Time-of-use-meter with a calendar of cyclic events
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- CA1275304C CA1275304C CA 485254 CA485254A CA1275304C CA 1275304 C CA1275304 C CA 1275304C CA 485254 CA485254 CA 485254 CA 485254 A CA485254 A CA 485254A CA 1275304 C CA1275304 C CA 1275304C
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- Patent type
- Prior art keywords
- Prior art date
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- G01—MEASURING; TESTING
- G01R—MEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
- G01R21/00—Arrangements for measuring electric power or power factor
- G01R21/133—Arrangements for measuring electric power or power factor by using digital technique
- G01R21/1333—Arrangements for measuring electric power or power factor by using digital technique adapted for special tariff measuring
- G06—COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
- G06Q—DATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
- G06Q50/00—Systems or methods specially adapted for a specific business sector, e.g. utilities or tourism
- G06Q50/06—Electricity, gas or water supply
A time-of-use meter is provided with a means for storing a plurality of identifiers that each represent a cyclic event These cyclic events are described in such a way that a single word of storage is sufficient to repro-sent numerous occurrences of the cyclic event over a period of many years. A microprocessor-based calendar program is provided with a means for storing a plurality of cyclic event identifiers and special event identifiers in a manner which significantly reduces the required memory storage within the microprocessor and its peripheral memory devices.
TIME-OF-USE METER WITH A
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention is related generally to time-of-use meters and, more particularly, to a time-of-use meter which stores and responds to a plurality of cyclic dates in a manner which reduces re~uired memory storage capaclty.
Electric utility companies provide elec-tricity for their consumers and charge those consumers according to the amount of electrical energy, measured in kilowatt hours, used during a particular period of time. Electric utility watt-hour meters are used to measure the amount of electrical power used by the consumer. By multiplying the number of kilowatt hours by the charging rate per kilowatt hour, the electric utility can determine the total bill that the consumer must pay for the usage of electric power during a particular billing period.
In r@c@nt y@~r~, pr~vl~ o~ ~l@c~ric pow~r have begun to implement multiple charying rate~
which can vary depending on the specific time when the electric energy is consumed. For example, some watt-hour meters are designed to record a consumer's peak electrical demand. Based partially on this peak demand, the customers billing rate is then determined. For example, U.S. Patent No. 3,406,338 which issued on October 15, 1968 to Benbow discloses a maximum demand device with a clutch that has an adjustable time and U.S. Patent No. 3,805,154 which issued on April ~,.r ",,~,,-.
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2 51,494 16, 1974 to Halstead et al. discloses an improved interval timing mechanism for a maximum demand meter. U.S. Patent No. 3,913,014 which issued on October 14, 1975 to Halstead et al. discloses a demand meter for on-peak maximum demand metering and U.S. Patent No. 4,147,983 which issued on April 3, 1979 to Adams et al. discloses a remote meter reading maximum KW demand meter. An on-peak watt hour demand meter having compensation for disc loading varia-tions is disclosed in U S. Patent No. 4,156,184 which issued on May 22, 1979 to Benbow, Rates can al-o ~ary as a function of the day of the week, season of the year or time of the day when electrical energy is consumed Also, electrical energy u~age billing rates can be set to different values for week lS days, weekends and holidays. Electric utility meters of this type are known to those skilled in the art as ~lmo ~
~*~ or time-of-use meters. For example, U.S. Patent No.
4,364,009 which issued on December 14, 1982 to Halstead et al. discloses an improved clutch mechanism for time-of-day watt hour metering register~ and U.S. Patent No. 4,307,341 issued on December 22, 1981 to Benbow et al. discloses an - improved clutch mechanism for time-of-day meter registers.
In order to prop~rly functlon a~ a tim9~0f-u e meter, the electric utilit~ watt-hour meter mu~t be provld-ed With some mean~ for determining the actual time o day, day o year and season. A time-of-u~e meter must also be able to recognize week days, weekends, holidays and season changes. Therefore, there are generally a plurality of events which can be predicted to occur during each year of use of the time-of-use meter that must be recognized by it.
Although the exact number of such events can be expected to vary from utility to utility, there are approximately sixteen yearly events which the time-of-use meter must be able to recognize. For example, in a typical application, ten holiday dates, four season change dates and two dates on which daylight savings time i3 changed must be recog-nized by the time-of-use meter. Therefore, besides ; 7 S;~ ~) L~
3 51,494 time-of-day rate changes, the time-of-use meter must be capable of implementing rate changes approximately sixteen times each year.
Since a time-of-use meter typically comprises a computing means, such as a microprocessor or microcomputer, it has the capability of maintainin~ a time keeping program which, essentially, maintains a calendar and a clock within its memory storage medium. These calendar and clock programs generall~y maintain data regarding the hour, minute and ~econd of each day along with information that repre-sents the day of the ~ear, month, day of the month, number of days in each particular month and the year The program would employ an algorithm that accounts for the effect of leap years and the fact that different months comprise different number of days. The computing means is able, according to known algorithms, to derive most of this lnformation by knowing the current year and day o the year. Of course, in order to determine the day of the year at any particular time, the computing means would employ a clock program that update~ the hours, minutes and seconds.
The clock program i~ responsive to a stream of timing pulses which have a kno~n re~uency. In mo~t typical application~, clock tim~ ~r~ a fun~tlon ~ a 60 hor~z 3tream of ~lml~g pul~e~ which 1~ r~adll~ availabLe in mo~t application~, Since electric utility watt-hour meters are, by their nature, relatively small as compared to most computer based systems, space which is available for the computing means of a time-of-use meter is severely limited. There-fore, the microprocessor, or microcomputer, along with itsperipheral memory devices, must also be limited in size.
Although recent advancements in the field of electronics have made available relatively large memory storage capaci-ties in relatively small components or chips, the size of the computing means and peripheral memory devices remains a concern. For this reason, and also to reduce cost, it is beneficial to minimize the usage of computer memory as much , .
4 51,494 as possible.
