CA1115218A - Hybrid power system and method for operating same - Google PatentsHybrid power system and method for operating same
- Publication number
- CA1115218A CA1115218A CA333,260A CA333260A CA1115218A CA 1115218 A CA1115218 A CA 1115218A CA 333260 A CA333260 A CA 333260A CA 1115218 A CA1115218 A CA 1115218A
- Prior art keywords
- prime mover
- Prior art date
- Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
- 239000000446 fuel Substances 0 claims description 48
- 230000001808 coupling Effects 0 claims description 37
- 238000010168 coupling process Methods 0 claims description 37
- 238000005859 coupling reaction Methods 0 claims description 37
- 238000004146 energy storage Methods 0 claims description 9
- 230000001965 increased Effects 0 claims description 6
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- 238000005381 potential energy Methods 0 description 4
- 238000004378 air conditioning Methods 0 description 3
- 239000000969 carrier Substances 0 description 3
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- 238000002347 injection Methods 0 description 3
- 230000001264 neutralization Effects 0 description 3
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- 238000002485 combustion Methods 0 description 2
- 238000005094 computer simulation Methods 0 description 2
- 238000010276 construction Methods 0 description 2
- 230000000875 corresponding Effects 0 description 2
- 230000001747 exhibited Effects 0 description 2
- 230000035611 feeding Effects 0 description 2
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- 239000000203 mixtures Substances 0 description 2
- 238000005086 pumping Methods 0 description 2
- 230000001172 regenerating Effects 0 description 2
- 230000000717 retained Effects 0 description 2
- 238000005096 rolling process Methods 0 description 2
- 229910000975 Carbon steel Inorganic materials 0 description 1
- 229940035564 Duration Drugs 0 description 1
- 239000000809 air pollutants Substances 0 description 1
- 239000004452 animal feeding substances Substances 0 description 1
- 230000033228 biological regulation Effects 0 description 1
- 239000010962 carbon steel Substances 0 description 1
- 239000003054 catalyst Substances 0 description 1
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- 238000006243 chemical reaction Methods 0 description 1
- 229910052801 chlorine Inorganic materials 0 description 1
- 150000001875 compounds Chemical class 0 description 1
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- 239000000314 lubricants Substances 0 description 1
- 238000005461 lubrication Methods 0 description 1
- 239000003921 oil Substances 0 description 1
- 239000002674 ointments Substances 0 description 1
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- B—PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
- B60—VEHICLES IN GENERAL
- B60K—ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
- B60K6/00—Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
- B60K6/08—Prime-movers comprising combustion engines and mechanical or fluid energy storing means
- B60K6/10—Prime-movers comprising combustion engines and mechanical or fluid energy storing means by means of a chargeable mechanical accumulator, e.g. flywheel
- B60K6/105—Prime-movers comprising combustion engines and mechanical or fluid energy storing means by means of a chargeable mechanical accumulator, e.g. flywheel the accumulator being a flywheel
- F—MECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
- F16—ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
- F16H15/00—Gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio, or for reversing rotary motion, by friction between rotary members
- F16H15/48—Gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio, or for reversing rotary motion, by friction between rotary members with members having orbital motion
- F16H15/50—Gearings providing a continuous range of gear ratios
- B—PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
- B60—VEHICLES IN GENERAL
- B60W—CONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
- B60W2510/00—Input parameters relating to a particular sub-units
- B60W2510/24—Energy storage means
- F—MECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
- F02—COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
- F02B—INTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
- F02B1/00—Engines characterised by fuel-air mixture compression
- F02B1/02—Engines characterised by fuel-air mixture compression with positive ignition
- F02B1/04—Engines characterised by fuel-air mixture compression with positive ignition with fuel-air mixture admission into cylinder
- Y—GENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
- Y02—TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
- Y02T—CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
- Y02T10/00—Road transport of goods or passengers
- Y02T10/60—Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
- Y02T10/62—Hybrid vehicles
- Y02T10/6204—Hybrid vehicles using ICE and mechanical energy storage, e.g. flywheel
METHOD FOR OPERATING SAME
Abstract of the Disclosure A hybrid power system and method in which a piston engine prims mover having a direct crank shaft power output is combined with a kinetic energy storing flywheel and a variable speed transmission in a manner such that the flywheel serves both as a crank shaft flywheel and as a supply of kinetic energy used to augment the power developed by the prime mover, as a substitute for prime mover developed power or as an auxiliary source of power for continued operation of prime mover driven accessories while the prime mover is shut off. The system enables the storage of kinetic energy resulting from the momentum of an inertial load such as an automotive vehicle and in doing so, conserves the kinetic energy of vehicular deceleration and enables engine shut-down during intermittent operation such as operation of an automotive vehicle under city driving conditions. The variable speed transmission is preferably an infinitely variable or I.V. transmission which augments the energy storing capacity of the flywheel and further enables a direct drive relationship between the prime mover and the load.
1$1~2;~B -Title of the Invention HYBRID POWER SYSTEM AND
~ METHOD FOR OPERATING SAME
B:ackground of: the Invention "
This invention relates to hybrid power systems : -and methods. More particularly, it concerns a hybrid power system and method by which kinetic energy of an inertial .'.
load during deceleration is stored and used in a manner to '' reduce the dura-tion of engine operation for a given period of system operation.
' As a result of current emphasis on fuel conserva- ' tion, it is a well publicized fact that the fuel consumption . ~ . .
of an automobile under city. driving conditions is considerably ':
higher than under highway driving conditions. The reasons for this are well ]cnown and primarily the result of energy .' '~ losses in decelerating and stopping a vehicle in city traffic, .' idling operation of the engine while the vehicle is stopped .' and operation for large percentages of the distance travelled at engine speeds which.are above speeds at which engine ' ' 20 eff.iciency is optimum. '~
~' Hybrid power systems are known by which the fuel '~
. consumption of an automotive:enyine, particularly under city '~
driving .conditions, can be reduced substanti:ally by .'' .. ."';' ' '~ - . ''.
:~ - 2 ~, ,,~;.
,.... . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .
storing in a flywheel, for example, the kinetic energy of vehicular momentum or negative power made available during deceleration and using the stored energy as an ancillary source of power, as needed, to reduce power demands on the engine or prime mover. Such systems also lenable excess power developed by the engine, when operated at improved efficiencies, to be diverted to the flywheel for subse~uent use. Moreover, the fuel consuming engine of the system may be shut off when the vehic]e is stopped and the flywheel stored energ~- used both to accelerate the vehicle initially from a stop and to restart the engine.
