CA1219642A - Multi-element electrosurgical indifferent electrode with temperature balancing resistors - Google Patents

Multi-element electrosurgical indifferent electrode with temperature balancing resistors

Info

Publication number
CA1219642A
CA1219642A CA000452352A CA452352A CA1219642A CA 1219642 A CA1219642 A CA 1219642A CA 000452352 A CA000452352 A CA 000452352A CA 452352 A CA452352 A CA 452352A CA 1219642 A CA1219642 A CA 1219642A
Authority
CA
Canada
Prior art keywords
electrode
electrode according
conductive elements
gel
conductive
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired
Application number
CA000452352A
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Monique Frize
Andre Leduc
Yves Poussart
Original Assignee
Monique Frize
Andre Leduc
Yves Poussart
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Monique Frize, Andre Leduc, Yves Poussart filed Critical Monique Frize
Priority to CA000452352A priority Critical patent/CA1219642A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CA1219642A publication Critical patent/CA1219642A/en
Application status is Expired legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B18/04Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by heating
    • A61B18/12Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by heating by passing a current through the tissue to be heated, e.g. high-frequency current
    • A61B18/14Probes or electrodes therefor
    • A61B18/16Indifferent or passive electrodes for grounding

Abstract

ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE

An electron surgical electrode is disclosed for attachment to a patient's skin. The electrode is segmented and arranged to control the current passing through each segment to avoid high temperatures at certain contact areas. The electrode comprises a plurality of separate conductive elements spaced apart in a surface plane and attached to a non-conductive backing, a connector from each one of the conductive elements to a resistor having a resistance value proportional to current flow through the one of the conductive elements to provide uniform current distribution and attachment means for attaching the conductive elements to a patient's skin.

Description

The present invention relates -to electrosur~ical dispersive electrodes. More specifically, the present invention relates to an electrode for attachment to a patient's skin with connections to an electrosurgical S generator.
Electrosurgical dispersive electrodes available on the market today take many shapes, forms and sizes. Such electrodes are used -to return current from a patient's skin to an electrosurgical generator during electron surgery which involves cutting, coagulation or a blend of these two techniques. Electrosurgical electrodes must have good adhesive quality to stick to the skin and to stay on the skin during the entire surgery process. The distribution of current flow through the conductive surface of the electrode is a factor which relates to the temperature rise under the electrode. It has been found that current flow is generally not uniform and therefore hot areas occur on a patient's skin under the conductive surface of -the elect-rode. Many electrodes use gel, mostly a high conductive gel, however some of these gels -tend to migrate, that is to say move so that an uneven thickness of gel occurs across the conductive surface which again leads to a non-uniform temperature on the patients skin. Gel also can migrate to the adhesive portion of the electrode which reduces the adhesive properties, often resulting in the electrode not properly contacting the patient's skin.
Most electrodes presently available on the market today are constructed of an insulating material on which a metallic surface has been attached. In some cases the electrodes have gel which covers the metallic surface. The peripheral portion of the electrodes where there is no gel usually contains an adhesive material which holds the elect-rode -to the patient's skin. Some electrodes use a conductive adhesive gel throughout their entire surface area. In some cases, gel is applied to a dry metal surface on the conductive

