CA1094325A - Metal refining method - Google Patents

Metal refining method

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Publication number
CA1094325A
CA1094325A CA279,001A CA279001A CA1094325A CA 1094325 A CA1094325 A CA 1094325A CA 279001 A CA279001 A CA 279001A CA 1094325 A CA1094325 A CA 1094325A
Authority
CA
Canada
Prior art keywords
melt
iron
method according
solid
material
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired
Application number
CA279,001A
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Gene D. Spenceley
Robert Baker
Roger A. Page
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
British Steel Corp
Original Assignee
British Steel Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to GB22341/76A priority Critical patent/GB1586762A/en
Priority to GB22341/76 priority
Application filed by British Steel Corp filed Critical British Steel Corp
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CA1094325A publication Critical patent/CA1094325A/en
Application status is Expired legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21CPROCESSING OF PIG-IRON, e.g. REFINING, MANUFACTURE OF WROUGHT-IRON OR STEEL; TREATMENT IN MOLTEN STATE OF FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C21C5/00Manufacture of carbon-steel, e.g. plain mild steel, medium carbon steel or cast steel or stainless steel
    • C21C5/52Manufacture of steel in electric furnaces
    • C21C5/5211Manufacture of steel in electric furnaces in an alternating current [AC] electric arc furnace
    • C21C5/5217Manufacture of steel in electric furnaces in an alternating current [AC] electric arc furnace equipped with burners or devices for injecting gas, i.e. oxygen, or pulverulent materials into the furnace
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21BMANUFACTURE OF IRON OR STEEL
    • C21B13/00Making spongy iron or liquid steel, by direct processes
    • C21B13/0006Making spongy iron or liquid steel, by direct processes obtaining iron or steel in a molten state
    • C21B13/0013Making spongy iron or liquid steel, by direct processes obtaining iron or steel in a molten state introduction of iron oxide into a bath of molten iron containing a carbon reductant
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21BMANUFACTURE OF IRON OR STEEL
    • C21B13/00Making spongy iron or liquid steel, by direct processes
    • C21B13/0006Making spongy iron or liquid steel, by direct processes obtaining iron or steel in a molten state
    • C21B13/0026Making spongy iron or liquid steel, by direct processes obtaining iron or steel in a molten state introduction of iron oxide in the flame of a burner or a hot gas stream
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21CPROCESSING OF PIG-IRON, e.g. REFINING, MANUFACTURE OF WROUGHT-IRON OR STEEL; TREATMENT IN MOLTEN STATE OF FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C21C5/00Manufacture of carbon-steel, e.g. plain mild steel, medium carbon steel or cast steel or stainless steel
    • C21C5/28Manufacture of steel in the converter
    • C21C5/30Regulating or controlling the blowing
    • C21C5/34Blowing through the bath
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21CPROCESSING OF PIG-IRON, e.g. REFINING, MANUFACTURE OF WROUGHT-IRON OR STEEL; TREATMENT IN MOLTEN STATE OF FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C21C5/00Manufacture of carbon-steel, e.g. plain mild steel, medium carbon steel or cast steel or stainless steel
    • C21C5/28Manufacture of steel in the converter
    • C21C5/30Regulating or controlling the blowing
    • C21C5/35Blowing from above and through the bath
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21CPROCESSING OF PIG-IRON, e.g. REFINING, MANUFACTURE OF WROUGHT-IRON OR STEEL; TREATMENT IN MOLTEN STATE OF FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C21C5/00Manufacture of carbon-steel, e.g. plain mild steel, medium carbon steel or cast steel or stainless steel
    • C21C5/56Manufacture of steel by other methods
    • C21C5/567Manufacture of steel by other methods operating in a continuous way
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P10/00Technologies related to metal processing
    • Y02P10/10Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions
    • Y02P10/12CO2
    • Y02P10/134CO2 by CO2 avoidance
    • Y02P10/136CO2 by CO2 avoidance using hydrogen, e.g. H2
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P10/00Technologies related to metal processing
    • Y02P10/20Process efficiency
    • Y02P10/21Process efficiency by recovering materials
    • Y02P10/212Recovering metals from waste
    • Y02P10/214Recovering metals from waste by pyro metallurgy
    • Y02P10/216Recovering metals from waste by pyro metallurgy of Fe

