CA1288310C - Encapsulated halogen bleaches and methods of preparation and use - Google PatentsEncapsulated halogen bleaches and methods of preparation and use
- Publication number
- CA1288310C CA1288310C CA 536548 CA536548A CA1288310C CA 1288310 C CA1288310 C CA 1288310C CA 536548 CA536548 CA 536548 CA 536548 A CA536548 A CA 536548A CA 1288310 C CA1288310 C CA 1288310C
- Grant status
- Patent type
- Prior art keywords
- alkali metal
- Prior art date
- Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
- Expired - Lifetime
Solid cast detergent-bleach composition having minimal bleach degradation comprising an alkaline hydratable chemical such as sodium hydroxide, a hardness sequestrant such as sodium tripolyphosphate, water of hydration and encapsulated active-halogen bleach formed in accordance with this invention. Optinally the detergent-bleach composition may contain a polyelectro-lyte such as polyacrylate.
163.489-US-02 Patent _.
M D P .
~ ~ .
ENCAPSULATED HALOGEN BLEACHES AND
METHODS OF PREPARATION AND USE
_ _ Field of the Invention This invention relates to encapsulated active-halogen bleach compositions, methods of making the encapsulated active-halogen bleach compositions and detergent compositions containing encapsulated active-halogen bleach. The encapsulated active-halogen bleach lS composition provides improved stability of the bleach when employed ~n an alkaline environment such as in a detergent-bleach composition.
Background__f the Invention The effectiveness o~ a detergent-bleach composition 20 ,,depends upon several factors including temperature of the washing solution9 the nature of the soil being removed, the nature and concentration o~ the active cle~ner, nature ~nd concentration of the bleach, hard-ness of the water and the like. One important factor, in maintain~ng an effective concentration o~ bieach, is the stability of the bleach in the detergent-~leach composition. ~n active-halogen bleach can react with other components in a detergent-bleach composition resulting in a substantial loss of active-halogen bleach and a corresponding loss of other reactant.
Many encapsulating procedures known in the art suggest coating a particle of bleach to isolate it from other reactive components so that it may be usefully employed in a detergent composition. However, many o~ these encapsulated bleaches are not stable in highly alXaline environments. Further, the suggested encapsu-lating compounds æuch as tetrapotassium phosphate, .~ .
Y` ~ ~2'~ LO ~
hydratable inorganic salts and C12_22 fatty acids must be dissolved in the wash water to release the core o active halogen. As a result, the encapsulating com-pounds generally remain in the wash water and can interfere in either the washing or bleaching pro-cess. Further, the suggested encapsulating compounds do not act as an active detersive ingredient but are merely present to encapsulate the active-halogen bleach, thereby increasing the cost and decreasing the percen-tage of active components. An encapsulating compoundwhich also acts as an active cleansing component would eliminate the introduction of unnecessary and unwanted compounds into the washing solution, reduce the cost of the detergent-bleach composition and increase the percentage of active components in the detergent bleach composition.
Encapsulation of an active-halogen source with a single inorganic coating is known in the art. Several examples of such compositions is disclosed in Brubaker, 20 ,~U.S. Pat. No. 4,273,764, Brennan, U.S. Pat. No. 3,637, 509, Hudson, V.S. Pat. No. 3~650~961r and Alterman, UOS. Pat. Nos. 3,983,254 and 3~908,045. Brubaker discloses a bleaching composition comprising a chlorine bleach coated with a silicate bound, hydrated, soluble salt having an N-H chlorine accepting component.
Brubaker discloses that the composition is useful in preventing dye and fabric damage caused by bleach particles during machine washing of fabrics. Brennan disclosQs the encapsulation o~ a mixture of an organic chlorinating agent and an alkali metal tripolyphosphate with tetrapotassium phosphate. Brennan discloses that the composition provides improved chlorine stability.
Hudson discloses ~luidized bed encapsulation with a hydratable inorganic salt. Hudson discloses that the core is a bleach the capsule provides improved bleach stabili~y in detergent compositions. The Alterman patents disclose encapsulation with a C12-22 fatty "~, .
acid and, when the core is a chlorine releasing agent, further encapsulation with a second coat of an alkali hydroxide. Alterman discloses that the capsule is effective in preventing bleach from causing pinholes in washed fabrics.
Accordingly, a substantial need exists for an oxidizing halogen bleach that is stable in a highly alkaline -environment, does not substantially degrade other cleaning components, and does not introduce unwanted and unnecessary components into the wash water. Further, a substantial need exists for a highly alkaline storage stable detergent-bleach composition having substantially no degradation of the bleach contained therein.
