CA1078371A - Rotary drill bit and method for making same - Google Patents

Rotary drill bit and method for making same

Info

Publication number
CA1078371A
CA1078371A CA 290788 CA290788A CA1078371A CA 1078371 A CA1078371 A CA 1078371A CA 290788 CA290788 CA 290788 CA 290788 A CA290788 A CA 290788A CA 1078371 A CA1078371 A CA 1078371A
Authority
CA
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
bit
crown
layer
diamond
drill
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired
Application number
CA 290788
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Phillip E. Bonnice
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
General Electric Co
Original Assignee
General Electric Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B10/00Drill bits
    • E21B10/46Drill bits characterised by wear resisting parts, e.g. diamond inserts
    • E21B10/56Button type inserts
    • E21B10/567Button type inserts with preformed cutting elements mounted on a distinct support, e.g. polycrystalline inserts
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F7/00Manufacture of composite layers, workpieces, or articles, comprising metallic powder, by sintering the powder, with or without compacting wherein at least one part is obtained by sintering or compression
    • B22F7/06Manufacture of composite layers, workpieces, or articles, comprising metallic powder, by sintering the powder, with or without compacting wherein at least one part is obtained by sintering or compression of composite workpieces or articles from parts, e.g. to form tipped tools
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B10/00Drill bits
    • E21B10/26Drill bits with leading portion, i.e. drill bits with a pilot cutter; Drill bits for enlarging the borehole, e.g. reamers
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B10/00Drill bits
    • E21B10/46Drill bits characterised by wear resisting parts, e.g. diamond inserts
    • E21B10/48Drill bits characterised by wear resisting parts, e.g. diamond inserts the bit being of core type

Abstract

ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE
A rotary rock drill bit comprising a plurality of cutting elements or cutters mounted in the crown of the drill bit. Each cutting element comprises a thin planar layer of polycrystalline diamond bonded in the crown of the bit at a rake angle of between -10° and -25°. In another embodiment each cutting element comprises an elongated pin mounted at one end in the drill crown and thin layer of polycrystalline diamond bonded to the free end of the pin so as to be disposed at a rake angle of between -10°
and -25°.

Description

~0~83'71 This invention relates to rotary drill bits and more particularly to rock drill bits with a polycrystalline abrasive as the cutting or abrading material.
Conventional rotary drill bits for oil and gas well drilling core drilling have heretofore used cutting elements such as (1) steel teeth, (2) steel teeth laminated with tungsten carbide, (3) a compact insert of sintered tungsten carbide, and (4) natural diamonds all of which are set or molded in a tungsten carbide crown or cone. Due to the relatively short life and/or high operating coast of these conventional designs, it has recently been proposed to use synthetic diamond compacts as the cutting element in such drills.
To date, attempts to use diamond compacts in these applications have, for the most part, been unsuccessful.
In one such attempts diamond compacts are comprised of right circular cylinders with a thin layer of polycrystalline diamond bonded to a cemented carbide substrate. A cutting element is formed by attaching the compact to the drill bit by brazing or soldering the carbide substrate to a cemented carbide pin which is inserted into holes in the drill crown. The diamond layer is generally oriented in a radial sense to the center of rotation of the drill bit and penetrates the rock essentially as a cutting tool in a similar manner to a cutting tool which is used to cut metal on a lathe.
Several problems have been encountered with this design and a commercially feasible drill bit has yet to be tested based on this structure.
One problem is that, although in this design the cutting elements protrude from the bit body and thereby provide aggressive cutting action and abundant room for swarf .. .. . . - . : , ,:; ,, :. ~

removal, the stresses on each cutting element are severe and frequent failures occur by pin shearing or compact cracking.
The stresses are caused because the structure of most rocks is heterogeneous and thus has layers of varying hardness.
These layers cause a large variation in the impact loads to be applied to the cutting elements during drilling. The prior art designs are not strong enough, nor are the compacts shock resistant enough, to withstand such widely varying impact loading.
Another problem occurs during manufactuing of the cutting element. These process of brazing the composite compacts to the pin structure requires temperatures ap-proaching those where the diamond layer is degraded. Hence, many of the compacts are "softened" if greater care is not taken in the brazing operation.
Still another problem is that the degradation temperature (700C) of the compacts is far below the 1200C temperature which would be required to sinter the compacts in an abrasion resistant drill crown matrix (e.g., of tungsten carbide) in an analogous manner to that used to fabricate drill crowns of natural diamond set in the surface of an abrasion resistant matrix.
Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide an improved drill bit which eliminates or mitigates .
~ the problems noted hereinabove.
`~ Another object of this invention is to provide a rock drill bit which can be operated at faster penetration rates.
Another object of this invention is to provide a rock drill bit with a cutting element which is stronger and more impact resistant.
These and other objects of the invention, which will be appreciated from a consideration of the following detailed ~ . ;, . ~ .

