Power outage recovery method and apparatus for demand recorder with solid state memory
- Publication number
- CA1161171A CA1161171A CA 370053 CA370053A CA1161171A CA 1161171 A CA1161171 A CA 1161171A CA 370053 CA370053 CA 370053 CA 370053 A CA370053 A CA 370053A CA 1161171 A CA1161171 A CA 1161171A
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- Patent type
- Prior art keywords
- Prior art date
- Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
- G06—COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
- G06Q—DATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
- G06Q30/00—Commerce, e.g. shopping or e-commerce
- G06Q30/04—Billing or invoicing, e.g. tax processing in connection with a sale
- G06—COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
- G06F—ELECTRICAL DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
- G06F3/00—Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
- G06F3/007—Digital input from or digital output to memories of the shift register type, e.g. magnetic bubble memories, CCD memories
FOR DEMAND RECORDER WITH SOLID STATE MEMORY
Abstract of the Disclosure A demand recorder includes a microprocessor for receiving data pulses representative of measured events and formats the incoming data into demand intervals. After a predetermined number of demand intervals, called a collec-tion period, the microprocessor transfers the data for more permanent storage to a solid state memory which may be removed for remote processing. The system has battery carry-over during a power outage, but the microprocessor prevents data transfers to the solid state memory. At the end of a collection period in which a power outage occurred, the micro-processor transfers the current data to a secondary portion of random access memory. For subsequent demand intervals until power is restored and including any thermal recovery periods, the processor formats event data by assigning index numbers f or demand intervals in order of occurrence and stores data only for those demand intervals in which power consumption was actually measured. After the system has returned to normal operation, the data temporarily stored in secondary RAM is transferred to the solid state memory and the data in primary RAM which is stored in compacted format is re-constructed into normal storage format in RAM
with all intervals during which no event data was detected being zero-filled. As data is taken from primary RAM, converted into the original format and transferred to secondary RAM for storage in the solid state memory, the remaining data in primary RAM is advanced in memory, similar to the operation of a stack memory, so that as much space as possible is made available for data storage in the event of a subsequent power outage prior to the time all of the data in primary RAM is converted and stored in the solid state memory.
Ba ck ~roun d o f ~
The present invenL.ion relates to recoraing apparatus for recordin~ measured event data along with a time reference for the event data; and more particularly to a recorder of the type used by electrical utilities to record energy consump~ion by customers. The recorder includes non-volatile memory providing per~anent storage for usage (i.e. event) data along ~ h ~ime reference data and which can be removed at ~he end OI a billing periot for remote tabulation or load analysis and replaced with an unrecorded memory for the next billing period.
Billing or survey recorders are used by elec-trical utility companies for recording the event data pro~ided by an electrical meter which indicates the amoun~ of energy used by a consumer. The billing recorder accumulates data for a period of time called a read or billing period, typically a month long,and it also stores time signals or "marks", generated by the billing recorder.
A time mark is simply a signal recorded at a predetermined interval (called "demand" periods) during which the associated even~ data occurred. That is, the distance between time marks on the tap~ define a predetermined time period, assuming the tape speed is co~stant and the same for both recording and playback. Demand periods conventionally are 5, 15, 30 or 60 minutes.
The e~ent data and the time marks of conventional recorders are typically recorded on magnetic ~ape in a cartridge ~o~allow processing or analysis of ~he data at a
-2- ~i 9L~L6~lil7~l cen~cral ~cranslation center ~Jhich is remo~e from the point of service. The recorded data provides time ma~ks and e~ent data pulses for customer billing and load analysis, bu. it does not provide data representative of a particular star. time or the source (recorder) from which it ame.
Start and stop time~, customer identification such as meter or recorder number (I.D.), and beginning and end meter register readings are all recorded in writing by the exchange personnel, ~hereby lea~ing considerable room for human error.
When such error does occur, any loss must be suffered ~y the utility, not the customer.
Most.billing r~corders in use t~day employ magnetic tape as the storage medium, e~7en though magnetic tape has temperature and humidlty limitations which make it less reliable as a storage medium than is desired in the demanding environment of use by a u~ility. The tape must be advanced past the record head continuously and at a precise spePd during recording. Accordingly, a complex mechanical tape drive system is required to insure proper operation at all en~ironmental specifications. The requiremen~ o~ drive motor,s fsr ad~ancing the t pe zdts considerable cost and limits miniaturization of the uni~.
Also, periodic ser~icing is required to maintain the recording mechanism drive elements, battery carryover system, and to periodically clean the recording head.
It will be appreciated that such recorders are requir~d to operate in 2 wide range of temperatures ttypically -20~ C. to +65~ C.), due to the worst cases of heat and cold
-3-they are likely to encounter over the large geographical area in which a given model is marketed.
A further consideration affecting cost, reliability and performance is that billing recorders employed for recording data representing electrical energy usage are occasionally subjected to power interruptions. In recent years, there has been a trend ~o employ power outage circuits which provide transfer to an auxilary power source, such as a battery during intervals of primary power loss. It is evident that maintaining the drive to the tape advance motors during primary power loss results in a heavy drain on the battery, thereby limiting the carryover time for which recording can be continued. This is particularly disadvantageous in cold climates.
Summary of the Invention One aspect o~ the; present invention is directed to, in a demand recorder including controller circuit means receiving data pulses representative of measured events and including random memory means having primary and secondary storage locations, said controller circuit means generating data words representative of received event data for predetermined demand intervals and storing the same in said primary storage locations for a collection period comprising a predeter~ined number of said demand intervals; solid state memory means removably associated with said controller circuit means and adapted for remote processing, said controller circuit means transferring said event data from .i ;-~ . ....
7~l said random memory means at the end of a collection period for more permanent storage in said solid state memory means, said controller circuit means being responsive to a power outage to inhibit data transfers from said random memory means to said solid state memory means, the improvement characterized in said controller circuit means' transferring the data from said primary storage locations to said secondary storage locations at the end of the first collection period during which a power outage has occurred and thereafter storing incoming event data in said primary storage locations in a compacted format comprising an index data word representative of a demand interval and event data associated with that demand interval.
Another aspect of the present invention is directed to, in a method for recording event data in a demand recorder including transmitting data pulses to controller circuit means representative of measured events and including ~emory means having primary and secondary storage locations, generating data words representative of received event data for predetermined demand intervals and storing the same in said primary storage locations for a collection period comprising a predetermined number of said demand intervals, transferring said event data from said random memory means at the end of a collection period for more permanent s~orage in a solid state memory, and inhibiting data transfers rom said random memory means to said solid state memory during a power outage, the improvement comprising transferring the data from said primary storage locations to said secondary storage locations at the end of the first collection period during _ s --..:
which a power outage has occurred, and thereafter storing incoming event data in said primary storage locations in a compacted forma~ comprising an index data word representative of a demand interval and event data associated with that demand interval until said power outage has ended.
The present invention may be used in a billing recorder which includes a non-volatile, solid-state magnetic memory, such as magnetic bubble memory, for storing event data representative of electrical energy consumption measured by an electric utility meter. Solid state memory has the significant advantage that energy need not be spent on mechanical motion of the storage medium; and bubble memories are advantageous because the data is not lost if power is lost. A controller, including data processing circuits receives pulses generated by a pulse initiator associated with the electric meter and generates coded event data words representing the number of event (i.e7 measurement) pulses received during predetermined demand intervals. The data, along with time reference data is transferred to the solid state memory at the end of a period called a "collection" period, which may include a number of demand intervals.
During a collection period, the controller temporarily stores the event data in random access memory.
At predetermined clock times marking the end of a collec~ion period, such as every four hours, the controller transfers the event data (i.e. quantized measurement data for all intervening demand intervals comprising a collection period) to the bubble memory which serves as a permanent data storage ~6-.
for the event data. Time reference data is generated by the controller, and it is transferred to the bubble memory at the same time as, and in association with, the event data for defining the period over which ~he event data was obtained.
To conserve memory, the time reference data is stored only once for a number of demand intervals, and the quantized event data is stored in predetermined memory locations associated with respective demand intervals so that when event data is recovered from known storage locations, it can readily be determined with which demand interval the recovered event data is associated. For example, for a "normal" record (i.e. separate provisions are made for insertion and removal of the module, as will be discussed), encoded time reference data identifying only the beginning of the collection period is generated and stored. A collection period is thus the time between transfers of event and time reference data temporarily stored in random access memory in the controller before being transferred to the solid state memory for more permanent storage.
T~e state of che art in bubble memory manu-racture is such that a separate memory, called a "~ask"
memory or mask ROM (read only memory), is associated with each bubble memory to indicate which minor loops are not available for use due to failure to operate or meet per~ormance specifications. For example, a memory may have 157 or so minor loops and only 144 of these are required because one "page't o~ memory is 144 bits (18 bytes of 8 bits each). Further, each ~emory ncrmally has associa~ed with it a resistor for co~pensating for temperature varia-~ions in the write current. The mask RO~I and compensation resistor associated with each memory may be provided by the .
manufacturer; and in any case, since they are assoclated with a par~icular memory they are packaged with the memory in what is referred to as the memory module.
The bubble memory module is mounted on a re~ov-able memory card which facilitates removal of the buoble memor~ from the recorder apparatus at the end of a billing period, and the insertion of a new, erased bubble memory card; All`of the recorded memories are then ~aken to a translation center for. urther processing of the recorded information. Each of the memory ~odules is provided with a ~isual indicator to indicate to exchange personnel whether the memor-; is erased or recorded.
lhe controller may include a microprocessor including a Central Processor Unit (CPU), Read Ol~ly Memory (ROM), and Random Access Memory (RAM), together ~Jith associated buses and in ~erface circui~ry. A device is associated with ~he ~em~r; card.~o signal ro the system ~hat the memory module is going to be re~laced. In the ~llustrated embodimenL, this device takes the LO-m of a ~echanic21 latch which locks the memory card in place in one position and perrr.its its removal in 2nother posi~ion.
Other sensing mechanisms may equally well ~e employed, but it is preferred that some action be required on the par~ of exchange personnel, in the form of mechanical motion or the like, to permi~ a short time delay between actuation of the de~ice prior to removal to unlock the memory module or per-~~it access to it, and the actual removal of the memory module. Actuation of the device to the removal position signals the microprocessor that removal is i~inent, and the microprocessor prepares a special Removal Record in Random Access Memory and transfers this data along with the event data for the partial collection period up to actual remo~l to predetermined loca~ions in the bubble ~e~nory.