Summary of the Invention We have discovered that the problem of stabiIizing an active-halogen bleach in an alkaline environment, such as a detergent-bleach composition, may be solved by encapsulating the bleach in a synthetic detergent or in 20 ~,a first coating of a soluble inorganic coating agent followed by a coating o~ a synthetic detergent. We have discovered that the double coating is not always re-quired as a single coating of a synthetic detergent can, in certain instances, fully isolate the bleach. 25 ~owever, we have discovered that isolation of the bleach can be assured by coating the bleach with a first coat of an inorganic coating agent and a second coat of a synthetic detergent. We believe that the first coat of inorganic coating agent prevents minimal degredation of the bleach by the synthetic detergent by physically separating the bleach and the synthetic detergent and also promotes adherence of the synthetic detergent.
Preferably the inorganic coating agent is a detergent builder and the detergent builder and synthetic deter-gent are components useful in the cleaning compositionin which they are addedr A first aspect of the invention is an active-halogen bleach encaps~lated with sufficient syntheticdetergent to prevent any substantial reaction between the active-halogen bleach and other cleaning components.
A second aspect of the invention is an active-halogen bleach encapsulated with a first layer of aninorganic coating agent and a second layer of a synthe-tic detergent.
A third aspect of the invention provides a method for making the encapsulated active-halogen bleach.
A fourth aspect of the invention is a solid, cast detergent-bleach composition wherein the encapsulated active-halogen bleach of the present invention is incorporated in a solid, cast highly alkaline detergent composition.
A fifth aspect of the invention provides a method for making the solid, cast detergent-bleach composition.
For purposes of this application, "halogen bleach", or "active-halogen" encompasses active-halogen contain-ing oxidization and bleaching compositions which 20, are capable of releasing one or more oxidizing halogen species (typically~OCL-).
For purposes of this application "inorganic coating agent" encompasses all soluble inorganic compounds which may be used as a detergent filler or builder and which S do not substantially react with halogen-bleaches.
Detailed Descri tion of the Invention P _ In a first e`mbodiment the encapsulated halogen bleaches of this invention comprise an active halogen bleach core and at least one synthetic detergent coat-ing. In a second, preferred embodiment the encap-sulated halogen bleaches comprise an active-halogen bleach core, a first coating of an inorganic coating agent and a second coating of a synthetic deterqent.
Halogen Bleach Halogen releasing substances suitable as a core materlal in the present invention include halogen components capable of liberating active halogen species 1.2EIF~ 110 such as a free elemental halogen ~x) or an oxidi~ed halo~en (-OX-), und`er conditions normally encountered during detergent-bleach cleaning processes. Preferably the halogen releasing compound releases chlorine or bromine species. Most preferably the halogen releasing compound releases chlorine species. A nonexhaustive list of chlorine releasing compounds which may be employed as the core material in the present invention include potassium dichloroisocyanurate, sodium dichlor-oisocyanurate, chlorinated trisodium phosphate, calciumhypochloride, lithium hypochloride, monochloramine, dichloramine~ [(monotrichloro)-tetra(monopotassium dichloro)]pentaisocyanurate, 1,3-dichloro-5,5-dimethyl hydantoin, paratoluene sulfondichloro-amide, trichlor-omelamine, N-chlorammeline, N-chlorosuccinimide, N,N' -dichloroazodicarbonamide, N-chloro-acetyl-urea, N,N' -dichlorobiuret, chlorinated dicyandiamide, trichloro-cyanuric acid/ l-chloro-3-bromo-5-5-dimethyl hydantoin, 1-3-dichloro-5-ethyl-5-methyl hydantoin, 1-choro-3-~o bromo-5-ethyl-5-methyl hydantoin, and dichlorohydantoin~
For reasons of excellent bleaching properties and ease of availability the preferred halogen releasing compound is dichloroisocyanurate dihydrate, represented by the chemical formula:
NaC12C3N303-2H20 Dichloroisocyanurate dihydrate is commercially available from Monsanto in granular form.
Synthetic Detergent The synthetic detergent must remain suf~iciently solid at temperatures likely to be encountered during storage of the encapsulate (about 15 to 50 C.) and must also remain sufficiently stable at temperatures likely to be encountered during processing (about 15 to 950 C . ) Synthetic detergents that may be employed in the present invention include the anionic, cationic, nonionic and amphoteric types. The preferred synthetic detergents are anionic. A nonlimiting list of anionic detergents useful in the present invention include the : ~ ~.......... ~ 9~3~310 .
-- 6 -- ~
alkyl monomolecular aromatic al~ali-metal sulfonates such as the C4_14 àlkylbenzenesulfonates disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 2,477,382 (alkyl derived from polypropyl-ene), U.S. Pat. No. 3,370,100 (alkyl a hexene dimer or trimer), and U.S. Pat. No. 3,214,462 (alkyl derived from alphaolefins). Also useful are the primary and secon-dary alkyl and alkylene sulfates and fatty alcohol sulfates.
A particularly suitable synthetic detergent for use in the present invention is preoxidized sodium octyl sulfonate. The sodium octyl sulfonate may contain a minor amount of 1,2 alkane bisulfonate as a by-product of manufacture which does not appear to affect the usefulness of sodium octyl sulfonate as a coating in the present invention.
