 filed August 26, 1988 and assigned to the assignee of the pre~ent application.
While the above-referenced containment techniques are highly effective for some lamp types and sizes, they may have disadvantaqes ~hen applied to other lamp types and sizes. For exa~ple, the use of a thick-walled outer envelope is effective for relatively small lamps. However, lamp~ of greater than 400 watts having a thick-walled outer envelope are so heavy that there is a possibility of the lamp falling out of the light fixture.
Furthermore, thick-walled outer envelopes of large physical size are difficult to fabricate. While wire mesh reinforcement of a light transmissive shield is generally effective in achieving .~,: . .
containment, the wire mesh absorbs an appreciable fraction of the output light from the light-source capsule.
Furthermore, when the light-source capsule contains sodium, the proximity of a conductive wire mesh causes an effect known as sodium migration from the capsule and reduces the operating life of the lamp.
,~, ... ..
t 31 6206 According to the present invention there is provided a double-enveloped lamp assembly comprising a light-source capsule subject to burst on rare occasions;
containment means for absorbing and dissipating a portion of the energy when said light-source capsule bursts, said containment means comprising a light-transmissive shield substantially surrounding said light-source capsule and a mesh disposed on an outer surface of said shield for reinforcing said shield, said mesh being fabricated of substantially nonconducting ceramic fibers which can withstand the operating temperature of said light-source capsule over extended operating times, said ceramic fibers having sufficient strength to reinforce said shield and having a sufficiently small diameter to limit blockage of light emitted by said light-source capsule; a light-transmissive outer envelope, said light-source capsule, said light-transmissive shield and said mesh being mounted within said outer envelope; and means for coupling electrical energy to said light-source capsule.
The mesh of nonconducting fibers reinforces the light-transmissive shield without significantly reducing the light output from the light-source capsule. Since the mesh is nonconducting, sodium migration is minimized. In a preferred embodiment, the shield has a cylindrical outer surface and the mesh comprises nonconducting fibers wound in opposite directions around the cylindrical surface to form a double helix or double sp~ral. The mesh can also have the form of a net of interconnected fibers or a net of intersecting, interwoven fiber~. Preferably, thQ mesh i8 located on the outer surface of the shield and i8 anchored to the shield at each end. The spacing between adjacent fibers in the mesh is preferably in the range between about 12mm and 18mm in the case of a double helix and in the range between about 4mm and 12mm ln the case of a net.
The mesh can be fabricated of any ceramic fiber capable of withstanding the operating temperature of the light-source capsule and having sufficient strength to provide effective containment. The ceramic fiber i8 preferably selected to minimize absorption of the light output from the light-source capsule. A highly-reflecting, white or nearly white fiber is suitable. Also, a transparent or translucent fiber can be utilized.
Brisf DescriPtion of the Drawinqs For a better understanding of the present invention together with other and further objects, advantages and capabilities thereof, reference is made to the accompanying drawings whic~ are incorporated herein by reference and in which:
Fig. 1 ~ an elevational view of an arc discharge lamp cons~ructed in accordan~e with an eTbcllmest of the i-~
~7~ 1 31 6206 present invention;
Fig. 2 is an enlarged, partial view of another embodiment of the mesh; and Fig. 3 is an enlarged, partial view of yet another embodiment of the mesh.
A double-enveloped lamp assembly 10 in accordance with one embodiment is shown in Fig. 1. The lamp assembly includes an outer envelope 12 and a light-source capsule 14 mounted within outer envelope 12 by means of a frame 16. Electrical energy is coupled to light-source capsule 14 through a base 18, a stem 20 and electrical leads 22. Outer envelope 12 is typically formed from blow-molded hard glass. The light source capsule 14 can be an arc tube of an arc discharge lamp, a tungsten-halogen incandescent capsule or any other light-emitting capsule having an internal operating pressure that differs from the operating pressure within the outer envelope 12. When such a light-source capsule operates within outer envelope 12, the possibility of a lamp containment failure exists.
