CA1110923A - Cutter wheel for tillage apparatus - Google Patents

Cutter wheel for tillage apparatus

Info

Publication number
CA1110923A
CA1110923A CA338,801A CA338801A CA1110923A CA 1110923 A CA1110923 A CA 1110923A CA 338801 A CA338801 A CA 338801A CA 1110923 A CA1110923 A CA 1110923A
Authority
CA
Canada
Prior art keywords
tip
member
portion
section
cutter wheel
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired
Application number
CA338,801A
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Robert E. Fox
Wendell D. Reece
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Deere and Co
Original Assignee
Deere and Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US97053878A priority Critical
Priority to US970,538 priority
Application filed by Deere and Co filed Critical Deere and Co
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CA1110923A publication Critical patent/CA1110923A/en
Application status is Expired legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B33/00Tilling implements with rotary driven tools, e.g. in combination with fertiliser distributors or seeders, with grubbing chains, with sloping axles, with driven discs
    • A01B33/08Tools; Details, e.g. adaptations of transmissions or gearings
    • A01B33/10Structural or functional features of the tools ; Theoretical aspects of the cutting action
    • A01B33/103Structural or functional features of the tools ; Theoretical aspects of the cutting action the rotating shaft being oriented horizontally
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C5/00Making or covering furrows or holes for sowing, planting or manuring
    • A01C5/06Machines for making or covering drills or furrows for sowing or planting
    • A01C5/062Devices for making drills or furrows
    • A01C5/064Devices for making drills or furrows with rotating tools

Abstract

IMPROVED CUTTER WHEEL FOR TILLAGE APPARATUS
Abstract of the Disclosure An improved cutter wheel that is particularly useful with tilling apparatus for sod seeding purposes. The cutter wheel is mounted for rotation by a drive structure that includes a drive shaft. The cutter wheel includes a central disk portion with an outer periphery defining a plurality of equally spaced slots, each for receiving a tip-holding insert. A bullet-shaped tung-sten carbide tip is soldered or brazed to the tip-holder and the holder is welded to the disk. The disk periphery is shaped to allow cutting clearance for the tip, to protect the tip from breaking off, and to provide rear support for the tip-holder.
The angle at which the tip is connected to the holder is chosen so that the brazed or soldered joint is loaded primarily in compression as the wheel cuts through the soil.

Description

IMPROVED CUTTER WHEEL FOR TILLAGE APPARATUS
The present invention relates generally to a tillage appara-tus, and more specifically to a tillage apparatus having an improved cutter wheel.
Background of the Invention Conventional tillage implements such as the disk harrow, disk cultivator and rotating hoe are not completely suitable for preparing ground for seeding where legumes are to be grown in established grass sod.
In order to provide a tillage apparatus better suited for preparing ground for seeding or grassland renovation where sod is present, towed implements having a series of cutting wheels driven to open a furrow have b~en developed. Devices of this type are shown, for example, in U. S. Patent Nos. 4,023,510;
~,043,281; 4,043,404; and 4,051,792. This type of tillage imple-ment is particularly useful where legumes are to be grown in - established grass sod, especially since the ground surface is often uneven or rocky and may have grass swards of differing thicknesses thereon. The implement is also useful for inter-seeding grasses such as rye and wheat into Bermuda grass.
Cutting of the sward and sod mat and provision of a furrow therein has been a continuing problem. Although cutter wheels for the tillage implements have been known and suggested, such wheels have not been completely satisfactory. Wearing of the cutter wheels is a common problem because the wheels are driven in the soil. Additionally the rough, rocky terrain often encoun-tered adds to the problem of wear and breakage.

Summary of the Invention :
This invention provides an improved cutter wheel for use ; 30 with a tillage implement.