Substantial reductions in fuel consumption and emission of air pollutants under city ~riving conditions ~ -can be realized with a hybrid system using a relatively simple flywheel represented, for example, by a carbon steel disc a few centimeters in thickness and between 40 and 50 centimeters in diameter rotated at top speeds on the order of maximum engine speeds~ ~ flywheel of this class provides a kinetic energy storage capacity adequate not only to propel a conventiona~ automotive vehicle for limited periods of time but perhaps more importantly, to supply power needed for continued operation of such accessories as power brakes, power steering, air conditioning and the like while the fuel consuming prime mover of the hybrid system is shut off.
In hybrid power systems, some form of infinitely variable or I.V. transmission is usually employed to relate the rotational speeds of the flywheel, the prime mover and the load represented by an automotive drive shaft, for example. While the I.V. transmission has in the past .. .. . . . . . . . . .
, , , , . : , , , ~ , . :.
represented a weak link in hybrid power systems, such transmissions have been developed to a state where power in excess of that developed in automotive engines can be transmitted at high efticiencies through infinitely variable output/input speed ratios in a wide range extending to zero. Such trans-missions are exemplified by the disclosure of a commonly owned, United States Patent No. 4,152,9~6, issued May 8, 1979, in the name of the present inventor Yves Jean Kemper. The state-of-the-art relating to infinitely ; variable or I.V. transmissions, therefore, provides an existing capability for completely viable hybrid power systems by which the well known energy conserving features of such systems may be realized.
To accommodate highway driving conditions, the power train of an automotive vehicle should be adaptable to a direct driving connection of the prime mover or engine and the load or drive wheel. In prior hybrid systems, ; highway driving conditions have been met by de-clutching the energy storing flywheel from the drive train (see, for example, Scott, David. "Flywheel Transmission Has Variable-Speed Gear" Automotive Engineering, MaTch 1977, 85:3, pages 18-19 and United States Patent No. 3,672,244-A. L. ~asvytas) or by shunting entirely the flywheel and I.V. transmission components of the hybrid system for transmission of power directly to load (e.g. United States Patent No. 3,870~116 - J. Seliber).
While the energy saving potential and operating requirements of hybrid power systems have been recognized in the prior art, therefore, the power train requirements of hybrid systems heretofore proposed have been - complex in Y
2:~8 terms of required controls and component organization, space consuming by comparison to conventional automotive power trains and potentially an additional source of mechanical failure o~er and above that which already exists in a conventional power train. It is believed that the combination of these several factors, among others, have been a primary deterrent to the use of hybrid power systems in practice. ~
Summary of the Invention : :
In accordance with the present invention, a hybrid 10 power system and method is provided by which the major : -causes of wasted fuel consumption during operation represented ~:
` by an automotive vehicle under city driving conditions, namely, continued engine idle during vehicle or load decelera-tion and rest, and dissipation of kinetic energy during vehicle braking, are substant.ially avoided by a power system comprising a prime mover having a power shaft and means, such as a crank shaft, for converting a succession of power impulses to rotary motion in the power shaft and thus requiring an auxiliary supply of kinetic energy, such as a crank shaft flywheel, to maintain continuity and smoothness of power shaft rotation during power generating operation of the prime mover; a flywheel having a kinetic energy storage -capacity sufficient to provide the auxiliary supply of kinetic energy for power generating operation of the prime mo~er; a variable speed transmission for transmitting torque between .:
the flywheel and an inertial load driven by the power system;
adjustable coupling means between the prime mover power : ;-shaft and the flywheel, the .coupling means being adjustable between a condition of full engagement for driving connection of the power shaft, the ~lywheel, and the transmissio:n means, through an intermediate condition of partial e:ngagement ~.
in which the flywheel and the power shaft are yieldably '' ~
; _ 5 ~
.. -.. , ~.:
. -: .. . . . . - ~: .
connected for transmission of limited torque and a condition of complete disengagement in which the flywheel and the power shaft are disconnected, thereby to provide a range of engagement in the adjustable coupling vaxying from maxim~lm at the condition of ull engagement to minimum at the condition of complete disengagement; and means for adjusting the coupling means throughout the range of engagement.
The variable speed transmission is preferably an infinitely variable or I.V. transmission having a wide range of speed ratio variation to accommodate any of a wide range of rotational speeds at either the power shaft or the flywheel.
The coupling means, flywheel, and transmission are controlled in such a way that during those conditions of system operation where power developing operation of the prime mover is not needed and energy stored in the flywheel is in excess of that needed to restart the prime mover, the coupling means between the prime mover power shaft and the flywheel may be completely disengaged and the prime mover shut off. Alter-nately, the prime mo~er or engine may be cranked by the flywheel through partial engagement of the coupling means without fuel supply to the prime mover. When the energy stored in the flywheel falls below a predetermined amount as a result of the flywheel driving ei*her the load or accessories associated with the power system, but above that amount ; needed to restart the~prime mover, the coupling means is re-engaged to start the prime mover. When the coupling means , is so engaged, the flywheel serves as a conventional crank shaft flywheel for the prime mover. When the coupling means is fully or partially disengaged, the same flywheel serves as a kinetic energy storage device and, as suchl may be used for regenerative braking of the inertial load such as a 5%~8 vehicle, for propelling the load or vehicle ~ith stored kinetic energy and without operation of the prime mover or it may be used to drive accessories associated with the system.
The follo~ing is a description, by way of example, of certain :
embodiments of the present invention, reference being had to the accompanying drawings in which:-Figure 1 is a schematic view illustrating various mechanical components of a hybrid power system in relation to sensing and control functions represented in block diagram form;
Figures 2a and 2b are segmented longitudinal cross-sections through a preferred embodiment of power train assembly;
Figure 3 is a schematic cross-section illustrating t:he coaction o~ gearing embodied in the transmission unit shown in Figure 2;
Figure 4 is a set of graphs in which quantitative values of various :
parameters are plotted on ordinates against a common abscissa;
Figure 5 ~see sheet III of the drawings) is a schematic illustration of components in a modified embodiment of the invention, and , :, ' , ~ .
J~ ~.. ,. , :
-: . . :
Fig. 6 is a similar schematic illustration of another modified embodlment of the invention.
Detailed Description of the Preferred Embodiment In Fig. l of the drawings, the functioning components of a hybrid power system embodiment of the present invention are shown schematically to facilitate an understanding of interrelated working and control components as ~ell as overall system operation. Thus, in Fig. l, a prime mover is designated generally by the reference numeral lO and shown to include a power shaft 12 releasably connected by a friction clutch l~ to a flywheel 16 rotatable with and, in this instance, carried by the input shaft 18 of a variable speed transmission wnit 20 preferably of a t~pe kno~n in the art as an in~initely variable or I.V. transmission unit.