` iO~83'71 .. . .

description and accompanying claims, are accomplished by providing a drill bit comprising a plurality of cutting elements ~ ;
which are mounted in the crown of the drill bit. Each cutting element comprises a planar layer-of bonded polycrystalline diamond particles mounted in the crown at a rake angle between - 10 and - 25. In another embodiment each cutting element comprises an elongated pin mounted at one end in the drill crown and thin layer of polycrystalline diamond bonded to the free end of the pin so as to be disposed at a rake angle of between - 10 and - 25.
FIGS. lA and lB are fragmentary perspective and plan views, respectively, of a non-coring drill bit in accordance with one embodiment of this invention.
; FIG. lC is a perspective view of a diamond compactcutting~element for the drill bit of FIGS. lA and lB.
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary perspective view of a coring ; drill bit in accordance with a second embodiment of this . ., ~
invention.
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a drill bit in accordance with a third embodiment of this invention.
FIG. 4A is a view of a non-coring bit in accordance ; with a fourth embodiment of this invention.
FIG. 4B is a perspective view of a cutting element for the'drill bit of FIG. 4A.
FIG. 5 is a schematic illustration of the disposition - of a cutting el'ement such as shown in FIG. lC and FIG. 4B.
FIG. 6 is a graph of the specific energy as a function ' of rake angle'for a laboratory drilling test illustrating a feature'of this invention.
In accordance with one embodiment of this invention, FIGS. lA andlB show a rotary non-coring drill bit 10 ~'"'' comprising an eIongated, threaded shaft 13 and a drill .,~.~ .
crown 15 in which'a plurality of peripheral diamond compact cutting eIements 17 and of central diamond compact cutting .
. . .: ... ::: . : :: --` 1~'7837~

elements 19 are mounted. A plurality of waterways 21 are formed in the drill crown 13 for providing access of a cooling fluid to the interface between the drill crown and the earth during use of the drill. Fluid ports 23 and 25 are provided longitudinally of the drill for transmission of a fluid to aid in mud and rock cutting removal. FIG. lC
illustrates one of the diamond compact cutting elements 17 such as shown in FIGS lA and lB. Compact 17 is comprised of a thin planar layer 29 of polycrystalline diamond bonded to a cemented carbide substrate 31. Compact cutting elements 19 are identical to compact cutting elements 17, except that elements 19 comprise a 180 disc-shaped segment, rather than a 360 segment. The central cutting elements may also be in the shaped of rectangular parallelopiped. Also, other shape variations of elements 17, 19 may be used.
Compact cutting elements 17 and 19 are preferrably constructed in accordance with the teaching of Wentorf, Jr., U.S. Patent No.3,745,623 dated July 17, 1973.
A second embodiment of this invention is shown in FIG. 2. In this embodiment, a core dill 41 comprises an elongated shaft 43 and a drill crown 45 in which a plurality of cutting elements 47 are mounted. A plurality of waterways 49 are provided in the drill crown to allow access of a cooling fluid to the interface between the drill crown and the earth's surface. Cutting elements 47 are disc-shaped diamond compacts such as shown and described in connection with FIG. lC above.
A third embodiment of this invention is shown in FIG.3.
In this embodiment a two-tiercrown bit 61 comprises an elongated shaft 63 and a drill crown 65 is which an inner tier 67 and outer tier 69 of cutting elements are mounted.
Cutting elements 67, 69 are preferrably of the type shown and ':