The lamp assembly 10 includes a containment means 30, located within outer envelope 12 and substantially surrounding the light-source capsule 14. The ~, - -: ~
t 31 6206 cont~lPment me~n- ~0 incl~d9s a ~ght-tr~n~m~r~re ahlel~ 32 and ~ m~sh 3~ o~ s~tantl~lly nonconduct~ng cer~nic fl~e~ e sh~ld 32 ls ty~c~lly a right cl~cular cylinder ~t~che~ to fr~ 16 by ~etal ~tra~s 36. The sh~ld 32 18 ~refera~ly ~abricated of quartz. Details regardlng the mesh 3~ are pro~ ~ded he~eln~fter.
~ n one ~xample of t~ pr~sen~ lnvent~on, th~
l~mp ~ss~mbly 10 1~ ~ metal h~llde ~r~ dl~cnarg~
l~mp h~vlng a hermetl~ally ~ d outeY ~n~reio~e outer envelo~e ~2 ha~ ~ longitudlnal axi~
~n~ th~ llght-sousc~ c~p~ s ~ 1 hallde ~r~ t~ h~ ng ~ 4u~tantially oyl~ndrlo~1 ~ody ~out the lo~gl~ud~n~ s. ~he ~o~y of tho ~c t~ ~n¢lo~es ~n intorior conta~n~g ~ gas~ous ~111 ~nd ~et~l hallde ~dd~tivo. A ga6 flll, ty~lcal~y 400 to~r o~ altrogen, i~ encloso~ w~th~n the outor ~nYelop 12. ~o arc tu~ body h~ outer radlus, ~ h~-ld 32 ~s a sub~tantially cyl~r~c~l llght-tr~m~s~v~ ~nclo6ure mo~n~e~
wlthln th~ outer env~lope 12 and ~lrround~n~ t~
asc t~O 1~. Th8 ~h~eld h~s ~n lnn~s ra~luo, R.
s~tlo rJI~ 8hould be g~at~r ~2un ~roxlm~tely 0.~ le~ th~ rox~tely 0.68 w~th ~ref-ra1~1O rusgo of a~?rox~a~cely 0.60 to ~roxlm~tely 0. 63 . L~mp ~emblle8 c:s~P8t~uct~d ln a~aorda~c~ wlth thl~ r~s~re~ent e~lb1t what ev~ to be o~tlmu~ b~l~nc~n~ b~tw~e~ heat con-er~at~on an~ ra~lsnt heat ~edlstr~utlon ovor a ~de range of rat~d ~rattages such th~t lamp perfo~m~nco ~s ~ tant~ally ~mproY~d.
~ n the l~mp ass~y 10 6ho~ ~n F~g. 1 ~nd descr~b~d he~elnabov~, contalnment 1~ achl~ved wh~n She out~ elope 12 h~s ~ standard m~n~mum w~ll th~ckn~ss o~ 0.46mm. T~e s~eld 32 18 preferably ln the r~nge of 1-2m~ ~n th~cknes~, Pref~bly, the 6h~eld 32 ~ electr~cally f~tln~, that ~, not connected to the ~lectrlc~1 ~ow~ ~ourc~ or to gsound .
~ he mosh 3~ re1n~orces th~ light-t~n~m~sl~ro shi~ld 3~, wh~le o~v~at~ng th~ di~dYantages of th~
~s~or ~rt. ~hen burst of th~ t-sourc~
c~ul~ 1~ occur~, ~hards of th~ ~hl~ld 32 ~nd sh~r~ of th~ l~gh~ ou~ce c~ulo 1~ ~r~
~stant~lly prevent~d f~om coll~d~nq ~th ~n~
sh~tex1ng the outer enveSo~ 1~. ~he me~h 3 ~ormed of ~e~ c f~Qxs tb~t ~r4 subst~nt~ally lect~lc~lly non~onduatlng ind th~t a~e c~p~ls of ~lth6tandlng t2~ operating t~mpe~at~r~s of th~ lamp ~8e~ y 10. ~nce t~e m~h 3~ i8 ~le~tr~c~
no~conduct~ng, the probl~m of sodlum mlgr~t~on. to ~h~ ~xtent th~t ~t ~r ~u~ y t~e ~>~e~enc~ of th~
m~h, i~ ellm~n~ted. Th~ c~rar~c f~be~ mesh ha~
~en foln~ to h~e ~ Y-ry m~or efect on lumen out~ut ~ro~ th~ p ~se~l~ 10.