Af~er ~he new memory module is inserted in the recorder and the exchange person actuates the device to the operative ~osition, the mlcroprocessor pre~ares a special Insestion Record which is normally transferred to the bubble memory at the end of the current collection period. These special Removal and Insertion Records contain the time and date o~ insertion or remo~al, an identifier numbe permitting the utility to identify the recorderj and the even~ data for the partial collection period prior to re~oval OL- following insertion, as the case may be.
~ urther, each record (Insertion, Removal or Norm21) contains a total count (called a "running ~ot21") O--~easured even~s for eech collection period. That is, ~he q total count for all demand in~ervals for a collection period is added to the previous running total and stored as an integral part of the new record for that collection period. In the case of two input channels, the running totals are stored in alternate records for each channel.
The Insertion and Removal Records include these running totals, but in addition, they include total counts of larger magnitude (called "Insertion Total" and "Removal Total" respectively) for each channel which is representative of cumulative event data for collection periods a~ the time of replacement of a memory module.
These total counts establish continuity of data from one memory module to another without loss of data.
When a memory card is to be removed before the end of a full collection period, the operator has to move a mechanical latch to the unloaded position before the memor~
card or module can be removed. The u~latching operation is sensed by the microprocessor which then prepares the Removal Record for the partial period up to that time, and stores it in the bubble memory in the brief period before the card is removed. A visual indicator mounted in the memory module indicates whether the memory module is erased or recorded.
Another aspect of the system design to be considered for the billing recorder with which this invention may be used is operation of the bubble memory at elevated temperatures. This can be a limitation because a manufacturer's upper temperature operating specification for a bubble memory system manufactured according to available technology is about 70 C. If the bubble --10~
memory is operated continuously, the temperature rise due to applied power alone is 20 C., thereby limiting the environmental temperature to 50 C.
The bubble memory may be energized only during the access time between collection periods, accumulating data in the Random Access Memory of the microprocessor for the complete collection period and assembling it in a predetermined format for storage in the bubble memory. This is considered important because for collection periods of four hours, the average temperature rise of the bubble memory is less than 1 C.
This has been found to greatly relax the environmental stress on the bubble memory module, and as indicated above, a wide range of operating temperatures is important in the particular application with which the present invention is primarily concerned. Energizing the memory module only during access time also conserves power during power outages when conservation is important. By using CMOS technology in the controller, microprocessor and logic circuitry, carryover time can be extended substantially over prior magnetic type recorders which power the tape drive continuously.
One advantage of the present invention is that it enables the temperature specifications on the system to be set lower than the temperature specifications on the solid state memory. Again, this is important because of current limitations imposed by manufacturers of bubble memories. If, for example, the lower temperature specification set by manufactuer on a bubble memory is 32 F., but for commercial reasons it is desirable to set ~6~
the temperature specifications on ~he billing recorder at -20 F., a problem is presented if it is desired to take advantage o~ intermittent energization of the bubble memory as explained above. This is desirable because it conserves power and reduces the size of the battery required for battery carryover during power outages. Once a power outage is detected, allowance must be made for the fact that the temperature of the bubble memory may fall below its lower specification -- namely, 32 F. The preferred embodiment incorporates a ~hermal recovery period to insure that bubble memor~ will be within specification for its operating temperature before writing into it. In order to account for this and to minimize the chances of data loss during a power outage, a separate section of Random Access Memory is provided. For convenience, this is sometimes referred to as RAM II. If a power outage (plus the thermal recovery period) would span into a collection period subsequent to the collection period in which the power outage first occurred, the system enters into a special power outage recovery mode.
Briefly, according to this recovery technique, at the end of the collection period in which the power outage occurred, the event data is transferred to RAM
II portion of memory in the controller, and the portion of Random Access Memory thus evacuated, called RAM I, is used for storing data in a different format.
The microprocessor is programmed such ~hat when a power outage i5 detected, it uses its own in~ernal clock to generate time reference data, and an i~dex counter is incremented each demand interval. If power is not returned during-a demand interval, the index counter is incremented but event data is not stored (since the power outage continues~. Thus, memory space is not used for-those demand ~ntervals during whiGh line power is not available. If power is returned for a period of time less than the thermal recovery period (or those sys~ems which requirc thermal recovery periods due to manufacturer's specifications on the bubble memory), ~hç contents of the index ~egister representative of a demand interval and the associated event data are stored in RAM I In this manner, storage is used most efficiently only for those demand intervals durir~ which power was being applied. The system then wTites the data into the bubble memory at ~he end of a thermal recovery period by ~ransferring the contents o~
RAM II first and then re-constructing the data temporarily stored in RAM I i~to the required format in R~M II and then wri~irg ~hat data into the bubble memory. As data is tak.en from RAM I, con~erted into ~he original format and transferred rom RA~ II for storage in the bubble memory, the remaining data in RAM I is edvanced in memory, similar to the operation of a stack memory, so that as much space as possible is made available for data storage in the event of a subsequent power outage prior to the time all of the data in RAM I is converted and stored in the bubble memory. Obviously, because the bubble memory is non-volatile, data s~ored in it is not afrected by a power outage. If a power outage has occurred, a notation is made in a predetermined location in the formatted data transferred to the bubble memory. In particular, three bytes of bubble memory are reserved for each collection period for storing running totals of event data. In the case of a ~wo-channel recorder, the running rotals for each channel are stored in alternate records. Of the available twenty-four bits, the first twenty (B00-Bl9) are reserved for the running totals for the respective channels, and bits ~20 and B21 are set to "1" if there is detected a failure of the read after write test to that a translator will be able to detect that such a failure occurred during the writing of the data for that particular collection period.
Description of the Drawings FIG. 1 is a functional block diagram of a system incorporating the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a magnetic bubble memory for the system shown in FIG. l;
FIG. 3 is a diagrammatic representation of a removable memory card used in the billing recorder;
FIG. 4 is a block diagram of a system which permits readout of the memory data by way of a communication link;
FIG. S is a diagrammatic front view of a recorder according to the invention; and FIG. 6 is a timing diagram illustrating the power fail modes.
DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
_ Referring to FIG. 1, the billing recorder provided by the present invention records quantized measurement or "event" data provided by an electric utility meter which measures electrical energy consumption. Each pulse from the meter represents the consumption of a predetermined amQunt of energy or reactive power. At periodic billing intervals, typically a month, the event data recorded is processed at a translation center for billing the customer or to provide load analysis data. The recorder may be a multi-channel recorder, and in the exemplary embodiment the recorder is illustrated as a two-channel system which receives measurements data from two sources over separate data channels A and B.
BriefIy, the event data is fed to the recorder circuits over two data channels A and B (which may be separate sources or two different quantities from the same source), and stored in a non-volatile solid state memory 23, such as a magnetic bubble memory, under the control of a controller which includes a microprocessor 11. Alter-natively, the data from two sources may be totalized before preparation of the record to be stored, and then stored in a to~alized forma~. The controller processes the incoming data by accumulating it in predetermined time intervals called "demand" intervals prior to storage in the bubble memory 23 and controls the wrlting of th'o processed da~a into the memory 23.
Referr~ng tl~ FIG. 1 the microprocessor system 11 includes a central proce~sing unit (CPU) 16, a read only memory (ROM) 17, the random access memory 18, a time refer-ence generator 13, and an input/ou~put (I/O) interface 19.
The CPU 16, which may be a Type CDPl802 Microprocessv~
manufactured b~ RCA, Inc. which uses CMOS circuits~o conserve power, processes the event data pulses received from the input/output interface 19 via data bus 51 and stores ~he processed data in ~he RAM 18 for each demand interval over a complete collection period before writing it in the magnet~c bubble memory 23. The ROM 17 stores the control instructions for the.CPU 16.
.The event data supplied ta ~he r~corder circuits ic coupled over the data channels A, B, C and D (which are latches) in the form of pulses generated by conventi3nal pulse initiator devices (not shown), one for each channel.
The illustrated embodiment may accommodate one or two separa~e input channels, such as A and B, desi~nated l9A and l9B, at ~he option of the customer. In additi~n, if desired, additional channels l9C and 19D may be provided or and totalized respecti~ely with l9A and 19B. The initiators may be of the type sold by Sangamo Weston, Inc., under the desig-nation SPI. Each level change at the output of the initiator r epresents the consumption of a predetermined quantity of electrical energy. This train of pul~es is fed to the eontroller via input/output circuit 19.
The incoming data is processed by the micro-processor which accumulatesthe quantized data in predeter-mined demand intervals and provides ~emporary storage in a Random Access Me~ory ~R~M) 18 for a fixed number of demand intervals (it could be any number, one or more) which comprise a collection period. During.this time, the microprocessor prepares the event da~a and timë refer-ence and other information, w~ich will be described, in a format for recording; and ~he bubble memory is not energized.
The bubble m~mory is energized only as necessary for writing data at the end of a collection perio~. Such write times are referred to as access ~imes:
The controller includes a digital clock/calendar which provides time reference informat.ion for defining the demand intervals in real time. The controller stores date and time in~or~ation representative of the beginnin~ of a collection period. For the two-channel recorder illus-trated, the micropro~essor accumulates the pulses trans-.
mitted over each data channel for demand intervals of fifteen ~inutes duration for a collection period of four hours; and generates data words representing the number of pulses accumulated for each channel for each of the six~een demand intervals of a collection period.
For a "normal" collection period (i.e. one in which there is no power outage or no insertion or removal of a memory module), these da~a words are formatted 7~
~oge~her with ~ime refPrerlce d~ta (mon~h, day 2nd hour) and a running total count. The normal record data is transferred from the R~I 18 to the bub~le memory at the end of each collection period during ~che access tim~.
