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Method and apparatus for inhalation rewarming

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Publication number
CA1166927A
CA1166927A CA 381102 CA381102A CA1166927A CA 1166927 A CA1166927 A CA 1166927A CA 381102 CA381102 CA 381102 CA 381102 A CA381102 A CA 381102A CA 1166927 A CA1166927 A CA 1166927A
Authority
CA
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
air
means
body
steam
water
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired
Application number
CA 381102
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Robert Douwens
John Hayward
Original Assignee
Robert Douwens
John Hayward
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M16/00Devices for influencing the respiratory system of patients by gas treatment, e.g. mouth-to-mouth respiration; Tracheal tubes
    • A61M16/10Preparation of respiratory gases or vapours
    • A61M16/14Preparation of respiratory gases or vapours by mixing different fluids, one of them being in a liquid phase
    • A61M16/16Devices to humidify the respiration air
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M11/00Sprayers or atomisers specially adapted for therapeutic purposes
    • A61M11/04Sprayers or atomisers specially adapted for therapeutic purposes operated by the vapour pressure of the liquid to be sprayed or atomised
    • A61M11/041Sprayers or atomisers specially adapted for therapeutic purposes operated by the vapour pressure of the liquid to be sprayed or atomised using heaters
    • A61M11/042Sprayers or atomisers specially adapted for therapeutic purposes operated by the vapour pressure of the liquid to be sprayed or atomised using heaters electrical
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M11/00Sprayers or atomisers specially adapted for therapeutic purposes
    • A61M11/04Sprayers or atomisers specially adapted for therapeutic purposes operated by the vapour pressure of the liquid to be sprayed or atomised
    • A61M11/041Sprayers or atomisers specially adapted for therapeutic purposes operated by the vapour pressure of the liquid to be sprayed or atomised using heaters
    • A61M11/048Sprayers or atomisers specially adapted for therapeutic purposes operated by the vapour pressure of the liquid to be sprayed or atomised using heaters with a flame, e.g. using a burner

Abstract

ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE
Apparatus is provided herein for inhalation rewarming for the treatment of victims of hypothermia. The apparatus includes a water reser-voir. A steam chamber communicates with ambient air. A heater means is associated with such water chamber, for the generation of steam into such steam chamber. An opening is provided admitting air to the steam chamber, thereby to provide an air-steam mixture. A first conductor is connected to the steam chamber for the conducting of the air-steam mixture from the steam chamber in a first direction. A valve is provided in the first con-ductor for varying the inflow of the ambient air while simultaneously re-ciprocally varying the inflow of the air-steam mixture and providing a sub-stantially constant volume flow into the first conduit means. The valve includes actuated operator means for initially introducing sufficient ambi-ent air into the air-steam mixture in the first conductor means to provide a continuous flow of the water-saturated air at the temperature of about 35°C- about 45°C. A flexible conduit leads from the valve means for con-ducting the water-saturated air in the first direction. Finally a breath-ing mask is connected to the flexible conduit means downstream of the valve means. The breathing mask includes one-way valves therein to permit the water-saturated air-to flow only in the first direction to the breathing mask, whereby the water-saturated air at the temperature of about 35°C-about 45°C is drawn into the breathing mask by the negative pressure pro-duced by human inhalation, and exhaled air produced by human inhalation is vented. Thus, a simple, effective apparatus for inhalation rewarming has been provided which has special relevance to first-aid treatment of accidental hypothermia.

Description

This invention relates to a method and apparatus for the rewarm-ing of severely hypothermic humans.
In the profoundly hypothermic human, the lowered ventilation rate causes less heat donation by the inhala~ion mcthod and provides "stabili-zation" of the core temperature during trflnsport to hospital. In mild or moderate hypo~hermia, actual "rewarming" of the victim is desirable. In such victims, ventilation rate is elevated and a satisfnctory rewarming rate of the critical core is obtained. Victims who are hypothermic and lack vital signs (e.g., cold water near-drowning) should not be re~armed until arrival a~ the hospital. Inhalation therapy based on the spontaneous ventilation of the v:ictim ensures that this will be the case.
Accidental hypothermia is a conmlon hazard to man's endeavours in cold air and water environmellts. Because of the potential for rapid heat loss in cold water immersion and in mountnin accidents, acc~dental hypother-mia often becomes a true medical emergency ~ith substtntial mortality. ~et, despite the long-standing recognition of this problem, a single definitive plan for first-aid therapy of accidental hypothermia has not been accepted.
Because hypothermia fatalitles occasionally occur even after removal of the victim from his cold environment, organi~.ations involved in the recovery o~ hypothermia victims should have the cap(tcity to give effective emergency medical treatment.
A traditlonal way of treatmellt of accidental hypothermia has been rapid perlpheral rewarming. TltLs has becn e~fective even in the profoundly hypothermic victlm. However, the peripheral vasodilation wllich usually accompanies most forms of external rewarming may precipitate the ~ell de-scribed "afterdrop" in core body tempernture, which can potentiate the pos-sibility of ventricular fibrillation from further cooling of the myocar-dium. The peripheral vasodilation accompnll)ing rapid extcrnal rewarming may also produce "rewarming shock", a form of hypovolemia secondary to diminished central blood volume. The lnttcr effect is particularly evidel~t - 1- ~' .

in hypothermia of slow onset, where intravnscular volume is decreased secondary to fluid shifts. Hence, rapid p~ripheral rewarming of the acci-dental hypothermia victim in attended by a number of potential ha~ards which cannot be well managed in the non-hospital setting.
It is now established that the most effective and safe method for rewarming of severly hypothermic humans is by donation of heat direct-ly to the core of the body rather than via the periphery. Accordingly, hospital management of such victims most frequently involves peritoneal dialysis (warm saline in the abdominal cavity) and inhalation ~or airway) rewarming. Of these two methods, only inhalation rewarming is suitable for use by non-medical personnel at the rescue site or during transport to hospital. Inhalation o~ warm (42-42C), water-saturated air or oxygen donates heat directly to the head, neck and thoracic core (the critical core). Although the amount of heat donated by this method is not large, its transfer to the most important tissues of the body is strategic, and re-sults ln minimum "afterdrop'1 of core temperature and does not stimulate return of peripheral blood with possible elevations of acidity and potas-sium concentratiOn.
Methods of inhalation rewarming are now used rolltinely in hos-O pitals and an eleetrically powered inhalatlon rewarming unit has been de-veloped for the field. ~owever, e~ectricity is not always available in remote regions where hypothermic victims are found, Also, such units have the disadvan~age of requiring a source of co~npressed gas (e.g., oxygen)~
Some reports of inhalation rewarming techniques are by M.L.
Collis et al "Accidental ~ypothermia: An E~perimental Study of ~ractical Rewarming Methods" Aviation, Space, and Envlrollment Medicine~ July 1977, p. 625; and by E L.L. Lloyd "Accident~l Hypothermia Treated by Central Rewarming Through the Airway", Brit~ J. An.~cth. (1973) 45, p. 41, The patent literature is replete wlth devices that pertain to warming and humidifying air or anaesthesil~ ~ases. Among these patents are , ' , :' ' ' ''' , , ;,, :