Abstract

ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE

Various forms of method and apparatus are described for the manufacture of steel wherein solid carbonaceous materials are injected below the surface of a melt during the introduction of oxygen to raise the energy level within the melt. Solid iron-bearing materials may also be introduced to the melt and a continuous tapping process is described wherein the iron-bearing and carbonaceous materials are delivered continuously to the melt.

Description

~9~3~

This invention relates to the manufacture of steel and ~, in particular relates to a method u~ where~y solld iron-bearing mRterials can be converted to molten steel in a continuous, semi-continuous or batch mode.
In oxygen steelmaking processes hot metal from a blast furnace, cupola, arc furnace or other hot metal supply unlt is refined to steel by reacting metalloids within the hot metal with oxygen. The chemlcal oxidation reactions which take place are exothermic and the resulting heat is . lO utilised to.elevate the temperature of the liquid metal to the desired casting temperature with any excess heat being ::
used to melt additional quantities of iron-bearing coolant material. The total heat generated dtlring refining ls ; dependent o~ the total amount of oxidisable impurities in the hot metal and thus when operati.ng such oxygen steel-making processes it is possible only to incorporate a limited proportion of solid iron-bearing material in the charge to the converter.
In electric arc ste~lmaking processes and in par~icular : -in the electric arc practices which utilise approach1ng .~ ~ -lO0% solid iron-bearing materlal in the charge the energy for melting and super-heating to the desired casting tem-perature is mainly provided by electrical energy. Energy in this form is very costly and constittltes a very low ~ :
efflciency in terms of fossil fuels utilisation; the effic~ency of conversion from fossil fuels to electrical .

~ .

~ 3~'~

energy at the generating station being on occasions as low as 30%. In addit~on the use of electrlcal energy imposes pro~uctivi~y constraint~ on the melting of solid iron-bearing materlal because of the need for very larg~ trans-fonmers, large diameter electrodes and the associa-ted refractory wear problems when operat~ng at high power inputs.
In both oxygen steelmaking processes and in electric arc processes the wasteofftake gas conta~ns both senslble an~ chemical heat. Common practice on existing steelmaking plants is to fully combust cool and clean such offtake gases prior to their release to at ~phere. Thus consider-able energy is wasted and in any event a severe contraint on the ability to use the energy in such offtake gases is imposed because the quBn~ity J Gompclsition and temperature of the offtake gases varies throughout the steelmaking cycles.
Various attempts have been made to overcome the above limitations of steelmaking operations. For example, it has been attempted to increase scrap consumption in oxygen steelmaking processes and decrease electrical energy requirements in electric arc processes by ~urning fuel with oxygen at the tip of a lance inserted into the charge within the steelmaking vesselO Heat transfer from an oxy-fuel flame to a charge occurs mainly by convectlon and radiation and is high whilst conditions of high interfacial contact a~ea exist - between the charge and the hot gases. However~ once the ~ 3 Z5i ch~rge becomes molten the charge/hot gas intPrfacial area is drastically reduced and the efficiency of heat transfer from the flame drops accordingly.
A further example of attempts to increase the scrap consumption in oxygen steelmaking processes and to decrease electrical energy requlrements in electric arc processes involves the additlons of a solid fuel such as.silicon carbide or calcium carbide which is readily taken into solution by the bath~ Injection of oxygen oxid~ses the _ 10 oxidisable constituents contained with the fuel thus liber- ~:
ating heat. This method can be disadvantageous when coal, coke or other solid carbonaceous fossil fuels in a treated or untreated form are used because such fuels tend to float on top of the molten metal or on top or within the slag and are not readily taken into solution by the bath.
Additionally when such carbonaceous materials are added in bulk form flS part of the charge, such material~may become incarcerated by partially melted iron leading to undeslrably violent reactions upon subsequent release.
Prop~sals h~ve ~l~o been made for the injection of hydrocarbons directly into the melt~ Such injection, although - liberating carbon which can subsequently enjoy an exothermic oxidation react~on, also liberates hydrogen only a portion of which is oxidised to advantage; thus hydrocarbon-injection assoeiated with oxygen injection ~s not considered to be an efficient means of liberatlng heat.