The synthetic detergent may be applied as a melt or preferably in solution. When applied in solution water is the preferred solvent because of its compatibility and substantially non-reactivity with chlorine releasing 20 ~,agents, non-flammablity, and nontoxicity.
A capsule formed in accordance with the present invention may be formulated with a detergent to provide a commercially valuable detergent-bleach composition.
Soluble Inorganic Coating A~ent The inorganic coating agent must be water soluble, remain sufficiently solid at temperatures likely to be encountered during storage of the capsule (about 15 to 50 C.), and remain sufficiently stable at temperatures likely to be encountered during processing tabout 15 to 95 C.).
Preferably the inorganic coating agent is a detergent builder or filler which itself is a useful detergent component in the cleaning composition in which the bleach is incorporated.
A nonlimiting list of inorganic detergent fillers suitable for use as a coating agent in the present invention includes: alkalies such as sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium sesquicarbonate, sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, potassiurn carbonat~, potas-.
sium bicarbonate, potassium sequicarbonate, potassium borate and potassium tetraborate; phosphates such as forms of mono, di and trisodium phosphate, mono, di and tripotassium phosphate, anhydrous hydrated diammonium phosphate, monocalcium phosphate monohydrate, tricalcium phosphate, calcium pyrophosphate, iron pyrophosphate, magnesium phosphate, monopotassium orthophosphate, potassium pyrophosphate, dry, disodium orthophosphate, dihdydrate, trisodium orthophosphate, decahydrate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium phosphate glass; neutral soluble salts such as sodium sulfate and sodium chloride; silicates such as water soluble silicates having an SiO2:Na2O ratio of between about 1.6-3.2.
A nonlimiting list of suitable detergent builder compounds includes tetrasodium and tetrapotassium pyrophosphate, pentasodium and pentapotassium tri-polyphosphate, anhydrous and hydrated forms of sodium and potassium silicates, sodium trimetaphosphates, sodium borates, sodium and potassium carbonates, bicar-bonates, sesquicarbonates, phosphates and polyphos-phonates.
Encapsulation Process , . 25 The protective, passivating, encapsulating coatings of the present invention may be conveniently applied by means of a fluidizèd bed apparatus, shown schematically in Fig. 1. Rèferring to Fig. 1, the coating or encap-sulation of the bleach particles 4 is accomplished in ~oating chamber or cylindrical tower 1. A distributor plate 2 is located at the base of tower 1. An unex-panded bed of the particles 4 to be coated is placed within tower 1 in resting engagement with distributor plate 2. A downwardly projecting spray nozzle 3 is adjustably disposed within towe~ 1, and adapted to be vertically adjusted so that the coating material 6, discharged in a downwardly diverging three-dimensional spray pattern from nozzle 3, just covers the entire .~ ~.. .. .. ..
upper surface area of an expanded bed of the particiës Coating material 6 contained in vessel 5 is fed to nozzle 3 by pump 7. The spray of coating ~aterial 6 from nozzle 3 may be aided by pressurized air entering tower 1 at inlet 13. A fluidizing gas flow created by a blower g passes through duct 11 and distributor plate 2. The gas flow may be either cooled by cooling system 8 or heated by heat exchanger 10 as necessary, to maintain the fluidizing gas within the desired tempera-ture range. An exhaust blower~12 may be employed to remove solvent vapors.
A multiplicity of core particles 4 is placed on distributor plate 2. Air is caused to flow through duct 11 and distributor plate 2 by blower 9, fluidizing the particles 4 (i.e. maintaining the particles in a state of continuous motion within a volume which is greater than the volume defined by the particles at rest). The liquid synthetic detergent 6 contained in vessel 5 is 20 , sprayed by pump 7 through nozzle 3 onto the fluidized particles 4 until all particles 4 in the bed are com-pletely coated. Particles 4 coated by the above-de-scribed procedure are completely encapsulated with a continuous coating of coating substance 6, and are free-flowing and nonagglomerated It is important that the entire surface area of each particle `be covered to prevent the core of halogen bleach from reacting with an alkaline environ-ment.
When it is desired to apply a first inorganic coating agent with a subsequent coating of a synthetic detergent, the two coats may be applied in any conve-niently and economical manner. For instance, the two coatings may be applied by spraying on the inorganic coating agent, emptying solution tank 5 of inorganic coating agent, filling solution tank 5 with synthetic detergent and spraying on the synthetic detergent.
Alternatively~ the two coatings may be applied utilizing ~ 1~, a second solution tank 5A connected to pump 7 and fil~led with synthetic detergent. The fluidized particle~ would be coated with the inorganic coating agent contained in solution tank 5, the inorganic coating agent allowed to dry and the dry particles then coated with the synthetic detergent contained in solution tank 5A. A third method o~ applying the two coatings is to coat the core par-ticles 4 with the first inorganic coating agent in a first fluidized bed apparatus, allowing the once coated particles to dry, placing the once coated particles in a second fluidized bed apparatus and coating the particles with the synthetic detergent.