- 2 I

area just before attaching the electrode to the patient's skin.
It has been found that a higher current occurs at the outer periphery of the conductive surface on the electrode and this is where heat is produced on the skin.
The result is a substantially higher temperature at this peripheral edge which can in certain circumstances cause a burn on the patient's skin.
One electrode design available on the market today is made of a dry non-conductive material, usually a gauze or a foam type material under which is a conductive metallic surface.
The peripheral portion of the electrode consists of an ad-hesive material and the current returns via a capacitive coupling and is distributed more uniformly over the entire surface area of the patient. The electrode field between the electrode and the patient is more uniform than with other types of electrodes. Elowever this electrode contains an inherent hazard: if a small hole or pinhole defect occurs in the electrode surface, then the current can concentrate at this spot and cause a burn on the patient's skin.
We have found that these problems of varying heat from the surface area of an electrosurgical electrode can be overcome by providing divided sections of conductive surface, each section being connected to a separate resistor whose value determines the proportion of current allowed to flow through i-t. By choosing different resistance values, the current may be distributed more evenly throughout -the entire electrode conductive surface. This electrode requires the sections to be spaced apart a sufficient amount to avoid problems occurring with short circuiting across adjacent sections, as this defeats the purpose of dividing the con--ductile surface into different sections.
It is an object of the present invention to provide an electrosurgical electrode with a uniform current I, 35 distribution and therefore a uniform heat distribution over the conductive surface of the electrode. It is a further ,: .
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- 3 -object to produce an electrode that provides both a lower current density and a lower heat density at the contact with the patient's skin thrill present designs of electrosurgical electrodes.
the present invention provides an electrode for corn-ectlon to an electrosurgical generator comprising: a pour-` amity of separate conductive elements spaced apart in a ; surface plane and attached to a non-conductive backing, a connector from each one of the conductive elements to a lo resistor having a resistance value proportional to current flow through the one of the conductive elements to provide uniform current distribution, and attachment means for attach-in the conductive elements to a patients skin.
In other embodiments of the invention, a gel coating is included on the conductive elements, the gel coating having a high resistivity. The conductive elements in another embodiment are in the form of a plurality of concentric rings about a circular disc, with the disc and each of the rings being connected -to individual resistors having different resistance values, such that current density per skin surface I` contact area is substantially the same for the disc and the rings. In a preferred embodiment each of the resistors for ` the concentric rings on the outside has a higher resistance I` value than the resistors for the concentric rings on the in-side and the disc. Preferably the conductive elements each have a resistor with a resistance value no-t greater than about 50 ohms. In another embodiment, the conductive elements are in the form of parallel strips with a spacing of at least about 2 mm provided between the strips. The gel coating pro-fireball has a gel resistivity in the range of about S00 to `; l,000 ohm-centimetres. In a still further embodiment, the electrode and connectors include a short cable and polarized I` connector plug which are all disposable, the connector plug is adapted to mate with a socket having connections to the resistors and elec-trosurgical generator.
In jet a further embodiment, the circular disc I.

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has a connector link in the same plane as the skin surface contact area extending off to one side, and wherein each of the ~ncentricrinys has a peripheral gap and a connector link in the same plane as the skin surface extending off pi the one side, wherein the connector links from the disc and each rlncJ are substantially parallel to each other and extend off to the one side thigh the peripheral gaps in adjacent larger centric rings. A shorting pad may be provided adjacent the connectors, adapted to cooperate with a separate continuity connector to indicate a completed connection between the electrode and the electrosurgical generator.
In other embodiments, the non conductive backing is a plastic sheet and the attachment means includes an adhesive material contained in a peripheral portion surround-in the conductive elements. The non conductive gaps between conductive elements may also have adhesive material therein or alternatively the gel coating may be an adhesive gel to form the attachment means, -the adhesive gel having a high resist:ivity.
In drawings which illustrate embodiments of the invention, Fig. 1 is a schematic perspective view of a patient having an electrode of the present invention attached Jo a thigh and connected to an electrosurgical generator.
Fig. 2 is a schematic view of an electrode of the present invention with a polarized connector plug for connection to a socket.
Figs. 3, 4 and S are plan views showing different embodiments of electrodes according to the present invention.
Fig. 1 illustrates -the use of an electrode for electrosurgery and shows a patient 10 having an electrode 11 attached to a thigh. A multiple cable 12 connects the different elements of the electrode 11 to a polarized ; connector plug 13 which in turn is connected -to a socket 1 having a permanent cable lo leading to a resistor box 16.