~ 3 32~

An example of attempts to utilize the sensible and chemical heat in steelmaking offtake gases involves using such gases for preheating input charge materials. This has been demonstrated as feasible for batch and continuously fed material to certain known steelmaking operations. A major problem inherent in such attempts has been in accommodating the variable quantity, composition and temperature of the offtake gases and the timing of evolution oE such gases in relation to -the timing and heating of material inputs to the known batch steelmaking processes.
It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved method for the manufacture of steel~
According to the invention as herein broadly claimed there is provided in a method of manufacturing steel in a metallurgical vessel containing molten ferrous metal, a process for raising the energy level within the melt wherein solid carbonaceous material is injected into the melt below the surface thereof through one or more tuyeres by means of a carrier gas and taken into solution therein and an oxidizing gas is blown on to the surface of the melt to act as the major reductant in the steel manu~acture and to react with the dissolved car-bonaceous material to liberate heat.
The ~olid carbonaceous material may be partially or wholly soluble in the unrefined or partially refined molten metal and may thus be`taken into solution within the melt.
The above method may be carried out in an apparatus comprising a metallurgical 3~s vessel for containing a melt of unrefined or partially refined molten ferrous metal,means for injecting solid carbonaceous material below the surface of the melt and means for introducing oxygen or an oxy~en containing gas into the vessel.
The oxygen or oxygen contalning gases may be introduced into the vessel either through one or more submerged tuyeres .n the base or side of the vessel or by jetting on to the surface of the molten metal.
_ 1~ The solld carbonaceous material may be injected into the melt either through one or more submerged tuy~res in the base or side of the vessel or by one or more submerged lances immersed below the level of the molten metal. The said material may comprise coal, coke, graphite or any other carbon-bearing material in particul~.te form and such car-bonaceous material is preferably in~ected into the melt with : a carrier gas which may be reducing, oxidising or inert.
It will be appreciated that because heat is 8enerated chemacally within the molten charge itself the.method in accordance with the invention is a highly efficient way of increasing the heat content of the charge. Thus the heat : necessary to melt solld iron-bearing material can be gener~ted at will by introducing the appropriate amount of carbonaceous materlal into the steelmsking vessel and sim~ltaneously or subsequently partLally or wholly removing the oxidisable materlal by intr~duction of oxygen. .