Before removal of the encapsulated oxidizing halogen bleach from the fluidized bed the bed tempera-ture may be increased to drive off solvent remaining inthe capsule. However, the temperature should be kept below the melting temperature of the coatings and below the degradation temperature o~ the encapsulated halogen-- bleach.
20 ~ When a single coating is employed the encapsulated halogen bleach particles of the present invention can comprise about 20 to 90 wt-% halogen bleach core and about 10 to 80 wt-~ synthetic detergent coating. When a double coating is employed the particles can comprise -- 25 about 20 to 90 wt-% halogen bleach core, about 0.5 to 50 wt-% inorganic coating agent first coat, and about 5 to 70 wt-% synthetic detergent second coat.
More particularly, the single coated halogen bleach can comprise about 30 to 80 wt-% halogen bleach core and about 20 to 70 wt-% synthetic detergent coat-ing. Most particularly, the single coated halogen bleach can comprise about 40 to 55 wt-% halogen bleach source core and about 45 to 60 wt-% synthetic detergent coating.
More particularly the double coated halogen bleach can comprise about 30 ~to 80 wt-~ halogen bleach core, about 5 to 50 wt-~ first inorqanic coating agent coat-ing, and about 5 to 50 wt-~ second synthetic detergent 33~ ( ~ 10 -- ~
coating. Most particularly, the double coated halogen bleach can comprise about 30 to 60 wt-~ halogen bleach c~
core, about 15 to 45 wt-% ~irst inorganic coating agent coating, and about 10 to 35 wt-% second synthetic detergent coating.
Detergent Composition _ Detergent compositions within which the encap-sulated bleach of the present invention can find utility may broadly be represented by the following list of components and proportions thereof:
Approximate Percentage Anionic or nonionic detergent 1-90 Organic and/or inorganic 0-95 builders (including alkaline builders) Encapsulated bleaching agent 0.5-25 Optical brightener 0-0.3 Water 5-5C
20 ~ Filler 0-25 While the encapsulated bleach of the present invention may be incorporated into nearly any detergent composition it finds particular utility in combination with solid cast highly alkaline detergent compositions as hereinafter described.
We have discovered a storage-stable solid cast detergent-bleach composition having substantially no deactivated halogen bleach which comprises an alkaline hydratable chemical a halogen bleach encapsulated in accordance with the present invention and water. ~he detergent composition may further contain a sequestrant or chelating agent. When employed, the sequestrant or chelating agent is also preferably a hydratable chemical A nonlimiting list of alkaline hydratable chemicals which may be employed in the present invention includes alkali metal hydroxides such as sodium and potassium hydroxide; silicates such as sodium metasilicate;
phosphates, particularly phosphates of the formula 3~
~-(PO3;~ ~ ~1 or the corresponding cyclic compoùnds PO3MtPO3t~ ~ PO3M wherein M is an alkali metal and n is an integer ~rom 1 to 60; polyphosphates such as sodium and potassium pyrophosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium hexametaphosphate; carbonates such as sodium and potassium carbonate; and borates such as sodium borate.
Combinations of two or more hydratable chemicals such as sodium hydroxide and sodium tripolyphosphate have been found to work particularly well.
The water, used to form a uniform medium, may be added as a separate ingredient or in combination with one of the other components, for example as an aqueous soluticn of 50~ sodium hydroxide.
A nonlimiting list of sequestrants and chelating agents which may be usefully employed in the present invention includes alkali metal condensed phosphates such as sodium or potassium pyrophosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, amino trimethylene ~osphonate and sodium hexametaphosphate; polycarboxylate compounds such 20 ~as polymaleic acid, polyfumaric acid and copolymers o~
acrylic and itaconic acid, polyelectrolytes such as the polyacrylates, etc. For reasons of high alkalinity and ease of availability, the preferred al~aline hydratable chemical is sodium hydroxide or a mixture of sodium hydroxide and a sodium condensed phosphate. The pre-ferred sequestrant is a polyacrylate.
A typical four-component detergent-bleach composi-tion can contain (1) an alkali metal hydroxide, (~) a halogen bleach encapsulated in accordance with the present invention, (3) a hydratable hardness-precipita-ting or hardness sequestering agent, and (4) water.
The solid cast detergent-bleach composition will normally be comprised o~ at least about 30 wt-~, prefer-ably at least about 60 wt-~ hydratable chemical(s) from components 1 and 3, at least 5 wt-~, pre~erably about 10-35 wt-~ water, and about O.S to 25 wt-~, pre~erably about 3 to 12 wt-g, encapsulated halogen bleach.
~s For clarity, the process of making the detergent-"
bleach composition of the present invention will ~e described with reference to the preferred components and pre~erred variable ranges. This is not intended to limit the process to those components and ranges only.
Other components and similar processes may be employed to form a solid cast detergent-bleach composition in accordance with the present invention.