To conserve storage sp2ce in the bubble memory, time reference data is not stored for identifying each dem2nd interval; ra~her, ~hee~ent data is formatted by the microprocessor such tha~ the event data for successive demand intervals is assi~,ned to and stor-ed in predeter~
mined memory loc tions. If additional memory space is available, of course, or if it is otherwise found to be desirable, additional time reference data may be stored for each no~nal record. Twelve bits of memory (4095 resolution) are allocated for each de~and interval per channel. This is one and one-half bytes. In the case of a two-channel recorder, the event da~a for one dem~nd interval for Channel B is followed for the event tata for the same demand in~er~al for channel A.
In addition to the normal record data described above, the microproce9sor prep~res a separate Remo~al .
Record for storage in predetermined locations of the bubble memory whe~ it receives an indicatio~ from the exchange personnel that a memory module is being replaced. Further, a~ter an erased memory mvdule is inserted, the micro-processor prepares a special Insertion Record which is recorded at the beginning of ~he newly inserted bubble memory. Both of these records will be explained in further detail below.
The bubble memory 23 of this exemplary embodiment is capable of storing data accumulated over a period of approximately thirty-five days (i.e. 213 4-hour collection periods). The bubble memory module is mounted on a removable card, represented by ~he dashed line 24, in FIG. 2 to facilitate replacement of the "recorded" memory module with an erased (zeroed) ~emory module at the end of each billing period. After removal, the reeorded memory is trans-por.ted to a translation center where the data is tr~nslated.
The memory is then preferably erased for reuse, al~hough ~his is not absolutely necessary since the microprocessor could ha~e an erase. subroutine before writing.
Referring to FIG. 3, the memory card or modulc 24 contains the bubble memory itself, designated 23, a Read Only Memory 45 w~ich contains ~he information identifying usable minor loops, a m~mory readout circuit 46 which may include a sense amplifier, and the temperature-compensating write resistor explained above; The card includes printed cixcuit conductors which provide the necessary interconnec-tions between the elements of the bubble memory card and terminals 24A of an edge connector 24B whieh is insertable into a receptaele 24C (see FIG. 5) on the f~ont of the billing recorder unit.
A de~ice generally designated 49 is used to signal the microprocessor that the recorded memory module is going to be removed and an erased module inserted. This defines the end of a collection period. Preferably the device 49 requires some action by the operator to be accomplished a short time before actual removal. This delay ~ay be as short as 100 milliseconds, and the purpose is to give ~q the microprocessor su ficient time ~o prepare the Removal Record and transfer it to the memory module before actua removal. In the ~orm illustrated, the device 49 includes a handle 49A whi~h is rotatable between a locking position shown in solid line which prevents removal of the mod~le 24, and a remot7al position shown in dashed line which permits removal of the module. The handle 49A is mounted on a shaft 49B which contains a cam 4gC. In the locking position, the cam 49C engages a first contact 49E and may provide a ground fo~ that contact. When the handle 49A is moved to the removal position, the microprocessor prepares the Removal Record and ~ransfers it to the memory module 23.
When the new m~dule is inserted and ~he .landle 49A is moved to the locking position, the microprocessor senses this signal and prepares an Insertion Record and transfers that record to a predetermined loeation in the newly inserted memory (preferably, the first four pages thereof, as will be described).
De~ices other ~han the locking handle 49A could equally well be employed, for example, a coYer or lid pivotally mounted to the f~ce of t~e recorder unit which would be required to be opened before removal of ~he module coult also be used. It is not necessary that i~ be directly associatcd with and lock the module in place, but it is believed that such a device would minimize error on the part of the replacement personnel, which could cause loss of data.
To further minimize error, the memory module is provided with a visual indicator such as that shown at 47 in FIG. 3 for indicating whe'cher or not a parcicular memory module is recorded or erased. Such devices are commercially available and may comprise a magnetic bi-stable element ~7hich, if magnetized in one polarity will exhibit a first color and, if magnetized in th~ opposite polarity will genexate a second, easily distinguishable color. This may be accomplished by ~ransmitting the write current in one direction in a loop or co~l associa-ted with the indicator 47 to generate the firs~ color durin~ insertion, and by transmit~ing the erase current through the coil in ~he opposite direction, thereby generating the seco~d color, upon erasing. Alternatively, a mechanical indi:cator responsive to being inserted in the recorder to give one visu~l indica~ion (of recorded data~ and responsive to being inserted in the reader to give a second visual indication of being erased, ~ay be used.
The Re~o~al Record which is rccorded just prior to the time the recorded memory module is removed and af~er operator actuation of the de~ice 49, includes time reference data representing the month, day, hour and minute of module removal as well as partial period event data. The event data is stored in particular memory loca~ions as defined by a predetermined memory map, which are preassigned to the respeotive demand intervals. Those locations associa-ted with demand intervals for a partial collec~ion period after removal are fille~ ~ith zeros (that is, no event measurement data is inserted). The partial collection period event data is stored temporarily in R~ 18 and and transferred just prior to removal of the memory module as indicated. The Removal Record also includes an iden-tlfier code which identifies a customer or customers by correla~ing the memory module with a particular billing recorder from which the memory had been removed. Total pulse counts for the two channels A and B a~e also recorded as part of the Removal Record.
The Insertion Record is recorded at the end of the partial collection period follo~ing insertion of an erased memory module, This record- includes time infor-mation, mor~th, day, hour and minute of module insertion, and a five digit BCD identifier code. In addi~ion, time data representing the month, day and hour defining the current collection pexiod is recorded as pzrt of the Inser,ion Record along with any event data stored in RAM 18 at the end of the colleetion period. The event data is stored in particular memory locations associated with demand intervals ~or the collecti~n period prior to insertion -are filled with zeros.
The recorder circ~its normally obtain po~er from an AC line source, but include battery carryover to main-~ain selected circuits energized in the event of an AC
power outage. A power supply circuit 14 provides ~he required DC levels for the microproces~or system 11 via a power bus 50. A DC to DC conver~er 28 is ener~ized by the AC linP power or, if that is not present, the bat~ery, via solid state swiich 2 under control of the CPU 16 which continuously senses for the presence of the ~0 Hz. Line -2~-signal for determining whether a power outa~e or failure is present. The con~er~er provides the required DC
le~els for the bubble memory and its associated drive circuitry, which comprise the magnetic bubble memory syst`em l2. By means of the switeh 29, ~he microprocessor de-energizes the bu~ble memory system during collection peri~ds and selectively energizes it only for ~Lta transfers a~ access times at the end o~ normal collection periods or at removal/insertion times.
In the case where the operating temperature specifications of the bubble memory meet or exeed rhose for the en~ire recording system, the solid state switch 29 may be energized by the CPU 16 ~ the end of every data collection period for writing ~hate~er data mi~ht have been accumulated during tha~ pe.riod, without depleting the battery subs~antially since i~ ta~es less than about 100 milliseconds to WTite all of the data for a complete collection period. H~Jever, where the temperature speei-fications for the ~ubble memory do not meet the overall operating temperature specifications for ~he recorder system, particularly where'the recorder system is required to operate at a temperature below the.manufacturPr's speciication for the bubble memory, the present system does not permit the writing of any data into the bubble memory (due to the possibili~y that data migh~ be lost or errors mi~ht occur if the temperature of the bubble memory has in fact fallen below its operating speci~ication), and the CPU 16 further initiates a thermal recovery period which may be 45 minutes upon ~he return of AC line power by sensing a 60 Xz. sign21 on che line 30. As will be described more fully below, a special power reco~ery or power failure mode is implemented by the CPU and such a system will have additional Random Access Memory 18 in ~hich to store e~ent data between the occurre~ce of a power outage and the termination of a thermal recovery period in a manner that will optimize the use of the additional memory, as will be understood from subsequent descriptionA
Time reference data is generated under program control by the mlcroprocessor in units af minutes, hours, days, mon~hs, day of the week and year. The time base generator 13 includes a 60 Hz. signal received direc~ly from the power Iine by ~he CPU. A crystal oscilla~or 32 and digital countdown circuit 33 provide an ~uxiliary timing signal input to the CPU in the event of loss of primary AC power. The latter s~ gnal has a frequency of approximately 61 Hz.
The CPU 16 counts the pulses transmitted over each data channel A and-B separately for the demand inter-vals. During each demand interval, the number of pulses recei~ted rom each channel is encoded into a twelve bit binary word (one and one half bytes) representati~e of the total count, and this word is stored in the RAM 18. At the end of each full collection period, the sixteen data words (for a four-hour collec~ion period and 15 minute demand interval) for each channel together with all other -2~-data comprising a complete record, as will be described, aIe cransferred ~via da~a bus 51 from the RAM 18 ~o the bubble memory 23, under the control of the CPU 16.
The magnetic bubble memory system 12 includes a m~mory ~ontrol circuit 21, a driYe circuit 22 and the bubble memory module 23. The bubble memory sys~ems are commercially available, and accordingly its structure and operation are not descri~ed in detail. :Bubble memory systems are a~tailable from Texas Ins~ruments, Inc., Dal~as, Texas; and they are described in a publication by the same company . entitled "Ma~ne~ic Bubble Memories and System Interface Circuits", 1977 w~ich is incor~orated herein by reference. The drive circuit 22 includes a function driver 43 and coil drivers 44. The mefnory controlle~ 41 responds to commands from the microprocessor system 11 and enables the necessary control functions to the fun~iorl ~iming generator 42 to access a page (or pages) of the memory 23.
For a write operation, the C~U 16 supplies an address to the controller via address bus 48, and writes the data into an input buff~r 41A of the memory controller 41. The memory contr~ller 41 accesses the proper page and effects wTiting of the data into the memory. For a read operation the CPU 16 generates an address to select ~he module locations, loads the controller 41 with the proper page number ~nd generates a read command. The memory controller accesses the designated page and stores the data in its buffer 41A. The memory controller 41 also synchronizes the operation of the memory control circuits ~nd the operation of ~e bubble memory module -2~-The function timing generator 42 provides input tim:ing control to a function dri~er 43, a coil driver 44 and a readout eircuit 46 on a per cycle basis. The function timing generator, under the control of the memory contx ~ller 41, generates five functions, including generate, replicate, armihilate, transfer in, and transfer ou~ for the two function drivers. The func~iTn timing generato~ also provides control signals ~o the coil drivers to maintain ~he proper phase relationship between the coils in each of the me~ory modules.