The method in acoordance with the invention for raising energy levels by heat generation may be utilised to increase the propor~lon of solid iron-bearlng coolant used in ~he refinlng process. The method may thus include th~ further step of adding solid iron-bearing material to th~ melt durlng the refining process. The solid iron-bearing material is conveniently delivered to the upper surface of the m lt and may comprise scrap, pre-reduced iron, granu-l~ted iron, iron ore, iron oxide scale, iron oxide Eume or any other iron-containing material.
The method can be used to lower the electrical energy requirements in electrlc are steelmaking. Thus the method in accordance with the invention may comprise manufacturing steel in an electric arc furnace wherein the furnaae wil~
include, ln addition to the usual electrodes, means for ln~ecting solid carbonaceous material below the surface of the molten metal and means for intra,ducing oxygen or an oxygen containing gas into the furn~ce to react with the carbonaceous material to liberate heat. Conveniently in such a method and apparatus both the carbonaceous material and the oxygen or oxygen containing gas are introduced through submerged tuyeres in the base or sides of the furnace.
A further modification of the method described in elther of the two prereding paragraphs comprises utilising the waste off-take gases to preheat the solid iron-bearin& material before it ~.~!9 L4~ 325 is delivered to the melt. Thus there may be provided me~ns above the upper level of the melt to contain the oftake gas and a rotary kil~ to which the offtake gas is delivered and through which passes the solid iron-bearing material before it is delivered to the melt.
The said waste offtake gases may also be utilised to efect some degree of, or assist in, prereduction of the solid iron-bearing material within the rotary kiln when -solid iron-bearing materials such as ~ron ore or iron oxide - 10 waste are utilised.
In the methods described in the preceding para-graphs the solid iron-bearing material may be delivered continuously during the refining processO
A further aspect of the method in accordance with the invention contemplates a continuous process for the manu -facture of steel in a metallurgical vessel comprising injecting a solld carbonaceous mat:erial below the surface of thc melt, lntroducing oxygen or an oxygen containing gas . into the vessel to react with the carbonaceous material to liberate heat~ deliv~ring contlnuously to the melt a supply of iron-bearing material and continuously tapping refined molten steel from the vessel at a level below the slag. It will be appreciated that the constituent carbon-aceous material and iron-bearlng material and their means of delivery in this aspect of the invention may be as described in any of the preceding paragraphs relating to llL325 the present inventionO
Also in accordance with the invention there is provided steel whenever produce~ by a method as described in any of the preceding paragraphs relating to the present invention.
Other features oE the invention will become apparent from the following description given herein by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings wherein like reference numerals refer to like parts throughout ~he ! : several vlews and wherein:- !
Figure 1 is a side cross-sectional view of a metal-lurglcal ves~el in accordance with the invention having means for the top introductlon of oxygen and the bottom injection of carbonaceous material, Figure 2 is a side cross-sect:ional view o~ a metal-lurgical vessel having means for t:he top introduction of oxygen and a submerged lance for t:he injectlon of carbon-aceous ma~erial;
Figure 3 is a side cross-sertional view of an electr~c a~c furnace having ~ubmerged tuyeres for the introduction of oxygen and the injection of carbonaceous materlal; :
Figure 4 is a side cross-sectional view of a similar :
vessel to that shown in Figure 1 but having additional m~ans for the delivery of solid iron-bearing material to the melt;
Figure S is a side cross-sectional view of a metal-lurg~al vessel similar to Figures 1 and 4 but lncluding a rotary kiln for receiving offtake gas from the vessel and through which passes solid iron-bearing material for dellvery to the melt, and Flgure 6 is a side cross-sectional view of a metal-S lurgical vessel simllar to Figure 5 but havlng additlonal me~ns for the continuous tapping of molten steel.
Referring to Figure 1 ~f the drawings there is shown a refractory lined metallurgical vessel 10 containing a metallic charge 12 which may be either completely liquid or partially liquid and part~ally solidO Lime and fluxes are added in accordance with conventional top blown oxygen steelmaking practlce either with the initial charge or during the blowing period to help form a slag~ In this example oxygen is ~etted through a water cooled single or multi-port lance 14 on to the upper surface of the charge.
Solld carbon-containing particulate material is introduced into the base of the charge through submerged tuyeres 16 in the base of the vesQel 10. This apparatus thereby permits a~ ad~ancement over conventional top blown oxygen steel-making practice by allowing a gre~ter quantity of iron-bearing coolant material to be consumed in the charge due to the heat liberated upon the oxidation reactlon between the oxygen and the solid carbon-containing material. Given a specific requirement for a desired increase in the weight or proportion o iron bearing coolant in the charge prior calculations will de~ermine the quantity of ~arbonaceous g _ ~ 3 material to be injected~
A similar apparatus is shown in Figure 2 of the dr~wings differing only from that shown in Figure 1 ln that the carbonaceous material is injected through a submerged lance 18 instead of ~hrough submerged tuyeres~ It will be ; appreclated that the advantages of utilising the method with the apparatus of Figure 2 will be the s~me as those associated with the apparatus of Figure 1.
Figure 3 of the drawings illustrates an electric arc refractory lined vessel 20 containing a melt 22 being partially he~ted by electrodes 24. Solld carbonaceous material is in~ected through a submerged tuyere 26 in the base of the vessel whilst oxygen iLs introduced through another submerged tuyere 28. The quantity of electrical energy required to melt the sol~d iron-bearing material fed into the char~e is reduced by an amount related ~o the quantity of carbonaceous material injected into and oxidised from the melt.
-~ The electric arc furnace of Figure 3 ca~ be operated as a "hot heel" practice, i.e. a ~uant~ty of lten ~etal ; is retained in the vessel from a prev~ous cast and solid iron-bearing material is added continuously or semi-con-- tinuously simultaneously with the introduction of solid carbonaceous material, oxygen and electrical energy until the desired steel weight is obtained at the desired com-position and tapping temperature. Alternatively, the 1~ _ ~ 3 2 S