Prior to its initial use, a time-of-use meter must be provided with information concerning cyclical events for which a response is necessary. These cyclic S events, such as the typical sixteen events described above, must be known by the time-of-use meter so that it can constantly compare the current day of the year to the day of the year of each cyclic event in ordor to properly change the billing rate when required. Furthermore, electric utility companies prefer to avoid the need to reprogram their watt-hour meterc on a freguent schedule.
Therefore, it is advantageou~ to preprogram the time-of-use meters for a significant number of years extending from its initial installation. The actual number of years for which a time-of-use meter is programmed is a function both of the desires of the electric utility companies and available memory capacity of the computing means and its associated peripheral memory devices. Some time-of-use meter~ are preprogrammed to contain the cyclic event date for five or more years, with some time-of-use meter3 being programmed for up to twenty year periods that follow the ~nitial in3tallation and proyramming.
Time-o-u~e meters known to tho3e skilled in the art aro, at the pre~e~t tim~, pro~rammed to ~nclude ~ich lndivldual evo~t that 13 expect~d to occur durlng thi~
preselected period o time. In other words, if a time-o-u~e meter is programmed or a period of twenty years and each year ha~ sixteen cyclic dates to be remembered, the memory devices of the time-of-use meter would contain 3~0 individual cyclic event identifiers. Depending on the coding method that i~ used, the storage of 320 event date3 can require 320 or more sixteen bit words of memory capaci-ty with each word comprising 12 or 16 bits. Since, as discussed above, the available space within a time-of-use meter is limited, it is advantageous to provide the time-of-use meter with a more efficient means for remembering these multiple cyclic events over long periods ' ' - ,, .
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5;~()4 of time. The present invention provides such a time-of-use meter.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention provides a time-of-use meter in which most of the expected cyclic event dates are stored only once within the memory of the computing means. ~ach cyclic event date is stored within a sinyle sixteen bit word o~ memory.
The memory word i~ used as a cycl:ic event identifier.
Each cyclic event identifier contains information relating to the day of the year, the function and the day of the weak of a particular cyclic event. The day of the year represents a number, from 1 to 365, which precisely defines the sequential number of the day of the year for the event in relation to the beginning of the year. For example, January 4 would be the fourth day of the year and February 15 would be the forty-sixth day of the year. Of course, during leap years, any day of the year beyond the fifty-ninth day of the year wo~ld re~uire an alyorithmic ~d~u~tm~nt wh@n u~ o d~ rmin~ month~
date, day of kh@ ~@~, e~c. Th~ unc-~ion that must occur on a cyclic event d~ta, which is also contained within the cyclic event identifier, relates to the particular characteristic of the event. For example, the function value permits the computing means to distinguish events which are holidays from events which are season changes or changes in daylight savings time. The day of the week portion of the cyclic event identifier contains information which relates to the fact that some holidays are celebrated on a particular day of the week which does not always exactly conform to the day of the year of the holiday. For example, it is customary to celebrate Presidents Day, Memorial Day and Columbus Day on a ~, ~r , " , .
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- 5a -Monday, regardless of the aetual day of the year on which these holidays oecur. Similarly, for reasons of convenience, changes in daylight savings time are planned to oeeur at 2:00 AM on two partieular Sundays during the year. Also, Thanksgiving Day always oeeurs on a Thursday. Other holidays, such as New Years Day, the Fourth of July and Christmas Day always oeeur on a partieu-.
. . . . .
6 51,494 lar day of the year, regardless of the day of the week on which they occur. The cyclic event identifier stores a value which informs the computing means whether each specific cyclic event is to occur on a particular day of the year or on a particular day of the week following that day of the year.
The present invention is configured to permit each cyclic event to be stored only once within the memory of the time-of-use meter regardless of the number of years planned for the meter' 8 u~e. Therefore, a time-of-use meter which i 3 to provide for fifteen cyclic events per year for twenty years would only require fifteen sixteen-bit words of memory as opposed to conventional techniques which would require 300 words of memory.
In a time-of-use watt-hour meter made in accor-dance with the present invention, a calendar program, similar to one~ known to those skilled in the art, is employed to maintain calendar data Upon each change of the current day of the year within the calendar program, t~at current day of the year is compared to the values stored in a cyclic event identifier table. When one of the entri~s of the cyclic event ldentli0r tablo match~3 the current day of tho year, appropriat~ actlsn 1~ tak~n by the program wlthin the computin~ m~ans. For example, if the current day of the year matche~ the day of the year on which a daylight ~avings change is required, the computing means would then begin to monitor the hour, minute and second varia~les within the calendar program In this particular case, th~ hour variable within the calendar routine would be changed at 2:00 AM, If, on the other hand, the current day of the year matched a cyclic event which is a holiday, the billing portion of the program changes the applicable billing rate based on a predeter-mined holiday rate schedule.
~35 Although most cyclic events can easily be accom-A modated by the present invention ~ described above, one particular holiday is not as easily defined. Since Easter . , ~, .
~ 5;~04 occurs on a date which is defined as a function of the moon's cycle, it occurs on dates which are not easily definable by the day of the year, function and day of the week values described above. There-fore, the present invention accommodates the Easter holiday, and any other special events, by storing a table of special event identifiers within its memory. Since, in normal applications of time-of-use meters, Easter is usually the only holiday which is not easily identifiable within the cyclic event identifier table of the present invention, the special event identifier table may only require a single entry for each year of the plan period for which the time-of-use meter is preprogrammed.
Therefore, in a typical installation of a time-of-use meter made in accordance with the present invention, the fifteen cyclic events described above only require fifteen memory locations regardless of the number o years planned or use o the meter and one memory location would be required for each year to store the special event identifier for Easter.
Therefore, i the -time-of~u~e meter i~ pr~programmed for a 20 year period, 35 m~moxy location~ would be required (i.e., lS location~ for cyclic events and 20 locations for Easter).
The present invention provides a time-of-use meter which significantly reduces the amount of memory required to store cyclic events that relate to changes in meter billing rates. Only one memory location is required for each cyclic event date, regardless of the number of years for : , .~ ~
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, . , - . - - . - - , -1~7S;~4 - 7a -which the time-of-use meter is preprogrammed, and special event dates are accommodated by a single sixteen bit memory location for each year for which the time-of-use meter is programmed.