The function driver 43 converts logic level signals from the.function t~ming generator in~o an analog form usable by the memory module 23. The coil drivers 44 respond to outputs of the function ~iming generator 4?, and generate the proper c~rrent wa~eforms for driving ~he bubble memory devices.
The bu~ble memory module for the two channel ~ystem com~rises a Texas Instruments Type TBM0103 bubble memory module which provides 641 pa~es of non-volatile, solid state memory ha~ing 18 bytes of data per page with 8 bits per byte. The as~ignment of the bubble memory store locations is illustrated in Tables I, II and III
which show. respectively, memory assignments for pages 1-4 (Insertion Record); pages 5-7 (comprising one ~o~mal Record), and pages ~38-641 (Removal Record). In all cases, other than module insertion/removal (and power recovery afte~
an outage). the inormation is written ~rom the RAM ~ to the bubble memory at the normal access time at the end of collec-tion periods. In the illustrated embodiment, these occur e~ery four hours startlng at m$dnight.
TABLE I INSERTIO~J RECORD
Pa~e Data No. of By~es Mon~ch, day, hour, min, (of Ins ertion) 4 Identifier Number (I.D. ) - S
Insertion Total Count (Channe:L A) 3 Insertion Total Count (Channel B) 3 (æero-filled) 3 2 Month, day, hour (Star~ of Current Col~ 3 lection Period) Even~ Da'ca for ChaTmels A and B for five 15 Demand Inter~a~ s 3 Event Data for Channels A and B far si~18 I)emand Inter~Tals
4 Event Da~a for Channels A and B for five15 Demand Inter~T ls Running Total (Channel A or B, depending2 1/2 on which had been written last3 Status 1/2 TABLE II - NORMAL R~E:CORD
S Month, day, ho1Lr (Start of Current Col- 3 lection Period~
Event Data (A and B' for five Demand 15 Intervals) 6 Event Data tA and B for six Demand 18 In~ervals) 7 Event Data (A and B for five Demand 15 Intervals ) Running Total (A or ~, altern~ti~ely)~ 1/2 Status 1/2 ~e~
P_ Data No. of Bytes 63 8 Month, day, hour, min . (Removal Time) 4 Identifier Number (I . D . ) 5 Ch~nnel A Removal Total Count 3 Channel B Remo~al Total Coun'c 3 (~ero-filled) .- 3 639 Month, dayt hour (Collection Period Sta~t 3 Time) Event D~ta (A and B for five Dcmand 15 Int er~al s ) 640 Event Data (A and B for six Demand 18 In~erval.s ) 641 Event Data (A And B for five Demand 15 Int er~als ) Running To~al (A or B) 2 1/2 Status 1/ 2 , The records to be discussed presently ~re illustrations for a ~cwo channel (A and B) recorder since the single channel device is more simple. ~ith reference to Table I,. the first page of,an Insertion Reeord contains the time (current month, day, hour and minu~e) of module insertion in the first foux bytes and a five-digit Identifier Number ~in BCD ormat and comprising the I.D. referre~ ~o throughout) is contained in the next five bytes. The Channel A and Channel B Insertion total counts (i.e. cumulative coun~s of e~ent tata as of the time of insertion) are each contained in three bytes and the rem~ining bytes of the first page are zero-filled. The remaining three pages of an Insertion Record are the sa=e as a Normal Record, to be discussed~presently, except -2a-7~
that the memory locations associated with demand in~ervals that have ~ranspired prior tO insertion for the curren~
access period are zero-filled up to the locat~on associat~d with the current demand inter~al, The event data for remaining demand intervals for the currenr collection period are er~ered in the normal fields for that record.
With reference to Table II which ill~strates a Normal Record, data for each colleetion period is recs~rded on three pages of ~he bubble memory in the following order, The first three bytes of the first page store the time (month, day, and hour) o~ the commen~ement of the collection period for which the associated event da~a is s~ored. The next ~orty-eight bytes record the measured event data for Channel A and Channel B for the sixtee~ 15-minute demand intervals comprising ~he four-hour period collection It takes twelve binary bits (one and one-hal~ bytes) ~o record up ~o 4096 (212) event pulses for a given channel in o~e demand interval.
Hence, in the case of a two-channel recorder, the twelve bits ~or Channel A are recorded in one full byte (~emory word location) a~d ~he first four bits of the next sucreeding byte, The event data for CharmeI B for the same interval is stored in the last four bits of the sécond bvte mentioned and the full eight bits of the next byte. The order of storage makes nQ di-fferenee as long as it is accounted for in the sof~ware of ~he translator (actually Channel B data is recorded first~, Running Total count for Channels A and B is recorded in alternate Normal Records in two ant one-half o the last three bytes of the third page Thus, the Running Totals are cumulative counts of measured event data which are up-dated a~
the end of each collection period.
~q One-half by~e (four bits) of storage is reserv~l for status information. Bits B20 and B21 are reserved for failurP indication of the Read-After-Write test. sit B22 indicates whether the accompanying Rur~ni~g Total for that record is associa~ed with Channel A or C~nnel B. Bit B23 indicates whether a power failure has occurred during the colle~tion period. zssocia~ed with that record.
Rcferring ~o Table III which defines a Remo~Tal Record, upon remo~al of the memory c:ard, the par~ial period data is written into pages 638-641. Page 638 contains the time (month, day, hour and minute) of ~odule removal ~n the first our bytes and the I.D. code in the nex~ five bytes.
The Channel A Remo~al Total count is recorded in bytes 8-10 and the Channel B Removal To~l is recorded in by~e~ 13.
The r~maining bytes of page 638 are zero-filled. The last three pages are s~milar to a Normal Record ~Table II) except that the paxtial data for the period of removal is wri~ten into the memory locations associated wi~h demand intervals prior to remo~al, and the remaining locations representing subs.equent demand inter~Tals are filled with zeros.
To illustrate the various records just described, reference is made ~o Chart A in which the left-hand column indic~tes running time. Assuming four-hour collection periods, a'c time 1200, ~ Running Total for Channel A is transferred as part of a Normal Record (Table II) to a first solid state memory module. A5suming that the first memory module is to be replaced at 1415, when the handle 49A (FIG. 5) is turned to the removal position, the contacts 49C, 49E open; and the microprocessor prepares a Removal Record (Table III). The Remot~al Recor~ includes, on page 638, Removal Total counts o~
120a Normal Record-Running Total for Channel A
1415 Removal Record-Running Total for Channel B, Remo~al Total for Channel A, Removal Total for Chan2lel B
1421 Insert New Module 1600 Insertion Record-Running To~al for Channel A, Insertion Total for Channel A, Inser~ion Total f or Channel B
2000 Normal Record-Running Total for Channel B
OOûO Normal Record-Running Total for Channel A
0400 Normal Record-Running To~al for Channel B
0430 Remo~al Kecord-Running Total for Channel A, Remo~al Totals for both Channels A and B
Channel A and ~or Channel B, each comprising three full bytes.
In addition J the Remo~7al Record includes a Running Total for Channel B ~since the Running Totals are al~ernated for the two channels?. The Running Totals comprise two and one-half bytes --in other words, the lower order ~wenty bits of the ~emo~al Total (~hich is thrPe full bytes or twenty-four bits). In other words, in this case, the ~unning To~al for Channel B
will correspond to the lower order twenty bi~s of the Channel B Removal Total coun~.
When the new memory module is inserted, at 1421 in the example, the microprocessor prepares an Insertion Reco~d (Table I) in RA~; and this Insertion Record is ~rans-ferred to the mamory module at the end of the collection period during which the new memory module was inserted --na~ely, at 1600 hours. At this time, the Insertion Record includes a Running Total for Channel A (twenty bits) as well -3~-.7~
as Insertion To~als (twenty-four bits) for both Channels A
and B. The Insertion Totals on the Insertion Record will be identical to the Removal Totals stored on the first module, but the Running Total for Channel A will include any measured event da~a occurring between removal of the first modul-e (a~ time 1415) and the end OL the collection period (t~ne 1600).
At the end of each subsequent collection period, Normal Records are stored with Running Totals ~or alternate channels. Assuming that this memory module is remo~ed at 0415 hours, a Running To~al (~wenty bits3 would be part of the Removal Recor~ for tha~ partial period; and ~emoval Totals would also be stored for both Channel A and Channel B.
By thus storing both Removal Totals and Insertion To~als., as well as Running To~als, complete data continuity can be maintai~ed for the records, and if a~ error ~oes occ~r, it can be isolated to a give demand period, so as to minimize the.loss of data.
Referring now t~ FIG~;. 1 and 5, the recorder i~cludes a fi~te digit LED type display 37 for displaying various information provided by the microprocessor. The display data is coupled from ~he CPU 16 via I/0 device 34 and the data bus 51.
There are two push button switches designated 39 and 40 in FIGS. 1 and 5 which are used to select the data that is to be displayed on the display 37 as ~Jell as to set the I.D., time and calendar data. It is considered an -3a-important advantage that ~his data can be set ~y main-ten~nce personnel on site. For example, if it appears tha~ the recorder is inoperative or faulty, the syst~m can be built such that either a complete new unit or individual circuit boards may be replaced~ He would ~hen se~ ~he identification number of the old recorder, as well as time a~d calendar information, wi~hout ha~ing to return to the factory. This not only saves a m~intenance trip, but it reduces the loss of billi~g data..
Normally the system displays the hour and mi~utes.
If the operator wants to set data he 'irst sequentially presses switch 40 (or simply leaves it depressed) in which case the items to be set will be sP~uenced in the same ord r, but by the internal clock of the system. Referring to Table IV, the first time that switch 40 is depressed, the five-digit I.D. number will be displayed, and the firs~
digit (the most significant digit or digi~ ~) will be flashed. Xf the display is lef~ in this state, subsequent deprPssions of switch 39 will sequence that digi~ to the ten possible states (dec~mal digit 0-9).
If, before se~ting that digit, the operator had continued depressions of switch 40, the system would cycle through the parameters shown in the middle column of Table IV. For example, on ~he eighth depression of switch 40, the month and date would not be displayed, the month would be flashed on the display, and subsequent depressions of switch 39 ~uld sequence the month (1-12).
Ultimately, with sequential depressions of switch 40, the -3~-~ 7 ~
system revexts to program control in which ~he hour and minute are displayed.