As a part of the improved structure, a cutter wheel is formed from a disk which receives a plurality of inserts, each ~k 1 having a hard bullet-shaped tip secured thereon and defining a cutting tooth. In addition, in the preferred embodiment, each insert is backed by a portion of the disk, and the tip is attached to the insert so that it is loaded primarily in compression. The disk is shaped to protect the tip from breaking off when obs-tacles are encountered.
It is, therefore, an object of the present invention to provide an improved cutter wheel.
It is a further object of this invention to provide an improved cutter wheel for a tillage apparatus for sod seeding purposes.
It is another object of this invention to provide an improved cutter wheel which has an increased lifetime.
It is still another object of the present invention to provide an improved cutter wheel for receiving a plurality of hardened tips thereon, each tip defining a cutting tooth.
It is a further object of the invention to provide a cutter wheel having a tungsten carbide tip secured thereon so that the area of the connection is loaded primarily in compression to prevent breaking off of the tip.
These and other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will become obvious from the description which follows taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the tillage apparatus having the improved cutter wheel mounted thereon;
Fig. 2 is a perspective view of a portion of the tillage apparatus shown in Fig. 1 to illustrate the cutter wheel on a mounting unit;
Fig. 3 is a perspective view of the drive structure for a cutter wheel showing the friction drive and threaded driveshaft upon which the cutter wheel is mounted;

~ -, ,:','~1, 1 Fig. 4 is a side elevation view of the preferred embodiment of the cutter wheel; and Fig. 5 is an end view of the cutter wheel shown in ~ig. 4.
Description of the Preferred Embodiment As shown in Fig. 1, a tillage apparatus 10 carries the improved cutter wheel 12 of the present invention. The tillage apparatus 10 includes a frame member 14 which has gauge wheels 16 mounted thereon. Also mounted on the frame 14 is a seed box 18.
Seed tubes 20 lead from seed gates below the box 18 to seed boot assemblies 22. ~railing each seed boot assembly 22 is a packex wheel member 24 carried by arms 26. The apparatus 10 is connec-ted to a tractor 28 or similar vehicle by a conventional three-point hitch 30.
As shown in Fig. 2, the cutter wheels 12 are mounted in a double-row configuration shown generally at 32. A drive shaft 34 is supported by a casing 36 pivotally connected to a transverse pivot rod (not shown~ near the front of the frame member 14. The drive shaft 34 is rotated by a drive chain and sprocket located within casing 36. The chain and sprocket are powered in a con-ventional manner through shafts and a gear box from the tractorpower take-off. A friction hub 38 (Fig. 3) is preferably mounted on shaft 34 for rotation therewith. A nut 40 threaded on threaded end 42 secures the cutter wheel 12 between a disk 44 and the friction hub 38 for rotation with the shaft 34.
Each double-row assembly 32 is biased downwardly by down-pressure springs 46. Depth skids 48 maintain the cutter wheels 12 at the proper cutting depth and are adjustable up or down to set the depth for various seed and soil conditions.
A more detailed discussion of the foregoing structure may be found for example in U. S. Patent Nos. 4,043,404, 4,043,281 and 4,023,510, as well as in the patents mentioned therein. An alternate skid arrangement is shown in U. S. Patent No. 4,051,792.

1 However, the structure is utilized merely to orient the cutter wheel of this invention with respect to a tillage apparatus.
The cutter wheel 12, as best seen in Figs. 4 and 5, includes a disk-like maln body portion 50 with a central shaft receiving aperture 52. The body portion 50 includes a plurality of insert receiving slots 54 equally spaced about the periphery. Each slot is defined by a rear wall 56 facing generally in the direction of rotation, an opposed forward wall 58, and a generally flat bottom section 60. The bottom section 60 is generally perpendicular to a line extending radially from the center of the body through the midpoint of section 60.
Between consecutive slots 54 are arcuate sections 62, each preferably with an identical radius of curvature R but each having a different center of radius of curvature 64. The centers are generally equispaced about aperture 52, as best seen in Fig.
4. The peripheral configuration provides the slots 54 with rear walls 56 of greater dimension than forward walls 58. Tn the preferred embodiment, six slots 54 are provided equally spaced about the periphery.

Each slot 54 receives a cutter-tip assembly 66 made up of an insert 68 and a cutting tip 70. The lower portion of the insert 68 generally conforms to the shape of the slot 54 for receipt thereby. The rear portion 72 of the insert is generally equal in dimension to the rear wall 56. The front portion 74 of the insert is greater in dimension than forward wall 58 and includes a tip-receiving face 76 disposed slightly at an angle rearwardly from the plane of the front portion 74. Cutting tip 70, prefer-ably bullet-or cone-shaped and fashioned from a hard material such as tungsten carbide, is brazed or silver soldered to the face 76. The cutter-tip assembly 66 is positioned in the slot 54 and secured to the main body portion 50, for example, by welding the insert 68 near the bottom and walls of the slot as indicated at 78.