A particularly useful detergent-bleach composition may be formed by (i) adding sufficient anhydrous sodium hydroxide to water to form a 40 to 80 wt-% caustic solution, (ii) heating about 20-75 wt-~ of the caustic solution to a temperature between about 55 to 95 C., (iii) blending about 10 to 45 wt ~ anhydrous sodium tripolyphosphate and any other additive such as a filler, a dye etc. to the highly caustic solution to form the detergent composition, (iv) dispensing about 0.5 to 25 wt-% ~f encapsulated haloqen-bleach into the ' detergent composition to form the detergent-bleach 20 ~,cor,lposition, and (v) cooling the detergent-bleach composition to ~orm a solid cast detergent composition.
Preferably, the detergent-bleach composition is cast into a receptable be~ore complete solidification.
If desired, about 0 to 15 wt-% polyacrylate may - 25 be blended with the highly caustic solution in order to add a sequestrant to the composition. ' We have found that it is not necessary to dissolve the sodium tripolyphosphate~ encapsulated bleach or -' polyacrylate to achieve a substantially homogeneous composition as they may be stably suspended in the solidified detergent-bleach composition in order to 'achieve a substantially homogeneous dispersion. The composition is preferably continuously mixed during the process. ~owever, in order to further 5ubstantially reduce the amount o~ reaction between the halogen bleach and the other detergent-bleach components the encapsu-lated bleach is dispersed into the detergent composition with a minimum of agitation. One method o~ substantial-31~
ly uniformly dispersing the encapsulated halogen-bleach into the detergent composition with a minimum amount of agitation is to simultaneously add the encapsulated halogen bleach and the detergent composition into a single container. The rate of feed should be metered so that suf~icient detergent composition is remaining to "top-off" the resultant detergent-bleach composition and prevent unbound capsules from resting on top.
The detergent composition may be cast into a temporary mold from which it is subsequently transferred into a separate receptacle for shipping and sale, or may be cast directly into the receptacle used ~or shipping and sale. Preferably, the composition is cast directly into the final container in order to eli~inate the transfer step.
Solidification of the detergent-bleach composition may be done in any convenient manner such as cooling under room conditions, quenching in a cooling tank or cooling in a refrigerated unit. To reduce the chances 20 , of the detergent composition eating through the halogen bleach coatings and reacting with the halogen bleach, the detergent-bleach composition is prefera~ly colled rapidly as by a water spray.
Either during or after solidification a cover - 25 or cap ~an be placed over the opening in the receptacle to seal the solid cast detergent-bleach composition until used.
The receptacle may be made of any material capable o~ housing the detergent composition, including but not limited to glass; metals such as aluminum and steel; and structural resins such as polyolefins (polyethylene), polyesters (mylar), polyamide (nylon), etc~ When the detergent composition is cast directly in the recep-tacle, the receptacle must be capable of withstanding temperatures encountered during ~he casting process.
For reasons o~ cost, the pre~erred material is a poly-olefin with polypropylene being the most preferred.
As shown irl Fig. 2, a preferred means o dispensing - ~, ..
-the detergent-bleach composition is from a spray-type dispense. In a spray-type dispenser a water spray 31 is impinged upon an exposed surface(s) 21 of the solid block detergent-bleach composition 20, thereby dissolv-ing a portion of the composition 20 and forming aconcentrated detergent-bleach solution which is allowed to pass out of the dispenser 10.
The most preferred means of dispensing the detergent composition is one wherein (i) the composi-tion is cast directly into a riaht angle cylindrical container from which the composition is dispensed, (ii) an exposed surface of the composition is placed upon and supportably engaged by a right angle cylindrical screen, and tiii) water is sprayed onto the exposed surface of the composition, dissolving the composition and forming a concentrated solution. Such a dispenser allows the composition to be dispensed without removing it from the container and dispenses a concentrated solution o 20 ,~substantially constant concentration over the lifetime of the detergent-bleach blocX as it maintains a relative-ly constant distance between the dissolving exposed surface of the composition and the spray nozzle.
For dispensing from the preferred dispenser, the container must leave at least one surface of the detergent composition exposed, preferably leaving only a single exposed surface, so that water may be impinged upon the detergent-bleach composition.
The detergent-bleach composition may be cast into any suitable size and shape but, for reasons of ~i) shortening the time period necesSary to complete solidification of the composition, (ii) presenting an exposed surface sufficiently large to allow dispen-sing at an effective rate, and (iii) ease of shipping and handling, the preferred size of the detèrgent composition receptacle is between about 3 to 10 liters with an exposed surface area of about 50 to S00 square ~ centimetersr and most preferably between abut 3 to 4 ,~
- 15 ~
liters with an exposed surface area of about 150 to 200 square centimeters. `
Other commonly employed detergent components may be present in the detergent-bleach compositions of the invention. Typical examples include the well-known soil suspending agents, corrosion inhibitors, dyes, perfumes, fillers, optical brighteners, enzymes, germicides, anti-tarnishing agents, and the liXe.