If switch 39 is depress~d first, the system goes into a Command Display Mode. In this mod~, sequential depressions of the witch 39 causes the display o the following information in ~he order listed: ~I) word 1:
I.D.; (II) word 2: year/day o~ we~k; (III) word 3: month/
day; (IV) word 4: hourslminutes; and (V) word 5: "PULSES"
(which represen~s the Field Test Function). If switch 39 is held down in ~he Command Display Mode, the system will cycle ~hrough these words in the above order display time long enough to.perceive the Field Test Func~ion on ~he five-digit display 37.
To implemerlt a field test function, the operator s~nply pushes switch 3g first. The controller, whieh normally displays hours and minutes, ~mediately displays ~he information ~he CPU has received from the I/O circuits 19 on data bus 51 and stored in a register. Channel A is displayed in one digit location (the furthPst on~ on the left, for example), Channel B on another, and so on, if more channels are employed. As the state of the associated pulse initiator changes responsive to the consumption of energy, the signal being tisplayed alternates between a "I" and a "O" to indicate operativeness to the operator.
In its ~yclic operation of the program, the CPU
looks at the contents of the register and if they have changed from the data previously stored in R~l memory, -3~-thereby indicating a change of state in the associaced pulse initiator, ~hen a display subroutine is entered which changes che digit being displayed in the display location associated with that par~icular channel. It is an important function of this ~ype Olc test that not only is the pulse initiator working, but also ~he d~ta input channel electronics and mic:roprocessor and RAM s~corage, etc., are also functioning properly, as well as ~he display logic and display .
To describe the ~ead-After-Write test in more detail, after a eomplete record is written in the bubble ~emory, the dàta is read out in a first-m fi~st-out (FTFO) register in the memory con~roller. The data in the ~IFO
register is then transferred a~ byte at a time to the D
register in the microprocessor which then compares the contents of the D register with the data that had been w~itten to the bubble me~ory. Any deceetiorl of non-equality indicates a failure of the ~est. This procedure is repeated three times. If the Read Af~er-Write test fails three successi~e times, bits B20 and B21 are set to l's in RAM to indicate such failure, and this record is written i~to the bubble memory a :Eourth time for permanent storage. A visual indicator 48 of FIG. ~, which may be an LED, may be caused to flash to alert personnel.
Word Selected Parameter Set By Switch~40 Parameters Displayed By Switch 39
5 Digit ID , Digit 5 2 5 Digit ID Digit 4 3 5 Digit II) Digit 3 4 5 Digit ID Digil: 2 5 Digit ID Digit 1
6 Year/Day of Weelc Year
7 Year/Day cf Week Day of Weel;
8 Mon~h/Date Mon~h
9 Month/Da~e . Date Hours IMinutes Hours 11 Hours/Minutes . Minutes 12 Re~erts to program con~rol and starts internal clock ~ 7~
As indicated above, ~he device 49A i5 operator-actuated and has two states indicating respectively whether the memory module is in operative relation with the recorder or not. When ~he opera~or actuates it to permit the m~mory module to be remo~ed, it generates a signal for enabling the CPU 16 to write the special R2moval Record ~Table III) into a predetermined location of the bubble m~mory. This takes only about 100 Ms. Similarly, when the new ~odule is inserted and the lever 49A is moved to the position shown in solid in FIG. 5, it generates a signal to cause the CPU to prepare the Insertion Record (Table I) in RAM. It is n~ed that ~his record is not written into the first four pages of the new memory until ~he end o~ the collection period during which the new module is inserted. Briefly, the device 49 operates switch contaet 49E (FIG. 1) which triggers a sensing circuit 62 for generating a control signal which is transmitted to the CPU 16 via I/O circuits 34, wh~ch may be conventional peri-pheral interface adapter circuits.
The foregoing descrip~ion of the magnetic bubble memory syst~m 12 describes a two-channel billing recorder. For a single c~annel recorder, the bubble memory module pro~ides-data storage or 213 8-hour collection periods. The assignment of memory locations for a single channel recorder is similar to that illustra~ed in Tables I-III for a two channel recorder in that 12 bits (one and one-half bytes) are pro~ided for each demand interval.
Hence, the 48 bytes which contain event data provide storage for 32 demand intervals for a single channel input, rather than 16 demand intervals as in the two channel recorder.
-3~-Also, those bytes assigned for storage of the Running Total for the second channel of a two-channel recorder con~ain the single channel Running Total in the case of a single channel recorder.
Referring to FIGS. 1 and 3, each billing period ~comprising a plurality of collection periods) is commenced when an erased (æeroed) bubbl~ memory module is inse~ted into ~he recorder. By way of example, let it be assumed that the erased module is inserted on December 18 at 8:3~ A.M. Upon operation of the device 49 ~o la~ch the memory card 24 int~ place, the cam 49C engages contact 49E
causing the sensing ::ircuit 62 ~o generate a con~rol signal which is transmitted to ~he CPU 16 via I,~0 circuit 34, causing it to prepare the Inser~ion Record in RAM. Speci-fically, it stor~s data representing the month, day, hour and minute in RAM 18 along with the identifier code word for subsequent transfer to the bubble memory. The CPU 16 causes zeros to be written into RAM 18 in s~ora~e locations allocated to demand intervals of the current collection period for the ltwo inte~als which }l~v~ already cra~ispired, namely, the two demand inter~als from 8:00 A.M. to 8:30 A.M.
After the module insertion time has been stored in RAM 18, the CPU 16 accumulates data pulses for the rest of ~he currcrlt access interval. The CPU 16 via input/output inter~ace 19, scans the output of the data chanr~els A and B and ma~ntains a running cou~t of the number of event pulses received for each channel for the balance of the collection period. The running cou~t is also maintained in the RAM 1~.
At the end o:E each demand interval, as indicated by the digi~al clock of the microprocessor syste~n 11, the CPU
under control of ir~structions s~ored in ~OM 17 selects different storage locations in the. RAM 18 for storing data words repre-senting respecti~ely the total numbers of pulses received over channels A and B turing e~ch demand interval. Twelve bi~s are -allocated for each channel for each demand in~erval. The CPU 16 also maintains a running total of the data pulses received o~er each data channei A and B in separate total count registers. .
These totals are con~cinuously updated for each timing pulse derived from the line frequency, in ~he normal case (i . e ., where there is no power outage).
At the end of the partial period following insertion of the new me~ory module, the CPU 16 ~cransfers ~che data stored in RAM 18 to the bubble memory 23 to provide the Insertion Record in accordance with Table I. First, the CPU 16 genera~es a signal for enabling solid state switch 29 to apply DC power to the DC to DC converter 28 for energizing the memory system 12. The CPU 16 also ~enerates an ~ddress for the bubble memory system 12 to address the first page of ~he bubble memory module 23.
, The four data words represerlting the month, day, . hour and minute of insertion are transerred as a page to a FIFO register in ~he memory controller 21. A wTite command is then issued by the CPU 16 to cause the data to be written into the bubble memory. The memory controller 21 responds to the control signals provided by the CPV 16 to enable the function timing generator 42 to generate the eontrol signals for effecting che write operations for application to the L7~L
func~i~n driver 43 and coil drivers 44. The identifier code word as well as all o~cher data of page one of an Insertion Record is ~ransferred to the memory controller at the same time. The read-after-write test describ~d above is per-formed after each comple~e record is transferred to the bubble memory.
When this first page of Insertion Record has been written into the memory 23> ~he CPU 16 then effects the transfer to` the memory 23 o~ the demand data for the current collectîon period. The CPU generates an address for the bub~le memory system to access the second page of the bubble memory module 23'and causes data representing the mon~h (December), the day (18), and ~he hour (12 o'clock), defining the end of the current.de~nd interval, to be written into the first three bytes of page 2 as.shown in Table V. The memory locations (bytes 4~9) allo~ed to event data f~om the time 8: 00 until the end of the demand inte~al immediately preceding insertion are zero-filled -- nameiy, the dem~nd inter~als beginning at 8: 00 and 8 :15 for each channel. The data for channel A for the first partial demand interval (8:30 - 8:45) is recs~rded i~ the tenth byte and the first four bits of the eleventh byte. The corresponding data for channPl B is recorded in the last four bits of the eleventh byte a~d the eight bits of the twelfth byte. F.~ent data for the d~mand intervals up to 9 :15 A.M. are entered in the norrnal fields for that record on page 2 of the memory.
- 4~ -I
TABLE V - - III~ERTION_R~,OI~D_e 2 te Information Daca ~onth 12 2 Day 18 3 Hour 12 4 8:00 - 8:15 (B) zero 00 ~B) / 00 (A ) zero 6 - 8:00 - 8:15 (A) zero 7 8:15 - 8:30 (~ zero 8 15 (B) /15 (A) zero 9 8:15 - 8:30 (~) zero 8: 3 0 - 8: 45 (s ) partial ll 30(B)/30(~) partial 12 8: 30 : 8: 45 ~A ) partial 13 8: 45 - 9: 00 (~s ~ filled 14 45 (B.) /45 ~ ) filled 8: 45 - 9: 00 (A) filled 16 9:00 - 9:15 (B) ~ filled 17 00 (B) /00 (A) filled 18 9 00 - :15 (A ) filled -4~-The CPU 16 then addresses page 3 o~ ~he memory and causes the remainder of the data for succes~ive demand inter~als up through the demand interval begi~ning at
10:30 for both channels ~o be recorded. The first fifteen bytes of page 4 ~hen record event data for.demand inter~als up thr~u~h the demand interval beginning at 11: 45 A.M. The running total count for the data for channel A is written as the firs~ twenty bits of ~he last three bytes in page 4, as expl ined above.
After the partial data for the first collection period has been written into the bubble memory and verified by rec~ in the CPU, the CPU 16 disables the solid state swi~ch 29 thereby de-energizing the bubble memory system 12 during the next four-hour collection period. Also, the insertion of the bubble memory is sensed by the CPU which generates a current to change the state of the bistable indicator 47 to indicate that the bubble memory now stores data .