the following ~nited States patents:
3,434,47, 3,506,003 3,526,222 3,638,926 3,659,604 3,820,540 3,871,373 3,902,883 3,974,830 3,912,795 3,771,721 Re.30046 3,664,337 3,630,196 3,598,ll6 3,326,214 3,565,072 3,902,48~ 4,028,445 4,038,980 4,051,205 4,060,576 4,1~1,583 4,016,878 4,019,511 4,026,285 4,007,238 4,009,713 4,084,587 4,101,611 Nevertheless, the provision of a practical apparat~ls for In-halation rewarming has not been taught. Accordingly, an object of an aspect of this invention is the provision of a small, compact, light-weight appara-tus which may be heated by means of a gas, e.g., propane, or by electricity, e.g., 110 V or 12 V of low wattage.
An object of another aspect of thls invention ls the provision of such an apparatus which is simple in operation and may be effectively and safety administered by non-medical personnel with minimal training.
An object of a further aspect of thls invention is the provision of such an apparatus which has a rapid warm-up so that steam may be availa-ble within 10 seconds of startup.
An object of yet another aspect o this invention is the provision of such an apparatus incorporation a temperature regulatin~ system.
An object of a still further aspect of this inventiOn is the provision of such an apparatus in which there is no requirement for com-pressed sources o breathing gases, (e.g., air or 2)~ since normal breath-ing of the victom should prov~de transport of the warm, water-saturated air.
An ob~ect of yet a further aspect of this invention is the provision of such an apparatus which provides efficient operation in ex-treme cold environments through the use of exhaust gases for additional heating of the water reservoir and for the maintenance of the steam cham-ber temperature directly and by preheating of cold, ambient, intake air.
An object of still a further nspect of this invention is the provision of s.uch an apparatus having a high capacity st:eam production 90 tha-t it may potentiate multiple-victim treatment simultaneously.
An object of yet a further aspect of this invention is the provision of such an apparatus having an accesso.ry function which makes it usable as a "stove" for heating food, drinks, and melting snow as a water source.
; An object of another aspect of this invention is to provide a novel method for inhalation rewarming.
By one aspect of this invention, apparatus is provided for in-halation rewarming for the treatment of human victims of hypothermia, comprising: (a) a water reservoi.r; (b) a steam chamber communicating with the water reservoir; (c) a~heater means, associated with the water chamber, for the generation of steam into the steam chamber; (d) means for admit-ting air to the steam chamber, thereby to provide an air~steam mixture;
(e) a first conductor means having inlet means connected to the steam chamber for the conducting of the air-steam mixture from the steam cham-; ~ ber in a first.direction and having outlet means; (f) valve rneans in the first conductor means communlcating with ambient air for varying the in-fIow of the ambient air into the conductor means while simultaneously re-. 20 reciprocally varying the inflow of-the air-steam mixture from the steam .~ : chamber into the conductor means and providing a substantially constant volume flow from the first conductor.means, the valve means including : actuated operator means for initially introducing sufficient ambient air into the air-steam mixture ln the first conductor means to provide a con-~ stant volume flow of water-saturated air at a temperature of 35C. to ; 45C. and for maintaining the constant volurne flow of the water-saturated air at the temperature of-35C. to 45DC.; (g) flexible conduit means con-~, ~
4 -- .__ nected to -the outlet means of the first conductor means leading from the valve means for conducting the water-saturated air in the first direction;
and (h) a breathing mask connected to the flexible conduit means down-stream of the valve means, the brea-thing mask including one-way valves therein to permit the wa-ter-sa-turated air to flow only the first direc-tion to the breathing mask,whereby the water saturated air at the tempera-ture of 35C. to 45C. is drawn into the breathing mask by the negative pressure produced by human inhalation, and exhaled air produced by human inhalation is vented.

By a variant thereof, the temperature is 42C. to 45C.
By another variant thereof, the heater means comprises a propane gas-heated hollow core surrounded by an annular water reservoir.
By a variation thereof, the a-pparatus includes a coil transvers-ing the heated hollow core and leading from the bottom of the water reservoir to the bottom of the steam chamber, whereby water is converted ~ to steam via the water-filled coil.
:~ By another variation thereof, the steam chamber is disposed atop the annular water reservoir in open communication therewith.
By another variant, the heater means comprises an electrically heated hollow cylinder surrounded by an annular water reservoir.
By a variation thereof, the apparatus includes means for pre-heating.the air entering the steam charnber by ~lectric heat from the .:
heater means.
By another vari.ation the apparatus includes a coil transversing the heated hollow cylinder and leading from the bottom of the water reservoir to the bottom of the steam chamber, whereby water is converted to steam via the water~filled coil.

By a further variation, the steam chamber is disposed atop the annular water reservoir in open communication therewith.
By another variant, the apparatus includes means for preheating the air entering the steam chamber by exhaust heat from the heater means.
By yet another variant, the operator means is manually actuated.
~ y still another variant, the fixst conductor means includes a plurality of outlet means leading to a similar plurality of second flexi-ble conduit means, each leading to an associated breathing mask.
By still a further variant, the operator means includes a con-trol means to limit the maximum temperature of the water saturated air, the control means comprising sensing means, adjacent to the breathing mask, to sense a predetermined maximum te~perature of the water-saturated air, and non-manual valve operator means, actuated by the $ensing means, to in-crease the input of ambient air to the valve means, while simultaneously reciprocally reducing the input of the air-steam mixture until the maximum temperature of the water-saturated air is reduced while the volume flow of the water-saturated air is maintained.
By a further variant, the first conductor means having the valve means comprises: (a) a hollow, tubular inner body having a closed end and an opposite open end and an axial flow passage and a single arcuate open-- ing extending through the side wall thereof; (b) an outer coaxial, open-ended, hollow tubular body having an axial flow passage and a pair of dis~
continuous arcuate orifices extending through the sidewall thereof and in ~ alignment with the arcuate opening in the inner body, the outer tubular; body being disposed concentrically and relatively rotatably raound the inner body; (c) a hollow connecting tube connected at right angles to one of the discontinuous arcuate openings in the outer body, the connecting 6 _ _ _ - , , , 1': 1 , tube having an axial flow passage; (d) the one discontinuous arcuate opening in alignment with the arcuate opening in the inner body defining the inlet means for an air-steam mixture to the valve means through the connecting tube and into the one di.scontinuous arcua-te orifice; (e~ the valve means communicating with ambient air through the arcuate opening in the hollow inner body in ali.gnment with the other one of the discontinuous arcuate orifices; (g) the opposite-open end of the inner body defining the outlet means connecting to the flexible conduit; and means for rotating the inner tubular body with respect to the outer tubular body to change the overlap-ping areas of the arcuate opening in the inner tubular body and the arcuate openings in the outer tubular body, thereby to allow a varying input of the ambient air and a reciprocal varying input of the air steam mixture in proportions to result in temperature control of the effIuent, water-satura-ted air while maintaining a constant flow of the water-saturated air.
~: ~y still another vari.ant, the first conduc-tor-means having the valve means comprises: (i) an inner tubular hollow body mernber having an axial flow passage, and a control orifice in a side-wall thereofi (ii) an outer tubular hollow body member ha*ing an axial flow passage dispsoed con-centrically and in a vertical orientation relatively rotatable to the inner body member, the outer body member having a plurality of orifices in align-ment with the control orifice, the flexible conduit means being connected to the outer boay member and communicating with the flow passage of the .
inner. hollow body memberi (iil) one of the plurallty of orifices in the outer boay member in alignment with the control orifice defining an inlet for an air~steam mixture to enter the inner body member; (iv) another of the plurality of orifices in the outer body member in.alignment with the control oriEice defining an ambient air inlet means to the inner body member; and (v~ means for rotating the inner tubular body with respect to the outer tubular body to change the overlapping areas of the arcuate opening in the inner tubular body and the arcuate openings in the outer tubular body, thereby to allow a varying input of the ambient air and a reciprocal varying input of the air-steam mixture in proportions-to result in temperature control of the effluent, water-saturated air, while main-taining a constant flow of the water-saturated air.
By a still further variant, the first conductor means includes an outlet port leading from the valve means, a water trap connected to the outlet port for collecting water condensed out of the air-steam mixture in providing the water-saturated air at the temperature of 35C. to 45C.
By another aspect of this invention, an apparatus is provided for inhalation rewarming for the treatment of victims of hypothermia, com-prising: (a) a reservoir; (b) a steam chamber communicating with the water reservoir; (c) a heater means, associated with the water chamber, for the generation of steam into the steam chamber; (d) means for admitting air at ambient pressure to the steam chamber, thereby to provide an air-steam mixture; (e) first conductor means having inlet means connected to the ;; steam chamher for the conducting of the air-steam mixture at ambient pres-sure from the steam chamber in a first direction and having outlet means;
(f) valve means in the first conductor means communicating with ambient - air for varying the inflow of the ambient air into the conductor means while simultaneously reciprocally varying the inflow of the air~steam mixture from the steam chamber into the conductor means and providing a substantially constant volume flow from the first conductor means, the valve means including actuated operator means for initially introducing sufficient ambient air in-to the air-steam mixture in the first conductor ~ 8 __ , . . . . .
.: :
.