~i~1339Z3 1 When the assembly 6G is connected to the body portion 50, the top 80 of the insert 68 îs generally aligned with the preced-ing arcuate section 62 and extends that contour in a straight line to the tip-receiving face 76. The point of the tip 70 extends forwardly in the dir~ction of rotation beyond the plane of the front portion 7~ and above the counterclockwise-most portion of the next arcuate section 62. As evident from Fig. 4, the shape of the disk 50 allows cutting clearance for the tip 70 while providin~ substantial back support for the insert 68 along the rear wall 56 of the slot 54. The above disk and insert configuration provides better protection for the tips 70 against obstacles than a conventional deep gullet configuration. Vsing deep gullets, the tips 70 were found to break off more easily than in the above configuration wherein the outer diameter of the disk 50 tends to hit the obstacle before the tip contacts it.
The angle of face 76 and the general axial orientation of tip 70 indicated by line 82 are chosen so that the brazed or soldered connection between the insert 68 and the tip is loaded primarily in compression to reduce the possibility of breaking the connection. In the preferred embodiment, the angle x between the axis of tip 70 and line extending radially from the center of - disk 50 through the point of the tip is considerably greater than 0 but less than 90. If angle is too small, the tip 70 will be torqued radially outwardly as it contacts the soil. On the other hand, if is too large, the apex of the tip 70 will be urged radially inwardly upon soil contact.
As seen in Fig. 5, the width of the base of tip 70 is approximately equal to the width of insert 68. Tip 70 can have various shapes, such as conical, pyramidal, or wedge, and prefer-~ 30 ably terminates in an apex extending generally in the directionof rotation. A satisfactory furrow can be cut using a tip base width of approximately 5/8 inch. The disk 50 is formed from a 1 thin sheet of metal, typically 0.25 inch, and each cutter-tip assembly 66 is located in its corresponding slot 5A so that its sides extend an equal distance beyond the sides of the disk.
Alternatively, the inserts can be offset with respect to the disk and each other to increase the width of the furrow cut by cutter wheel 12 for a given width of tip 70. The inserts 68 can be made wider or narrower than the tip width as long as they provide adequate support for the tip. ~f the inserts are wider, the relatively soft material quickly wears and tapers to conform to the width of hardened tip 70. In another embodiment, the disk 50 can ~e formed directly with tip-receiving portions to eliminate the inserts 68. The entire wheel can be cast or fashioned from sheet metal and the tips 70 connected at the proper angle on the tip-receiving portions by a suitable method such as soldering or brazing.
In a working embodiment of the present invention, a 12 inch cutter wheel is provided with each arcuate section 62 having a radius of curvature R equal to about 5 1/4 inches. The center of each radius R is located on the periphery defining a l-inch aperture 64. Each insert 68 is about 5/8 inch wide and is welded to a 1/4 inch wide disk 50. Six inserts are equally spaced about the periphery of the disk. Each tip-receiving face 76 is angled back at approximately 25 from the front portion 74 of the insert 68. A bullet-shaped tungsten carbide tip 70 is brazed to each face 76 with the angle ~ ~eing approximately 53. With the above configuration, the tip connections are loaded primarily in com-pression as the cutter wheel cuts a furrow. When an obstacle such as a rock is encountered, it is contacted by the unique outer periphery of the disk 50 before the tip 70 reaches it, thus protecting the tip. The incidence of tip breakage is greatly reduced by using the above configuration rather than, for example, providing a deep gullet forwardly of the tip.

1 In operation, the cutter wheels are lowered to contact the ground and are rotated at a relatively high speed, preferably about 630 rpm. The tips 70 dig into the ground to cut a furrow therein, the maximum depth o~ which is determined by the setting of the depth skids 48 and is generally between 1/2 and 2-1/2 inches. The furrow cut has a width approximately equal to or slightly wider than the width of the cutting tip 70. Seed is deposited in the furrow from the seed tube 20 and packed at the bottom of the furrow by packer wheel 24.
The hardened tips 70 provide long lasting cutting teeth.
- The shape of the disk 50 provides cutting clearance for the tips 70 while protecting them from obstacles and providing backing for the inserts 68 when used. By properly positioning the tips 70 with respect to the rotating disk 50, the joints between the tips and the inserts or disk are loaded primarily in compression during the tilling operation further reducing connection fatigue which would result in the breaking off of the tips.

; 20 ' .