When a new (i.e., erased) bubble memory is inserted in the recorder, the CPU decrEments interval me~hanically register which is orîginally set to represent a predetermined ~hermal time period representative of the worst-case time for the bubble memory to achieve its operating temperature. The writing of data into the bubble memory is inhibited un~il the end of the thermal recovery period. The thermal recovery period could be implemented mechanically, and would not even be required, of course, if the bubble memory specifications per-mitted operation through the full range. If the thermal recovery period overlaps the access time (i.e., extends into the next collection period), the CPU transrers the Insertion -4~-Record ~o an unused section of RAM until the ~ime-out si~nal is generated; and it then transfers the Insertion Record dcta for s~orage in the bubble memory, even though it is not a~
the normal access time.
During the next collection period, the data is accumulated in ~he RAM 18 and transferred to the bubble memory 23 as a Normal Record, as shown in Table II. It will be observed that for this collection period the running total count for channel B is recorded in th~ first twenty bits of the last three bytes of page 7 of the bubble memory. The remaining pages are filled wi~h Normal Records in like manner such ~hat a total of up to 213 four-hour collec~ion periods are recorded, including the two par~ial intervals when the m~mory card is inserted and removed, are recorded. The total count register of each channel is updated at the occurrence of each ~iming pulse.
Should a power failure occur (that is, the loss o 60 Hz. line voltage) during a collection period, an oscillator 32 (which may be the internal oscillator of the CPU~ is used to generate the time base. The ~requency of the oscillator signal is counted down by a divider circui~
31 to supply a ti~e reference for the CPU 16. The CPU
deter~ines the power outage by sensing for ~he 60 Hz. line signal. Briefly, the 60 Hz. line si~nal is shaped into a pulse, and the CPU enters a loop co~prising an interval timer, I~ the internal timer times out before the line fre quency pulse is detected, the CPU defines it as a power outage and switches to crystal clock of oscillator 32 -4~-divided by di~ider circuit 31. This signal has a repetition rate of approximately 61 Hz. The DC power main~ains the con~roller circuits energized during the power outage preventing loss of stored data and allowing the CPU to continue generating its ~ime re~erence. However, t~e displays are disabled to conserve battery power.
When it is time to remove the memory card 24 at the end of the billing period, the device 49 is actuated by.the exchange personnel and the CPU effec~s the reeording of the Removal Record in accordance with the format set forth in Table III. If the memory module is removed before the end of an access period, the partial record, which is recorded in the las~ four pages of the bubble memory includes all of the data recorded in RAM during the access period. The CPU 16 also en~rgizes an indicator 35 ~o indicate that a data transfer operation is in progress.
As illustrated in Table III, the month, day and hour of m~dule remo~ral are recorded in the first three bytes o~ page 638. The data in the partial demand interval is transferred. to RAM. Whenever event data is written in the bubble memory ar~d has been verif ied, whether at the end of a normal collection period or at the end o a billing period when the memory is being replaced, the -4~-interval counters are reset to zero. The total counters remain updated at all ti~es, and they roll over at a predetermined cumulative count. However, upon the first application of power, whether as a result of a power outage or rec~rder installa~ion or replacement, ~he total counters are initialized by setting the contents c~ zero.
Then ~he event data fc~r both channels is written i~to pagPs 639-641 of the memory, preceeded by the five digit identifier and the ru~ing total counts for channels A and B as illustrated in Table III.
The customer has an option as to whether or not eo account for daylight saving time changes tria ~che Select D . S . T. input 33B of FIG. 1. In this embodiment, a computation is made to definQ the last Sunday of the month during which a DST/ST change is implemented. If he selects this option, in the spring when the change is to be imp~emented, two functions are perforaled: (1) the clock is incrementPd by one hour at 2:00 A.M. on the Sunday in which daylight sa~ing time is implemented; and (2) the four demand inter~als for each channel (assuming a 15 minute d~and inter~al) associ;ated with the hou~ 2:00 A.M. to 3:00 A.M. of that day ha~e to be zero-filled. This is accomplished, briefly, by loading zeros into the associated demand inter~al -4~
portions of RAM and then ~Jriting t~at infor~ation into the bubble memory. Thus, the bubble memory is zero-filled for the dem2nd in~ervals between 2:00 A.M. and 3:00 A.M. The even~ data is colleeted for the daylight sav,ing ~ime hour 3:00 A.M. to 4:00 A.M., and this da~a is wTitten into the bubble ~e~ory in .s~ocia~i3n wi~h the proper demand intervals a~ ~he end of ~he ne~t collection period.
In the fall, the clock is turned back an hour in switching from daylight saving time to standard time.
Iwo separate records are prepared. In the first record, the four demand intervals for the hour between 12:00 and 1: 00 as well as the four inte~als for the hou~ between 1:00 A.M. and 2:09 A.M. h ~7e normal event data. The remaining two hours for that collection period are zero-filled to comprise record Rl. This is written into the bubble memory at or shortly after 2:00 A.M. At the same time, the second record, n~mely record R2, is prepared by zero-filling the first four demand intervals comprising the hour 12: 00 to 1: 00, and thereafter, normal data is collected and s~ored.
This record is written into the bubble memory a~ 4:00 A.M., the end o ~he current collection period.
In the foregoing description, the recorded bubble memory modules are exchanged for an erased module at the end of each billing period, and the recorded modules are transported to a translating center for reading.
In FIG. 4 there is illustra~ed a bloc~ dia~ram of a system whi~h permiLs remote readout of the recorded -4~-~ 7~
data over a cGmmunication link 70, such as a telephone link, established between the translating center 71 and the point of ser~ice 72 where ~he billing recorder is located.
, An interrogate con~roller 73 at th~ translating center generates audio frequency interrogate signals which are transmitted over the link and coupled via line coupler 74 to a da~a tra~sponder 7~ associated with the billing recorder. The data ~ransponder receiver 81 detects the audiô frequency interrogate signals and genera~es suitable logie le~el eontrol signals for application eo the billing recorder circuits ~o effect readout of the recorded data. The da~a transponder includes a transmi~ter 82 which converts the logic level da~a signals read out into audio frequency signals, coded to represent the data, for transmission to the translating cente~.
A conventional telephone set 78 at the tra~s-lating center is used to plàce a`:call to the number assigned to the telephone line coupler 74 causing the data transponder 75 to be coupled to a ~elephone line 79 which forms part of ~he telephone link.. When the link is established, a read signal at a preselected audio frequency fO is transmitted from the translating center to the data transponder and detected by audio frequency receiver 81 which includes a line detector which converts the received 1 audio signal to a logic level read command signal. The com~and signal is ext nded to the billing recorder controller by way of I/O circuit 34 (FIG. 2), for example.
~ ~J~ ~ 7 ~
The CPU 16 responds to the read command to effect sequential readout of the data stored in the bubble memory 23. The data read out is extended via the I/O circuit 34 to the transmitter 82, which responds to the logic 1 and logic 0 level data signals to generate audio frequency reply signals at different audio frequencies fl and f2 respectively, for transmission to the translating center, the frequency coded audio signals are converted to a data format suitable for processing and transferred to a suitable storage medium.
User Options There are three user options in the system, and they are diagramma~ically represented in FIG. 1 by blocks designated respectively 33A, 33B and 33C. These represent selections of: (a) one or two input channels; (b) Dayligh Saving or Standard Time Select; and (c) Fifty or Sixty Hz.
line frequency. Each o these selectors may comprise a wired logic state, a toggle switch, or a binary circuit.
According to the first option, namely Channel Select, the user has the option of determining whether one or two input channels are stored in the bubble memory. The output signal, referred to as EF2 is sensed by the CPU 16 and used as appropriate throughout the data processing. For example, in Chart B, block 13Z, the CPU has to determine whether there are one or two input channels for storing demand interval data in the appropriate RAM locations, as described in detail elsewhere. Similarly, the DST/ST Select generates a logic signal EF3 which is used by the CPU 16 in block 126 of FIG. 2 to effect changes as they occur and as L17~
selected by the user. Finally, block 33C generates a signal as selected by the user and designated EF4 which accommodated the system to either fifty or sixty Hz. line fxequency; and this information is used in block 125 of Chart B to generate clock and calendar data. Briefly, this data is generated by incrementing a register to a predetermined count (namely, to sixty in the case of 60 Hz. line frequency or to fifty in the case of 50 Hz. line frequency) for incrementing a register which counts seconds and determines the program execution time.
Totalizer Operation Referring to FIG. l, there are four input channels designated respectively ~; B, C, and D. Each of these channels is associated with a conventional pulse initiator for receiving input data; and each of the input channels, designated respectively l9A, l9B, l9C and l9D comprises a latch circuit responsive to incoming data from an associated pulse initiator for storing it temporarily. The output signals of the data channels are fed in parallel to the inpu~/output circuits l9 of the microprocessor which also are latching circuits.
Data channels C and C are shown in chain line because, as indicated above, the system may be a single channel or a two channel recorder. In the case where channels C and D are used, the system may be a totalizer --that is, the event data from two input channels is accumulated and stored. Where data channels C and D are -5~-present, and it is desired to sum or "totalize" the inputs, for example, the inputs on channel A can be totalized with those on Channel C, and those on Channel B can be totalized with the data inputs on Channel D. In this case, the microprocessor reads the data on channel A, and the data on channel C and adds either zero, one or two counts to the appropriate Running Total count for the current demand period and separately, the cumulative counts for Insertion and Removal Totals, as described above. This updating of the registers happens every input data sample period which, in the illustrated embodiment, is derived from line frequency.
Because of the high speed at which the micro-processor is capable of sampling input data relative to the time periods during which input data is expected to change, this capability of totalizing is inherent in the system. That is, the problems associated with coincidence of data inputs in conventional totalizers are inherently overcome due to the structure of the system.
Brief Description of Flow Charts Re:Eerrlng to the flow charts, Charts I and II
describe the overall system operation. Chart III takes the data including the index and event data recorded in RAM during Power Fail Mode II to establish the necessary format for recording that data in the bubble memory.
Chart IV describes the operation of the program during Power Failure Recovery mode II for storing index numbers identifying associated demand intervals and the event data in RAM. The connectors shown on Charts III and IV
reference back to the main flow chart--namely, Charts I
and II as applicable.
Overall System Flow Chart It will be observed that each of the blocks of the flow charts I-IV has numerals next to it. These indicate the lines or instructions of the program to which that portion of the flow chart corresponds.