~0783 described in connection with FIG. lC above.
FIG. 4A shows a fourth embodiment of this invention.
In this embodiment, a drill bit 100 is comprised of an elongated shaft 101 and a drill crown 103 (e.g., of steel) in which a plurality of cutting elements 105 are mounted in recesses (not shown) preferably by press-fitting. A
plurality of fluid courses 107 are formed in the drill crown 103 for providing access for a cooling fluid to the inter-face between the drill crown and the earth during drilling applications. One or more fluid ports or nozzles 108 are provided longitudinally of the drill for transmission of fluid to aid in mud and rock cutting removal. A plurality of tungsten carbide wear-surface buttons llI are provided ; on the cylindrical portion of the crown 103.
FIG. 4B shows a perspective view of one of the cutting elements 105 shown in FIG. 4A. The cutting element 105 comprises an elongated pin 109 preferably of metal bonded carbide (also known as "sintered" carbide) with a diamond compact 111 of the type shown in FIG. lC mounted at one end in an inclined recess 113 formed in pin 109. The compact 111 is comprised of a thin layer of polycrystalline diamond 115 bonded to a sintered carbide substrate ~
The compact 111 is bonded in the recesses 113 usually by brazing or soldering. A low temperature melting brazing alloy such as a commercially available silver solder (by weight 45% Ag, 15% Cu, 16% Zn, and 24% Cd.) may be used if care is excercised not to heat the compacts 111 above its thermal degradation point of about 700C. The bottom surface 114 of recess 113 is inclined at angleO~
between -10 and -25 with respect to a line 118 parallel to the axis of the pin 109. The purpose of this dis-position will be described in detail in connection with . . .
FIGS. 5 and 6 hereinbelow.
In connection with the features of this invention as exemplified in each of the four embodiments, it has been discovered that significant advantages result from the orientation of the cutting elements at a rake angle - between - 10 and -25.
As shown in FIG. 5, the rake angle is defined as the angle of orientation of face 26 of diamond layer 29 with respect to a line 36 drawn perpendicular to a work surface 37. Plane 26 is oriented to face the direction of movement of the cutting element (i.e., to the left in FIG. 5 or in actuality clockwise (when viewed toward rock surface 37) for a drill rotated about perpendicular 36). As is con-ventional, angles are positive and negative when measured in the clockwise and counterclockwise directions, re-spectively.
With the proper rake angle the impact resistance of the cutting elements is substantially improved and the specific energy required for drill with such a bit is substantially reduced.
^ The improved impact resistance of the disc-shaped ; diamond compact cutting elements is illustrated in a laboratory test in which a plurality of cutting elements - were exposed at a variety rake angles and impacted on the edge of a diamond layer with a cemented carbide pin with a conical point. Each cutting element was subjected to repeated impacts with the point of the pin until fracturing or delamination of the diamond layer occurred.
The dimensions (in millimeters) of the cutting elements used in the test were:

TYPE A TYPE B
Thickness of diamond layer: 0.5 0.5 Thickness of carbide layer: 2.7 2.7 Diameter of compact: 8.4 8.4 Size (U.S. Std. Mesh) of diamond particles: -400 80/100 and The results of the test are given in TABLE l below.