:

Claims (17)

The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive property or privilege is claimed are defined as follows:
1. In a tillage apparatus, a cutter wheel comprising;
a disk member having a periphery and adapted for rotation in a forward direction;
a plurality of tapered sections at the periphery of the disk, each section having a radially inwardly extending rearward portion and tapering outwardly in the forward direction to a radially outwardly extending forward portion, wherein adjacent rearward and forward portions of the sections define a rear wall portion facing generally forwardly and extending radially inwardly from the forward portion; and tip members relatively hardened with respect to the disk member and connected to the rear wall portions, each tip member projecting from the corresponding rear wall portion forwardly in the direction of rotation and positioned generally radially inwardly of an imaginary line extending tangentially to the forward portion of the tapered section immediately rearward of said rear wall portion so that the connection is loaded primarily in compression during cutting.
2. The invention defined in claim 1 wherein the tip members are conically shaped and have a central axis, the angle of inter-section of the central axis and a line extending radially from the center of the disk member through the tip member being approx-imately 53°.
3. The invention defined in claim 2 wherein the tapered sections are arcuate, each section having a radius of curvature offset radially outwardly from the center of the disk member.
4. The invention defined in claim 1 wherein each tip member terminates in an apex extending forwardly in the direction of rotation above the preceding rearward portion.
5. For a framed tillage implement including a cutter wheel assembly movably supported with respect to the frame and biased toward a ground-working position, a cutter wheel carried by the assembly and having a plurality of cutting teeth for cutting a trench in soil containing rock, said cutter wheel comprising:
a disk member adapted for rotation in a forward direction including a periphery comprising a plurality of generally arcuate sections with the leading edge of each arcuate section terminating radially outwardly of the trailing edge of the preceding section and defining a forwardly directed tip-receiving face therebetween and wherein said tip-receiving face lies generally between an imaginary line extending forwardly and tangentially from the leading edge and the corresponding trailing edge; and hard tip members having hardness substantially greater than the disk member connected to the tip-receiving faces and extending forwardly in the direction of rotation therefrom for defining the cutting teeth, each said tip member including a forward tip portion extending between the corresponding imaginary line and trailing edge and lying substantially entirely radially inwardly of the radially outermost extremity of the immediately adjacent leading edge, wherein the disk member moves the cutter wheel assembly against the bias when a rock is encountered by the arcuate sections to lessen impacting of the tip members against the rock.
6. The invention defined in claim 5 wherein the leading edge of each section comprises an insert member welded to the disk member.
7. The invention defined in claim 5 wherein the tip members are bullet shaped and formed from tungsten carbide.
8. The invention defined in claim 5 wherein the tip members have a forwardly extending axis, and wherein the angle of inter-section of said axis and a line extending radially from the center of the disk member through the tip member is approximately 53°.
9. The invention defined in claim 5 wherein the arcuate sections are spaced about the periphery of the wheel member substantially 60° apart.
10. In a tillage apparatus, a cutter wheel adapted for rotation in a forward direction for cutting a trench in soil, comprising:
a disk member having a periphery with a plurality of holder-receiving slots equally spaced thereabout, each defined by a trailing edge portion facing generally in the direction of rota-tion, a bottom portion generally facing radially outwardly, and a forward edge portion opposite the trailing edge portion, wherein the trailing edge portion is extended radially outwardly with respect to the forward edge portion;
a plurality of smoothly contoured sections located between the slots and extending rearwardly and tapering radially inwardly from the trailing edge of each slot to the leading edge of the adjacent slot;
a plurality of insert members, each including a first portion conforming generally to the shape of one of the slots and secured therein for support by the disk, and a generally forwardly facing tip-receiving portion extending radially beyond the periphery at the forward edge portion, the insert members also including a top portion extending forwardly from and generally tangentially to the rearwardly adjacent smoothly contoured section; and a tip member connected to each tip-receiving portion and having a hardened cutting surface disposed generally in the direction of rotation so that the tip member is loaded primarily in compression against the insert member as the cutter wheel cuts a trench, said tip member located substantially radially inwardly of the top portion of said insert member.
11. The invention defined in claim 10 wherein the dimension of the trailing edge portion is greater than the dimension of the leading edge portion and the tip member extends beyond the forward edge portion in the direction of rotation.
12. The invention defined in claim 10 wherein the tip member has a forwardly terminating portion essentially in the shape of a cone having a central axis, the angle of intersection of the central axis and a line extending radially from the center of the disk member through the cone-shaped portion being approxi-mately 53°.
13. A cutter wheel for a tillage implement including a plurality of cutting teeth and adapted for rotation in a forward direction in soil to establish a furrow for receiving seed therein comprising:
a disk member having an outer periphery, the outer periphery defined at least in part by a plurality of arcuate sections, each section having a forward end extending radially outwardly of the rearward end of the preceding section;
a tip-receiving member located between the forward end of each section and the rearward end of the preceding section and having a surface facing generally in the direction of rotation;
and a tip member connected to each surface for defining a tooth and including an apex extending forwardly of the rearward end of the preceding section, and substantially radially inwardly of the forward end of the rearward section, the tip member having an axial orientation generally in the direction of rotation so that the connection is loaded primarily in compression as the cutter wheel rotates in the soil, wherein the angle of intersection of the axis of the tip member and a line extending radially from the center of the disk member is approximately 53°.
14. A cutter wheel for a tillage implement adapted to be mounted on a shaft and rotated in a forward direction for forming a furrow in the soil, the cutter wheel comprising:
a disk-like body having a center and a periphery defining a plurality of tip-receiving sections, the periphery also including a plurality of arcuate sections between the tip-receiving sec-tions, each arcuate section having a radius of curvature offset radially outwardly from the center of the body, wherein the distance of the arcuate section radially from the center of the body increases in the direction of rotation from one end of said section to the opposite end, and tip means secured to the tip-receiving sections, each tip means including a forwardly directed tip member extending radially outwardly beyond the radially innermost end of the forwardly adjacent arcuate section and substantially radially inwardly of the radially outermost end of the rearwardly adjacent arcuate section.
15. The invention as set forth in claim 14 wherein each tip-receiving section includes a top portion disposed in substan-tial tangential relation to the leading portion of the rearwardly adjacent arcuate section.
16. A rotary cutter blade comprising: a base plate having an outer periphery composed in part of a series of angularly spaced edge portions extending substantially radially inwardly from outer ends to inner ends, and in part ofarcuate-shaped edge portions formed from radii struck on axes parallel to the axis of rotation of said cutter wheel and extending in a trailing relation from said outer ends toward the next adjacent inner ends; a tooth support supported by the plate on its periphery at each of its radial edge portions and composed of a member having a trailing end bearing against the respective radial edge portion and extend-ing therefrom to a leading end, said member disposed in substan-tial tangential relation to the respective arcuate edge portion that trails from the respective radial edge portion, means fixing the insert member to the base plate; and a tooth insert extending from and in advanced relation to each of the respective leading ends of the respective tooth supports.
17. The invention defined in claim 16 wherein the tooth insert has a central axis, the anble of intersection of the central axis and a line extending radially from the center of the base plate through the tooth insert being about 53°.
CA338,801A 1978-12-18 1979-10-31 Cutter wheel for tillage apparatus Expired CA1110923A (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US97053878A true 1978-12-18 1978-12-18
US970,538 1978-12-18