electric arc furnace of Figure 3 can be operated with a batch charge of solld iron-bearing material without a hot heel w~th injection of solid carbonaceous material and ; oxygen being practised once a sufficient depth of molten metal has been establlshed to take the carbon into solution.
In Figure 4 of the drawings there is illustrated a metallurgical vessel 10 similar to that shown in Figure 1 havlng a lance 14 for the top introductlon of oxygen on to the molten metal and slag and submerged tuyeres 16 in thP
base o the vessel for the injectivn of solid carbonaceous material~ This apparatus addltionally includes a feeding system comprising a conveyor 30 and hopper 32 for delivering solid iron-bearing material 34 to the upper surface of the melt. The hot heel may be retained from a previous steel-making charge which is built up to the desired casting weight, temperature and composition by the appropriat~
contlnuous introduction o~ solid carbonaceous material~
oxygen and solid iron-bearing material. A method is then - provided for the melting of solid iron-bearing material with the injected solid carbonaceous material being the only or prime energy source.
Figure 5 o~ the drawings illustrates a metallurgical vessel similar to thst shown in Figure 4 with the addition that the steelmaking offtake gas is utilised as part or - whole or an energy source to preheat the continuously fed solid iron-bearing material 34. As illustrated there is provided a hood 36 at the open upper mouth of the vessel 10 to contain the offtake gases and a rotary kiln 38 to which the offtake gas is dellvered in count~rcurrent flow to the delivery of the soli~ iron-bearing material~ This apparatus thus provides means for decreasing the required quantity o~
injected carbon and oxygen ln order to achieve the desired cast welght and optimum preheat temperatures to the solid iron-bearing material can be determined for mi.nimum con-sumption of lniected solid carbonaceous material.
The said wasbeofftake gases may also be utilis~d to effect some degree of, or assist in, pre-reduction of the solid iron-bearing material within the rotary ~iln when solid Iron-bearing materials such as iron ore or lron oxide fume are utilised.
F~gure 6 of the drawings illustrates apparatus per-mitting the operation of a continu~ous steelmaking process which diffe~s only from the m~thodl described with reference to Figure 5 in that the molten ste~el at the desired com ~ position and temperature is tappPd continuously from the 20. vessel 10 through a port 40 below the slag level. Control of throughput metal composition and metal temperature may be achieved by manip~lation of the in~ectlon rate of the solid carbonaceous material, the oxygen injection rate, the feed rate of the solid iron-bearing material and the preheat temperature to the iron-bear1ng material.
In any of the various embodiments of the invention 3~