Type A Type B
lORake angle(~umber of Impacts) (~umber of Impacts) It is believed that the superiority in impact re-sistance of the Type A cutting element is explained by the fact that the diamond layer is comprised of small diamond particles of -400 U.S. Std. Mesh size and is thus stronger, whereas the Type B cutting element comprises a diamond layer of a mixture of 80/100 and 120/140 U.S~ Std. mesh size diamond particles. The finer texture of the Type A
cutting element is though to provide a more uniform propagation of the impact shock wave. However, the degree of fracture of the Type A cutting element was significantly greater than that of Type B. For this reason Type B is preferred.
The relationship of the specific energy expenditure of a drill to the rake angle is illustrated by laboratory tests conducted on a rock drill simulator.
Specific energy, ES is defined as the energy required to remove a cubic inch of stone and is obtained from the equation: ES = 340 FhF . A ~ , where ~h is the horizontal 37837~
force in lb.: A is the area (square inches) of the path cut into the stone's surface; ~ is penetration rate (inches minutes) of the cutting element into the stone: and D is the diameter of the path in inches.
The rock drill simulator is a device designed to given the specific energy required for rock cutting as a function of the rake angle of a unitary cutting element. In such a device, a stone is rotated while a unitary cutter element is forced by air pressure vertically downward into a rotating stone face. Force measurements are obtained from a dynamo-meter in which the cutter element is mounted. Vertical force levels of up to 120 pounds are obtainable.
Operating conditions for tests were:
Cutter element shape: rectangular parallelopiped ~; width 2 mm.
length: 8 mm.
Diamond layer: 0.5 mm.
, Carbide layer: 2.7 mm.
Diamond size:-400 U.S. Std. Mesh Verticle force:50 pounds Horizontal force: 30 pounds Rotational speed: 108 rpm All cuts were made dry.
Tests were conducted on Carthage marble and Barre granite. Carthage marble is soft rock type whereas Barre granite is a hard rock type. Thus, this tests is re-presentative of the performance over wide range of rock types. The test results are graphically illustrated in FIG. 6. It is seen that the minima for both rock samples occurs for a rake angle of between about - 10 to 25.
To better illustrate this invention the following general procedure was used to construct a plurality of drill bits in accordance with this invention.
A cup-shaped graphite mold is made in a shape correspond-ing to the desired bit configuration. A plurality of re-cesses are provided in the closed end of the mold to locate, respectively, a plurality of cutting elements in accordance with the desired arrangement in the bit to be molded. Each element is coated with a layer of flux (such as Handy Flux , Type D, Handy and Harman Co., N.Y.N.Y.), allowed to dry, located in a recess, and secured in the recess with a con-ventional cement or glue. A matrix powder is then poured over the elements in the mold. The powder consists of approximately 75% tungsten powder and 25% carbonyl iron powder, which have been mixed together to provide a homo-geneous composition.
After the powder has been added to the mold, a steel drill shaft is then coaxially located above the mold and longitudinally pushed downward into the mold cavity.
Mechanical force of about 100 to 150 lbs. is applied to the drill body to ensure that it is securely positioned in the mold.
A low temperature flowing (e.g., 620 C) alloy material (infiltrant) is prepared by cutting the alloy material into rods of approximately 1 in. in length. The rods are coated with flux in liquid form and allowed to dry. The brazed material is then positioned around the outside of the drill body at the top of the mold. The mold is provided with an inwardly sloped large diameter portion at the top of the mold to permit easy drainage of the brazed material (when in a molten state) downwarly into the mold cavity.
The inner diameter of the central body of the mold is also slightly larger than the outer diameter of the drill body to allow the passage of the braze alloy (in a molten -- 1078373~
state).
A silver solder comprised of by weight: 45~ silver, 15% Cu, 16~ Zn and 25% Cd is preferably used as the braze material. However, other standard low temperature melting braze materials may be used, if desired. The amount of braze material required to infiltrate the powder mixture is governed by the size of the bit to be fabricated.
After positioning the rods of bra~e alloy, the mold and its contents are then put into an induction heating unit of furnace and bought to about 700C. When 620C is reached, it is observed that the braze alloy begins to melt and flow downwardly into the mold cavity. The molten alloy infiltrates and fills the voids in the powder mixture.
The temperature of the mold and its contents is then brought down to room temperature and the drill body assembly is removed from the mold. The drill crown is a solid mass of powder held together by the braze alloy infiltrant and has a hardness of about 60RB. Excess braze material is then cleaned away from the drill bit by turning the bit on a lathe.
A drill bit (58.9 mm. outer diameter and 42.1 mm. inner diameter) was constructed as shown in FIG. 2 using the procedure given above. The cutting elements were disc-shaped with a 8.4 mm. diameter. The thickness of the diamond and carbide layers were 0.5 mm. and 2.7 mm. The diamond layer was comprised of diamond particles between 80/100 and 120/140 U.S. std. mesh (50~ by weight of each).
The drill was made initially with no cutter element protrusion. The elements were exposed by drilling for a short time to erode the drill crown matrix. The rake angle was -17 degrees.