In accordance with a particular embodiment of the invention, there is provided a time of use apparatus for an electric meter, comprising:
means for providing a series of pulses, said serie5 of pul5e5 having a preselected frequency, said providing means being operatively connected to said computer;
means for storing a plurality of event dates, said storing means comprising means for indi-cating the day of the year of each of said plurality of event dates, means for defining a function asso-ciated with each of said plurality of event dates and means for indicating the occurrence of a pre-selected one of said plurality of event dates on a particular day of the week, said storing means storing such plurality of event dates without reference ~o the cal~ndar year durin~ whi~h æuch event dates occur;
said computer including means for deriving a calculated day of the year, said deriving means being responsive to said providing means; and said computer further including means for comparing said calculated day of thé year to the day of the year of the event dates of said storing means.
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5;~4 - 7b -In accordance with a further embodiment of the invention, there is provided a time of day meter, comprising:
means for providing a stream of pulses which are input to said computer, said stream of pulses having a preselected frequency;
means, responsive to said stream of pulses, for measuring time, said time measuring means comprising means for determining the current hour, current minute, and current day of the yeari means for denoting a plurality of events, said denoting means comprising means for indicating the day of the year for each of said plurality of events without reference to the calendar year during which such events occur and means for defining the functional characteristic of each of said plurality of events; and said computer including means for compar-ing said current day of the year to said day of the year of said denoting means for a preselected one of ~aid plurality of event~.
In accordanc@ wi-th a ~ill further embodi-ment of the invention, there is provided apparatus for responding to cyclic events, comprising:
means for providing a periodic signal as an input to said microcomputer, said periodic signal having a preselected frequency;
,, . , : : ~ , :
, , . ,, ~ , 5~34 - 7c -means responsive to said periodic signal for recording the passage of time, said recording means being configured to record current hour, current minute and current day of the year;
means for storing a plurality of cyclic event identifiers, each of said cyclic event identi-fiers comprising the day of the year without reference to the calendar year during which such cyclic events occur and func-tionaL description of a preselected one of a plurality of cyclic events;
each of said plurality of cyclic event identifiers being represented by at most sixteen binary digits of a solid state memory devicei and said microcomputer including means for comparing said current day of the year with a pre-selected one of said plurality of cyclic event identifiers.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING
The present invention will be more fully understood from a reading from the Description of the Preferred Embodim@nt in conjunction with the drawing, in which:
~igure 1 is an electrical schematic of the portions of the time-of-use meter that are related to the . - . -, -: . ,. - ~ ; . ' ' ', - :
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8 51,494 present invention;
Fig. 2 illustrates the bit assignment for each cyclic date identifier of the present invention; and Fig. 3 illustrates the bit assignments for the special date identifiers of the present invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
The present invention relates generally to time-of-use meters and, more specifically, to a time-of-use meter which is configured to store cyclic event identifiers for a plurality of event~ in which each cyclic event requires only one sixteen bit word of memory regardle~s of the number of years for which the time-of-use meter is preprogrammed.
Figure 1 is an electrical schematic of the components of a time-of-use meter that are pertinent to the operation of the present invention. The microprocessor U4 i8 u~ed to update the calendar variable at periodic inter-vals of time, Depending on circumstances, the calendar variables can be updated at intervals at either one second or ~our ~econd~, depending on the availability of AC power.
More specifically, when AC power is available to the time-o-u~e meter, the microproce~sor U4 run3 constant}y and is re~pon~ive t9 on~ ~ocond intorrupt3 How~ver, during power ~ailur~s, when AC power i~ not available, a battery powered backup ~y~tem is utilized and, to con~erve power, the microprocessor U4 is activated once every four A seconds in ordc~ to maintain the accuracy o its calendar variables.
When AC power is available, a continuous series of 60 hertz pulses is provided, on line 12, from an exter-nal source. These 60 hertz pulse~ are connected, by line 14, to a 60 hertz input of a semicustom analog chip U8.
After being conditioned by the semicustom analog chip U8, the 60 hertz pulses pass, on line 16, to a one second interrupt port of the microproce~sor U4. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the microprocessor U4 is type MK38P70/02 or type MK3870/40 which are available .- , . .
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9 51,494 from the Mostek Corporation. This particular microproces-sor U4 in a preferred embodiment of the present invention is an NMOS device with 4K bites of ROM and 64 bites of RAM
and uses an F8 instruction set. It has the capability of generating an internal interrupt upon the occurrence of a predetermined number of input pulses. For example, the microprocessor U4 can readily be configured in such a way that 60 pulses on line 16 are accumulated prior to the generation of a single interrupt. This operation would be continually repeated a~ pul~es are received from the semicustom analog chip U8. The result of this configura-tion would a series of one second interrupts within the microprocéssor U4.
Once each second, when AC power i5 available, the microprocessor U4 communicates with the random access memory (RAM) U5 and reads the stored values of the calendar variables. The microproce~30r U4 and RAM U5 are opera-tively connected by a data link 18 which enables digital data to be pa~ed back and forth between the microprocessor U4 and the RAM U5. After the calendar data is transferred from the RAM U5 to the microproce~sor U4, the ~econds counter i3 updated to re~lect th~ pa~ag~ of on~ 4econd of time zinc~ the la~t time th~ calcn~a~ dAta wa~ updat~d, If the ~econd counter indicat~ that 60 3econds have been accumulated, the minute~ counter i~ then updated. Accord-ing to methods known to those skilled in the art, the hours, day of the year, day of the month and other calendar variables are thus maintained in their proper current condition. The RAM U5, in a preferred embodiment of the present invention, is type 6514 which is available from the Harris Corporation and provides 1024X4 bits of CMOS RAM.
Crystal Yl provides the driving frequency for an auxiliary clock system. The crystal Yl provides a high frequency signal to a buffer 'J7. The buffer U7 accumulates 3S pulses from the crystal Yl until four second elapse. The buffer U7 is a complementary pair device that i~ configured as CMOS invertors. It is used in the preferred embodiment - , :.
of the present invention because of its high input impedance that results in a low loading effect on the crystal Yl. The buffer U7, in a preferred embodiment of the present invention, is type MC14007 which is available from the Motorola Corporation.