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
CA1110923A true CA1110923A (en) 1981-10-20

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CA338,801A Expired CA1110923A (en) 1978-12-18 1979-10-31 Cutter wheel for tillage apparatus

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AR (1) AR227880A1 (en)
BE (1) BE880652A (en)
CA (1) CA1110923A (en)
CH (1) CH644991A5 (en)
DE (1) DE2949045C2 (en)
DK (1) DK535879A (en)
FR (1) FR2444394B1 (en)
GB (1) GB2037553B (en)
IT (1) IT1164782B (en)
NL (1) NL7909063A (en)

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US4051792A (en) * 1976-01-15 1977-10-04 Deere & Company Structural orientation and protective apparatus for tillage assembly
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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
GB2037553B (en) 1982-10-20
DE2949045A1 (en) 1980-06-19
BE880652A (en) 1980-04-16
CA1110923A1 (en)
GB2037553A (en) 1980-07-16
DE2949045C2 (en) 1982-06-16
IT7951075D0 (en) 1979-12-13
CH644991A5 (en) 1984-09-14
FR2444394A1 (en) 1980-07-18
BE880652A1 (en)
DK535879A (en) 1980-06-19
IT1164782B (en) 1987-04-15
FR2444394B1 (en) 1985-07-19
AR227880A1 (en) 1982-12-30
NL7909063A (en) 1980-06-20

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