~ e ~ 3~ can ha~e any con~ni~nt conflqur~tlon th-t 8ul:~8tantl~11y ~lrrounds ~nd ~e~nforce~ the 1~ght source capKu10 1~- ~s U8~ ln connectlon ~lth me~h 3~, the ter~ "surro~md~"
r~fers to th~ mesh ~8 a ~ho10, th~r~ ~ei~g ~prture~ between t~o 1~rs th~t con~itute tha me~h. ~he mesh 1~ formed of one o~ mor~ ~e~
e1ement~ th~t lntersect to form a n~t-liko ~tsucture. In o~e prQferred em~o~lmont ~owr~ ln F~g. 1, the mesh 3~ compr~ses a doub1~ spir~1, or dou~le ~ellx, conflguratlon includlng ~ f~r~t c~s~mlc ~lber 3~ hellcally wound ~rount ~hleld 32 ln ~ one t~rectlon ~d a ~-co~t cer~m~c ~lb~r 3 hellc~lly wou~d around the shlQl~ 32 in ~e oppo~i~ce ~ir~ct~on. ~h~ flbor~ 3~a ~nd 3~b ~so an¢hored ~t the ~nds of ~h~ sh~e~ 32 ~y ~trap~
3C. 81n¢e the flbers 3~a, 3~b are ~ound ln o~o~itQ d~r~ct~ons, they interseot at ~ult~
~oint~ ~0 ~nd fo~m net-l~ko me~h ~tructur~ on t~e ouéer susf-ce of shi~ld 32. ~t will be unt~rstood tha~ the f~bers 3-a ~nd 3~b can be ~e~ite ~b~rs os ~ ~ngle contlnuow f~ber. In the doubl~ h~lix ~tructuro st~own ~n F~gml, tb.e spac~ng ~otween tu~ns efor~ly ln the rAng~ bQtweeA about 12n~ an~
If tho ~paclng between turn~ m~ll, a ~gnlf~ca~t ~ort~on o~ tho l~ght output ~r ~loc~ o~orgely, ~f t~e s~clnq ~otwee~ turn~
1~ la~e, the r~lnforc~m~nt functlo~ ls dlm~ hed.
1 3~ 6206 Oth~r suitablo mosh ~trucsur~ r~ rtr~d ~n F~g~. ~ and 3. A vo~on me~h S0 com~ls~d o ceram~c flber~ u~tratad ~n Flg. 2. S~ the mesh structure 52 of Fig. 3, t~ f~bes~ are lnterconn~ct~d ~t Qach lnters~ct~on to form ~ mor~
rigid rtructure. In the embod~ments of F~g~. a an~
~, the spac~ng ~et~een ~d~cent ~i~ers i~ th~ m~sh ~8 prsfersbly in the rang~ bet~een a~out ~mm and In one ~r~ferrQd enbodimen~, the m~t~rial utll~zed ~or the cersmic f~ber~ of the ~e~h ~
h~ghly r~flo¢tln~, for ~xample wh~te or nearly white, r~eulting ln m~nlm~l llght ~bsorptl~n. ~n unother ~mbod~ment, the ~eram~c f~er~ are tra~p~ent or transluc~nt. In uny ~as~. th~
ob~ect ~ to r~n~orae th~ ~h~eld 32 ~h~le miniml~ng th~ reduct~on ln l~g~t out~ut duo to tho pr~nce of mesh 3~. ~o ~hi~ end, the d~ame~er of t~e ceramlc f~bers should ~Q minimi~e~ to the extent pot81~1e whll~ m~int~inln~ ~ufflclent ~tr~ngth t~ roinforcQ t~o llght trans~ hl~lt 3~ .