The variable speed output of the transmission unit ~, ~,.. .....
represented by a shaft 22, is connected through a mode control unit 24 to a load propelling shaft 26 coupled by ; conventior.al differential gearing tnot shown) to the drive wheels 28 of a vehicle to be propelled by the system. As will be described in more detail below, the transmission unit 20 additionally includes a direct drive shaft 30 represented by phantom lines in Fig. l extending from the input shaft 18 to the mode control unit 24~ Also to be understood more clearly from the description to follow, the clutch 14, flywheel 16, transmission unit 20 and mode control unit 24 are components cf a power train ass~mbly 32 represented in Fig. l by the dashed lirJe rectangle circum-scribing these components.
It is to be noted that althou~h the hybrid power system embodiment ~oth represerted by the schematic illustra-tion in Fi~. 1 and to ~e described in more detail hereinafter is depicted as a vehicular power system in which system load is represented by the drive wheels 28 of a powered vehicle, the system is equally applicable to other :inertial loads or loads which require power for acceleration and which exhibit inertial momentum during deceleration. Similarly, while the prime mover 10 is represented in Fig. 1 as a carbureted spark ignition piston engine, other forms of prime movers may be used and may be preferred from the standpoint cf achieving optimized system operation. The system of the invention has particular utility with fuel injected spark ignition engines, diesel engines, Stirling engines and other prime movers which operate to convert a succession of discrete power im~,ulses to continuous rotary output or power shaft motion. It will be noted in this respect, therefore, that the engine 10 includes a crank shaft 34 and that the power shaft 12 is a direct extension Gf the crank shaft. More importantly, the organization of the crank shaft 34 and the power shaft 12 is devoid of the conventional crank shaft flywheel or other added inertial components by which continuity and smoothness of rotation in the power shaft 12 will ~e maintained absent an auxiliary supply of kinetic energy.
Irrespective of the particular type of engine used as the prime mover 10, it will have a supply of potential energy represented by a fuel supply 36 from which fuel may be ed or directed to the prime mover under the control of _ 9 _ :
,' . , " ' , . . .
the throttle 38, for example, in norma]. operation at speeds varying from idling speeds with the throttle substantially closed to maximum speeds with the throttle wide-open. In accordance with the present invention, the supply of potential energy or fuel is additionally regulated for complete shut-off or for reduction to supply levels less than that needed for prime mover opera.tion using only potential energy or fuel. In the embodiment represented schematically in ~ig.
1, a valve 40 is provided in ~he line between a fuel supply and the prime mover upst.ream from the control represented by the throttle 38 so that the supply of fuel to the prime mover 10 may be cut off by closing the valve 40 or reduced to a level less than the ].owest throttle setting. It is to .:
be noted that in some engines, such as an internal combustion engine equipped with an electronic uel injection system, for example, the function of the valve 40 may be served by ~ .
the same device used to regulate the supply of fuel to the :-~
engine for contrclling the power developed by the engine.
In fact, fuel injection systems are preferred due to increased precision of fuel feed and the closer proximity of fuel flow regulation to combustion or working chambers by comparison to carbureted fuel feeds. H~nce, the throttle 38 and valve 40 is merely representative of a particular means for reducing or shutting o~f the fuel supply 36 at the speed ~ controlling throttle. Additionally, an ignition switch 42 : will be provided in ~he case of a spark ignition engine or ..
~he e~uivalent of such an i~nition switch provided for the purpose of enabling or disabling operation of the engine.
. ~ ' `'' .
The working components thus described generally with reference to Fig. 1 are operated by a control system illustrated in block diagram form to include an electronic computer 44 for prQCeSSing driver and system inputs to develop appropriate control signa] outputs.
Specifically, driver inputs include a power switch 46, a direction control 48, an accelerator 50 and a brake pedal 52. System functions which are monitored include engine O O
speed ~, flywheel and transmission input ~peed a, variable transmission output speed ~, the operating mode of the unit ; ~ 24 and the reaction torque of the transmission ~. Adjustable -~:`
parameters to be controlled by the computer 44 include the .
ignition switch 42, the enyine throttle 38 or other control of engine speed, the clutch 14, the speed ratio of the I.V.
kransmission 20, and the mode control unit 24. Although the details of the control system are not shown beyond the block ~ .s:
diagram representation of Fig. 1, such computerized systems are well known and within the skill of one familiar with . ~ ~`
computer logic circuitry, given the desired operational -20 characteristics to be accomplished. ~:
The structure of the power train assembly 32 is illustrated mofit clearly in Figs. 2a and 2b of the drawings. . `
The components of the assembly are housed within a single ~ ~
frame or casing 54 having a fl.ared front portion 56 adapted .~ .
to be bolted or otherwise fixed to the engine 10 in essentia]ly the same manner as a conventional automotive trans~ission.
This portion of the casing 54 contains the flywheel 1~ and the clutch 14. The central portion of the casing houses and ;
.... .: . ..
`'' "'' "
~ . , . . , , . . . : ~ .
serves as a frame component of the I.V. transmission unit 20 whereas an end bell casing co~lponent 58 houses the mode control unit 24 and is secured to the central portion of the casing 54 such as by bolts 60.
As shown in ~ig. 2a, the end of the power chaft 12 .
is conventienally flanged to mount a clutch di.sc hub 62 in turn splined to receive an axially movable, ].ightweight clutch disc 64. The disc 64 extends outwardly to be positioned :.
between an axially fixed abutment ring 66 and an axially adjustable pressure pad ring 68, both carried directly by the flywheel 16. The adjustable pad 68 is urged by a series ;~
of compression springs 69 int.o engagement with the disc 64 and abutment 66, thereby to couple t.he disc 64 and thus the :::
shaft 12 with the flywheel 16. The adjustahle pads 68 is supported by rods 70 extendin~ to an annular piston 72 .
movable in an annular chamber 74 again provided in the flywheel 16. Fluid under pressure at a. passage way 76 will operate to retract the pads 68 against the bias of the compression springs 69. :. .
In light of the foregoing, it will be appreciated :.
that the clutch 14 is in the nature of ~ cor.ventional friction clutch which may be adapted to fully couple the shaft 12 with the flywheel 16 in the absence of fluid pressure acting to move the annular piston against the bias of the springs 69. The shaft 12 will be completely decoupled from the flywheel 16 when fluid pressure acting against the annular piston 72 retracts the pad 68 away from the disc 647 Further, appropriate adjustment of fluid pressure acting against the ;;
annular piston 72 may effect a range of intermediate coupling conditions in the clutch 14 under which a limited torque may be transmitted between the shaft 12 and the flywheel 16 irrespective of the relative speeds of these members. Also as may be seen in Fig. 2a, the flywheel is separated in rotation from the shaft 12 and the hub 62 by roller bearings 78 and is splined or otherwise coupled for rotation directly with the input shaft 18 of the I.V. transmission unit 20.