~}:.,,~.,.......... ~
, . ............... ~

1~783~
This bit was tested in highway concrete to determine the life and the mode of failure of the drill. Test conditions were:
Penetration rate: 7.6 cm/min.
Drill speed: 1000 rpm Bit Weight: approx. 80 lbs.
Stone: highway concrete containing:
Type 3A cement (one part by weight);
Silica sand (1.9 parts by weight);
Mountain stone aggregate ~2.8 parts by weight); Compressive strength (28 day cure) - 6000 psi.
Testing was carried out by making a succession of 15.2cm.
deep holes in an 20.3cm. thick concrete block. The drill action was free, requiring 1.5 - 2.0 horsepower throughout the test. Cutting element wear was uniform and mainly on the face of the diamond layer. Overallwear on the outside diameter of the crown (across diametrically opposed cutters) was less than .127 mm. and less than .076 mm. on the inside - at a depth of 35.7 meters.
Drilling was terminated at 83 meters (540 holes of 15.2 cm each in a block) when the crown fractured from the drill body. This test is considered successful because ret~ne,tion of the cutting elements in the crown was ex-cellent and wear was uniform.
Three drill bits were fabricated as shown in FIG. 3 using the procedure set forth above.
The cutting elements were arranged in an inner and in an outer tier of five (5) cutters on each tier. Each cutting element was comprised of a 8.4 mm. diameter compact - 1.C178371 disc with a .5 mm. and 2.7 mm. thickness diamond and carbide layers, respectively. The diamond layer was comprised of 50% by weight 80/100 and 120/140 diamond particles. The side rake angle (measured in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the bit) was -15 and top rake angle (measured in a plane parallel to the axis of the bit) was -17. The inner and outer diameters were ground so that a flat was produced on the diamond layer of each element for improved gage wear. The inner diameter was ground to 49.20 mm. and the outer diameter to 75.31 mm. Each bit was hand-ground (with an aluminum oxide wheel) to expose the diamond edge. Each bit was then field tested in an active coal exploration site.
The strata consisted mainly of sedimentary deposits in the clastic and organic classes. The operating bit speed was approximately 550 rpm.
A summary of their performance is given in TABLE 2 below:

Total Penetration Bit. Bit. Wt. Penetration Rate Reason Removed No. Strata (lbs) meters (meter/hr)

2 medium 3500 9 9 Penetration shale slowed when harder strata encountered

3 hard 3500 1.5 5.5 Bit wore conglomerate slowed to 1.5

4 mixed: 700 (total 13) 4.6 - Penetration broken coal 5 .9 slowed shale,con- 5 when conglo-glomerate merate was sandstone 3 reached The following observations were made from the field test:
(1) Retention of the cutting elements in the crown was excellent.
(2) The bit operated very well in soft-medium strata.

~783~

, .
(3) Wear on the inner row of cutters was greatest where the cutter forms a positive rake with the rock.
(4) In hard strata, considerably lower bit weights are required to prevent the cutters from breaking and the crown from wearing prematurely.

(5) Lower bit weights require that the cutters remain sharp to permit penetration into the rock. The unit stress at the cutting element/rock interface must be high enough to fracture the rock.

(6) The unit stress, while large enough at first, drops off as the diamond layer wears and the carbide substrate of the CUttQr is allowed to bear against the rock. This relatively large, dull wear resistant bearing surface prevents rock fracture especially in hard strata. This can be overcome by decreasing the cutter thickness by grinding off a portion of the carbide substrate.
Two bits were fabricated essentially as shown in FIGS.
lA and lB in accordance with the procedure described above.
The bit No. 5 differed from the embodiment of FIGS. lA and lB in that only three cutting elements each were provided at the periphery and at the center of the bit crown. Bit No. 6 differed from the embodiment of FIGS. lA and lB in that six cutting elements each were provided at the perip-hery and at the center of the bit crown. The dimensions of the cutting elements are set forth in TABLE 3 below:

Bit Nos. 5 & 6 Periphery Center Thickness-diamond layer: 0.5 mm. 5 mm.
Thickness carbide layer: 8.4 mm. 8.4 mm.
Shape: 180 disc rectangular paral- .
lelopiped Diameter: 8.4 mm. - -Length: - - 8 to 12 mm.
Width: - - 1 to 2 mm. r , , .~ ~