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The resistor box 16 has a connecting gable 17 leading to the electrosurgical generator 18. The resistor box 16 may form part of the electrosurgical generator 18. Upon completion o-E electrosurgery, the cable 12 together with electrode 11 and plug 13 are disposed of end not reused whereas the socket 15 with -the permanent cable 15 to the resistor box 16 can be used a number of times. The electron ; surgical generator 18 is a conventional device comprising a ; high frequency current generating system including an RF
oscillator which drives a gain controlled power amplifier that is coupled via a step-up transformer and coupling capacitors to the active electrode 19. The active electrode 19 may be in the form of a knife, scalpel or other implement dependent upon the particular type of electrosurgery being ; 15 performed.
One example of -the electrode 11 is shown in Fig.
2 having two concentric circular elements 20, 21 about a center circular element 22. The elements 20, 21 and 22 are mounted on a non-conductive circular backing 23 having a gap between each element and an exterior peripheral portion -to which an adhesive is attached for securing -the electrode 11 to a patient's skin. Three connector wires 24 from the three elements 20, 21 and 22 pass through the cable 12 to the polarized connector plug having three prongs 25 which engage with sockets 26 in the plug 14. Resistors 27 in the resistor box 16 have a predetermined resistance value for a particular element 20, 21 and 22. Beyond the three resistances 27, -I the wires are connected together to have one lead in the cable 17 to the electrosurgical generator 18. A second lead may be included in the cable 17 as a continuity check between the electrode and the generator 18. The resistance value is determined so as to have uniform temperature distribution and this is obtained by having uniform current density per Jo skin surface contact area for the electrode 11. The surface Jo 35 area of each element is determined and then -the portion of the total current to each element is calculated. With this P '`
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figure, the resistance value for each resistor 27 is determined. It is preferable that the values of these resistors do not exceed 50 ohms, however the resistance values are determined for use with a gel having a known resistance. A 50 ohm r~sistivity would would be suitable with a gel having a resistivity in the range of about 500 to 1,000 ohm centlmetres.
As current normally flows at the periphery of the electrodes, the resistors for the outer rinks have a higher resistance value than those in the center. This forces -the current to be distributed more evenly throughout the entire conductive surface of the electrode. The rings are separated by a gap which is normally at least about 2 mm in width. The gap is sufficient for the resistor circuit to be effective and to prevent short circuiting of the three elements 20, 21 and 22.
Figs. 3 and 4 illustrate electrodes 11 with con-nitric elements. Fig. 3 has a center circular disc 30 having connector link 31 to a connector tab 32. An intermediate centric rink element 33 has a peripheral gap 34 for passage of the connector link 31 from the disc 30 and has a second connector link 35 to the connector tab 32. on outside con-centric ring element 36 has a further peripheral gap 37 for the two connector links 31 and 35 and a third connector link 38 to the connector tab 32. The connector links 31, 35 and 38 are substantially parallel and all lead out to one side of the electrode passing through the peripheral gaps 34 and 37.
The elements 30, 33 and 36 are all in the same plane and have gaps between each other of about 2 mm. The elements are mounted on a non-conductive backing material 39 which has a peripheral portion 40 containing an adhesive material. The backing material 39 may be foam, plastic, fabric or other suitable sheet material that is non-conductive. The adhesive which is preferably non-conductive, extends across the connector tab 32 to ensure that the connector links 31, 35 Jo `