The invention may be more fully understood by 0 reference to the following Examples.
Example 1 5.71 lbs. of granular dichloroisocyanurate dihy-drate having particle sizes between 10 to 60 U.S. mesh were placed onto the distributor plate of a fluidized bed apparatus. The particles were fluidized and the temperature of the bed maintained between 43 and 83 C.
A synthetic detergent coating solution was prepared by dissolving 5.55 lbs. of a 40~ aqueous solution of 20 ~ sodium octyl sulfonate in 5.55 lbs. of soft water.
The synthetic detergent coating solution was sprayed onto the fluidized bleach particles through a spray nozzle for one hour. The coated particles were of - substantially uni~orm size, dry and free flowing. The cvated particles comprised between 60 to 85 wt-~ di-chloroisocyanurate dihydrate bleach core.
Example 2 5.71 lbs. of granular dichloroisocyanurate dihydrate having particle sizes between 10 to 60 U.S. mesh were placed onto the distributor plate of a fluidized bed apparatus. The particles were ~luidized and the tem-perature of the bed maintained between 43 and 83 C.
A first coating solution ~as prepared by dis-solving 2.71 lbs. of sodium sulfate and 0.90 lbs. of sodium tripolyphosphate in 11.3 lbs. of soft water. The first coating solution was sprayed onto the fluidized bleach particles through a spray nozzle for one hour.
The once coated particles were of substantially uniform size, dr~ and free flowin~.
A second coating solution was prepared by dis-solving 5.55 lbs. of a 40~ aqueous solution of sodium octyl sulfonate in 5.55 lbs. of soft water. The second coating solution was sprayed onto the fluidized once coated particles in the same manner as the first coating was sprayed onto the particles.
After addition of the second coating the bed temperature was allowed to rise to about 83 C. to evaporate free moisture from the coated particles.
The twice coated particles were of substantially uniform size, dry and free flowing.
Example 3 Into a 5 gallon vessel provided with a stirring means and a heating means was placed 6,547 grams (20.6 wt-%) of a 50 wt-~ sodium hydroxide solution~ The sodium hydroxide solution was heated to S5-60 C. 858 grams (2.7 wt-%) water was blended into the sodium 20~hydroxide solution. 9,629 grams (30.3 wt-~) anhydrous sodium hydroxide was blended into the solution to form a highly caustic solution. 10,138 grams (31.9 wt-%) anhydrous sodium tripolyphosphate was blended into the highly caustic solution to form a liquid detergent composition. The solution was stirred until the anhy-drous sodium hydroxide and anhydrous sodium tripolyphos-phate were thoroughly dispersed. 0.95 grams (0.003 wt-%~ dye and 159 grams (0.5 wt-%) nonionic surfactant were added to the liquid detergent solution and mixed until a homogeneous color was obtained. Mixing was continued for 10 minutes without heat to thicken the liquid detergent composition. Nearly 1 gallon of the thickened detergent composition at 65C. was poured into a 1 gallon container. ~09 grams of encapsulated chlorine bleach made in accordance with Example 2 was placed into a vibratory feeder positioned to fill a 3 liter polyolefin container. The encapsulated chlorine bleach and the thickened detergent composition were fed ,, .
: , simultaneously into the 3 liter bottle with the encap-sulated chlorine fed from the vibratory feeder and the thickened detergent composition poured manually Erom the 1 gallon container. The rate of ~eed o~ both components was regulated so that approximately 1/2 to 1 lb. of detergent composition was available to "top off"
the 3 liter bottle to prevent loose, non-wetted encap-sulated chlorine particles from remaining on the top of the detergent-bleach composition. The container was capped and allowed to cool for 24 hours at room temperature, forming a solid cast chlorinated highly alkaline detergent composition. The final weight of the detergent bleach composition was 9 lbs.
Example 4 Several chlorinated highly alkaline detergent compositions formed in accordance with Example 3 were removed from their containers and each placed in 240 lbs. of water in a low shear GROEN mixer. The solution was mixed for 2 hours until the chlorinated highly 20 ~alkaline detergent composition was completely dis-solved. A sample was taken and available chlorine titration conducted on the sample~ Calculation of the percent âvailable chlorine still remaining for each composition is tabulated in Table 1 ~ollowing.
r` 3 . ~ o o X . .
a) o o o al o o o ~9 3 Q~
o ,1 U~ o X .
I~s a) ~
X ~ cn In S-l ~J
o ~ a~ o o ~-1 a) ~ ~ ,, ~ cn a~
~ ~,1 U~
~ ~ .Y o V H Cl 1 h ~ 3 ~0 OD
U~ ~ N ~
J X . ~ ~ ~
~IJ ') N ~1 1`
~ ~ o O 0~ ~
.. ~1 'I a) q~
rl O In 1 ~: P ~:: a~ o o~
H ~¢ U N ~1 N
al h E O E o o o o ~ IJ aJ 1-- 1` 1`
u~ ~q E'' a~
U~ Z -1 N ~ ~r The specification and Examples are presented above to aid in the complete non-limiting understanding of the invention. Since many variations and embodiments of the invention can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, the invention resides in the claims hereinafter appended.