means to provide a constant volume flow of water-saturated air at a tem-perature of 35~C. to 45C. and for maintaining -the constant volume flow of the water-saturated air at the temperature of 35C. to fi5~C.; (g) flexible conduit means connected to the outlet means of the first conductor means leading from the valve means for conducting the water-saturated air in the first direction; and (h) a breathing mask connected to -the flexible conduit means downstream of the valve means, the breathing mask including one-way valves therein to permi~ the water-saturated air to flow only in ti~e first direction to the breathing mask,whereby the water saturated air at the temperature of 35C. to 45~C. is drawn into the breathing mask by the negative pressure produced by human inhalation, and exhaled air produced by human inhalation is vented.
By one variant of that aspect, the apparatus includes means for preheating the air entering the steam chamber by exhaust heat from the heater means.
By another variant of that aspect, the first conductor means having the valve means comprises: (a) a-hollow,.tubular inner body having a closed end and an opposite open end and an axial flow..passage and a single arcuate opening extending through the sidewell thereof; (b) an outer coaxial, open-ended, hollow tubular body having an axial flow passage and a pair of discontinuous arcuate orifices extending through the sidewell thereof and in alignment with the arcuate opening in -the inner body, the outer tubular body being disposed concentrically and relatively rotatably around the inner body; (c) a hollow connecting tube connected at right angles to one of the discontinuous arcuate openings in the outer body, the connecting tube having an axial flow passage; (d) the one discontinuous arcuate opening in alignment with the arcuate opening in the inner body de-, g _ ._ _

2~7 fining the inlet means for an air-steam mixture to the valve means through the connecting tube and into the one discontinuous arcuate orifice; (e). the valve means communicating with ambient air through the arcuate opening in the hollow inner body the other one of the discontinuous arcuate orifices;
(f) the opposite open end of the inner body defining the outlet means con-nected to the flexi.ble conduit; and (g) means for rotating the inner tubular body with respect to -the outer tubular body to change the overlap-ping areas of the arcuate opening in the inner tubular body and the arcuate openings in the outer tubular body, thereby to allow a varying input of the ambient air and a reciprocal varying input of the air-steam mixture in proportions to result in temperature control of the effluent, water-saturated air while maintainlng a constant flow of the water-saturated air.
By yet another variant of that aspect, the first conductor means having the valve means comprises: (i) an inner tubular hollow body mernber having an axial flow passage, and a control orifice in a sidewall thereof; (ii) an outer tubular hollow body mernber having an axial flow passage disposed concentrically and in a vertical orientation relatively rotatable to the inner body member, the outer body mernber ha~ing a plurali-ty of orifices in alignment with the control orifice, the flexible conduit means being connected to the outer body member and communicating with the flow passage of the inner hollow body member; (iii) one of the plurality of orifices in the outer body member in alignment with the control orifice defining an inlet for an air-steam mlxture to enter the inner body member;
(iv) another of the plurality of orifices in the outer body member in alignment with the control orifice defining an ambient air inlet means to the inner body member, and (v) means for rotating the inner tubular body with respect to the outer tubular body to change the overlapping areas of ~ 9a - __ . '~.~ .
., .