The buffer U7 provides a signal to the semi-custom CMOS multistage counter chain U6. At the end of a four secona interval, the multistage counter chain U6 provides a signal, on line 20, to the semicustom analog chip U8. When this signal is received by the semicustom analog chip U8, it activates the microprocessor U4 by causing the microprocessor power supply voltage VCC to be available to it. It should be understood that, when operating under the battery mode during power fail conditions, the microprocessor is only activated once every four ~econds in ord~r to conserve battery power. When activated, the microprocessor performs various functions including the updating of the calendar variables stored in RAM U5.
Up~n r@~@~ nal ~ a ~ul~ @
counter chain U6, on line 20, the ~emicus~om analoy chip U8 requires a current from the base of transistor Q3, which is a PNP transistor. This base current is provided through resistor R5. Because of the existence of the base current for transistor Q3, a current is allowed to flow through lines 22, 24 and 26, to the collector of transistor Q3, and from its collector to the VCC power supply of the microprocessor U4, buffer U7 and semicustom analog chip U8. It should be understood that the portion of buffer U7 that is powered by the VCC power supply is not used in the auxiliary time base system.
,~r , ~75;~(~4 - lOa -When the power supply voltage VCC is provided to the microprocessor U4, it is activated and, therefore, able to begin executing its program.
Upon initialization, the program within the micro-processor U4 immediately assumes that four seconds have elapsed since its last initiation. It therefore knows that the calendar data, which is stored , ' ',' " ~ '' .......... ', " . "
:L~'75;~)4 11 51,49~
in RAM U5, should be transferred to the microprocessor U4and updated by a four second lncrement. The updated calendar data is then transferred back, via the data link 18, to the RAM U5. Following this update of the calendar data, the microprocessor U4 performes predetermined basic system maintenance functions and then checks to determine whether AC power is again available. If AC power is not available, the microprocessor U4 transmits a signal, on line 28, to the ~emicustom analog chip U8 to turn off the microprocessor'~ power 3Upply VCC. Until the next four cecond interval is completed, the microprocessor U4 i~
inactive because its power supply voltage VCC is, inten-tionally, unavailable. The microprocessor is inhibited from writing faulty information to the RAM during power-up and power-do~n because the RAM control lines are buffered through the multistage counter chain device U6.
It should therefore be understood that, the microprocessor U4 is configured in ~uch a way that the calendar data, which i3 3tored in RAM U5, can be updated whether or not AC power is available to the time-of-use meter. When AC power is available to the microprocessor U4, a 60 hertz ~iynal is provided, on line 16, and when AC
power is not availabl~, the micropro~ or U4 i~ lnitiat~d every four ~econd3 by the provi~lon of lt~ pow~r ~upply voltage VCC. When the calendar data ia not actively being updated, it is stored in RAM U5.
The primary function of the buffer U7, which is essentially a circuit of inverters, is to change the impedance of the cry~tal circuit in order to avoid loading the crystal Yl beyond its capabilitie~ for proper opera-tion. Furthermore, the buffer U7 provides signals to the multistage counter chain U6 at TTL levels.
The crystal ~1 provides a continuous stream of pulses at a predetermined frequency. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the frequency of the crystal Yl is 32.768 kilohertz. Crystal Yl is a tempera-ture stable crystal and is chosen for use in the pre~ent ' ' 1~75;~()4 12 51,494 invention because its frequency of 32768 hertz is exactly equal to a binary number (i.e. 21 ) and therefore can easily be implemented in a flip-flop chain. After passing through the buffer U7, the timing pulses are raised to TTL
levels and transmitted to the multistage counter chain on line 30. The multistage counter chain U6 is a CMQS device which comprises a plurality of counters. The counters are configured in a chain association -i~ o~e~ to generate a signal, on line 20, when four seconds have elapsed. This 3ignal, on line 20, i8 received by the ~emicu~tom analog chip U8 and cau3e~ it to provide a base current to the tran3istor Q3.
Since the multistage counter chain U6 is a CMOS
device, it cannot provide sufficient current for the tran~i~tor Q3. Therefore, the semicustom analog chip U8 is u~ed to provide sufficient current to turn on transistor Q3 Transi~tor Q3 is type 2N2907 which is available from Teaxa Instruments Corporation.
The ~witch Sl which is 3hown located in line 20 between the multistage counter chain U6 and the semicustom analog chip U8, permit~ the meter to be stored or periods of time without causing a significant drain on the battery Bl In other word~, unl~ witGh Sl i3 cloeod, the ~lgnal to turn on VCC can n~v~r b~ ~n~ frsm th~ multi3tage counter chain U6 to the s~micu tom analog chip U8 There-fore, although AC power is not available during periods of storage, tho microprocessor U4 can be prevented from being activated by opening switch Sl When the time-of-use meter is installed, switch Sl is permanently closed The Schottky barrier diode D2 i~ connected, as shown, between the battery Bl and the voltage supply VDD on line 22 The Schottky diode D2 is a junction diode with the junction formed between the semiconductor and a metal contact rather than between dissimilar semiconductor materials as in the case of an ordinary PN diode. It essentially OR's the battery voltage and the power 3upply voltage VDD. When AC power is available, the power ~upply ' .-' ' 1~75;~(~4 13 51,494 voltage VDD is provided by the voltage regulator VRl.
Under normal operating conditions, when AC power is avail-able, the VDD power supply has a higher potential than the battery's charging voltage minus the voltage drop of diode D2. This prevents the battery Bl from discharging. Also, during periods when AC power is available, the battery Bl is charged by the battery charging circuit 36.
When AC power is not available, the filter capacitor C4 discharges and the voltage regulator VRl is turned off. When AC power is unavailable, the power supply voltage VDD is provided by the battery Bl and i5 es~en-tially equal to the battery voltage minus the voltage drop acros3 the Schottky diode D2.