As will be appreciated from the ensuing description, the precise form of the transmission unit 20 as well as the mode control unit 24 may vary considerably from that illustrated :~ -in Figs. 2a and 2b of the drawings. The transmission unit 20 however, is preferably of a type disclosed in a commonly ;
owned U.S. Patent No. 4,152,946, issued May 8, 1979 in the ;~
name of the present inventor, Yves Jean Kemper. As such, the transmission structure includes as a frame, the central portion of the casing 54 and a pair of transverse wall members 80 and 81 in which a rotatable crankin~ body 82 is supported by bearings 84 and 86 for rotation about a primary or first axis 87. A nutatable body 90 is rotatably supported from the cranking body 82 by bearings 92 and 94 on a second axis 96 inclined with respect to the ~irst axis 87 by the angle ~. The body 90 includes a supporting shaft 98 on which a pair of conical members 100 and 102 are supported for relative axial movement along the second axis 96 and for limited rotation reIative to the shaft 98. The conical members 100 and 102 are spaced on the sha~t 98 by a system of ball ramps, generally designated by the reference -~ 1~ ~J~' .. . . . . ..
- , . . .. .. . . . . .
numeral 104 and which f.unction to move the conical members 100 and 102 axially away from each other in response to torque loading on the transmission.
Although the conical members 100 and 102 are .:.
permitted relative rotation on the supporting shaft 98, they are restrained against rstation with respect to the shaft 98 for a given torque loading on the transmission as a result of the ball ramp system 104 which is fixed or coupled for rotation with the shaft 98.
The exterior :surfaces of the conical members 100 and 102 are of a variable radius Rb and are in rolling friction engagement with interior traction surfaces of a radius Rw on a pair of rings 106 and 108 fixed against rotation with respect to the casing 54 but axially movable :
along the first axis 87 toward and away from a point S of intersection of the axes 87 and 96 under the control of an ; electrically driven control screw 109.
As the cranking body 82 is driven by torque at the input shaft 18 of the transmission 20, the body 90 will be carried in nutation about the axis 87 causing rotation of the body 90 and thus of the shaft 98. The. combined movement of the shaft 98 is transmitted by a bevel gear 110 coupled for rotation with the shaft 98, through an idler gear 112 (Fig..3). carried by thè cranking body 82, to a beveI gear 114.keyed for rotation with:the variable output shaft 22. of ...
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the transmission on the axis ~. The relative movement of the gears 110, 112, and 114 is depicted in Fig. 3 of the drawings. Also the respective rotational speeds of these gears are related by the general equation:
O O ~ O O , .. ~ ~:
p = O
In ~his equationl ~ is the speed of rotation of the transmission input or of the cranking member 82; ~ is the speed of rotation of the nutating body 90 about the axis 96 in a fixed frame of reference; s~ is the rotational speed of the rings 106 and 108 about the axis 87; and p ls the ratio of the radii of the external conical surfaces cn the members 100 and 102 or ~ to the radii on the traction surfaces of the rings 106 and ]08 or Rw (P = Rb/RW)- In the particular transmission shown, the rings 106 and 108 are held against rotation with the casing 54 so that ~ = 0. The general equation may be simplified to ~ l/p).
Further, if the ratio of the number of tee~h on the gear 110 -~
divided by the number of teeth on the gear 114 is k, then the speed of the output shaft 22 (~) is related to k, p, and a by the equation:
o O k~p From this latter equation, it will be apparent that the output rotation (~) will be a reversal of input rotation O ., (a) when the function k/p is greater than l; that output rotation will be zero regardless of input rotation when k/p is e~ual to l; and that outpu rotation will be in the same direction as input rotation when k/p is less than 1. As will be observed frcm the geometrical configuration of the .
transmission 20 in Fig. 2a, the maximum numerical value of the function p or Rb/RW will approach but not reach unity.
The minimum value of p, though theoretically unlimited, is dependent on the physical dimensions of t.he transmission and in practice ma~ extend to an approximate numer.ical value cf 0.4, for example. The numerical value of }s may be selected from a relatively wide range of numerical values and if equated to the maximum value o~ p, say 0.88, then the range of input/output speed ratios available in the transmission 20 will be infinite. Furthermore, a directional reversal of rotation at the output shaft 22 relative to the input shaft 18 may be achieved with adjustable va]ues of p which bracket or which extend above and below the numerical value of k.
It is preferred that the transmission be designed with values of k and p which per~it at least a zero output shaft rotation (9 = 0) regardless of input shaft rotation (~).
Although as indicated, the specific construction of the transmission 20 may differ ~rom that illustrated in Fig. 2a without departure from the broader aspects of the 20 invention, the illustrated construction provides several advantages which contribute to overall system integrity and operation. For example, the particular transmission embodiment illustrate~ provides a wide range of infinitely varlable speed ratios and is capable of transmitting power in excess of that developed by conventional automotive engines at high efficiencies. The bearings 84 and 86 on which the cranking body 82 is rotatably supported alsc support the flywheel 16 and provide a substantial moment arm by which precessional ~.
forces exhibited by the flywheel 16 may be controlled.
Furthermore, the cranking body 82 rotates directly with the flywheel 16 and thus represents, in itself, a kinetic energy storage capacity which augments that of the flywheel 16. As mentioned, design flexibility in the relative sizes of the gears 110, 112 and 11~ or their equivalent, enables variation in system design including a possible elimination of the ~ -mode control unit 24. This is possible because of the facility for the transmission 20 to be designed to handle "forwara," "neutral" and "reverse" modes of operation.
While the mode control unit may be considered as an optional component depending on the particular design of the transmission unit 20, its inclusion in the hybrid system of the inventic,n is advantageous and as such is preferred.
In particular, the mode control unit 24 permits a design of the transmission unit 20 which pro~ides a wide range of infinitely or continuously variable input/output speed ratios; it enables a complete decoupling of the flywheel 16 as well as the engine 10 frcm the load propelling shaft 26;
and it enables a direct coupling of the engine power shaft 12 with the load propelliny shaft 26. The structural organization by which these characteristics are obtained may be appreciated by reference to Fig. 2b of the drawings.
In Fig. 2b, it will be noted that the variable speed output shaft 22 of the transmissic.n unit 20 is a -tubular shaft to which a sun gear 116 is keyed or otherwise cQupled for direct rotation with the shaft 22. The sun gear 116 meshes with one or more, preferably three planet gears 118 rotatable on shafts 120 carried by a pair of inter-;'' :''~
- 17 ~
,: .~: ' ~$~5;~
connected carrier rings 122 and 124 journalled for rotation on the variable speed output shaft 22. In the embodiment disclosed, the planets 118 are compound planet gears which extend in meshing relation between the sun gear 116 and a ring gear 126. The ring gear 126 is fixed for direct rotation with a spider assembly 12B which in turn is coupled for rotation ~irectly with the propelling shaft 26.