, the arcuate opening in the inner tubular body and the arcuate openings in the outer tubular body, thereby to allow a varying input of the ambient air and a reciprocal varying input of the air-steam mixture in proportions to result in temperature control of the effluent, water-saturated air, while maintaining a constant flow of the water-saturated air.
By a still further variant of that aspect the temperature is 42C. to ~5C.
By still another variant of that aspect, the first conductor means includes an outlet port leading from the valve means, a water trap connected to the outlet port for collecting water condensed out of the air-steam mixture in pxoviding the water-saturated air at the temperature of 35C. to 45C.
By yet another variant of that aspect the operator means is manually actuated.
By a~other aspect of this invention apparatus is provided for inhalation rewarming for the treatment of victims of hypothermia, compris-ing: (a) fixst conductox means having inlet means for connection to a source of an air-steam mixture fox conducting the air-steam mixture in a first direction and outlet means; (b) valve means in the first conductor means communicating with ambient aix fox varying the inflow of the ambient air into the conductor means while simultaneously reciprocally varying the inflow of the air-steam mixture into the conductor means from a source of air-steam mixture and providing a substantially constant volume flow fro~l the first conductox means, the valve means including actuated opexator means for initially introducing sufficient ambient air into the air-steam mixture in the first conductor means to provide a substantially constant volume flow of water-saturated air at a temperature of 35C. to 45C.; ~c) flexi - 9b ~ __ .
, ble conduit means connected to the outlet means of the first conductor means leading from the valve means :Eor conducting the water-saturated air in the first direction; and (d) a breathing mask connected to the flexible conduit mans downstream of the valve means, the breathing mask,including one-way valves therein to permit the water-saturated air to flow only in the first di.rection to the breathing mask,whereby the water-saturated air at the temperature of 35C. to 45~C. is drawn into the breathing mask by the negative pressure produced by human inhalation, and exhaled air pro-duced by human inhalation is vented~
By a variant of that aspect, the first conductor means having the valve means comprises: (a) a hollow, tubular inner body having a closed end and an opposite open end and an axial flow passage and a single arcuate opening extending through the sidewall thereofi (b) an outer coaxial, open-ended, hollow tubular body having an axial flow passage and a pair of discontinuous arcuate orifices extending through the sidewall thereof and in alignment`with the arcuate opening in the inner body, the outer tubular body.being disposed concentrically and relatively rotatably around the in-ner body; (c) a hollow connecting tube connected at right angles to one of the discontinuous arcuate openings in the outer body, the connecting tube having an axial flow passage; (d) the one discontinuous arcuate open-ing in~alignment with the arcuate opening in the inner body defining the inlet means for an air-steam mixture to the valve means through the con-necting tube and into the one discontinuous arcuate orifices; (e) the valve means communicating with ambient air through the arcuate opening in the hollow inner body in alignment-with the other one of the discontinuous arcuate orifices; ~f) the opposite open end of the inner body defining the outlet means connected to the flexible conduit; and (g) means for :~ - 9c -' ~, .
':'' ' ' ' ' . ': , ' .
, rotating the inner tubular body with respect to the outer tubular body to change the overlapping areas of the arcuate opening in the inner tubular body and the arcuate openings in the outer tubular body, thereby to allow a varying input of the ambient air and a reciprocal varying input of the air-steam mixture in proportions -to result in temperature control of the effluent, water-saturated air while maintaining a constant flow of the wa-ter-saturated air.
By another variant of that aspect, the first conductor means having the valve means comprises: (i) an inner tubular hollow body member having an axial flow passage, and a control orifice in a sidewall thereof;
(ii) an outer tubular hollow body member having an axial flow passage dis-posed concentrically and in a vertical orientation relatively rotatable to the inner body member, the outer body member having a plurality of ori-fices in alignment with the control orifice, the flexible conduit means being connected to the outer body mernber and communicating with the flow passage of the inner hollow body member; (iii) one of the plurality of orifices in the outer body member in alignment with the control orifice defining an inlet for an air-steam mixture to enter the inner body member;
(iv) another of the plurality of orifices in the outer body member in alignment with the control orifice defining an ambient air inlet means to the inner body member; and (v~ means for rotating the inner tubular body with respect to the outer tubular body to change the overlapping areas of the arcuate opening in the inner tubular body and the arcuate openings in the outer tubular body, thereby to allow a varylng input of the ambient air and a reciprocal varying input of the air--steam mixture in proportions to result in tempera-ture control of the effluent, water saturated air, while maintaining a constant flow of the water~saturated air.

9 d - __ ~,.,~, .
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By still another vari.ant of that aspect the first conductor means includes an outlet port leading from the valve means, a water trap connected to the outlet port for collecting water condensed Ollt of the air-steam mixture in providing the water-saturated air at the temperature of 35C. to 45C.
By another aspect of this invention a valve is provided for use in apparatus for inhalation rewarming for the treatment of victims of hypothermia, the valve being specia]ly designed for introducing sufficient ambient air into an air-steam mixture flowing in a conduit to provide water-saturated air at a preselected temperature of 35C. to 45C., and for maintaining the continuous flow of the water-saturated air at the temperature of 35C. to 45C. by actuated operator means for varying the inflow of the ambient air while simultaneously reciprocally varying the inflow of the incoming air-steam mixture, the valve comprising: (a) a hollow, tubular closed-ended inner body having an axial flow passage and a single arcuate opening thereinto; (b) an outer coaxial, open-ended, hollow tubular body having an axial flow passage and a pair of discon-tinuous arcuate orifices thereinto, the outer tubular body being disposed concentrica~ly and relatively around the.inner body; (c) a hDllow connect-ing tube conrlected at right angles to the outer body, the connecting tube having an axial flow passage; (d).an inlet for-an air-steam mixture to the . valve means through the connecting tube and into one disconti.nuous arcuate : orifice; (e) an inlet for ambient air to the valve means~ through the arcuate opening in the hollow inner body and into the other one of the discontinuous arcuate orifices; and (f~ means for rotating the inner tubular body with respect to the outer tubular body to change the over-: lapping areas of the arcuate opening in the inner tubular body and the - 9e -., , :, ., '' .' ' ' :' , ~ .

.

arcuate openings in the outer tubular body, thereby to allow a varying i.nput of the a~bient air and a reciprocal varying input of the air-steam mixture in proportions to result in temperature control of the effluent, water-saturated air while maintaining a substantially constant flow of the water-saturated air.
By another aspect of this invention, a valve is provided for use in an apparatus for inhalation rewarrning for the treatment of victims of hypoLhermia, the va]ve being specially designed for introducing sufficient ambient air into an air-steam mixture flowing in a conduit to provide water-saturated air at a preselected suitable temperature and for maintain-ing the continuous flow of the water-saturated air at the temperature of 35C. to 45C. by actuated operator means for varying the inflow of the ambient air while simultaneously reciprocally varying the inflow of the incoming air-steam mixture, the valve comprising: ti) an inner capped hollow body member having an axial flow passage, and a control orifice ~; associated therewith; (ii) an outer hollow body member having an axial flow passage disposed concentrically and in a vertical orientation relatively rotatable to the inner body member, the outer body member having a plurali-ty of orifices~ associated with the central orifice and a plurality of out-let conauits leading therefrom; (iii) an inlet for an air-steam mixture to enter the inner body member; (iV) an inlet for ambient air to the inner body member; and (v) means for rotating the inner tubular ~ody with respect to the outer tubular body to change the overlapping areas of the arcuate ppening in the inner tubular boay ana the arcuate openings in the outer :
tubular body, the:reby to allow a varying input of the ambient air and a reciprocal varying input of the air-steam mixture in proportions to result in temperature control of the effluent water-saturated air, while main-" ' ' ' ' ' ' :
.~ ' ' , .

taining a constant flow of the water-saturated air.
~ y yet another aspect of the invention, a method is provided for the treatment of a human suffering from hypothermia which comprises the steps of: (1) generating an air-steam mixture; (2) converting the air-steam mixture to water-saturated air at a temperature of 35C. to 45C. by the addition of controlled amounts of ambient air to the air-steam mixture while substantially simultaneously condensing water out of the air-steam mixture; (3) maintaining a substantlally constant volume flow of the water-saturated air at the temperature of 35C. to 45C. by varying the volume of ambient air while simultaneously reciprocally varying the volume of the air-steam mixture; and (4) arranging for the human to inhale the water-saturated air at the temperature of 35C. to 45C. by spontaneous ventila-tion.