The filter capacitor C4 is also connected, as æhown in Figure 1, to another power supply which is indi-cated by the reference numerals VAA. This voltage supply, VAA, is provided to the semicustom analog chip U8. Diode D8 is a diode in the ground leg of the voltage regulator VRl that raise~ the voltage from the voltage regulator VRl by approximately 3 volts. VAA is the unregulated æupply voltage. It i3 obtained by a full wave rectification, provided by U10 which compri e~ a diode bridge, of the tranæformed AC power ~upply volta~e that i~ filterod by capacitor ~4. VDD 1~ th~ non-vol~tll~ lo~lc power ~upply voltage and VCC ~ the ~witched logic power ~upply voltage.
Although the electrical schematic of a time-of-use watt-hour meter, illuætrated in Figure 1, has been illustrated and discussed in dçtail, it should be under-ætood that the present invention i8 most particularly related to the microprocessor U4 and the RAM U5. The present invention comprises lookup tableæ which are tempo-rarily stored in the memory of the microprocessor U4 during periods when the calendar data is being updated and the current day of the year is being compared to a plurality of cyclic or special event dates. During other times, these tables are stored in RAM U5 along with the other calendar data. Other data that is ætored in RAM U5 includeæ regis-lX75;~0~
14 51,494 ter operating constants, display identifiers, meteringdata, work area for fractional KWH and KW calculations, etc. Therefore, although all of the components illustrated in Eigure l are related to the time-of-use meter made in accordance with the present invention, the following discussion of the present invention relates most directly to the microprocessor U4 and the RAM U5.
An important feature of the present invention is its ability to store a plurality of cyclic event dates in such a way that each cyclic event id0ntifier contains sufficient information to be applicable in identifying the occurrence of the event regardless of the particular current yéar. Figure 2 illustrates a cyclic date identifi-er in accordance with the present invention. The cyclic date identifier 50 is illustrated in Figure 2 as a sixteen bit storage location, or word. It should be understood that the sixteen bits of the cyclic date identifier need not be located in contiguous bytes in a c~mputers memory.
Instead, the slxteen bit~ of the cyclic date identifier can compri~e two non-contiguou3 bytes or four four-bit "nib-bles'" of memory which are capable of being associated together durlng data compari~on operatlon3 wl~hin tho microproce3sor U4, Ten o~ the blt~ of th- cyclic date ldentifler ar~ used to 3tore the day of the year as~ociated with a particular cyclic event. The~e day of the year bits 52, in a preferred embodiment of the present invention, contain a binary coded decimal (BCD) representation of the day of the year that is asnociated with a particular cyclic event. It should be understood that the day of the year ic stored a3 a BCD value because, in a preferred embodiment of the present invention, it is convenient to do so. When stored as a BCD value, the day of the year can be used directly with display devices without the requirement of converting from another notation, such as binary, to BCD.
However, it should be further understood that the day of the year could be stored as a binary repre3entation in an alternate embodiment of the pre~ent invention. The BCD
-~;~75;~ 4 representation of the day of the year, as shown in Figure 2, is stored in bits 0-9 of the cyclic date identifier.
Bits lO and ll of the cyclic date identi-fier 50 are used to store a function descriptor for the particular cyclic event associated with each cyclic date identifier 50. These two bits 54 are able to store a binary value from ~ to 3 and can therefore be used to represent one of four unique functions. These functions identify the associated cyclic event as being a holiday, a daylight savings time forward adjustment DSTS, a daylight savings time backwards adjustment DSTR or a seasonal change.
Bits 12-15 of the cyclic date identifier 50 are used to store a day of the week value. These bits 56 contain a value from 0 to 7. If these bits 56 are equivalent to a binary 0, their status indicates that the as~ociated cyclic event is to take place exactly on the day of the year represented by bits 52, However, if a non-zero valu@ i~ ~torc~ in bits 56, the cycl~c @v~n~ 6h@~ul@~ -~o occur on ~pecific day o the week which falls on or follows the day of the year represented by bits 52.
Figure 3 illustrates an exemplary special date identifier used in accordance with the present invention. The first ten bits 62 of the special date identifier are used to store a ~CD representation of the day of the year related with the associated special event. These bits 62 are used in a way which is very similar to bits 52 of the cyclic date identifier 50 shown in Figure 2, however, a day of the year that is equal to zero is permitted in the special date identifier 60. Bits 10 and 11 (reference numeral 64 in Figure 3) of the special ~,1 J ", .
- - ' - , '', : -- ~ - -, ~ -~75;~04 - 15a -date identifier represent a binary value from O to 3 that is used to indicate the four functions which are described in relation to bits 54 in Fig. 2.
The present invention will now be described in relation to an exemplary application of the preferred embodiment. This discussion will relate to Figs. 1-3 and the tables illustr~ted helow. Table 1 illust.rates the ,~ ~
16 51,494 eight possible values.of the day of the week portion 56 of the cyclic date identifier 50 shown in Fig. 2.
DAY OF THE WEEK NOTATION
O Actual Day of Year 1 Saturday on or After Day of Year 2 Friday on or After Day of Year 3 Thur3day on or After Day of year 4 Wedne~day on or After Day of Year Tuesday on or After Day of Year 6 Monday on or After Day of Year
7 Sunday on or After Day of Year When the binary value of the day of the week bits 56 are equal to zero, the associated cyclic event will be assumed to occur exactly on the day of the year represented by the BCD value stored in bit~ 52. However, when the day of the week value is a non-zero number, the cyclic event will be observed on a particular day of the week on or after the day of the year repre~ented by bits 52. For example, if the day of the week bits 56 contain a 3 and the day of the year bit~ 52 contain a BCD value 154, the cyclic event will bo a3~um~d to occur on ths Thu~day on or immediatoly followiny th~ 154th day o~ tho yoar. Similar-ly, the other non-zero valus3 of the day o the week bits 56 would indicate that the cyclic date will occur on some pre#cribed day of the wee~ following the occurrence of the day of the year indicat~d in bits 52 a3 indicated in Table I.
As discussed above, the function bit3, 54 and 64, are used to de~cribe a particular function that occurs on the cycl-c or special event date. Table II illustrates the four functions which can be represented by the function bits.