- ~078371 ;
The bits were tested in limestone to determine the life and mode of failure. Test conditions were:
Penetration rate: 61 cm/min.
Drill speed: 2000 to 3000 rpm The bit No. 5 penetrated approximately 9 meters of rock before one of the three peripheral cutters was broken in half. It is believed that the cutter broke due to a manufacturing defect, wherein poor support was provided for the cutter in the crown. Drill was then continued and a penetration rate of approximately 63.5 cm/min. was obtained.
While it showed a good penetration rate, vibration was found to be excessive and drilling was terminated.
In the test of the bit No. 6, bit No. 6 was not pre-ground to expose the cutting elements and it was found to penetrate slowly initially. Drilling was stopped and the crown was ground away with an off-hand grinder fitted with an aluminum oxide wheel. Drilling was then restored and it was found to penetrate the limestone at approximately 89 cm/min. Drilling was continued until the penetration rate slowed to approximately 45.7 cm/min. ~t this point, the second bit has penetrated approximately 198 meters of limestone. This life is approximately 80% longer than that which was obtained at this location in a similar test site with a conventional non-coring drill bit with a drill surface set with natural diamond stones.
It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that other embodiments of this invention are possible. For example, the cutting element rather than being molded or "surface set" in the drill crown as described herein could - 30 be mounted by brazing in preformed recesses in the drill crown. Thus, while this invention has been described with respect to certain preferred embodiment thereof, other .~
~ - 14 -:..

~ 1~7837~

embodiments will be apparent to those skilled in the art.
It is intended that all such embodiments be covered within the scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claim~.

.
.
' ,.

. ., ~ - 15 -

Claims (15)

The embodiments of the invention in which an exclu-sive property or privilege is claimed are defined as follows:
1. A drill bit comprising:
(a) an elongated shaft;
(b) a crown fixed to one end of said shaft;
(c) a plurality of cutting elements mounted in said crown, each element comprising a planar layer of bonded polycrystalline diamond particles, wherein the diamond layer is oriented at an rake angle between -10° to -25°.
2. The bit of claim 1 further comprising a layer of cemented carbide bonded to and support the diamond layer.
3. The bit of claim 1 wherein said shaft is tubular.
4. The bit of claim 1 wherein said crown is comprised of carbide powder bonded with a silver solder.
5. The bit of claim 4 wherein said silver solder has a flow point of less than about 700°C.
6. The bit of claim 5 wherein said solder consists of about, by weight, 45% Ag, 15% Cu, 16% Zn and 24% Cd.
7. A drill bit comprising:
(a) an elongated shaft;
(b) a crown fixed to one end of said shaft having a plurality of recesses formed therein; and (c) a plurality of cutting elements, each element comprising (1) an elongated pin having one of the two ends disposed in one of said recesses; and (2) a thin planar layer of polycrystalline abrasive crystals fixed to the other end of said pin; the layer located at a rake angle between -10° and -25°.
8. The drill bit of claim 7 wherein said thin planar layer of polycrystalline abrasive crystals is bonded to and supported on a cemented carbide substrate, said substrate in turn being bonded to said other end of said pin so as to fix the crystals thereto.
9. The bit of claim 7 or 8 wherein said pin is tungsten carbide.
10. The drill bit of claim 7 or 8 wherein said polycrystalline abrasive crystals are diamond crystals.
11. A drill bit comprising:
(a) an elongated shaft;
(b) a crown fixed to one end of said shaft, said crown comprised of metal powder and a braze alloy infiltrant with a flow point of less than 700°C;
(c) a plurality of diamond compacts mounted in said crown, each compact comprising a planar layer of bonded poly-crystalline diamond particles, the diamond layer oriented at a rake angle between -10° to -25°.
12. The bit of claim 11 wherein further comprising a layer of cemented carbide bonded to said compact.
13. The bit of claim 11 wherein said shaft is tubular.
14. The bit of claim 11, 12 or 13 wherein said metal powder is comprised of carbide powder and said braze alloy is a silver solder.
15. The bit of claim 11, 12 or 13 wherein said braze alloy consists of about, by weight, 45% Ag, 15% Cu, 16% Zn and 24% Cd.
CA 290788 1976-11-30 1977-11-14 Rotary drill bit and method for making same Expired CA1078371A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US05746044 US4098362A (en) 1976-11-30 1976-11-30 Rotary drill bit and method for making same

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
CA1078371A true CA1078371A (en) 1980-05-27

Family

ID=24999268

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CA 290788 Expired CA1078371A (en) 1976-11-30 1977-11-14 Rotary drill bit and method for making same