Jo - 7 ~2~4~

and 38 are not in contact with the skin surface.
A similar embodiment is shown in Fig. with a center circular disc 30 and five concentric ring elements I extending out from the clement with connector links I
to a connector tab 32. The embodiments shown in Fig. 3 has a diameter of approximately 9 centimeters whereas the die-meter of -the electrode shown in Fig. 4 is approximately 16 centimeters. The smaller unit shown in Fig. 3 is designed as a pediatric model, whereas the larger unit is for adult applications. The conductive medium for the elements is a metallic sheet such as aluminum, stainless steel, copper or other suitable material. A non-metallic conductive sheet material may also be applicable with a thickness in the order of approximately 1 mix mounted on a suitable non-conductive backing sheet. As shown, the tab 32 has a shorting pad I
for connection to a continuity circuit. This shorting pad I completes a check circuit between the electrode and the generator to indicate that the system is properly connected.
Whereas two embodiments are shown herein, it will be under-stood -that other electrodes having a different number of ring elements may be produced dependent upon the particular requirement of -the electrode.
` In a preferred embodiment, a coating of gel is placed on the conductive surfaces of the electrode. The gel cannot be highly conductive as compared to metal or a saline solution, otherwise short circuiting occurs between adjacent ` elements which defeats the purpose of the electrode. A
gel with a higher resistivity is required. A gel having a resistance in the range of about 500 to 1,000 ohm-centimetres is appropriate as it has a higher value than the resistors used to control the flow of current through the different elements and therefore has minimal influence on the current flowing ability of the electrode. This higher resistivity gel provides a better patient electrode contact and an intermediate impedance value that contributes to a more unit form electrical field between the patient's skin and the I- electrode.

, One -type of vet that has been found suitable is a purified ajar gel in solid form. The gel unwell those made with a bacteriological grade of ajar is highly resistive thus providing ideal resistivlty between the skin and the electrode and avoiding short circuiting that could occur with a normal gel which would result in non-uniform current distribution.
Whereas an adhesive is attached to the peripheral portion 40 of the backing material, in some cases adhesive may be included in -the gaps between the elements to ensure good con-tact and to maintain the conductive surface of -the :`
I` electrode on the patient's skin. In another embodiment, an adhesive gel may be utilized across the surface of the elect-rode including the surface of the conductive elements, however such a gel must have high resistivity to prevent short circuiting.
I, Fig. 5 illustrates a rectangular shaped electrode 11 having parallel strip elements 60 with small gaps there-Jo ` between. Each element 60 is attached by a connector link 61 to form -the main cable 12.
Various changes may be made -to the embodiments shown without departing from the scope of the present invention which is limited only by the following claims.
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Claims (15)

The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive property or privilege is claimed are defined as follows:
1) An electrode for connection to an electro-surgical generator comprising:
a plurality of separate conductive elements spaced apart in a surface plane and attached to a non-conductive backing, a connector from each one of the conductive elements to a resistor having a resistance value propor-tional to current flow through the one of the conductive elements to provide uniform current distribution, and attachment means for attaching the conductive elements to a patient's skin.
2) The electrode according to claim 1 including a gel coating on the conductive elements, the gel coating having a high resistivity.
3) The electrode according to claim 1 wherein the conductive elements are in the form of a plurality of concentric rings about a circular disc, with the disc and each of the rings being connected to individual resistors having different resistor values, such that current density per skin surface contact area is substantially the same for the disc and the rings.
4) The electrode according to claim 3 wherein each of the resistors for the concentric rings on the outside has a higher resistance value than the resistors for the concentric rings on the inside and the disc.
5) The electrode according to claim 3 or claim 4 including a spacing between the rings of at least about 2 mm.
6) The electrode according to any of claims 1, 2 or 3 wherein the conductive elements each have a resistor with a resistance value not greater than about 50 ohms.
7) The electrode according to claim 3 or claim 4 wherein the circular disc has a connector link in the scene plane as the skin surface contact area extending off to one side, and wherein each of the concentric rings has a peripheral gap and a connector link in the same plane as the skin surface extending off to the one side, wherein the connector links from the disc and each ring are sub-stantially parallel to each other and extend off to the one side through the peripheral gaps in adjacent larger concentric rings.
8) The electrode according to claim 1 or claim 2 wherein the conductive elements are in the form of parallel strips with a spacing of at least about 2 mm between the strips.
9) The electrode according to any of claims 1, 2 and 3 including a shorting pad adjacent the connectors, the shorting pad adapted to cooperate with a separate con-tinuity connector to indicate a completed connection between the electrode and the electrosurgical generator.
10) The electrode according to claim 2 wherein the gel coating has a gel resistivity in the range of about 500 to 1,000 ohm-centimetres.
11) The electrode according to claim 2 wherein the gel coating is a purified agar solid gel having a resistivity in the range of about 500 to 1,000 ohm-centi-metres.
12) The electrode according to any of claims 1, 2 or 3 wherein the electrode and connectors include a short cable and polarized connector plug which are all disposable, the connector plug adapted to mate with a socket having connections to the resistors and electro-surgical generator.
13) The electrode according to claim 1 wherein the attachment means includes an adhesive material contained in a peripheral portion surrounding the conductive elements.
14) The electrode according to claim 13 including non-conductive gaps between conductive elements having adhesive material therein.
15) The electrode according to claim 2 wherein the gel coating comprises an adhesive gel to form the attachment means, the adhesive gel having a high resis-tivity.
CA000452352A 1984-04-18 1984-04-18 Multi-element electrosurgical indifferent electrode with temperature balancing resistors Expired CA1219642A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CA000452352A CA1219642A (en) 1984-04-18 1984-04-18 Multi-element electrosurgical indifferent electrode with temperature balancing resistors