17 51,494 TABLE Il FUNCTION NOTATION
BINARY VALUE FUNCTION
O Holiday 1 DST Adjust Forward at 2:00 AM
2 DST Adjust Backward at 2:00 AM
3 Season Change If bits 10 and 11 of the cyclic or special event identifier~ are egual to zero, the event i8 a~sumed to be a holiday. Similarly, if the function bits, 54 ~r 64, are equal to a binary 1, the event is assumed to be the day on which daylight savings time is adjusted forward at 2:00 AM.
If these functions bits are equal to 2, the event is the adju~tment of the daylight savings time backward at 2:00 AM, Finally, if the function bit~ are equal to 3, the event is a season change.
Since once cyclic date identifier i8 used to repre~ent a ~ingle event, a plurality of cyclic date iden,tifiers can be a3sociated in a table to represent a plurality of cyclic events. Table III illu~trates an exemplary table of cyclic date identifiers, ,,,~
: '' , . . : ' .
_ ~ ~ 5J
,. o o Cr ~, ~ ~
U~ 'A A O !~ _ O; aCI ~A
C ~O ~ ~ '~ A
C~ C ~ ~ c.a <~
~A OA ~ o ~AO L, ~ AO a ~ _ OA ,_ ~o al ~: o V~ ~ c C~ C
z ~ ~n o ~ o > ~
-_ 4 1 " " ~ >~
o ~ l ---- -- ---- -------- --I ~¦ g ~ ~ I N
9 --~ O :J ~ N L'~ J ~ ~ N 0 v ~3c~--o_N'~N2~r~
LO `O O ~` ~0 O O ~ ~ O ~ O O
.~ ' .
19 51,494 The first column in Table III illustrates the actual values that will be stored in the memory of the microprocessor U4 and the RAM U5. They are shown in Table III as hexadecimal values, it should be understood that each of these values represents a sixteen bit memory location of which the first fifteen bits are used. The Table of Cyclic Date Identifiers, Table III, represents fifteen events of which nine are holidays, four are season changes and two are daylight savings time changes. These functions, which are shown in the third column of Table III, are represented by bit~ 10 and 11 of the stored value shown in column 1 The day of the year, shown in column 2 of Table ~II, i5 stored as a BCD value in bits 0-9 of the as~ociated cyclic date identifier The day of the week column of Table III illus-trates that seven of the fifteen events are to occur on a particular day of the week In the~e seven instances, bits 12-15 of the cyclic date identifier contain a value from 1 to 7. For example, bits 12-15 o the cyclic event identi-~ier for Memorial Day contains a binary value of 6 which repre3ents the fact that Memorial Day is to occur on the Monday on or following the 145th day of the year, Using Memorlal Day a~ a ~pociflc ~xampl~, lt zhould b~ under~tood that the hollday~ whlch ar~ to occur on a zp~cific day ef the week will, more oten than not, occur on a day of the year other than the particular day of the year repre~ented by bits 0-9 of the cyclic event identifier Therefore, the events which are to occur on a ~pecific day of the week must have their day of the year carefully chosen so that it will always represent a day within the six days preceding the actual event.
The fifteen entries of the Table of Cyclic Date Identifiers, illustrated in Table III, accurately describe the exact day on which an event is to occur regardless of the year. In other words, the cyclic date identifiers will accurately de~cribe the day on which the fifteen events will occur for a significantly long period of time. No .
5;~()4 other additional storage is required to maintain the cyclic event date.
Of course, it should be understood that the occurrences of leap years must be taken into account when comparing the actual calculated day of the year to the entries in the Table of Cyclic Date Identifiers. However, this is a rclatively simple task Since the microproce~sor U4 has means or determining the existence of a leap year, it can merely adjust the current day of the year by one, during leap years, prior to comparing that current day of the year to the entries in the Cyclic Date Identifier Table. Of course, this adjustment is only required if the day of the year is greater than 60.
The advantages of the present invention can readily be seen by observing Table III and comparing it to the fact that methods presently known to those skilled in the art require each event to be represented by a word of memory for each of its yearl~ occurren~s ~v@~ ~h~ ~ri~ u~@ of the time-o~-u~e m~@r. F~r @x~m~l@, i~ the ~ime-o-use meter is to be preprogrammed for a period of 20 years, the present invention reduces the required memory storage locations by 95% (i.e., 15 words instead of 300 words)!
Although each of the events described in the above discussion of Table III can be represented as a cyclic event in such a way that the repre-sentation is valid for many years in the future, certain events do not readily lend themselves to such a simple description because they are not truly cyclical. For purposes of this discussion, these types of events are referred to as special events.
common example of a special event is Easter. Easter is always the first Sunday after the first full moon ,: , , , -.
5;~4 - 20a -that falls on or after the vernal equinox (March 21 of the Gregorian calendar). If this full moon happens to occur on a Sunday, Easter is celebrated on the following Sunday. Easter Sunday cannot be earlier than March 22 or later than April 25.
Therefore, the occurrence of this special event - ~ -- , , - , .
-- - -. ~
- -: , - , : , 5;~0~
21 51,494 (i.e., Easter Sunday) does not easily fit within the methodology described above in relation to Table III. Some other means must be provided to inform the time-of-use meter, of the actual date on which Easter is to be observed.
Table IV illustrates an exemplary table of special date identifiers that is used in a time-of-use meter made in accordance with the present invention.
- , . . .
, ' .~'7~
22 51,494 ~ ~ ~ ~o 1 ~ ~ o~ C~
___ __ __ _ " '; 5 C~. ~ ~ ~; Cl"
~C ----C --C
,_ _ ~ ,_ ,_ C1 ,_ ~ ,_ C ~a5~
1~ L ' ' ~ L _ '_ L L
_ _ 0 0 ~n 0 Z ~W~ ~.J '~
_ ~ , ' ~ q~
_ ~ 'OV1~ l~O
O S ~i2 ~ ,~ 9 9 ~
O L~ 0 C~ 5 ~ O ~ O ^ 5 5 5 ~ a~ --O~ ~ ~ O s~ ~ ~ ~ o~
O --053-- _-- 5--0 5 >O =========~=== =
` O 5 O~ ~ ~ L~ O` ~ ~ 3 L X--O O O--O O----O ~--O 5 . _ .