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (1) US4098362A (en)
CA (1) CA1078371A (en)

Families Citing this family (108)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
NL7703234A (en) * 1977-03-25 1978-09-27 Skf Ind Trading & Dev A method for manufacturing of a drill head provided with hard wear-resistant elements, ALS-co drill head manufactured by the method.
US4156329A (en) * 1977-05-13 1979-05-29 General Electric Company Method for fabricating a rotary drill bit and composite compact cutters therefor
US4225322A (en) * 1978-01-10 1980-09-30 General Electric Company Composite compact components fabricated with high temperature brazing filler metal and method for making same
DE2966640D1 (en) * 1978-08-18 1984-03-15 De Beers Ind Diamond Method of making tool inserts, wire-drawing die blank and drill bit comprising such inserts
US4350215A (en) * 1978-09-18 1982-09-21 Nl Industries Inc. Drill bit and method of manufacture
GB2060735B (en) * 1979-10-16 1983-06-22 Christensen Inc Diamond drill bits for drilling bore holes in earth formations
US4352400A (en) * 1980-12-01 1982-10-05 Christensen, Inc. Drill bit
CA1216158A (en) * 1981-11-09 1987-01-06 Akio Hara Composite compact component and a process for the production of the same
US4593777A (en) * 1983-02-22 1986-06-10 Nl Industries, Inc. Drag bit and cutters
DE3407427C2 (en) * 1984-02-29 1993-02-11 Hawera Probst Gmbh + Co, 7980 Ravensburg, De
US4562892A (en) * 1984-07-23 1986-01-07 Cdp, Ltd. Rolling cutters for drill bits
US4767050A (en) * 1986-03-24 1988-08-30 General Electric Company Pocketed stud for polycrystalline diamond cutting blanks and method of making same
GB8607701D0 (en) * 1986-03-27 1986-04-30 Shell Int Research Rotary drill bit
GB2188354B (en) * 1986-03-27 1989-11-22 Shell Int Research Rotary drill bit
GB2190120B (en) * 1986-05-10 1990-02-14 Nl Petroleum Prod Improvements in or relating to rotary drill bits
US4782903A (en) * 1987-01-28 1988-11-08 Strange William S Replaceable insert stud for drilling bits
US4858707A (en) * 1988-07-19 1989-08-22 Smith International, Inc. Convex shaped diamond cutting elements
US5180022A (en) * 1991-05-23 1993-01-19 Brady William J Rotary mining tools
US5429199A (en) * 1992-08-26 1995-07-04 Kennametal Inc. Cutting bit and cutting insert
US5605198A (en) * 1993-12-09 1997-02-25 Baker Hughes Incorporated Stress related placement of engineered superabrasive cutting elements on rotary drag bits
US5607025A (en) * 1995-06-05 1997-03-04 Smith International, Inc. Drill bit and cutting structure having enhanced placement and sizing of cutters for improved bit stabilization
US5535839A (en) * 1995-06-07 1996-07-16 Brady; William J. Roof drill bit with radial domed PCD inserts
US6068071A (en) * 1996-05-24 2000-05-30 U.S. Synthetic Corporation Cutter with polycrystalline diamond layer and conic section profile
US6241036B1 (en) 1998-09-16 2001-06-05 Baker Hughes Incorporated Reinforced abrasive-impregnated cutting elements, drill bits including same
US7513319B2 (en) 2004-06-08 2009-04-07 Devall Donald L Reamer bit
US7228922B1 (en) 2004-06-08 2007-06-12 Devall Donald L Drill bit
US7341118B2 (en) * 2005-06-20 2008-03-11 Northern Centre For Advanced Technology Inc. Rotating dry drilling bit
US7871133B2 (en) 2006-08-11 2011-01-18 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Locking fixture
US8123302B2 (en) * 2006-08-11 2012-02-28 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Impact tool
US8622155B2 (en) 2006-08-11 2014-01-07 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Pointed diamond working ends on a shear bit
US7469972B2 (en) * 2006-06-16 2008-12-30 Hall David R Wear resistant tool
US7635168B2 (en) * 2006-08-11 2009-12-22 Hall David R Degradation assembly shield
US8590644B2 (en) 2006-08-11 2013-11-26 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Downhole drill bit
US7946657B2 (en) * 2006-08-11 2011-05-24 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Retention for an insert
US8033615B2 (en) 2006-08-11 2011-10-11 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Retention system