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. ~ ~ 'æ.
' Thus, in one embodiment of thls invention, the portable rewarming device consists of a breathing mask attached to a one-way air flow system.
Temperature of the water-saturated air breathed by the patient is monitored by a dial t~ermometer. Water-saturated air is transported to the one-way air flow system and mask by a flexible hose attached to a temperature-regulating valve via a water-trap Eor condensed water vapour. This manual-ly-controlled valve mixes ambient air and an air-steam mixture at ambient pressure from the steam generator to provide water-saturated air of the desired temperature (e.g., 43C). A constant flow potential is provided by ~ this valve for all possible control positions. The steam generator is heated by propane from an adjacent cylinder via shutoff and fine control valves. Heat given off by the generator is directed around the propane tank by a shroud to ensure vapori~ation of the propane in extremely cold environments.
An openin~ is provided in the generator for ]ighting the burner.
Another opening is ~rovided for adding water to the generator. A trans-parent gauge is provided for indicating water level. Two adjustable stabili-zers, and a carrying handle, are also provided~ Ambient air (at ambient pressure) enters the steam chamber via channels in the upper part of the generator, which results in preheating of entering air due to the high : ~ :
temperature of the metal exposed to the exhaust gases. Thls maintains the high temperature of the air-steam mixture despite cold ambient air supply.
Although the temperature regulatlng valve is designed for simple and effective operation, it is possible that operator error could cause ex-cessive temperature of the inhalate water-saturated air. As a safety feature, an electronic control may be provided which operates as a high-temperature alarm and limiting device. An electronic temperature sensor, e.g., a semiconductor, is located in the flexible hose9 near the one-way air flow system.

, . . .

When the temperature of the water-saturated air exceeds 45C~
(or a preselected setting near this, according to choice), the opening provided by a solenoid valve allowa cool ambient air in~o the air passage.
This solenoid valve is activated by a removable connector from a recharge-able, battery-operated, control box. During activation of this limiting device, audible and visible alarms signal the need for manual adjustment of the temperature-regulating valve. If such adjustment is delayed, the electr-onic valve will provide control of inhalate temperature within a satisfactory range by intermittent activation. A button permits pre~test-ing of the function of this accessory device.
The steam generating capacity of the propane-fired apparatus is sufficient to provide an air-stream mixture which can be converted to water-saturated air at 43C, to three hypothermic patients at one time.
A modified temperature-control valve7 based on the operational principle described earlier, is used for this mode.
In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is a perspective view of one e~bodiment of an inhala-tion rewarming apparatus according to this invention;
Figure 2 is a schematic vertical section of one variant of a steam generator forming a part of t he inhalation rewarming apparatus according to this invention, Figure 3 is a schematic vertical section o~ another variant of a steam generator forming a part of the inhalation rewarming apparatus accordlng to this invention, Figure 4 is an exploded perspective view of a temperature-regu-lating valve for use in the inhalation rewarming apparatus according to this inventlon;
Flgure 5 is a perspective view of a multiple victim inhalation rewarming apparatus according to another embodlment of this invention;

and Figure 6 ls a perspective view of an inhalation rewarming appara-tus according to yet another embodiment of this inventlon showing an electronic valve auxiliary temperature control.
As seen in Figure 1, the inhalation rewarming apparatus 10 in-cludes a stea~ generator, indicated generally at 11. The steam generator 11 is heated by propane from an adjacent cylinder 12 via shutoff 13 and fine-control valves 14. Heat given off by the generator is directed around th e propane tank 12 by a shroud 15 to ensure vaporization of the propane in extremely cold environments. An opening 16 is provided in the generator for lighting the bûrner. Another opening 17 is provided for adding water to the generator 11. A transparent gauge 18 is provided for indicating water level. Two adjustable stabilizers 19, and a folding carrying handle 20 are also provided.
Steam generated within the steam generator ll is mixed with am-bient air at ambient pressure admitted through apertures 21 and the -stean-air mixture is withdra~n at ambient pressure through outlet conduit 22, which leads to a temperature-regulating valve 23. The air-steam mix-ture is here converted to temperature-controlle'd,' water-saturated air, which leads past a water trap 24'for condensed vapour by a flexible hose 25 to a T-tube 26 attached to a breathing mask 27. T-tube 26 has a flapper :
valve (not shown) at each end to establish directed water-saturated air flow to the patient without significant rebreathing; the pat-lent~s ex~
halate is vented. Temperature of the water-saturated air breathed in by the pa~ient is monitored by a dial thermometer 28.
One variant of a steam generator ll is shown in Figure 2. Pro-pane from a disposable tank 12 is provided to the burner 30 under control by the shutoff valve 13 and the fine-control valve 14. The flame from the burner is applied both to a water-filIed coil 31, and to the inner walls of the annular water reservoir 32. The coil 31 leads from the bottom 34 "~

of the water reservoir 32 to the bottom 35 of a steam chamber 36. The ex-haust (arrows 37) rises to exit via pOl-tS 38 in the generator lid 39. The heat applied to the water-filled coil rapidly produces steam (e.g., in less than 10 seconds) which enters the steam chamber 36. The steam now available in the steam chamber 36 can be drawn (at ambient pressure) through exit 40 to the temperature-le~ulating valve 23. This causes entry of ambient air (at ambient pressure) at three intake ports 21 in the lid.
The route for the air to enter the steam chamber is via circular channels in the lid 39 as indicated by arrows 41. Thls results in preheating of entering air due to the high temperature of the line 39 which is heated by the exhaust gases 37. This maintains the high temperature of the air-steam mixture despite cold ambient air supply.
Another variant of a steam generator 11 is shown ln Figure 3.
The steam generator includes a cylindrical heating element 50 providing a hollow cylindrical heating chamber 51 within an amlular water reservoir 52 therearound. A coil 53 connects from the bottom 54 of the water reser-voir, around the heating element 50 and to the bottom 55 of the steam chamber 56. This steam thus exits the coil 53 at point 55 and accumulates in the steam chamber 56. It is then available for withdrawal ~at ambient pressure) to the temperature-regulatins valve 23 vla exit 57. This causes entry of ambient air (at ambient pressure) at the intake port 58.
This ambient air travels in the annul~r chamber 59 between the inller and outer walls of the steam generator ll to~the opposite side, where it en-ters (at opening 60) the chamber 60 containing the electric element. This route allows preheating of cold ambient air. Preheating is continued by the further passage of this air over the electric heating elcment 50 and coil 53 before it enters the steam ch;~ ber 56 via connecting chamber 62.
An opening chamber 63 for filling the gcnerator with water is provided iD

. . .

z~

the top 64 oE the generator.
The power consumption of the electric element is 250 W at 110 V, which also permits operation from a battery via an inventor. For this reason, a tin~ng circuit (printed circuit board, 65) is provided to obtain a 60/40 on/oEf duty cycle, thereby extending battery operation without loss of steam production capacity. In this electrical heater system for the generation of steam, it is preferred to use pulsed power of high vol-tage so that there is a saving of 40~ of electric power over the use of continuous supply at 60% power. The control circuit is preferably de-signed for application of full-time 250 watts during warmup. Once this has occurred, the circuit is switched to the more economical 60/40 mode, especially if the ambient temperatures are not too cold.
The structure of a suitable temperature control valve 23 is shown in Figure 4. The valve 23 lncludes an inner body 70 in the form of a hollow tube having an arcuate opening 71 therein and closed by a cap 72, .
and an outer body 73 in the form of an open~ended hollow tube, having a pair of discontinuous arcuate orifices 74, 75 therein. A connecting tube ~l 76 includes a lower saddle connection 77 to the upper portion 78 of the ,. .
, outer body 73. With the air-steam mixture available via connecting tube 76 to arcuate orifice 75, and ambient air via arcuate opening 71 to orifice ~`~ 74, manual rotation of the inner control body 70, by cap 72 positioned /
withln the outer control body 73, permits selection via orifice 71 of vary-ing inputs of ambient air to arcuate orifice 74 and the air-steam mixture to arcuate orifices 75 ln proportions to result in temperature control (e.g., 42 - 45C.) of the effluent, water saturated air leaving the valve at opening 79. A constant flow potential is provided by this valve for all possible control positions.
.