deccr4bed hereln w~th reference to Figures 1 to 6 lt will be sppreeiated that the ~olid carbonaceous mater~al m~y be coal~ coke9 graphlte or any other carbon-containing material in particulate or slurry form and that a carrier gas i-s normally used to transport the carbonaceous material which gas may be reducing, oxidlsing or inert. When the carbonaceous material is introduced into the metallurgical vesse~ through submerged tuyeres it will be appreciated that such tuyeres may be located in the base or side wall of the vessel and that any number of such tuyeres may be provided according to the specific requiremgnts of ~he process. The solid iron-bearing material described with reference to Flgures;3 to 6 may be scrap, pre-reduced iron, granulated iron, iron ore, iron oxide scale, iron oxide fume or any other iron containing s~ubstance. It will be appreciated that when iron in the oxide state is added in th~ various processes described herein the injected solid carbonaceous material will act as both a reductant for the iron oxide as well as a source of energy for melting.
In most of the processes described herein the oxyg~n or an oxygen conta~ning gas is shown as being lntroduced to ~he met~llurgical vessel through a water cooled lance sltuated above the melt, but other methods are possible for such oxygen introduction, such as tuyere injection or submerged lance injection. Where tuyeres are uwed for lnjection of oxy~en andtor solid carbonaceous material the tuyeres may _ 13 _ ~ 3 2'~

be of double or multiple concentrlc ~ube type h~ving an annular shroud 1uid surrounding the primary injectant tuyere. Suoh shroud fluld may be an lnert gas or liquid~
a hydrocarbon gas or liquld or an oxidising ga~o~ d;t~e fluid belng chosen such as to minimise refractory and tuyere wear and to prevent tuyere blockage.
It is contemplated that tuyeres could be designed to permit injectlon of both oxidising gas and solid carbon-aceous material through the same tuyere.-or tuyeres. It is also contemplated that the solid iron-bearing material a~
descr~bed in the processes with reference to Figures 3 to 6 -.
could also be injected in powder or granular form into the mel~ through submerged tuyeres. Such solid iron-bearing material may contain carbon in a chemically or physically combined form and in such c~ses it will be appreciated that the~quantity of separately injectecl solid carbonaceous material could be reduced.
Two specific ~xsmples of the use of the basic prin-clple~ underlying the present in~ention will now be des-cribed wlth reference respective~y to the processes related .
to Figures 1 and 4 of the draw~ngs.
~@!!ea~: ' ' ' 940 k~sof hot metal of compos~tion 4~16~oC~ 0~026~
0~047%P~ 0~8/~i~ 0O~2%Mh at a tempera~ure of 1330~C were charged into a con~erter shaped vessel containing 33 kgsof ~ 14-.

~ 3 ~ ~

scrap. 48 kgs o lime were added and the vessel contents top blown with oxygen at a rate of 230 m3/hr for 13 mins. At : thls ~tsge blowing was lnterrupted and sensors showed the bath temperature to be 1625C with the bath carbon content being Or68%~ Oxygen blowlng was recommenced at the same rate of 23~m3/hr with the bath at a temperature o 1550C
an~ s~ mNltaneously solid particulate graphite was lntro-duced through a basal tuyere at a rat~ of 3.5 kg/min.
Simultaneously oxygen lancing and carbon injection were con-tinued for a period of 17 minutes, during which time 60 kgs.
~ of graphite had been added together wlth 69 kgs o scrap.
After termination of graphite injection and oxygen blowlng, the bath coneained 0.06% carbon and was at a temperature of 1670C. The tuyere used for carbon in~ection was of , annular design and was operated as ollows:-Shroud gas - air at 7m3/hr Carrier gas - argon at 30m3/hr The tuyere core di~meter was 7 mm with an annular gap of `l mmO
,. , 1220 kgs. of hot metal of compositlon 4O2%C~ 0~025%S~
0.03870P~ O~9~Si, 0.65/~n at a temperature of 1285C were - charged into a converter shaped vessel containlng 80 kgs. of scrap. 50 kgs. of lime were added and the vessel contents top blown with oxygen at a rate o 230m3/hr for 18 mins. At thls _ 15 _ .