As will be seen from the speed ratio equations given above, the widest range of variable speed ratios in the transmission unit 20 is provided where the rotational direction of the variable speed output shaft 22 is opposite to that of the input shaft 18. To facilitate a direct drive connection of the input shaEt 18 to the propelling shaft 26 it is preferred that in a "forward" mode of operation, power transmission between the variable speed output shaft 22 and the propelling shaft 26 effect a directional reversal of these two shafts. To provide this mode of operation, therefore, a clutch Cl is provided by which the carrier rings 122 and 124 are locked against rotation. Thus, power will be trans-mitted from the sun gear 116 and output shaft 22 through the planet gears 118 to the ring gear 126 and spider 128 to the propelling shaft 26. To provide z. "reversel' operational mode, the clutch Cl is disengaged and a clutch C2 engaged to ;~
lock the assembly of the sun gear carrier rings 122, 124, planet gear 118 and sun gear 116 as a unit. In this mode of ` ~-operation, the propelling shaft 26 will be driven directly with the variable speed output shaft 22. A third clutch C3 is provided to effect a "direct drive" mode. In this respect it will be noted that the shaft 30, which extends through the hollow variable speed output shaft 22, is keyed or otherwise connected for direct rotation with the cranking body 82 of the transmission unit 20 (see Fig. 2a) and extends between the body 82 and a flared plate 130. The plate 130 is releasably engageable by the clutch C3 to the spider assembly 128 such that when the clutch C3 is engaged, a direct torque transmitting train exists between the trans-. .
mission unit input shaft 18 and the propelling shaft 260 A "neutral" conditiGn of the mode control unit 24 is provided by merely adjusting the three clutches Cl, C2 and C3 to a disengaged condition. It will be noted also that the clutches Cl, C2 and C3 are alternately engageable in the sense that only one of the three clutches is engaged while the other two are disengaged to provide the various operational modes described~
In the operation of the hybrid power systemillustrated in Figs. 1-3 of ~he drawings, and assuming all components to be at rest, the mode control unit 24 will be in a "neutral" condition and the clutch 14 will be angaged by the compression springs 69. The engine 10 is started in conventional fashion by manipulation of the main swltch 46, ;
closure of the ignition switch 42, and energization of an electric starter motor (not shown) drivingly coupled with the flywheel 16. Rotation of the flywheel will crank the engine 10 to initiate operation thereof in conventional - ~-fashion. It will be noted that at this stage of operation, -~
the flywheel 16 functions in the same manner as a conven-tional crank shaft flywheel. Acceleration of the vehicle or ."
-- 19 -- ,., ~ ,~
other load to be driven by the system is brought about by depressing the accelerator pedal 50 which, through the cont~ol of the computer ~, will adjust the mode control unit to engage the clutch Cl and at the sa:me time regulate the speed of the engine by control of the throttle 38 and adjust t.he speed ratio of the I.V. transmission unit 20 to accelerate the propelling shaft 26 and drive wheels 280 In this respect, it will be noted that while the I.V. trans-mission may be adjusted in the same manner as a conventional 10 automotive transmissi.on to relate speed and torque components of the power required for a given rate of acceleration, it will do so more efficiently as a result of t.he continuously or infinitely variable ratio available in the transmission uni~ 20. ~ccordingly, the fuel supply to the engine 10 and the transmission unit 20 may be adjuste~ tc opti~lize fuel consuming operation of the engine. Propelling of the vehicle at constant low or moderate speeds which requlre .. f power developing operation of the engine lC will likewise ~e .:
carried out in this manner. It is to be noted, however, 20 that at all times during power generating operation of the engine 10, the clutch 14 will be in a fully engaged condition to couple the flywheel 16 and the crank shaft 34 of the engine 10. ; .
Deceleration of the vehic].e or load may occur either with or withol~t regenerative braking or storage of kinetic ~nergy in the flywheel 16 and components of the I.V.
transmission 20 rotatable therewith. If it is assumed that the flywheel 16 is rotating at less than its maximum permitted .
~ - 20 -'' ' , ' , 2~
speed and that it is desired to decelexate the vehicle at a higher rate of dece]eratian than woul.d OCCUl' by coasting, ...
the brake pedal ~2 would b~ depressed, causing the clutch 14 to be either partially or completely disengaged and the I.V.
transmission unit 20 to be downshifted. Under this condition, the energy of vehicular momentum would be absorbed or stored by increasing the speed of the flywheel 16. Power generating .
operation of the engine will be terminated during such deceleration by opening the ignition switch 42 and closing the valve 40 fcr so long as the speed of the flywheel 16 remains above that speed representing an amount of stored kinetic energy needed to restart the engine by re-engagi.ng the clutch 14 and reversing the condi.tion of the ignition switch 42 and the fuel supply valve 40.
Energy stored in the flywheel may augment the .. .:
power developed by the engine depending on the amount of accelerating power to be applied to the load as directed by adjustment of the accelerator pedal ~ anc. the percentage of that acceleratiDg po~er available as kinetic energy in the - 20 flywheel 16. For example, if the ~lywheel is rotating at ! speeds above the speed of the engine and load accelerating ..
power is called fox, the accelerating power will be supplied by the flywheel 16 through the I.V. transmission unit 20 .
until the flywheel slows to a rotational speed approximating that engine speed z.t which the engine 10 will develop power ~
called for by the particular adjustment of the accelerating ::
pedal ~. When the energy available in the flywheel represents ~ .
a large percentage of the accelerating power called for, ' engine speed required to develop that accelerating power may be at or only slightly above idling speedO In this case, engine operation with fuel supply would merely be reinitiated when the speed of the flywheel dropped to the idling speed of the engine. If, on the other hand, maximum accelerating power is ca]led for at a -time when the flywheel is rotating at its maximum permissible speed and also when the engine is off, system opera~ion would involve opening the ~uel supply valve 40 to reinitiate fueled operation of the engine 10.
In this condition, power transmitted to the load would be supplied both from the flywheel 16 and the engine 10. In particular, the clutch 14 will be adjusted toward a condition of full engagement during the period of such maximum accelera-tion. At the same time, the I.V. transmission 20 will be adjusted toward a higher output/input speed ratio. The kinetic energy stored in the flywheel may be dissipated as power either to the load through the I.V. transmission 20, to the engine 10 through the clutch 14 and thus reduce the time required for the engine to attain full power generating speeds, or the flywheel power may be transmitted to both the load and the engine. The precise distribution G~ ~lywheel power at any instant of maximum acceleration ma~ be optimized b~ controlled adjustment of the clutch 14 and the I.V.
transmission unit 20. In any event, flywheel speed will decrease whereas engine speed will increase to a point where engine and flywheel speeds are equal. Thereafter, continued application of maximum accelerating power would be developed exclusively by ~he engine 10. Thus, it will be ~;een that - .