(a) at least 30 wt-%, based upon the compo-sition, alkaline hydratable chemical;
(b) a hardness-sequestrant;
(c) about 0 to 15 wt-%, based upon the composition, polyelectrolyte;
(d) at least 5 wt-%, based upon the alkaline hydratable chemical, water of hydration; and (e) a plurality of substantially randomly dispersed encapsulated bleach particles, compris-ing:
(i) about 20 to 90 wt-%, based upon the encapsulated bleach particles, core which comprises a source of active-halogen bleach;
(ii) about 0 to 50 wt-%, based upon the encapsulated bleach particles, first coating which comprises a soluble inorganic coating agent; and (iii) about 10 to 80 wt-%, based upon the encapsulated bleach particles, coating which comprises a second synthetic detergent.
(a) at least 30 wt-%, based upon the com-position, sodium hydroxide;
(b) about 10 to 45 wt-%, based upon the composition, alkali metal polyphosphate;
(c) about 0 to 15 wt-%, based upon the composition, polyelectrolyte;
(d) at least 5 wt-%, based upon the com-position, water; and (e) a plurality of about 4 to 60 U.S.
mesh substantially randomly dispersed encapsulated bleach particles, comprising:
(i) about 35 to 60 wt-%, based upon the encapsulated bleach particles, core which comprises a source of active-halogen bleach;
(ii) about 0 to 40 wt-%, based upon the encapsulated bleach particles, first coating which comprises an alkali metal phosphate, alkali metal sulfate, or mixtures thereof; and (iii) about 10 to 40 wt-%, based upon the encapsulated bleach particles, second coating which comprises an alkyl sulfonate or an alkali metal salt thereof.
(a) heating about 20 to 75 wt-%, based upon the composition, of a 40 to 80 wt-% aqueous solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to about 50 to 95° C.;
(b) substantially uniformly distributing into the aqueous caustic solution:
(i) an effective amount of a wash water hardness sequestrant;
(ii) about 0 to 15 wt-%, based upon the composition, polyelectrolyte (iii) about 10 to 60 wt-%, based upon the composition, alkaline hydratable chemical;
and (iv) about 0.5 to 25 wt-%, based upon the composition, encapsulated bleach particles comprising:
(A) about 20 to 90 wt-%, based upon the encapsulated bleach particles, core which comprises a source of active-halogen bleach;
(B) about 0 to 50 wt-%, based upon the encapsulated bleach particles, first coating which comprises a soluble inorganic coating agent; and (C) about 10 to 80 wt-%, based upon the encapsulated bleach particles, coating which comprises a second syn-thetic detergent;
to form a liquid detergent-bleach composition;
and (c) allowing the liquid detergent-bleach composition to thicken and solidify.
(a) heating about 20 to 75 wt-%, based upon the composition, of a 40 to 80 wt-% aqueous solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to about 50 to 95° C.;
(b) substantially uniformly distributing into the aqueous solution:
(i) an effective amount of a wash water hardness sequestrant;
(ii) about 0-15 wt-%, based upon the composition, polyelectrolyte; and (iii) about 10 to 60 wt-%, based upon the composition, alkaline hydratable chemical;
to form a liquid detergent composition;
(c) blending without substantial agitation about 0.5 to 25 wt-%, based upon the composition, encapsulated bleach particles and the liquid detergent composition, the encapsulated bleach particles comprising:
(i) about 20 to 90 wt-%, based upon the encapsulated bleach particles, core which comprises a source of active halogen bleach;
(ii) about 0 to 50 wt-%, based upon the encapsulated bleach particles, first coating which comprises a soluble inorganic coating agent; and (iii) about 10 to 80 wt-%, based upon the encapsulated bleach particles, second coating which comprises a synthetic detergent;
to form a liquid detergent-bleach composition; and (d) allowing the liquid detergent-bleach composition to thicken and solidify.
core, about 0 to 40 wt-% first coating, and about 10 to 40 wt-% second coating, based upon the encapsulated bleach particles.
(a) heating about 35 to 75 wt-%, based upon the composition, of a 40 to 80 wt-% sodium hy-droxide aqueous solution, to about 50 to 95° C.