~ 3 ~ 5 atage the blow~ ~nterrupted with the metsl at 1710C at a carbon content of 0.42%~
O~ygen blowing was then recommenced at the rate of 23nm3/hr simultaneously with the introduction of graphite powder through a basal tuyere at a rate of 4.1 kg~min~
Thi~ stage started with the bath at a temperatur~ o 1640~C
and continued for 18.5 mins., a total of 76 k~.of graphlte bein~ injected during this period. 90 kg of SL/RN pre-reduced iron pellets were added continuously during the 18.5 min blowlng period. The bath temperature at the end of the graphite injection perlod was 1585C and the bath c~rbon content 1.08Z.
These two Examples of results from a pilot plant ~ :
lllustr~te that tuyere injection of a ~olid carbonaceous lS material simultaneously wlth oxygen lancing allows iron- :
bearing materisls to be melted and that thls has occurred in spite of the very high heat losses (up to 18Clmin) from metal contained within a pilot plant converter oper-- ating at the scale of operation described in the ~.xamples.

Claims (16)

The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive property or privilege is claimed are defined as follows:
1. In a method of manufacturing steel in a metallurgical vessel containing molten ferrous metal, a process for raising the energy level within the melt wherein solid carbonaceous material is injected into the melt below the surface thereof through one or more tuyeres by means of a carrier gas and taken into solution therein and an oxidizing gas is blown on to the surface of the melt to act as the major reductant in the steel manufacture and to react with the dissolved carbonaceous material to liberate heat.
2. A method according to Claim 1 wherein the carbonaceous material comprises particulate coal, coke or graphite or any other carbon-bearing material in particulate form.
3. A method according to Claim 2 wherein the carbonaceous material is injected into the melt through one or more tuyeres by means of a carrier gas.
4. A method according to Claim 3 wherein the carrier gas is a reducing, oxidising or inert gas.
5. A method according to Claim 1 including the additional step of introducing solid iron-bearing material to the melt during the refining process.
6. A method according to Claim 5 wherein the solid iron-bearing material comprises scrap, prereduced iron, granulated iron, iron ore 9 iron oxide scale or iron oxide fume.
7. A method according to Claim 5 wherein the solid iron-bearing material is delivered to the upper surface of the melt during the refining process.
8. A method according to Claim 5 wherein the solid iron-bearing material is preheated by the waste offtake gases for the metallurgical vessel before the material is delivered to the melt.
9. A method according to Claim 8 wherein the solid iron-bearing material is preheated in a rotary kiln.
10. A method according to Claim 8 wherein the solid iron-bearing material, when having a reducable element therein, is at least partially pre-reduced by the waste offtake gases before the material is delivered to the melt.
11. A method according to Claim 5 wherein the solid iron-bearing material is in particulate form and is injected into the melt through one or more tuyeres by means of a carrier gas.
12. A method as according to Claim 5 wherein the solid iron-bearing material is delivered continuously to the melt during the refining process.
13. A method according to Claim 12 wherein the steel manufactured in the metallurgical vessel is tapped continuously from the vessel.
14. A method according to Claim 1 wherein the oxidising gas is introduced into the vessel simultaneously with the injection of the solid carbonaceous material into the melt.
15. A method according to Claim 1 wherein the oxidising gas is introduced into the vessel subsequently to the injection of the solid carbonaceous material into the melt.
16. A method according to Claim 1 wherein the injection rate of the solid carbonaceous material and/or the introduction rate of the oxidising gas is adjustable in operation of the method.
CA279,001A 1976-05-28 1977-05-24 Metal refining method Expired CA1094325A (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB22341/76A GB1586762A (en) 1976-05-28 1976-05-28 Metal refining method and apparatus
GB22341/76 1976-05-28

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
CA1094325A true CA1094325A (en) 1981-01-27

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US (1) US4089677A (en)
JP (1) JPS5310319A (en)
CA (1) CA1094325A (en)
DE (1) DE2723857A1 (en)
FR (1) FR2352887B1 (en)
GB (1) GB1586762A (en)
IT (1) IT1083284B (en)

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CA1094325A1 (en)
FR2352887A1 (en) 1977-12-23
US4089677A (en) 1978-05-16
DE2723857A1 (en) 1977-12-08
FR2352887B1 (en) 1983-11-04
JPS5310319A (en) 1978-01-30
IT1083284B (en) 1985-05-21
GB1586762A (en) 1981-03-25

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