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CA000452352A CA1219642A (en) 1984-04-18 1984-04-18 Multi-element electrosurgical indifferent electrode with temperature balancing resistors

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
CA1219642A true CA1219642A (en) 1987-03-24

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Cited By (34)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0307708A1 (en) * 1987-09-11 1989-03-22 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Indifferent electrode for HF surgical instruments
EP0308690A1 (en) * 1987-09-11 1989-03-29 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Electrosurgical indifferent electrode provided with at least three sections
EP0416159A1 (en) * 1989-09-07 1991-03-13 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Adhesive electrode pad for a HF surgical apparatus
US5289822A (en) * 1992-12-01 1994-03-01 Physiometrix, Inc. Electrode for reducing the surface resistivity of skin and method
US5295482A (en) * 1992-10-22 1994-03-22 Physiometrix, Inc. Large surface area electrode
WO1995031145A1 (en) * 1994-05-16 1995-11-23 Physiometrix, Inc. Medical electrode and method
US5938597A (en) * 1995-05-04 1999-08-17 Stratbucker; Robert A. Electrocardiograph bioelectric interface system and method of use
US6091977A (en) * 1995-04-07 2000-07-18 The University Of Miami Sensor
WO2000065993A1 (en) * 1999-04-29 2000-11-09 Leonhard Lang Kg Medical electrode
WO2006089319A1 (en) * 2005-02-23 2006-08-31 Nessler Medizintechnik Gmbh Planar electrode
AU2002314879B2 (en) * 2001-06-01 2006-11-23 Biofisica, Llc Apparatus and methods for facilitating wound healing
EP1847230A1 (en) * 2006-04-18 2007-10-24 Covidien AG System and method for reducing patient return electrode current concentrations
WO2008009385A1 (en) * 2006-07-19 2008-01-24 Erbe Elektromedizin Gmbh Electrode device
EP1994905A1 (en) * 2007-05-07 2008-11-26 Covidien AG Capacitive electrosurgical return pad with contact quality monitoring
US7722412B2 (en) 2001-06-01 2010-05-25 Covidien Ag Return pad cable connector
US7736359B2 (en) 2006-01-12 2010-06-15 Covidien Ag RF return pad current detection system
US7927329B2 (en) 2006-09-28 2011-04-19 Covidien Ag Temperature sensing return electrode pad
US7938825B2 (en) 2002-09-25 2011-05-10 Covidien Ag Multiple RF return pad contact detection system
US8021360B2 (en) 2007-04-03 2011-09-20 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp System and method for providing even heat distribution and cooling return pads
US8100898B2 (en) 2007-08-01 2012-01-24 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp System and method for return electrode monitoring
US8172835B2 (en) 2008-06-05 2012-05-08 Cutera, Inc. Subcutaneous electric field distribution system and methods
US8187263B2 (en) 2008-02-04 2012-05-29 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp System and method for return electrode monitoring
US8231614B2 (en) 2007-05-11 2012-07-31 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Temperature monitoring return electrode
US8298225B2 (en) 2009-03-19 2012-10-30 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp System and method for return electrode monitoring
US8388614B2 (en) 2009-09-29 2013-03-05 Covidien Lp Return electrode temperature prediction
US8388612B2 (en) 2007-05-11 2013-03-05 Covidien Lp Temperature monitoring return electrode
US8486059B2 (en) 2008-02-15 2013-07-16 Covidien Lp Multi-layer return electrode
US8523853B2 (en) 2008-02-05 2013-09-03 Covidien Lp Hybrid contact quality monitoring return electrode
US8801703B2 (en) 2007-08-01 2014-08-12 Covidien Lp System and method for return electrode monitoring
US8808161B2 (en) 2003-10-23 2014-08-19 Covidien Ag Redundant temperature monitoring in electrosurgical systems for safety mitigation
US9381346B2 (en) 2006-07-05 2016-07-05 Precisis Us, Inc. Treatment of neurological disorders via electrical stimulation, and methods related thereto
WO2017219015A1 (en) * 2016-06-17 2017-12-21 Megadyne Medical Products, Inc. Electrosurgical return electrode and rfid system
US9888954B2 (en) 2012-08-10 2018-02-13 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Plasma resection electrode
US9987072B2 (en) 2008-03-17 2018-06-05 Covidien Lp System and method for detecting a fault in a capacitive return electrode for use in electrosurgery