(b) substantially uniformally distributing in the aqueous solution;
(i) an effective amount of sodium tripolyphosphate as a wash water hardness sequestrant;
(ii) about 0 to 15 wt-%, based upon the composition, polyacrylate;
(iii) about 25 to 60 wt-%, based upon the composition, alkaline hydratable chemical selected from the group consisting of anhy-drous sodium hydroxide, anhydrous alkali metal polyphosphate and mixtures thereof;
to form a liquid detergent composition;
(c) blending with the liquid detergent composition, without substantial agitation, about 3 to 12 wt-%, based upon the composition, encap-sulated bleach particles, comprising:
(i) about 35 to 60 wt-%, based upon the encapsulated bleach particles, core which comprises dichloroisocyanurate;
(ii) about a to 40 wt-%, based upon the encapsulated bleach particles, first coating selected from the group consisting of alkali metal phosphates, alkali metal sulfates and mixtures thereof; and (iii) about 10 to 40 wt-%, based upon the encapsulated bleach particles, second coating comprising an alkyl sulfonate or an alkali metal salt thereof;
to form a liquid detergent composition; and (d) rapidly cooling the liquid detergent-bleach composition by contacting the composition with water in order to thicken and solidify the composition.
Priority Applications (2)
|Application Number||Priority Date||Filing Date||Title|
|US06861064 US4681914A (en)||1985-04-30||1986-05-08||Solid cast detergents containing encapsulated halogen bleaches and methods of preparation and use|
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|CA1288310C true CA1288310C (en)||1991-09-03|
Family Applications (1)
|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|CA 536548 Expired - Lifetime CA1288310C (en)||1985-04-30||1987-05-07||Encapsulated halogen bleaches and methods of preparation and use|
Country Status (3)
|JP (1)||JPH0684516B2 (en)|
|CA (1)||CA1288310C (en)|
|ES (1)||ES2005869A6 (en)|
Families Citing this family (11)
|Publication number||Priority date||Publication date||Assignee||Title|
|JP2509075Y2 (en) *||1988-09-26||1996-08-28||北川工業株式会社||Noise current absorber|
|JPH0638473Y2 (en) *||1988-09-28||1994-10-05||北川工業株式会社||Noise current absorber|
|JPH0543510Y2 (en) *||1988-09-29||1993-11-02|
|JP2521801Y2 (en) *||1989-02-17||1997-01-08||北川工業 株式会社||Noise absorber|
|DE4016809C2 (en) *||1989-05-29||2002-04-18||Kitagawa Ind Co Ltd||The electric noise absorber|
|US6023023A (en) *||1996-07-19||2000-02-08||Takeuchi Industrial Co., Ltd.||Noise absorbing apparatus|
|JP3126922B2 (en) *||1996-07-19||2001-01-22||竹内工業株式会社||Noise absorbing device|
|JPH10223440A (en) *||1997-02-04||1998-08-21||Taiyo Yuden Co Ltd||Noise filter|
|JP4160592B2 (en)||2005-11-29||2008-10-01||Ｔｄｋ株式会社||Noise absorbing device|
|JP2007273715A (en) *||2006-03-31||2007-10-18||Tdk Corp||Noise-absorbing device|
|JP2017186549A (en) *||2016-03-31||2017-10-12||株式会社Adeka||Fused solid type detergent composition|
Also Published As
|Publication number||Publication date||Type|
|US3306858A (en)||Process for the preparation of storage stable detergent composition|
|US3650961A (en)||Process for preparing particulate products having preferentially internally concentrated core components|
|US3886098A (en)||Manufacture of free flowing particulate detergent composition containing nonionic detergent|
|US4713079A (en)||Particles containing dihalohydantoin bleach in a diluted core|
|US5234615A (en)||Article comprising a water soluble bag containing a multiple use amount of a pelletized functional material and methods of its use|
|US4801395A (en)||Thixotropic clay aqueous suspensions containing long chain saturated fatty acid stabilizers|
|US5198198A (en)||Article comprising a water soluble bag containing a multiple use amount of a pelletized functional material and methods of its use|
|US4414130A (en)||Readily disintegrable agglomerates of insoluble detergent builders and detergent compositions containing them|
|US4370250A (en)||Detergent tablet|
|US5259994A (en)||Particulate laundry detergent compositions with polyvinyl pyrollidone|
|US5384364A (en)||Stabilized detersive-system containing water soluble film article|
|US4752409A (en)||Thixotropic clay aqueous suspensions|
|US4099912A (en)||Detergent compositions and washing methods including and utilizing separate tablets of components|
|US5078301A (en)||Article comprising a water soluble bag containing a multiple use amount of a pelletized functional material and methods of its use|
|US4253842A (en)||Detergent compositions and washing methods including and utilizing separate tablets of components|
|US4846989A (en)||Solid cast warewashing composition and process for preparing the same|
|US6017864A (en)||Alkaline solid block composition|
|US4849125A (en)||Process for preparing a phosphate-reduced granular detergent|
|US3669891A (en)||Chemical compositions|
|US4830773A (en)||Encapsulated bleaches|
|US6028113A (en)||Solid sanitizers and cleaner disinfectants|
|US4421657A (en)||Heavy duty laundry softening detergent composition and method for manufacture thereof|
|US5419850A (en)||Block detergent containing nitrilotriacetic acid|
|US4851137A (en)||Process for manufacturing bentonite agglomerates|
|US4954280A (en)||Machine dishwashing composition|