- 14 - __ .

:...................... ' ' ' ., ' ' ~ .

rrhe multiple patient inhalation rewarming apparatus of Figure 5 is similar to that shown in Figure 1 and so the same reference numerals are used for similar parts. The only change is that the temperature con-trol valve 23a is based on a vertical orientation with three control ori-fices (not shown) between inner and outer tubular bodies, and three outlets 79a, 79b and 79c leading to three flexible conduits 25a, 25b and 25c, respectively.
The apparatus shown in Figure 6 is similar to that shown in Fig-ure 1, and so the same reference numerals are used for similar parts.
While the temperature-regulating valve 23 is designed for simple and effective operation, there is the possibility of operator failure resulting ~n excessive temperature of the inhalate water-saturated air. As a safety accessory, an electronic control system 80 can be installea ad~acent to the manual valve and operator as a high temperature alarm and limiting de-vice. It is shown in Figure 6 and its operation is as follows: - -An electronic temperature sensor 81alis located:in the flexible hose 25 near the T-tube 26 and is connected to box 84 via line 81b. When the temperature exceeds 45C. (or a preselected setting near this)~, the orifice 81 is opened to allow cool ambient air into the air passage. This orifice opening is pro~ided by a solenoid valve 82 activated via a removable con-nector 83 from the battery~operated control box 84. During activation of this limiting device, an audible alarm 85 signals the need for manual ad~
justment of the temperature~regulating valve 23. If such adjustment is not made, the electronic control system 80 will provide control of inhalate temperature within a satisfactory range by intermittent activation. But-ton 86 permits pre~testing of the function of this accessory device.
Thus, in operation, if the temperature exceeds 45C., the temperature-regulated, water-saturated aix from valve 23 may alternatively be blocked and cooler a~bient air may be -temporarily provided for inhalation.
As a ~eneral feature of al] variants of this invention, it is noted that as lon~ as the saturated air is below 100C., the introduc-tion ~0 : 20 ~ 15 a . . , ..

of ambient air at the valve desaturates it. Once the saturated air reaches 100C., it becomes an airjsteam mixture. Introduction of ambient air to reduce the temperature of the air/steam mixture plu5 ambient air combina-tion produces a water-saturated air output once sufficient steam is present in the air/steam mixture.
The carrying out of inhalation rewarm:Lng with wa~er-saturated air at a temperature of up to 45C. has a maximum heating capacity without risking damage to the lungs. This is because of the high heating capacity of water vapour. It is therefore desirable to ensure that the inhaled air is saturated as well as being maintained at a controlled temperature. This is obtained by mixing ambient air with an air-steam mixture that contains sufficient steam to maintain saturation after mixing. In addition, the provision of an air-steam mixture at ambient (i.e., about one atmosphere) pressure enables the patient himself to provide the motive force for in-, ~ halation rewarming.

~,

Claims (30)