Cited By (51)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0307708A1 (en) * 1987-09-11 1989-03-22 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Indifferent electrode for HF surgical instruments
EP0308690A1 (en) * 1987-09-11 1989-03-29 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Electrosurgical indifferent electrode provided with at least three sections
US4841966A (en) * 1987-09-11 1989-06-27 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Electrode consisting of at least three elements useful for a HF surgical instrument
US4873974A (en) * 1987-09-11 1989-10-17 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Neutral electrode for a high-frequency surgical instrument
EP0416159A1 (en) * 1989-09-07 1991-03-13 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Adhesive electrode pad for a HF surgical apparatus
US5114424A (en) * 1989-09-07 1992-05-19 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Multipart planar electrode for an hf-surgery device
US5295482A (en) * 1992-10-22 1994-03-22 Physiometrix, Inc. Large surface area electrode
US5289822A (en) * 1992-12-01 1994-03-01 Physiometrix, Inc. Electrode for reducing the surface resistivity of skin and method
WO1995031145A1 (en) * 1994-05-16 1995-11-23 Physiometrix, Inc. Medical electrode and method
US5520683A (en) * 1994-05-16 1996-05-28 Physiometrix, Inc. Medical electrode and method
US6091977A (en) * 1995-04-07 2000-07-18 The University Of Miami Sensor
US5938597A (en) * 1995-05-04 1999-08-17 Stratbucker; Robert A. Electrocardiograph bioelectric interface system and method of use
WO2000065993A1 (en) * 1999-04-29 2000-11-09 Leonhard Lang Kg Medical electrode
US8204572B1 (en) 1999-04-29 2012-06-19 Leonard Lang Kg Medical electrode
AT407486B (en) * 1999-04-29 2001-03-26 Leonhard Lang Kg medical electrode
AU2002314879B2 (en) * 2001-06-01 2006-11-23 Biofisica, Llc Apparatus and methods for facilitating wound healing
US7722412B2 (en) 2001-06-01 2010-05-25 Covidien Ag Return pad cable connector
US7938825B2 (en) 2002-09-25 2011-05-10 Covidien Ag Multiple RF return pad contact detection system
US8808161B2 (en) 2003-10-23 2014-08-19 Covidien Ag Redundant temperature monitoring in electrosurgical systems for safety mitigation
WO2006089319A1 (en) * 2005-02-23 2006-08-31 Nessler Medizintechnik Gmbh Planar electrode
EP2208476A1 (en) * 2005-02-23 2010-07-21 Nessler Medizintechnik GmbH Flat electrode
US7736359B2 (en) 2006-01-12 2010-06-15 Covidien Ag RF return pad current detection system
EP1847230A1 (en) * 2006-04-18 2007-10-24 Covidien AG System and method for reducing patient return electrode current concentrations
US9381346B2 (en) 2006-07-05 2016-07-05 Precisis Us, Inc. Treatment of neurological disorders via electrical stimulation, and methods related thereto
WO2008009385A1 (en) * 2006-07-19 2008-01-24 Erbe Elektromedizin Gmbh Electrode device
US8449536B2 (en) 2006-07-19 2013-05-28 Erbe Elektromedizin Gmbh Electrode device