2~Z3 power for acceleration of a vehicle, or of an inertial load in general, may be a combination of energy stored in the flywheel 16 and power developed by the encJine 10.
When it is desired to use the engine 10 to decelerate the inertial load represented by an automotive vehicle, the fuel supply valve 40 may be again turned off and the clutch 14 fully engaged to couple the engine and ~,heels 28~ Also, the engine throttle 38 may be closed to maximize the pum~ing torque of the engine and the I~Vo transmission may be c~own-shifted or otherwise regulated to achieve the degree ofengine braking desired Under operating conditions where the vehicle or load is to be driven at relatively constant speeds requiring continuous develcpment of power by the prime mover or engine 10, such as under highway driving conditions in the case of an automot.ive ~ehicle, the ~lode control unit is shifted to ~; the "direct drive" mode by engaging the clutch C3 and disengaging the clutches Cl and C2. In this condition of operation, the engine drive shaft 12 will be coupled directly with the load propellin~ shat 26 with the result that the I.V. transmission unit 20 will merely idle with no torque transfer between the traction drive components thereof.
While the surfaces of the cone members 100 and 102 may be in contact with the traction surfaces on the rings 106 and 108, the absence of a t~rque load will preclude any ~ormal force loading of these components. Also, it is contemplated that these surfaces may be retracted out cf engagement with each other under a no-load condition.
In the "direct drive" mode, therefore, the system operates as a conventional automotive drive train with the flywheel 16 and components rotatable therewith functioning solely in the manner of a conventional crank shaft flywheel.
The facility for shifting t.o a direct drive is made available by the mode control unit 24 and provides the potential for overall system efficiencies higher than a system using an appropriately designed I.V. transmission un..t alone. It is known, for example, that t.he fuel consuming efficiency of a ...
conventional automotive dri~e train in a "direct drlve" mode at continuous moderate to high speeds is quite good. In the "direct drive" mode of the present invention, such existing conditions are retained with no loss of efficiency in the system due to eficiency losses in the transmission unit 20.
Also it will be appreciated that where the unit 20 is designed for a ratio range extending to 1:1, alternate coupling o~
the load propelling ~haft 26 with the variable speed output .:
shaft 22 and the direct drive shaft 30 may be synchronous with no energy loss upon engagement of the clutch C3. The ;
characteristics o~ the I.V. transmission unit 20, however, are such that its operating efficiency increases to maximum at the high end of its output/input speed ratio ran.ge. The mode control unit, there~ore, and i.n particular the clutch : C3 enables an I.V. transmission unit design with an output/input speed ratio range extending from zero to less than 1:1 thereby to provide increased I.V. unit efficienci~s when the unit 20 is needed for intermittent or city driving conditions under which the energy storing capacity of the flywheel is : ', , , - 24 ~
''; :'' important to reduced fuel consumption. It is contemplated, therefore, that shifting the coupling of the load propelling shaft 26 between the variable speed output shaft 22 and the direct drive shaft 30 may be nonsynchronous; that is, with the slipping of the clutch C3 and a corresponding loss of energy less than that gained by increased efficiency in the operation of the I.V. unit 20. It will be appreciated, therefore, that the mode control unit 24 adds materially to design fl~xibility in the overall system.
To provide a more complete understanding of the hybrid system sho7,~n in Figs. 1-3 under intermitent or city driving conditions, reference is mrade to Fig. 4 of the drawings in which curves ar~ plotted in which c~alculated ~uantitative values o~ eight parameters are plotted against time in seconds. The curves shown in Fig. 4 were calculated using a computer simulated automotive passenger vehicle equipped with the hybrid power system shown in Figs. 1-3 and having the following specifications:
Vehicle Weight - 2890 lbs (curb) - 3190 lbs (loaded) Engine - 2.1 liter with fuel injection - 4 cylinders in-line - 100 HP at 5250 rpm - Compression ratio 8.5:1 Axle Ratio - 3.73:1 Max. I.V. Unit Efficiency - 91%
Combined inertia of flywheel 2 and connected rotary parts - 0~704 Kg-m Exhaust System - Closed loop Lambda-5Ond converter with 3-way catalyst ,: ' ..
With reference to curves A-H of Fig. 4, curve A is a graphic representation of part of a standard city driving cycle. Curve B is the result of plotting as ordinate values, energy in Joules needed at the drive wheels tG accelerate the mass of the vehicle against its aerodynamic and rolling resistance to the speed on curve A corresponding to the same point in time. Negative values on curve B represen~ energy recoverable during deceleration.
Curve C is the portion of wheel energy in horse power to be supplied by the engine. Curve D is the energy in Joules available from the flywheel and parts rotatable directly therewith. As above-mentioned, in reaccelerating the vehicle frcm a stop, energy is ~irst drawn from this source with the difference needed to make up the required wheel energy to be supplied hy the engine.
Curves E and F illustrate, respectively, whether the engine is off or on and when on, the speed of the engine.
Flywheel speed is represen~ed by curve G and I.V. ratio expressed as output/input is represented by curve H.
The curves illustrated in Fig. 4 were developed by a computer simulation of the vehicle above-men~ioned.
Although not shown in F~g. 4, the same computer simulation results in a fuel economy gain of from l9mpg to 32mpg and with ~ow emission levels, specifically NOX - 0.06, CO - 0.33 and EIC - 0.09. Although it is recognized that results in actual practice will be somewhat less than these theoretical results due to transients and other factors that cannot be taken into consideration by a computer simulationl the ~ ~
.,. ,; ~ .
- 26 - ~, -potential theoretical gains are so substantial that actual results which ~all considerably short of the theoretical results would represent a substantial improvement in fuel economy.
The si~nificance of the clutch 14 in terms of its physical position and function in the system of the present invention will now be appreciated. It will be noted first that at all times when the engine 10 i5 used for its primary purpose of developing load driving power ~or under certain circumstances as described for absorbin~ load momentum), the clutch 14 is ~ully engaged to provide a direct coupling of the engine crank shaft 34 with the flywheel 16 and the input shaft 18 of the I.~. transmission unit 20. When such a coupling exists, the flywheel 16 rotates at the same speed of the engine crank shaft 34 and acts in all respects as a conventional crank shaft flywheel.