THE EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION IN WHICH AN EXCLUSIVE
PROPERTY OR PRIVILEGE IS CLAIMED ARE DEFINED AS FOLLOWS:
1. Apparatus for inhalation rewarming for the treatment of victims of hypothermia, comprising:
(a) a water reservoir;
(b) a steam chamber communicating with said water reservoir (c) a heater means, associated with said water chamber, for the generation of steam into said steam chamber;
(d) means for admitting air to said steam chamber, thereby to provide an air-steam mixture;
(e) first conductor means having inlet means connected to said steam chamber for the-conducting of said air-steam mixture from said steam chamber in a first direction and having outlet means;
(f) valve means in said first conductor means communicating with ambient air for varying the inflow of said ambient air into said conductor means while simultaneously re-ciprocally varying the inflow of said air-steam mixture from said steam chamber into said conductor means and providing a substantially constant volume flow from said first conductor means, said valve means including actua-ted operator means for initially introducing sufficient ambient air into said air-steam mixture in said first conductor means to provide a constant volume flow of water-saturated air at a temperature of 35°C.to 45°C.
and for maintaining said constant volume flow of said water-saturated air at said temperature of 35°C. to 45°C.;
(g) flexible conduit means connected to said outlet means of said first conductor means leading from said valve means for conducting said water-saturated air in said first direction; and (h) a breathing mask connected to said flexible conduit means downstream of said valve means, said breathing mask including one-way valves therein to permit said water-saturated air to flow only said first direction to said breathing mask, whereby said water saturated air at said temperature of 35°C. to 45°C. is drawn into said breathing mask by the negative pressure produced by human inhalation, and exhaled air produced by human in-halation is vented.
2. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein said temperature is 42°C.
to 45°C.
3. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein said heater means comprises a propane gas-heated hollow core surrounded by an annular water reservoir.
4. The apparatus of claim 4 including a coil traversing said heated hollow core and leading from the bottom of said water reservoir to the bottom of said steam chamber, whereby water is converted to steam via said water-filled coil.
5. The apparatus of claim 4 wherein said steam chamber is dis-posed atop said annular water reservoir in open communication therewith.
6. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein- said heater means comprises an electrically heated hollow cylinder surrounded by an annular water reservoir.
7. The apparatus of claim 6 including means for pre-heating said air entering said steam chamber by electric heat from said heater means.
8. The apparatus of claim 6 including a coil traversing said heated hollow cylinder and leading from the bottom of said water reservoir to the bottom of said steam chamber, whereby water is converted to steam via said water-filled coil.
9. The apparatus of claim 8 wherein said steam chamber is dis-posed atop said annular water reservoir in open communication therewith.
10. The apparatus of claim 1 including means for preheating said air entering said steam chamber by exhaust-heat from said heater means.
11. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein said operator means is manually actuated.
12. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein said first-conductor means includes a plurality of outlet means leading to a similar plurality of second flexible conduit means, each leading to an associated breathing mask.
13. The apparatus of claim l wherein said operator means in-cludes a control means to limit the maximum temperature of said water-saturated air, said control means comprising sensing means, adjacent to said breathing mask, to sense a predetermined maximum temperature of said water-saturated air, and non-manual valve operator means, actuated by said sensing means, to increase the input of ambient air to said valve means, while simultaneously reciprocally reducing the input of said air-steam mix-ture until the maximum temperature of said water-saturated air is reduced while the volume of flow of said water-saturated air is maintained.
14. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said first conductor means having said valve means comprises:
(a) a hollow, tubular inner body having a closed end and an opposite open end and an axial flow passage and a single arcuate opening extending through the side wall there-of;
(b) an outer coaxial, open-ended, hollow tubular body hav-ing an axial flow passage and a pair of discontinuous arcuate orifices extending through the sidewall there-of and in alignment with said arcuate opening in said inner body,said outer tubular body being disposed con-centrically and relatively rotatably around said inner body;
(c) a hollow connecting tube connected at right angles to one of said discontinuous arcuate openings in said outer body, said oonnecting tube having an axial flow passage;
(d) said one discontinuous arcuate opening in alignment with said arcuate opening in said inner body defining said inlet means for an air-steam mixture to said valve means through said connecting tube and into said one said discontinuous arcuate orifice (e) said valve means communicating with ambient air through said arcuate opening in said hollow inner body in alignment with the other one of said discontinuous arcuate orifices;
(g) said opposite open end of said inner body defining said outlet means connected to said flexible conduit; and means for rotating the inner tubular body with respect to said outer tubular body to change the overlapping areas of said arcuate opening in said inner tubular body and said arcuate openings in said outer tubular body, thereby to allow a varying input of said ambient air and a reciprocal varying input of said air-steam mixture in proportions to result in temperature control of the effluent, water-saturated air while maintaining a constant flow of said water-saturated air.
15. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said first conductor means having said valve means cocomprises:
(i) an inner tubular hollow body member having an axial flow passage, and a control orifice in a side-wall thereof;
(ii) an outer tubular hollow body member having an axial flow passage disposed concentrically and in a vertical orienta-tion relatively rotatable to said Inner body member, said outer body member having a plurality of orifices in align-ment with said control orifice, said flexible conduit means being connected to said outer body member and communicating with said flow passage of said inner hollow body member;
(iii) one of said plurality of orifices in said outer body member in alignment with said control orifice defining an inlet for an air-steam mixture to enter said inner body member;
(iv) another of said plurality of orifices in said outer body .
member in alignment with said control orifice defining an ambient air inlet means to said inner body member; and (v) means for rotating the inner tubular body with respect to said outer tubular body to change the overlapping areas of said arcuate opening in said inner tubular body and said arcuate openings in said outer tubular body, thereby to allow a varying input of said ambient air and a reciprocal varying input of said air-steam mixture in proportions to result in temperature control. of the effluent, water-satura-ted air, while maintaining a constant flow of said water-saturated air.
16. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein said first conductor means includes an outlet port leading from said valve means, a water trap con-nected to said outlet port for collecting water condensed out of said air-steam mixture in providing said water-saturated air at said temperature of 35°C. to 45°C.
17. Apparatus for inhalation rewarming for the treatment of victims of hypothermia, comprising:
(a) a water reservoir;
(b) a steam chamber communicating with said water reservoir;
(c) a heater means, associated with said water chamber, for the generation of steam into said steam chamber;
(d) means for admitting air at ambient pressure to said steam chamber, thereby to provide an air-steam mixture;
(e) first conductor means having inlet means connected to said steam chamber for the conducting of said air-steam mixture at ambient pressure from said steam cham-ber in a first direction and having outlet means;
(f) valve means in said first conductor means communicating with ambient air for varying the inflow of said ambient air into said conductor means while simultaneously re-ciprocally varying the inflow of said air-steam mixture from said steam chamber into said conductor means and providing a substantially constant volume flow from said first conductor means, said valve means including actuated operator means for initially introducing suf-ficient ambient air into said air-steam mixture in said first conductor means to provide a constant volume flow of water-saturated air at a temperature of 35°C. to 45°C. and for maintaining said constant volume flow of said water-saturated air at said temperature of 35°C.
to 45°C.
(g) flexible conduit means connected to said outlet means of said first conductor means leading from said valve means for conducting said water-saturated air in said first direction; and (h) a breathing mask connected to said flexible conduit means downstream of said valve means, said breathing mask including one way valves therein to permit said water-saturated air to flow only in said first direc-tion to said breathing mask, whereby said water-saturated air at said temperature of 35°C. to 45°C. is drawn into said breathing mask by the negative pressure produced by human inhalation, and exhaled air produced by human inhalation is vented.
18. The apparatus of claim 17 including means for preheating said air entering said steam chamber by exhaust heat from said heater means.
19. The apparatus of claim 17, wherein said first conductor means having said valve means comprises:
(a) a hollow, tubular inner body having a closed end and an opposite open end and an axial flow passage and a single arcuate opening extending through the sidewell thereof;
(b) an outer coaxial, open-ended, hollow tubular body hav-ing an axial flow passage and a pair of discontinuous arcuate orifices extending through the sidewall thereof and in alignment with said arcuate opening in said in-ner body, said outer tubular body being disposed con-centrically and relatively rotatably around said inner body;
(c) a hollow connecting tube connected at right angles to one of said discontinuous arcuate openings in said outer body, said connecting tube having an axial flow passage;
(d) said one discontinuous arcuate opening in alignment with said arcuate opening in said inner body defining said inlet means for an air-steam mixture to said valve means through said connecting tube and into said one said discontinuous arcuate orifice;
(e) said valve means communicating with ambient air through said arcuate opening in the hollow inner body the other one of said discontinuous arcuate orifices;
(f) said opposite open end of said inner body defining said outlet means connected to said flexible conduit; and (g) means for rotating the inner tubular body with respect to said outer tubular body to change the overlapping areas of said arcuate opening in said inner tubular body and said arcuate openings in said outer tubular body, thereby to allow a varying input of said ambient air and a reciprocal varying input of said air-steam mixture in proportions to result in temperature control of the effluent, water-saturated air while maintaining a constant flow of said water-saturated air.
20. The apparatus of claim 17, wherein said first conductor means having said valve means comprises:
(i) an inner tubular hollow body member having an axial flow passage, and a control orifice in a sidewall thereof;
(ii) an outer tubular hollow body member having an axial flow pas-sage disposed concentrically and in a vertical orientation relatively rotatable to said inner body member, said outer body member having a plurality of orifices in alignment with said control orifice, said flexible conduit means being con-nected to said outer body member and communicating with said flow passage of said inner hollow body member;
(iii) one of said plurality of orifices in said outer body member in alignment with said control orifice defining an inlet for an air-stream mixture to enter said inner body member;
(iv) another of said plurality of orifices in said outer body member in alignment with said control orifice defining an ambient air inlet means to said inner body member, and (v) means for rotating the inner tubular body with respect to said outer tubular body to change the overlapping areas of said arcuate opening in said inner tubular body and said arcuate openings in said outer tubular body thereby to allow a varying input of said ambient air and a reciprocal varying input of said air-steam mixture in proportions to result in temperature control of the effluent, water-satura-ted air, while maintaining a constant flow of said water-saturated air.
21. The apparatus of claim 17 wherein said temperature is 42°C.
to 45°C.
22. The apparatus of claim 17 wherein said first conductor means includes an outlet port leading from said valve means, a water trap con-nected to said outlet port for collecting water condensed out of said air-steam mixture in providing said water-saturated air at said temperature of 35°C. to 45°C.
23. The apparatus of claim 17 wherein said operator means is manually actuated.
24. Apparatus for inhalation rewarming for the treatment of victims of hypothermia, comprising:
(a) first conductor means having inlet means for connection to a source of an air-steam mixture for conducting said air-steam mixture in a first direction and outlet means;
(b) valve means in said first conductor means communicating with ambient air for varying the inflow of said ambient air into said conductor means while simultaneously re-ciprocally varying the inflow of said air-steam mixture into said conductor means from a source of air-steam mixture and providing a substantially constant volume flow from said first conductor means, said valve means including actuated operator means for initially intro-ducing sufficient ambient air into said air-steam mix-ture in said first conductor means to provide a sub-stantially constant volume flow of water-saturated air at a temperature of 35°C. to 45°C;
(c) flexible conduit means connected to said outlet means of said first conductor means leading from said valve means for conducting said water-saturated air in said first direction; and (d) a breathing mask connected to said flexible conduit means downstream of said valve means, said breathing mask including one-way valves therein to permit said water-saturated air to flow only in said first direction to said breathing mask, whereby said water-saturated air at said temperature of 35°C. to 45°C. is drawn into said breathing mask by the negative pressure produced by human inhalation, and exhaled air produced by human in-halation is vented.
25. The apparatus of claim 24, wherein said first conductor means having said valve means comprises:
(a) a hollow, tubular inner body having a closed end and an opposite open end and an axial flow passage and a sin-gle arcuate opening extending through the sidewall thereof;
(b) an outer coaxial, open-ended, hollow tubular body hav-ing an axial flow passage and a pair of discontinuous arcuate orifices extending through the sidewall there-of and in alignment with said arcuate opening in said inner body, said outer tubular body being disposed concentrically and relatively rotatably around said inner body;
(c) a hollow connecting tube connected at right angles to one of said discontinuous arcuate openings in said outer body. said connecting tube having an axial flow passage;
(d) said one discontinuous arcuate opening in alignment with said arcuate opening in said inner body defining said inlet means for an air-steam mixture to said valve means through said connecting tube and into said one said discontinuous arcuate orifices;
(e) said valve means communicating with ambient air through said arcuate opening in said hollow inner body in alignment with the other one of said discontinuous arcuate orifices;
(f) said opposite open end of said inner body defining said outlet means connected to said flexible conduit; and (g) means for rotating the inner tubular body with respect to said outer tubular body to change the overlapping areas of said arcuate opening in said inner tubular body and said arcuate openings in said outer tubular body, thereby to allow a varying input of said ambient air and a reciporcal varying input of said air-steam mixture in proportions to result in temperature control of the effluent, water-saturated air while maintaining a constant flow of said water-saturated air.
26. The apparatus of claim 24 wherein said first conductor means having said valve means comprises:
(i) an inner tubular hollow body member having an axial flow passage, and a control orifice in a sidewall thereof;
(ii) an outer tubular hollow body member having an axial flow passage disposed concentrically and in a vertical orienta-tion relatively rotatable to said inner body member, said outer body member having a plurality of orifices in align-ment with said control orifice, said flexible conduit means being connected to said outer body member and communicating with said flow passage of said inner hollow body member;
(iii) one of said plurality of orifices in said outer body member in alignment with said control orifice defining an inlet for an air-steam mixture to enter said inner body member;
(iv) another of said plurality of orifices in said outer body member in alignment with said control orifice defining an ambient air inlet means to said inner body member; and (v) means for rotating the inner tubular body with respect to said outer tubular body to change the overlapping areas of said arcuate opening in said inner tubular body and said arcuate openings in said outer tubular body, thereby to allow a varying input of said ambient air and a reciprocal varying input of said air-steam mixture in proportions to result in temperature control of the effluent, water-satura-ted air, while maintaining a constant flow of said water-saturated air.
27. The apparatus of claim 24 wherein said first conductor means includes an outlet port leading from said valve means, a water trap connected to said outlet port for collecting water condensed out of said air-steam mixture in providing said water-saturated air at said tempera-ture of 35°C. to 45°C.
28. A valve for use in an apparatus as claimed in claims 1, 17 or 24 for inhalation rewarming for the treatment of victims of hypothermia, said valve being specially designed for introducing sufficient ambient air into an air-steam mixture flowing in a conduit to provide water-saturated air at a preselected temperature of 35°C. to 45°C. , and for maintaining said continuous flow of said water-saturated air at said temperature of 35°C. to 45°C. by actuated operator means for varying the inflow of sad ambient air while simultaneously reciprocally varying the inflow of said incoming air-steam mixture, said valve comprising:
(a) a hollow, tubular closed-ended inner body having an axial flow passage and a single arcuate opening thereinto;
(b) an outer coaxial, open ended, hollow tubular body having an axial flow passage and a pair of discontinu-ous arcuate orifices thereinto, said outer tubular body being disposed concentrically and relatively ro-tatably around said inner body;