P~ef~rset matarl~ls fos the cer~m~c flbes ~clu~o met~l oxlde fl~ers such ~8 guart~ f~ber~
~nd vycor fi~r~. One ~re~rr~d flbes 1~ u~
~lumln~-~osla-~llica cer~mlc flber sold by 3M u~der th~ tra~n~e N~x~l. Sho 1b~ so typ~cally ~
~h~ ranqe ~otw~en about 900 ~enl~r ~nd 1800 ~eni~r.
2n ~ ~seferro~ nt, ~ 1000 v tt ~t~l h~llde ~rc dls~harge l~mp ~ncludes a cyl~sldr~c~l quart~ old ~pprox~m~tely 13~ mlll~mete~
length. ~h~ me~b lr c~nst~ucto~ of ~800 d0n~
~xtol fibors. Two turns of Nextal f~s ~
wrapped ~r~llel and to~lah~ng at e~ch end to ~astQn 1:he flb~r ~o t~e sh~ld. ~en, sev~n turn~ ~r~
wound 1~ ~ rpir~l ln both direct~ons ~ound th~
shleld for ~ tot~l of 18 ~urns. The cl~g bQtw~en turn~ of ~ch splr~ spp~ox~at-ly 1 mlll~net~r-. For the prefer~ed embodlment, a3?proxlmstely 200 arc ~lRchar~e lam~s hur~ ~on ~x~lo~-d wlth contsln~nt ltl all c~s.
13x~m~le 1 ~ he ~e~formance advantages of u~lng ~ ~hl~ld around the rc tu~e ~n a 1000 wstt metal halldo Samp, type M~ 1000, with gaseou~ outer ~nvQlo~e was prov~d ln ~ t~s~ whe~0 l~m~s mad~ wit~ a ~uart~
~hl~ld hav~nq s ~3~ ol~te~ diameter and ~
inner ~amet-r ~t~d no e~runlc f~ber me~h ave~aged 111 lumens p~r watt t 3530-X. T~e ~,ont~ol lamp~
wit~out ~h~lds ~v~ragod lo~ l~nen~ por v~tt ~nd 3660-X ~t loO hour~.
Ex~ 4 a ~ no~her te~t was mad~ w~th a guartr ~0 s ~3 (~O~s ~ dl~m~t~r ~d 43n~ out~ ~l~te~) -- ~3 -~hleld wr~ rally ln two dl~e~t~on~ wit~ 700 den~r ~oxtol thrs~d. T~ spac~ng b~tw~n turn~
w~ 15~. T~ ~8sem~1y wa~ Sit ~n ~ buSb t~
d~ssoclae~ th~ rlq-nt~ ~n the Nextel flber~.
Th18 was only part~ally ~u~c~ ul ~nd th~ ~ext~l flb~s were st~ll sl~qhtly d~scolor~ ~,nd lls~ht ab~orb~ng. ~e~plte tho di~colorat~on ~ the con~eguent l~ght ~bsorpt~on, llO lum~n~ watt ~nd 3300~X color tem~erature was obta~n~.
of this type worq ~xploded ~nd four cont~ln~
com~letely. T~e f'~fth lamp hat a 6mall hole. It was 40eme~ th~t tho 700 denl~r Nextol flber w~ too weak nd too loo~ely wr~pp~ ~roun~ t~e ~hl~ld.