-Turning then to flow chart I, terminator block 101 indicates that on initial system po~7er up the program proceeds to address 0 which then branches to process block 102 which is a cold start subroutine, proceeding to block 103, in which the registers (deman~ and total) and Random Access Memory are initialized. After the registers are initialized, the program proceeds as indicated in process block 104 to maintain the system in its present sta~e ~i.e., no data transfers to bubble memory) until a service operator re~oves the bubble memQry, sets the clock, ID and time of the system, and then inserts a new bubble memory.
In process block 105, two RAM pointer registers and a constant zero register are reset. In decision block-106, the system determines whether the Magnetic Bubble Memory is being removed (this is done by sensing whether th~
contacts 49E, 49C have changed state). I it is removed, the program proceeds ~ia process block 107 to set the "M~M removed"
flag and to clear a fat~l error flag, and it then proceeds ~o a junction point above a block labeled 115, to be described.
If the bubble memory is determined to be in place in block 106, the program proceeds to decision block 108 where it is determined whether a "removed" flag has been set. If it has not, the program proceeds to the junction point above block 115. If the "removed" flag has been set, the program proceeds to decision block lO9 to determine whether the removal had been a normal removal, and if so, the program proceeds to block 113 where it compiles ~he data for the insertion or removal page comprising a portion of ~ 7~
the previously described Insertion Record or Removal Record.
"normal" removal is defined as one in which the set mode is not entered--indicating that the operator did not have to set a~y of the clock or calendar or ID pærameters.
If in block 109 the system determined that remo~al had not been under normal circumstances, the event data counter for demand intervals is cleared in block 110.
Next, the program determines in decision block 111 whether the memory is being inserted or removed. If in block 111 the program had determined that it is an Insertion Record, then it proceeds to process block 112 which clears the byte RAM area designa~ed Rl~ I which is the normal portion of Rl~ in which the event data is accumulated according to demand interval. For purposes of explanation, the data of R~ I is transferred to RAM II, a corresponding 48-byte portion of Random Access Memory used for storage of the event data while it is associated with the necessary data that accompanies a Normal Record (which also is included in the Removal and Insertion Records. A separate 18-byte portion of RAM is reserved for compiling the additional necessary data for Insertion Records and Removal Records.
Proceeding from bloclc ll3 to block 114, the program initializes the parameters associated with the newly inserted bubble memory. In block 115, output signals are generatPd for con~rolling all of the external devices associated with the system such as indic2tors, the demand interval termination indicator, etc.
Following the generation of output signals, exclusive of transferring data to the bubble memory, the program proceeds to decision block 116 in which it is dete~mined whether Power Fail Mode I (PFI) is entered.
Referring to FIG. 6, Power Fail Mode I is defined as commencing with the determination by the CPU that a power outage has occurred, see arrow 81. Power Fail Mode I
extends to the end of the current collection period in which the powe~ outage occurred ~see 82). The program proceeds to process block 117 in which the power outage parameters are set up both for Power Fail I and II, some-times referred to, as PFl and PF2 for short.
I, in block 116, it has been determined that PFI had not been entered, the program decrements the PFI timeout counter in block 118 and in 119 the system determines whether the 60 Hz. line signal is present.
This is determined in a progra~ loop timed by the main crystal oscillator of the CPU. If the 60 Hz. clock is not present within the time allotted :(i.e. the counter of block 118 îs' decremented,to zero), it is taken as an indication that power has been lost. Thus, once a power outage has been detected, the program proceeds to block 117, described above. After the power fail mode parameters have been set in block 117, the progra~ proceeds to process block 120 and waits for the power outage clock (namely, ~he crystal oscillator 32 and divider 31) and continues to check for return of power by continuing to look for the 60 Hz. timing si~nal from the external source, When either timing signal is detecte~, ~he program jumps ~ia connector No. 4 to block 122. Returning bac,k to decision block 119, if it is determined that the nor,mal 60 Hz external clock is not overdue ~i.e. it is detected before the counter of block 118 is decre~ented to zero), the program proceeds.to decision block 121 in which it is determined whetheI the actual clock signal has been detected. If not, the program loops back to the junction point prior to block 115 via connector No. 3.
If the external clock is detected to have occurred in block 121, the program proceeds to block 122. When the clock does arrive, data counts accumulated i~ a register are transferred to RAM.
~ ext, in block 123, i~ is determined whether the system is being operated in a SET MODE, and if it is, the program proceeds ~ia connector No. 6 to instruction number 246 of the clock-calendar subroutine represented by process block 125 on Chart II, to be described.
If, in decision block 123, it has been determined that the system is not being operated in SET mode, then the program proceeds to clear a Set Mode flag in block 124, and proceeds via connector No. 5 to block 125 of Chart II.
The clock-calendar routine updates the cl~ck and calendar information and keeps it current. The reason that there is a branch from the decision block 123 into the clock-calendar routine is in the case where an operator may be setting the date of a month, the program will not enable him to enter a non-existent date.
~ text, in block 126, the system checks to see whether it is operating in daylight saving time as well as whether i~ is time to i~mplement a switch to or from daylight saving time, and i~plements the appropriate function.
Next, in decision block 127, ~he system determines whether it has arrived at the end of a demand interval, and if so it proceeds to block 128 ~o initialize cer~ain RA~I pointers.
The program then proceeds to block 129 in which it is determined whether the system is operating in Power Fail Mode II. If it is, the system proceeds to block 130 and saves the non-zero data in PFII for~mat as will be des-eribed more fully below. Mext, the system determines whether the thermal recovery period has terminated, and if so, it proceeds to the junction above block 142 via connector No. 7.
If the thermal recovery period has not terminated, the program loops back to blo'ck 10~.
If in block 129 the system has determined that Power Fail Mode II has not been entered, in bloek 132, it saves the event data in normal for~at, and proceeds to decision block 133 to det,ermihe whether it is the end of a collection period. If it is not the end of a collection period, the program proceeds to decision block 144, to be described.
Returning back to block 127, if the program had determined that it was not the e~ad of a demand period, the program proceeds to decision block 134 to determine ~hether a complete data record has been recovered sufficient, to transfer to the bubble ~emory. If it is not complete, ~57-the pr~ram proceeds to a power fail recovery routine as indicated in block 135 and described further in connection with Chart III.
If, in block 134, the system had determined that complet-e data had been accumulated or compiled for PF II
recovery, the system proceeds to block 136 to determine whether it is in Power Fail Mode I, and if so, i~ jumps via connector No. 2 to block 10~ of Chart I. Xf in block 136 it is determined that the system is not in Power Fail ~ode I, it proceeds to a subrou~ine in block 137 to compile the output data for display on the five-segment digital display 37 o FI5S, 1 and 5.
Entry of the system into PF II mode occurs whenever the system is ready to write into the bubble module but is unable to do so. It would not be able to do so if the power was off, in which case a temperature bad fla~ would be set7 or while in a thermal recovery period, where the temperature bad flag would still be set. -Referring to Chart II, in block 133 the processorhas determined that the end of a collection period has been reàched, meaning that the system is now ready to write to the bubble module. In block 138, the processor moves the data, calendar information, and a channel total to R~l II in anti-cipation of writing to the bubble module. A removal page is also assembled for tran5ferral if the module is about to be removed in blocks 139 znd 140. In block 141, the temperature bad flag is checked and if it is determined that the temperature -s8~
prohibits the writin~, of the in~orm.~ion to ~he l)~ e syste~ will enter PF II mode.
Returning to block 133, if it had been determined that it is the end oi a collection period,~the program proceeds to process block 138 in which a record is compiled for transferrin~ ~he event data and associated data for one .of the records to the bubble m~mory. In particular, the event data which had ~een ~ccumulated in RAM I is transferred to RAM II where it is associated with the necessary time, date and total data for storage in the bubble memory. ~ext, in decision block 139, the system determines whether the bubble memory i~ being removed, a~d if it is, ~he system compiles data for the last page of a Removal Record in block 140. The system then proceeds to block 141. It would have proceeded directly to block 141 if it had been determined in block 139 that the bubble memory is not being removed. In bloc.k 141, a determination is made as to whether a thermal recovery period has ended; and if it has, in block 142, a subroutine is entered for transferring data from RA~I to the bubble memory, whether it is a Normal Record, an Insertion Record, or a Removal Record. If in~block 141 it had been determined that a thermal recovery period is still present, the program proceeds to block 143 where it enters Power Fail Mode II, and jumps via connector No. 2 to block 105 of Chart I.
Returning to block 144, a determination is made as to whether the system has changed from daylight saving time to standard time, and if it has, the DST-STD time chan~e flag is cleared in block 145. If the change is detel~ined not to have been made in block lh4, a determination is màde in block 146 whether the system is operating in a "Cold Start" mode, and if it is, i~ proceeds via connector No. 1 to block 104 of Chart I.
A cold start will be entered only under three circ`u~stances. The first one will be the ini~ial application of power upon system installation. Another time a cold start c~uld be entered is ;mmediately following re-application of power after a prolonged p~wer outage with the battry fully discharged. ~ cold start requires operator inter~enti~n to set the clock and I~, and to remove the old bubble module from the recorder before it will again begin normal operation.
If in block 146 it had been determined that a "Cold Start" mode is not being implemented, the system pro~
ceeds to block 147 to determine whether the system is in a thermal recovery period; and if it is, the program jumps via connector No. 2 to block 105 of Chart I. If the bubble memory is operating ~ithin temperature specifications, the system determines whether the bubble memory power is on in block 148, and if it is, it jumps via connector No. 8 to block 141 on Chart II.
If the bubble memory power is not on as determined in block 148, the system determines in block 149 whether the bubble memory is inserted, and if so, it jumps by a connector No. 2 to block 105 of Chart I. If the bubble memory is not inserted, the system implements a routine in block lS0 for initializing removal parameters, and jumps via connector l~o. 9 to block 128 of Chart II.
Referring now to Chart IV, which formats the data for storage in Power Fail Mode II, this chart is a more detailed~flow chart of block 130 of Chart II described above.