(c) a hollow connecting tube connected at right angles to said outer body, said connecting tube having an axial flow passage;
(d) an inlet for an air-steam mixture to said valve means through said connecting tube and into one said dis-continuous arcuate orifice;
(e) an inlet for ambient air to said valve means, through said arcuate opening in said hollow inner body and into the other one of said discontinuous arcuate orifices;
and (f) means for rotating the inner tubular body with respect to said outer tubular body to change the overlapping;
areas of said arcuate opening in said inner tubular body and said arcuate openings in said outer tubular body, thereby to allow a varying input of said ambient air and a reciprocal varying input of said air-steam mixture in proportions to result in temperature control of the effluent, water-saturated air while maintaining a substantially constant flow of said water-saturated air.
29. A valve for use in an apparatus as claimed in calims 1,17 or 24 for inhalation rewarming for the treatment of victims of hypothermia, said valve being specially designed for introducing sufficient ambient air into an air-steam mixture flowing in a conduit to provide water-saturated air at a preselected suitable temperature and for maintaining said continuous flow of said water-saturated air at said temperature of 35°C. to 45°C. by actuated operator means for varying the inflow of said ambient air while simultaneously reciprocally varying the inflow of said incoming air-steam mixture, said valve comprising:

(i) an inner capped hollow body member having an axial flow passage, and a control orifice associated there-with;
(ii) an outer hollow body member having an axial flow passage disposed concentrically and in a vertical orientation relatively rotatable to said inner body member, said outer body member having a plurality of orifices, associated with said central orifice and a plurality of outlet conduits leading therefrom;
(iii) an inlet for an air-steam mixture to enter said inner body member;
(iv) an inlet for ambient air to said inner body member;
and (v) means for rotating the inner tubular body with respect to said outer tubular body to change the overlapping areas of said arcuate opening in said inner tubular body and said arcuate openings in said outer tubular body, thereby to allow a varying input of said ambient air and a reciprocal varying input of said air-steam mixture in proportions to result in temperature con-trol of the effluent, water-saturated air, while main-taining a constant flow of said water-saturated air.
30. A method for the treatment of a human suffering from hypothermia which comprises the steps of:
(1) generating an air-steam mixture;
(2) converting said air steam mixture to water-saturated air at a temperature of 35°C. to 45°C. by the addition of controlled amounts of ambient air to said air-steam mixture while substantially simultaneously condensing water out of said air-steam mixture;
(3) maintaining a substantially constant volume flow of said water-saturated air at said temperature of 35°C.
to 45°C. by varying the volume of ambient air while simultaneously reciprocally varying the volume of said air-steam mixture; and (4) arranging for said human to inhale said water-saturated air at said temperature of 35°C. to 45°C. by spontane-ous ventilation.
CA 381102 1980-07-21 1981-07-03 Method and apparatus for inhalation rewarming Expired CA1166927A (en)

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Cited By (1)

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