23 51,494 As discussed above, the special date identifiers 60 are very similar to the cyclic date identifiers. The significant difference between these two types of identifi-ers is that the special date identifiers do not have bits 12-15.
Although Table IV only depicts the Easter holi-days and year changes within its structure, it should be understood that other special events could easily be incorporated within it. One apparent difference between TabLe~ III and IV i~ that, due to its purpo~e, the entries in Table IV for the day of year ars the actual day of the year on which the event is to occur.
Since values for each of the special events represents the actual day of the year when the event is to occur, there is no need to indicate the actual day of the week on which the event will occur. The day of the year bits of each of the entries in the Table o Special Date Identifiers can be used to indicate the actual day of the year on which the event will occur because each yearly occurrence of the special event (i e., Ea~ter Sunday) i8 recorded individually in the Table o~ Special Date Identi-fier~. No attempt is made to utilize a single memory location to r~prss¢nt more than on~ particular ocçurronce of the ~peoial event. Thi~ lllu~tratQ~ on4 of th~ 3pecif~c differences b~tween Table~ III and IV. It further indi-cates the significant difference between the present invention and time-of-use meters presently known to those skilled in the art. The representation shown in Table IV
is only used in the present invention to represent a small minority of special events. However, in time-of-use meters presently known to those skilled in the art, the technique illustrated in Table IV i5 used to represent all events, whether cyclic or not. Therefore, by comparing Tables III
and IV, the significant reduction of required memory storage can readily be seen.
. As can be seen in Tabls IV, some of the entrie~
- in the first column are equal to zero. The use of the3e - . , . ::, , , --- ~ ,. , - .
~;~'75;~()4 24 51,494 zero locations will be discussed in greater detail below.However, they can essentially be considered to represent the occurrence of a new year, or year change. The zero locations in column 1 of Table IV serve an important purpose in a time-of-use meter made in accordance with the present invention. These zero locations can be seen to occur between the Easter events of 1986 and 1987, 1989 and 1990 and 1991 and 1992. In order to understand the valu-able purpose of these zero locations, the method of compar-ison of the current day of the year to tho~e days of theyear represented in Table IV must be understood.
When the time-of-u~e meter is initialized and installed, it is set to a specific current day of the year in a ~pécific current year. The program within the micro-processor would the~ compare the current day of the year to the irst entry in Table IV. If the actual current day of the year is le~ than the first entry (i.e., 113) a pointer would remain unchanged and the computer would make the deci3ion that this special event (Easter Sunday on April 22, 1984) has not yet occurred. No further checkQ of the Tablo would be made. On day of the year 113, a match would be dl3covered between the current day of the year and the fir~t entry ln Tabl~ IV. At that point, approprlate actlon would be taken in re~pon~o to thl~. occurronce of a ~poclal event. The computer would the~ move its pointer to the next entry in the Table (i.e., Easter Sunday on April 7, 1985.) However, as the current day of the year progressed from day 114 through day 366, no matches would occur with this second entry in the special date identifier table.
When the day of the year i8 again set to 1, on New Year'sDay of 1985, and sequentially incremented upward on each new day, a match will eventually occur when the day of the year reaches 97. This process would continue as the computer's pointer is sequentially moved downward through Table IV. However, a problem can occur if no zero entries are included within the tablé.
For the purpose of explaining this feature, it S~)4 will first be assumed that the third and fifth entries (i.e., "0089" and "0109"l do not have a zero between them. On March 30, 1986, the computer would match the current day of the year (i.e., 89) with the third entry in Table IV. The pointer would then be moved to the next entry in the Table which, for purposes of this illustration, will be assumed to be the "0109" for Eas-ter Sun~ay on ~pril 19, 1987.
After the pointer is moved to this entry in Table IV, the day of the year counter would continue to proceed upward from 89 to 90 and so on. 20 days later, on the 109th day of the year, a match would occur when the current day of the year is compared to the entry in Table IV representing April 10, 1987. This would lead to the unfortunate result of celebrating Easter twice in the same year. The cause of this problem is that the day of the year for Easter on March 30, 1986 is less than the day of the year for Easter on April 19, 198~. To avoid this deleterious result, a zero is entered in the Table at occurren6@s wh@re Ea~t@r ~all~ on sucG@~s~v@ly hlgh~r ~ o~ th@ y@ar in successive years. ~e c~n be seen in Table ~V, this occurs three times. The insertion of the zero value between these successive Easters requires the computer to observe a year change prior to looking for a match with the next entry in the table.
It should be clearly understood that, although Table IV is limited to only the Easter holiday as an example, other special non-cyclic dates can easily be included within it. These special dates would be any event that cannot be readily adapted to the methodology discussed above in conjunction with Table III. One example of how the special date identifiers can be used for an event other than Easter is when a Cyclic date, such a~
,...., ",~, -- :
- 25a -Chris-tmas, requires special treatment. As a hypo-thetical example, iE i-t is desirable to eelebrate Christmas on a Monday when December 25 falls on a Sunday, the Cyclic Identifie.r Table and the Speeial Event Identifier Table can be used in conjunc-tion with eaeh other to aeeomplish -this. It is a .
: ' ' , : ,, `
26 51,494 simple ma~ter to have the computer program neyate Cyclic dates when the same date appears in both the Cyclic and the Special Identifier Tables. Then, by enter1ng the December 25 date in the Special Event Identifier Table when it falls 5 OIl a Sunday and also entering the following December 26 date in the Special Event Identifier Table for the particu-lar year on which December 25 falls on a Sunday, the time-of-use ~eter can avoid celebrating Christmas on the December 25 date (i.e. on Sunday) and celebrate it on the following Monday. It should be understood that this hypoth~tical example is used only or illustration purposes and does not repre~ent an actual situation that is normally observed. It is merely intended to illustrate a situation where the Special Event Identifier Table can be used to lS negate the Cyclic Event Identiier Table entry when this negation is advantageous.