This subroutine co~mences in terminator 154 and proceeds to process block 155 for initializing address registers and pointers. In bloclc 156 the program determines whether there is any portion of RAM I left ~o store additional data, and if there is not, it proceeds to block 157, it en~ers zeros in the register holding the event data for the current.demand interval, and jumps via connector No. A3 to block 159. If there is additional s~orage room in RAM I as determined in block 156, the program proceeds to block 158 where it is determined whether-any event data has been detected for the current demand interval, and if it has not been detected, the program proceeds to block 159 to determlne whether a thermal recovery period is being implemented. If it is, the program proceeds via connector No. 2 to block 105 of Chart I, and if the operating tempera-ture of the bubble memory is within specifications, the program jumps via connector No. 7 to block 142 of ChaFt II.
. If in block 158 the p~ogram determines that there is current event data, then it proceeds to b~ock 160, a register pointer is set as will be described Next, in block 161, the address associated with the location for storing the data is loaded into the address register This is the next sequentially occurring address available for .
storage in RAM I. Nex~, in block 162, an inde~ nu~ber associated with the address defined in block 151 is stored.
This index number, as indicated above, is representative of the demand period following the entry into Pot~er Fail Mode II. In block 163, the demand interval event data is stored ~n RAM, and in block 164, the incremented address for storing data is saved, and the program proceeds ~o block 157 to reset the demand interval re~ister for the next de~and interval.
To summarize operation of the system in Power Recovery Mode II, the CP~ determines whether there is non-zero data as.sociated with ~ current demand interval. If the data is all zeros, it is taken as an indication that power is still out, and no data is stored, but the contents of the index register are incremented at the end of that demand interval.
Thus, the contents of the index register are representative of ~he number of a demand interval following the time at which the system entered the Power Failure Mode II. Two bytes (16 bits) identify an index number and two bytes are used for recording non-zero event data for each demand interval per channel. If it is deter-mined that the data associated with a given demand interval during PF II i5 other th2n zero, then the data is stored as follows: the contents of the index register representative of the demand interval is stored in two bytes, and the event data is stored in two bytes. It will be appreciated that power may return for a time less than the thermal recovery period, in which case-the event data is not lost, but preserved in RA~I.
The time and calendar data is not reconstructed in going from the compacted storage format of P~ II to a normal ~62TI
record. The time and calendar information can ~e reconstructed in the translation system b~sed on the calendar and time data cont~ined in the preceding and followin~ records that are WTitten before the power failure and after full recovery from the power failure. ThP time da~a for a reconstructed normal record-is relative to the position of the data within the record as referenced t~ the preceding and following data.
After a power failure which causes the system t~
enter PF II mode, application of power will start a thermal recovery period. At the end of the firs~ demand interval following the end of the thermal recovery period the processor will write the data contained in RAM II to the bubble module.
When finished with the writing of that data the processor then determines if data is stored in PF II format. If it de~ermines that data is in PF II format, it then sets a flag causing the software to proceed through the power failure reco~ery routine on successive passes through the program. Entry to the routine occurs at block 167 on Chart III. The program ~hen proceeds to process block 168 which sets up register No. 4 as an additional RAM pointer. In block 169, register No. 1 is set up to poin~
at the number of demand periods that have, to this point, been recovered form the PF II f~rmat in RAM I. This also includes the "all zero" de~and intervals (i. e ., n~ power consumption because power has not returned) that have not been recorded anywhere, but which have been accounted for by incrementing the PF II index number.
Proceeding to process block 170, the program loads, increments and saves the ~u~be~ of demand periods for which data has been recovered from the PF II format, and proceeds to block 171 in which pointer register No. 1 is set to the next available location in RAM II. Next, in decision block 172 it is determined whether the system is recovering a record and ormatting it in RAM II. A comple~e record would be for a full collection period.
If it is recovering a record, the program proceeds to process block 175. If it is not in the process of recovering a record as deter-mined ~n block 172, the program proceeds to process blocX 173 to fill with zeros all locations of RAM II excep~ the last three bytes.
The reason for this is that as the locations are filled with event data and eventually the record becomes complete, which may be a partial record, the remaining demand intervals are filled with zeros prior to transfer to the bubble memory for storage, or back to RAM I. That is, if recovery occurs during the same collection period for which the data stored in RAM II is curren~, then the system transfers the data in RAM II back to RAM I ~nd continues to record event data for th~t current collection period prior to transferring the data to the bubble memory.
Next, the program proceeds in block 174 to point register 1 to the fourth byte of RAM II which is the starting point for storing event data to be transferred as a record to the bubble memory.
. In bl~ck 175, the program points register 4 to an index number representative of a demand interval associated with data being recovered from RAM I and transferred to RAM II. This is used as a check, when comparing with the actual index numbers stored in RAM I:as a validity check for the data being formatted in the RA~I II.
Proceeding to process block 176, the program then points register 2 to the address value identifying, if such is the case, the index number associated with the demand interval at which a time change is being made from daylight saving time to standard time. If such 2 change occurs during Po~7er Fail Mode II, and indication must be stored that the special records mentioned abo~e ha~e to be compiled before transfer o data to the D~ e memory.
-6~-Proceeding then ~o block 177, a dete~mination is made whether the period number being recovered (that is, the index number for which data is being recovered), equals the period nu~ber of the time change described in connec-tion ~ith block 176. If the two are the same, the reset index number identified in block 176 is set to 0, and in block 179, ~he index numb~r ~eing recovered is decremented by 4. So that room is left on the next record to be transferred to bubble memGry t~ "zero fill" the first four demand intervals associated with the first hour prior to A
switch back to standard ti~e--i.e. 12:00 A.M. to 1:00 A.M.--as described above.
The pro~ram then proceeds to block 1~8 ~u update the indicator which establishes whether the total count for the current collection period being composed is associated with channel A or B so that when power returns, the two will not have been interchanged, ~lext, in block 189, the last three bytes associated ~ith the total count in RAM II
are zeroed, and the progr2m proceeds to block 190 to clear the ~lag associated with incomplete record recovery as described above.
Returning now to blocl; 177, if the time change identif`ied in block 176 is not being effected, the program proceeds to block 180 to point register 2 at the start address of RAM I which, it will be recalled, is an index number associated with the first demand interval following the entry of PF II mode.
Next, in block 181, it is determined whether the index number thus recovered is equal to the index number for which present data is being recovered. If it is not, the program proceeds via process block 182 to store zeros in RAM II for the associated demand interval. If the index num~er is the sEme 2S the period for which data is being recovered, the program proceeds in bloc~ 183, i~
resets the next storage location in RAM I to the location next available for storage. The program then proceeds via block 184 ~o store the e~ent data recovered ~rom RAM I to RAM II in the normal format. That is, the system is composing the record for storage in bubble memory and transferring it t-o RAM II. Next, the progr.~m proceeds ~o shift the data in the remainder of ~ ~ I which has not yet been reco~ered and shifted to RA~I II to fill ~he available storage ~acated by virtue of the data recov'ered from RAM I
and stored in RAM II. This facilitates having the index number always in the start location and frees up some of RAM I for addition~l storage should the system encounter another power outage.
Next, in proces,s b~ock 18~, the system zero-fills the unused portion of RAM I, and proceeds to decision blocX
187 to determine whether ~AM II is filled. If RAM II is filled, the syst~m proceeds to block 188 described above, and if RAM II is not filled, the system proceeds to block 191 in which it is determined whether the recovery period is beyond the current real time period. If it is, the program loops to block 194; however, if it is not, the program proceeds in block 192 to determine whether the recovery period is the same as the current period; and if it is, it proceeds to block 194. If the recovery period is not the same as the current period, the program sets an incomplete record recovered flag in block 193, as described above, and jumps via connector No. 2 to block 105 of Chart I.
In block 194, the program sets the recovered period index number to 0, and proceeds to block 195 to move from RAM II to RAM I
in an effort to re-initiate normal system operation. Next, in block 196, the program clears the flag for Power Fail Mode II as well as the flag for incomplete record recovery and proceeds to block 197 to branch to the bubble controller subroutine to turn the bubble memory off, and then jumps via connector No. 2 to block lQ5 of the main program.
Having thus disclosed in detail preferred embodiments of the invention, persons skilled in the art will be able to modify certain of the structure which has been disclosed and to substitute equivalent elements for those which have been illustrated. For ex-ample, the length of demand interval and collection period may be changed. The device 48 may merely sense the insertion and removal of the module. The number of channels, data storage allocations and event data representations ~totalized, for example) may also be varied, among other things. It is, therefore, intended that all such modifications and substitutions be covered as they are embraced within the spirit and scope of the appended claims.
Priority Applications (2)
|Application Number||Priority Date||Filing Date||Title|
|US06118830 US4335447A (en)||1980-02-05||1980-02-05||Power outage recovery method and apparatus for demand recorder with solid state memory|
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|CA1161171A true CA1161171A (en)||1984-01-24|
Family Applications (1)
|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|CA 370053 Expired CA1161171A (en)||1980-02-05||1981-02-04||Power outage recovery method and apparatus for demand recorder with solid state memory|
Country Status (2)
|US (1)||US4335447A (en)|
|CA (1)||CA1161171A (en)|
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|DE3482901D1 (en) *||1983-05-11||1990-09-13||Hitachi Ltd||Tester for redundant storage.|
|US4654818A (en) *||1983-12-16||1987-03-31||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Data processing device having memory selectively interfacing with computer|
|US4881070A (en) *||1985-06-21||1989-11-14||Energy Innovations, Inc.||Meter reading methods and apparatus|
|US4862493A (en) *||1987-12-28||1989-08-29||General Electric Company||Electronic remote data recorder for electric energy metering|
|US5012406A (en) *||1988-04-19||1991-04-30||Power Card Supply||Line of power interruption in predetermined area of internal permanent memory|
|US5014213A (en) *||1988-04-20||1991-05-07||Domestic Automation Company, Inc.||System for use with polyphase utility meters for recording time of energy use|
|US5237699A (en) *||1988-08-31||1993-08-17||Dallas Semiconductor Corp.||Nonvolatile microprocessor with predetermined state on power-down|
|US5440749A (en) *||1989-08-03||1995-08-08||Nanotronics Corporation||High performance, low cost microprocessor architecture|
|US5270958A (en) *||1991-09-24||1993-12-14||General Electric Company||Method and apparatus for automatic return from test mode|
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