Secondly, adjustment of the clutch 14 to a condition of partial engagement in which it will transmit only a ; limited amount of torque enables the engine or prime mover 10 t:o be cranked with the ~uel supply 36 cut of~ or reduced and at speeds which are substantially below flywheel speeds but adequate to maintain continuity of lubrication, continuity of accessory drives and the like. As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, the idling speed for an engine or prime mover may vary widely. The term "idling speed" has meaning in the art, however, and is intended herein and in the appended claims to mean that minimum speed at which the en~ine or prime mover 10 will sustain operation with fuel ~.
.. , : . . . . .
alone at no load. "Cranking speed," where used herein and in the appended claims, is intended to mean that speed at which engine pumping and friction losses are minimal and at which engine driven accessories, such as coolant and lubricant circulating pumps, electric storage battery charging systems - as well as power driven accessories like power steering, power brakes and air conditioning are maintained. Torque losses in cranking the engine 10, namely pumping losses and friction losses, approach a minimum near idling speed but decrease further at a lowex cranking speed. Since the cranking speed is a function of torque transmitted through the clutch 14, the precise speed at which the engine will be cranked may be regulated by adjusting the pressure under which the fricti.on pads 68 are urged against the disc 64. .
The losses of so cranking the engine 10 may be furt~er reduced by opening the throttle 38 during the period that the clutch is adjusted to crank a conventional automotive internal co~bustion engine and even further by closing the valves (not shown) of the engine i.n accordance with the disclosure of an article entitled "Valve Selector Hardware" .
SEA Technical Paper 78 0146, aated March 3, 197~
When the engine is cranked using kinetic energy stored in the flywheel as above described, the fuel supply ~ . .
valve 40 may be completely closed or it may be adjusted to a ~:
partially closed condition in which the fuel supply to the ; engine is reduced to a level below that necessary to maintain .. ::
engine operation by fuel supply alcne. While maximum conservation of potential energy or fuel will often result ~ :
' ,., ,, . ., ... . . ~
with the valve 40 or its equivalent completely closed, overall system operation at minimal fuel consumption may be improved by fuel supply at levels reduced below that necessary to maintain engine idle speeds but adequate to maintain engine temperature.
Finally, the clutch 14 may b~ adjusted tc a completely disengaged condition and the engine lO completely shut off so long as adequate kinetic energy is stored in the flywheel for engine restarting purposes. Where this mode of operation is contemplated, the system m ~ be provided with a separate accessory drive (not shown) extending from the flywheel 16 ; to the various accessories to be driven by the flywheel during periods of time the engine lO is inoperative.
In Fig. 5 of khe drawings, a modified embodiment is schematically illustrated to include the same power train components ~;hown in Fig. l except that the flywheel 16' is linked or drivingly connected for rotation with the shaft 18' at a fixed ratio by bevel gearing 132 and is of a design capable of storing larger amounts of kinetic energy than the flywheel 16 of Fig. l. The gear ratio of the gearing 132 i5 selected so~that the flywheel rotates at a higher speed than - the shaft ~. To represent the relative class of the flywheel 16', an evacuated housing 134 is illustrated schematically in Fig. 5 as representative of means to cut windage losses ln a flywheel of this type. Although the engine 10' or prime mover of the system illustrated in Fig.
5 is like the engine lO in Fig. l in all respects, it is intended in this case to be a prime mover which operates at a governed or constant operating speed with variation in 2~3 power and torque being the result of variation in the amount of fuel injected into the engine 10'. The mode control unit 24' may be modified from the unit 24 of Fig. 1 only .in terms of reduction ratio. The system of ~ig. 5 is, therefore, representative of a power system for use in larger vehicles such as buses or trucks where the power to weight ratio is low relative to automotive vehicles, for example, where high rates of load acceleration are called for.
The principal difference in the operation of the system disclosed in Fig. 5 t:o practice a variation in the method of the present invention resides in operation so that ~
the speed of the flywheel is maintained at all times above ~. :
the governed operating speed of the engine 10'. The clutch 14' is retained in the system of Fig. 5 and as before, is operable to transmit full engine power in the direction of the load. On startup, therefore, the engine 10' will be .
operated to supply ~inetic energy to the flywheel until such time as the rotati.onal speed of the flywheel 16' is the same ~:
as the governed operating speed of the engine power shaft 12. Load acceleration is initiated after adjustment of the :i unit 24' and by adjustment of the I.V. transmission 20'.
On load deceleration, the kinetic energy of load ~ :
momentum is fea back as before to the flywheel 16' but to .
drive the flywheel at speeds substantially in excess of .
engine operating speeds. This is accomplished by downshifting the I.V. t.ransmission 20'. During subsequent acceleration . -~
of the load, assuming the flywheel 16' to be rotating at .
near maximum speeds of, for example, two to three times the - 30 ~
operating speed of the engine drive shaft 12'~ the kinetic energy stored in the flywheel may be directed to the load, to the en~ine or ~oth in a manner comparable to that described above with respect to Fig. lo Because of the relative engine and flywheel speeds, ho~ever, prime mover developed power will never be directed to or absorbed by the flywheel 16'. Prime mover developed power will, of course, maintain minimal flywheel speeds by supplying a sufficient amount of energy to overcome friction an~ other losses tending to reduce the speed of flywheel rotation. In all other respects, the operation of the embodiment of Fig. 5 is the same as that described above with respect to Fig. 1.
In Fig. 6, the hybrid system of the invention is embodied in a power train o~ the type in which the engine or ; prime mover axis is generally parallel to the load propelling shaft or shafts. Such power trains are particularly suited to automotive front wheel drives, for example. Thus in Fig.
6, the engine 210 inc]udes a power shaft 212 which, like the pre~iously described embodiments, is a direct extension of the engine crank shaft without the conventional crank shaft flywheel. As in Figs. 1 and 2, the power shaft 212 carries a light-weight clutch disc 264 for releasable coupling engagement by clutch components carried directly by a flywheel 216. In thi~ embodiment, the flywheel 216 is journalled by bearings 217 and 219 in a frame component 221 ; and on an extension 223 of the power shaft 212, respec-tively. The flywheel 216 is again linked for rotation at all times with the input shaft 218 of the I.V. transmission .
.Si;2~3 unit 22Q. In this instance, however, the linking is through a gear train including a drive gear 225 carried by the fly~heel, an idler gear 227 and a driven gear 229 keyed to the I.V. input shaft 218. The variable speed output shaft 222 of the unit 220 is coupled by a gear 231 directly with a di-~ferential unit 233 from which a pair of propelling shafts 226 extend to drive wheels 228.