The Cyclic and Special Event Identifier Tables, illustrated in Tables III and IV, are stored in RAM U5 and transferred back and forth between RAM U5 and the micropro cessor U4 when their values are to be compa~ed with the current day of the year. As discussed above, the micropro-cessor, either on one or four second intervals, updates the calendar data in order to keep these calendar variables accurate and up-to-date. Upon each change of the day of the year variable, the microprocessor U4 would transfer the Cyclic and Special Event Iden~ifier Tables, one at a time, from RAM U5 into its active memory and make the necessary comparisons. When the comparison results in a match between the current day of the year and the appropriate event identifier, the microprocessor U4 takes the action indicated by the function bits, 54 or 64. For example, if the function bits indicate that a holiday is occurring, the appropriate billing rate for a holiday is chosen for the calculation of electrical en`argy consumption charges.
Similarly, if a season change is indicated by the function bits, the appropriate biliing rates would be altered within the microprocessor U4 and RAM U5. A slightly different 27 51,494 action is indicated if the function ~its indicate that a daylight savings time change is required. The miçroproces-sor U4 would, in that event, wait until 2:00 AM and then would change the hour variable of the calendar data either forward or ~ackward, as indicated.
The present invention provides a time-of-use me~er that enables cyclic events to be represented in a manner that mini~mizes required memory storage. A single sixteen bit word is used to represent each of the cyclic events regardless of the period of time for which a time-of-use meter is preprogrammed. For time-of-use meters that are preprogrammed for 20 years, for example, the required ~emory storage for cyclic events is reduced by 95%.
Furthermore, the present invention allows special events tQ
be stored in cases where the event is not readily adaptable to the cyclic event identifier methodology of the present invention.
The present invention has been illustrated in Eigure 1 in relation to particular components. Although it should be understood that alternative embodiments of the present invention could incorporate different combinations o components, the particular types or values of the components illustrated in Figure 1 are described in Table V.
' ; -. - .............. .. .
78 51,494 TABLE V
Reference Numeral Type or Value . .
U4 Type MK38P'70/02 or U5 Type 6514 or 6541 U6 Type 2746 U7 Type MC14007 U8 Type MDA2753 U10 Type GIDE02 D2 Type ITS5817 D7 l'ype lN4736A
D8 Type lN6263 D9 Typ~ lN4004 Cl lO p C2 10 pf C~ 470 ~f C6 .1 ~f C7 .l ~ ' Rl 18 mQ
R~ 510 kQ
R4 22 xn R7 2 kQ
. R9 6.2 kQ
VRl Type UA7806UC
Yl 32.768 KHz Q3 Type 2N2907A
Although the present invention has been illus-: . 30 trated and described with significant specificity and with particular reference to specific components, it should not be considered to be so limited. Altern~tive embodiments of the present invention should be considered to be included within its scope.
: " ' ' .' ' ` , '
means for providing a series of pulses, said series of pulses having a preselected frequency, said providing means being operatively connected to said computer;
means for storing a plurality of event dates, said storing means comprising means for indicating the day of the year of each of said plurality of event dates, means for defining a function associated with each of said plurality of event dates and means for indicating the occurrence of a preselected one of said plurality of event dates on a particular day of the week, said storing means storing such plurality of event dates without reference to the calendar year during which such event dates occur;
said computer including means for deriving a calculated day of the year, said deriving means being responsive to said providing means; and said computer further including means for comparing said calculated day of the year to the day of the year of the event dates of said storing means.
each of said plurality of event dates is represented by the combined logic states of fifteen binary digits within said storing means.
said preselected frequency is 60 Hz.
said deriving means is actuated once every second.
said deriving means is actuated once every four seconds.
means for providing a stream of pulses which are input to said computer, said stream of pulses having a preselected frequency;
means, responsive to said stream of pulses, for measuring time, said time measuring means comprising means for determining the current hour, current minute, and current day of the year;
means for denoting a plurality of events, said denoting means comprising means for indicating the day of the year for each of said plurality of events without reference to the calendar year during which such events occur and means for defining the functional characteristic of each of said plurality of events; and said computer including means for compar-ing said current day of the year to said day of the year of said denoting means for a preselected one of said plurality of events.
means for representing a particular day of the week for a preselected one of said plurality of events, said denoting means comprising said representing means.
said time measuring means is activated at one-second intervals when external electrical power is available to said meter and at four-second intervals when external electrical power is not available to said meter.
means for providing a periodic signal as an input to said microcomputer, said periodic signal having a preselected frequency;
means responsive to said periodic signal for recording the passage of time, said recording means being configured to record current hour, current minute and current day of the year;
means for storing a plurality of cyclic event identifiers, each of said cyclic event identi-fiers comprising the day of the year without reference to the calendar year during which such cyclic events occur and functional description of a preselected one of a plurality of cyclic events;
each of said plurality of cyclic event identifiers being represented by at most sixteen binary digits of a solid state memory device; and said microcomputer including means for comparing said current day of the year with a pre-selected one of said plurality of cyclic event identifiers.
means for indicating that a preselected one of said plurality of cyclic events is to occur on a specific day of the week, said indicating means being included in each of said plurality of cyclic events.
each of said plurality of cyclic event identifiers comprises means for providing an indi-cation that the associated event will occur on a particular day of the week, said indication being algorithmically related to said day of the year of said associated event.
means for retaining said plurality of cyclic event identifiers when said comparing means is inactive.
said retaining means is a random access memory device cooperatively associated with said microcomputer.
Priority Applications (2)
|Application Number||Priority Date||Filing Date||Title|
|US06653630 US4852030A (en)||1984-09-24||1984-09-24||Time-of-use-meter with a calendar of cyclic events|
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|CA1275304C true CA1275304C (en)||1990-10-16|
Family Applications (1)
|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|CA 485254 Expired - Lifetime CA1275304C (en)||1984-09-24||1985-06-26||Time-of-use-meter with a calendar of cyclic events|
Country Status (6)
|US (1)||US4852030A (en)|
|JP (1)||JPS61172068A (en)|
|CA (1)||CA1275304C (en)|
|DE (2)||DE3587862D1 (en)|
|EP (1)||EP0176338B1 (en)|
|ES (1)||ES8703639A1 (en)|
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