A grou~ of lamp~ lll8 madQ w~eh a stand~rd ~h~ ness oute~ env~lope. ~xt~ r w~ ~sapped ~plr~lly u~ ~ ~0 X 43 guartz ~hlold ten tur~s ln hpprox~mately l~Omm of lengeh and Ya8 ~eYer8e piral wr~ppe~ ten turn~ ~n the oppo~t~
d~r~ct~on. Th~ ~hi~ld~ ~ th~ Nextel fl~er wrap were ~ecurad at bot~ ends ~nd were subj~ct~ eo a 700-C, t~n minute ~r fl~lng to remov~ ng cont~minant~ hR l~hlol~8 ~ero thon mado ~nto l~np~ wlth ~xploda~lo rc tu~e8. T~e a~c t~e~
w~ pu~ ely explod~d ~nd ~ig~t of ~Sght lamp~
I~m~lB ~a~e ~lt~ t~P. tur~ in ~Gh d~rectlon of 600 d~n~Q~ ~extol fl~ tr~to~ ~y a 700~C. t~n mlnute air ~lrlng yl~ld~d a lun-~nou~ ~fflcior~cy of 10~ en~ ~e~ watt ~nd ~ color temper~uro o~
mD1~ 5 A group o~ lamp8 war mt~e, sim~ltr to t~o~Q
0,escrib~ ln ~ le 3, ~ut with 600 den~er Next~l f~bers. Jour ltmps wo~o ox~lod~d ~nt ~ our co~ta~n~d .
A grou~? of l-mp- w-~ f~bri~at~d v~th ~ voven N~xtel mesh w~th ~cing ~ot~een ~lements r~nglng ~rom ~x ~gua~e~ per inc~ to two ~gua~ nch.
All l~m~s that ex~loded contalned.
Lamps were mad~ ~th 8ix ~ua~ per ~nch ~sh o~ 1800 do~ier ~ext~l fiber placed sn ~ ~0 ~ 3 qu~rts ShlOld. ~h~s~ lalltp6 yleld~d only ~7 lu~ens ~er watt at a3~proximately 3300-X. Tho rolat~ely low lumen~ p~r watt ~ bell~v~ to h~Je r~sult~d f~om d~stort~on of t~e ~h, cau~ng ~t to 1~ a tight0r ~e~h th~n ~eclf~ es~ beca~
o~n~l~lly ~h~ot of ~oxtol ~ab~c and cau~e~
QXC~SB~Y~ l~ght blacl~g~.
~ 15 --L~s ~ere con~tru~ ith t~o dlff~t ~xtel fl~r d~ter~; 900 denler and ~00 ~n~r. Sn ~ach aa~ t~e l~p wa~ ~ 1000 watt ~nQ~al h~ lamp. ~amp~ havln~ ~2, 16 and 32 turn~ of flber were t~st~. The ~ollo~r~ng ~at~ ~-~or S lt~r ~n e~h qroup.
Ta~lo 1 goo Denler Lumen~ Color Volta4e X~Lr w~tt T~m~r~t~lr~
3~ 26~ ~2 . ~ 3272 ~6 260 106 . 3 3391 1~ 260 105 -3660 18~0 D~n~or Lu en~ Color No. o~ tu~Volt~ r ~tt TemDerature ~X
3~ 261 1~1.3 33 16 ~63 lOS . o 3539 1~ 26~ 106 . 6 3370 t tast r~sultr u~d manuf~ctur~ng r~ul~em~nts l~lcato that t~ Oo donlor f~bor 1 fa~lror~. ~ oan 1~ s~en ~n ~ble 1 ~nd ~e 2, llg~t out~ut ~ not t~grad~d for ~he 180~ de~or, 16 turn cenf~guratlon. Tho br1ttl~n~ o~ 900 donle~ fl~r ma~ m~nuf~tur~g ~arginal u~d containment less effective. A mesh with more than 18 turns reduces the light output from the lamp.
The mesh 34 of ceramic fibers has been described herein primarily in connection with a cylindrical shield 32. It will be understood that the shape of the shield is not critical to the practice of the present invention.
For example, the shield can be domed at one end as disclosed in Fig. 2 of the aforementioned U.S. Patent No.
4,721,876, or can have other variations from a cylindrical shape.
It will be seen that there is described double-enveloped lamps which can be safely operated without a protective fixture and having an operating wattage greater than 400 watts wherein an outer envelope of standard thickness will contain a burst of the light-source capsule. The described self-containing double-enveloped lamps have a high luminous output. In the described lamps sodium migration is minimized and the lamps have a light-transmissive shield reinforced with a nonconducting fiber mesh.
While there have been shown and described what are at present considered the preferred embodiments of the present invention, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications may be made therein without departing from the scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.