The idler gear 227 is coupled directly by a shaft 235 with such accessories as the generator, fuel pump, oil pump, air conditioning, power steering unit and power brake unit, all of which are powered normally by the engine 210. Though not detailed in Figure 6, these accessories are represented by the box 237 and labeled "accessories". An important feature of the power train shown in Pigure 6 is that the inclusion of the accessory drive in the gear train between the flywheel 216 and the I.V. input shaft 218 enahles the accessories to be powered by the flywheel 216 with the ywheel completely disengaged from the clutch disc 264 and the engine 210 completely shut off. The operational characteristics of the embodiment shown in Figure 6 are otherwise the same as the previously described ~
a prime mover having a power shaft and means for converting a succession of power impulses to rotary motion in said power shaft, said means requiring an auxiliary supply of kinetic energy to maintain continuity and smoothness of power shaft rotation during power generating operation of said prime mover;
a flywheel having a kinetic energy storage capacity sufficient to provide said auxiliary supply of kinetic energy;
variable speed transmission for transmitting torque between said flywheel and the inertial load;
adjustable coupling means between said prime mover power shaft and said flywheel, said coupling means being adjustable between a condition of full engagement for driving connection of said power shaft, said flywheel and said transmission means, through an intermediate condition of partial engagement in which said flywheel and said power shaft are yieldably connected for transmission of limited torque, and a condition of complete disengagement to disconnect said flywheel and said power shaft, thereby to provide a range of engagement varying from maximum at said condition of full engagement to minimum at said condition of complete disengagement; and means for adjusting said coupling means throughout said range of engagement.
means defining a frame, a cranking body journalled for rotation in said frame on a first axis, a rotatable input shaft coupled to said cranking body, a nutating body journalled for rotation in said cranking body on a second axis inclined with respect to and intersecting said first axis, a variable speed output shaft, and means for converting movement of said input shaft, said cranking body and said nutating body to rotation of said variable speed output shaft at infinitely variable ratios of the speed of said input shaft rotation.
an infinitely variable transmission unit enclosed by said casing and including a cranking body journalled for rotation in said casing on a first axis, a nutating body journalled for rotation in said cranking body on a second axis inclined with respect to and intersecting said first axis, a variable speed output shaft, and means for converting movement of said cranking body and said nutating body to rotation of said variable speed output shaft at infinitely variable ratios of the rotational speed of said cranking body;
means for connecting said variable speed output shaft and the load propelling shaft at one end of said casing;
a flywheel supported by and rotatable directly with said cranking body;
friction clutch means at the opposite end of said casing for releasably coupling the engine crank shaft to said flywheel and said cranking body; and means for controlling said clutch to engage the crank shaft and said flywheel at all times during power generating operation of the engine and to at least partially disengage said clutch to enable energy storing rotation of said flywheel independent of crank shaft rotation.
storing the kinetic energy of load momentum during deceleration of the load;
terminating fueled operation of the engine during periods of load deceleration and rest;
transmitting said stored kinetic energy as power for continued driving of the accessories when fueled operation of the prime mover is terminated; and restarting fueled operation of the prime mover when said stored kinetic energy is dissipated to a level required for initiating fueled operation of the prime mover.
a fuel consuming prime mover having an output power shaft and which requires an inertial mass, such as a crank shaft flywheel, for power generating operation;
a flywheel providing at least the inertial mass required for power generating operation of said prime mover;
a variable speed ratio transmission for transmitting power from said flywheel to the inertial load and for transmitting the kinetic energy of load momentum from said load to said fly-wheel;
releasable coupling means to connect said prime mover power shaft and said flywheel when said coupling means is fully engaged and to provide for rotation of said flywheel independently of said power shaft when not fully engaged; and control means to engage said coupling means at all times during fuel consuming operation of said prime mover, to at least partially disengage said coupling means and to terminate fuel consuming operation of said prime mover during load deceleration and when the kinetic energy stored in said flywheel is more than that required to restart power generating operation of said prime mover.
storing the kinetic energy of load momentum during deceleration of the load;
terminating fueled operation of the engine during periods of load deceleration and rest;
transmitting said stored kinetic energy as load driving power when fueled operation of the prime mover is terminated; and restarting fueled operation of the prime mover when said stored kinetic energy is dissipated to a level required for initiating fueled operation of the prime mover.
connecting said prime mover and said flywheel with the load at all times during power generating operation of said prime mover to drive the load;
terminating energy consuming operation of said prime mover during load deceleration and rest;
disconnecting said prime mover and said flywheel during load deceleration;
storing the kinetic energy of load momentum by acceler-ating the flywheel during load deceleration;
transmitting kinetic energy from said flywheel as load driving power when energy consuming operation of said prime mover is terminated; and reconnecting said prime mover and said flywheel to restart energy consuming operation of said prime mover when the kinetic energy stored in said flywheel is dissipated to a level required for initiating such operation of the prime mover.
Priority Applications (4)
|Application Number||Priority Date||Filing Date||Title|
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|CA1115218A true CA1115218A (en)||1981-12-29|
Family Applications (1)
|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|CA333,260A Expired CA1115218A (en)||1978-09-01||1979-08-07||Hybrid power system and method for operating same|
Country Status (9)
|AU (1)||AU535192B2 (en)|
|BR (1)||BR7905615A (en)|
|CA (1)||CA1115218A (en)|
|DE (1)||DE2933542C3 (en)|
|FR (1)||FR2434935A1 (en)|
|GB (1)||GB2031822B (en)|
|IT (1)||IT1192781B (en)|
|NL (1)||NL7906521A (en)|
|SE (1)||SE7907046L (en)|
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|JPS54153429A (en) *||1978-05-25||1979-12-03||Takeo Hachitani||Hybrid type flyywheel car|
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|DE3048655A1 (en) *||1980-12-23||1982-07-15||Maschf Augsburg Nuernberg Ag||Combined IC engine and electric motor drive for crane - uses flywheel to collect energy output from engine during crane load descent|
|US4495451A (en) *||1981-01-06||1985-01-22||Barnard Maxwell K||Inertial energy interchange system with energy makeup by combustion engine on demand|
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|DE3912356A1 (en) *||1989-04-14||1990-10-25||Man Nutzfahrzeuge Ag||Coupling between hydrostatic drive and driven wheels - is integrated with space-saving installation of regenerative flywheel|
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- 1979-08-07 CA CA333,260A patent/CA1115218A/en not_active Expired
- 1979-08-18 DE DE19792933542 patent/DE2933542C3/de not_active Expired
- 1979-08-22 AU AU50165/79A patent/AU535192B2/en not_active Ceased
- 1979-08-23 SE SE7907046A patent/SE7907046L/en not_active Application Discontinuation
- 1979-08-29 IT IT6873179A patent/IT1192781B/en active
- 1979-08-30 NL NL7906521A patent/NL7906521A/en not_active Application Discontinuation
- 1979-08-31 GB GB7930305A patent/GB2031822B/en not_active Expired
- 1979-08-31 BR BR7905615A patent/BR7905615A/en unknown
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