US8216222B2 (en) 2006-09-28 2012-07-10 Covidien Ag Temperature sensing return electrode pad
US7927329B2 (en) 2006-09-28 2011-04-19 Covidien Ag Temperature sensing return electrode pad
US8021360B2 (en) 2007-04-03 2011-09-20 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp System and method for providing even heat distribution and cooling return pads
EP1994905A1 (en) * 2007-05-07 2008-11-26 Covidien AG Capacitive electrosurgical return pad with contact quality monitoring
US8235980B2 (en) 2007-05-07 2012-08-07 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Electrosurgical system for measuring contact quality of a return pad
US8080007B2 (en) 2007-05-07 2011-12-20 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Capacitive electrosurgical return pad with contact quality monitoring
US8231614B2 (en) 2007-05-11 2012-07-31 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Temperature monitoring return electrode
US8690867B2 (en) 2007-05-11 2014-04-08 Covidien Lp Temperature monitoring return electrode
US8382749B2 (en) 2007-05-11 2013-02-26 Covidien Lp Temperature monitoring return electrode
US8388612B2 (en) 2007-05-11 2013-03-05 Covidien Lp Temperature monitoring return electrode
US8801703B2 (en) 2007-08-01 2014-08-12 Covidien Lp System and method for return electrode monitoring
US8430873B2 (en) 2007-08-01 2013-04-30 Covidien Lp System and method for return electrode monitoring
US8100898B2 (en) 2007-08-01 2012-01-24 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp System and method for return electrode monitoring
US8187263B2 (en) 2008-02-04 2012-05-29 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp System and method for return electrode monitoring
US8790337B2 (en) 2008-02-04 2014-07-29 Covidien Lp System and method for return electrode monitoring
US8523853B2 (en) 2008-02-05 2013-09-03 Covidien Lp Hybrid contact quality monitoring return electrode
US8486059B2 (en) 2008-02-15 2013-07-16 Covidien Lp Multi-layer return electrode
US9987072B2 (en) 2008-03-17 2018-06-05 Covidien Lp System and method for detecting a fault in a capacitive return electrode for use in electrosurgery
US8454591B2 (en) 2008-06-05 2013-06-04 Cutera, Inc. Subcutaneous electric field distribution system and methods
US8172835B2 (en) 2008-06-05 2012-05-08 Cutera, Inc. Subcutaneous electric field distribution system and methods
US8298225B2 (en) 2009-03-19 2012-10-30 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp System and method for return electrode monitoring
US8784410B2 (en) 2009-09-29 2014-07-22 Covidien Lp Return electrode temperature prediction
US8388614B2 (en) 2009-09-29 2013-03-05 Covidien Lp Return electrode temperature prediction
US9888954B2 (en) 2012-08-10 2018-02-13 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Plasma resection electrode
WO2017219015A1 (en) * 2016-06-17 2017-12-21 Megadyne Medical Products, Inc. Electrosurgical return electrode and rfid system

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