US7744164B2 (en) * 2006-08-11 2010-06-29 Schluimberger Technology Corporation Shield of a degradation assembly
US8007051B2 (en) 2006-08-11 2011-08-30 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Shank assembly
US7661765B2 (en) 2006-08-11 2010-02-16 Hall David R Braze thickness control
US7992945B2 (en) * 2006-08-11 2011-08-09 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Hollow pick shank
US7475948B2 (en) 2006-08-11 2009-01-13 Hall David R Pick with a bearing
US9051795B2 (en) 2006-08-11 2015-06-09 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Downhole drill bit
US8500209B2 (en) * 2006-08-11 2013-08-06 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Manually rotatable tool
US8136887B2 (en) * 2006-08-11 2012-03-20 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Non-rotating pick with a pressed in carbide segment
US7637574B2 (en) 2006-08-11 2009-12-29 Hall David R Pick assembly
US8453497B2 (en) 2006-08-11 2013-06-04 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Test fixture that positions a cutting element at a positive rake angle
US8201892B2 (en) 2006-08-11 2012-06-19 Hall David R Holder assembly
US7669674B2 (en) 2006-08-11 2010-03-02 Hall David R Degradation assembly
US7992944B2 (en) 2006-08-11 2011-08-09 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Manually rotatable tool
US7600823B2 (en) * 2006-08-11 2009-10-13 Hall David R Pick assembly
US8500210B2 (en) * 2006-08-11 2013-08-06 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Resilient pick shank
US8567532B2 (en) 2006-08-11 2013-10-29 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Cutting element attached to downhole fixed bladed bit at a positive rake angle
US7390066B2 (en) 2006-08-11 2008-06-24 Hall David R Method for providing a degradation drum
US9145742B2 (en) 2006-08-11 2015-09-29 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Pointed working ends on a drill bit
US8485609B2 (en) 2006-08-11 2013-07-16 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Impact tool
US7387345B2 (en) * 2006-08-11 2008-06-17 Hall David R Lubricating drum
US7568770B2 (en) 2006-06-16 2009-08-04 Hall David R Superhard composite material bonded to a steel body
US8714285B2 (en) 2006-08-11 2014-05-06 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Method for drilling with a fixed bladed bit
US7963617B2 (en) 2006-08-11 2011-06-21 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Degradation assembly
US7413258B2 (en) * 2006-08-11 2008-08-19 Hall David R Hollow pick shank
US8414085B2 (en) 2006-08-11 2013-04-09 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Shank assembly with a tensioned element
US7997661B2 (en) * 2006-08-11 2011-08-16 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Tapered bore in a pick
US7401863B1 (en) 2007-03-15 2008-07-22 Hall David R Press-fit pick
US7950746B2 (en) * 2006-06-16 2011-05-31 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Attack tool for degrading materials
US8033616B2 (en) * 2006-08-11 2011-10-11 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Braze thickness control
US7980582B2 (en) * 2006-08-09 2011-07-19 Atc Leasing Company Llc Front tow extended saddle
US20110254349A1 (en) 2007-12-21 2011-10-20 Hall David R Resilent Connection between a Pick Shank and Block
US8215420B2 (en) 2006-08-11 2012-07-10 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Thermally stable pointed diamond with increased impact resistance
US7320505B1 (en) 2006-08-11 2008-01-22 Hall David R Attack tool
US8449040B2 (en) 2006-08-11 2013-05-28 David R. Hall Shank for an attack tool
US7413256B2 (en) * 2006-08-11 2008-08-19 Hall David R Washer for a degradation assembly
US20090058174A1 (en) * 2006-08-11 2009-03-05 Hall David R Attack Tool
US7464993B2 (en) * 2006-08-11 2008-12-16 Hall David R Attack tool
US7445294B2 (en) * 2006-08-11 2008-11-04 Hall David R Attack tool
US7410221B2 (en) * 2006-08-11 2008-08-12 Hall David R Retainer sleeve in a degradation assembly
US7338135B1 (en) * 2006-08-11 2008-03-04 Hall David R Holder for a degradation assembly
US7419224B2 (en) * 2006-08-11 2008-09-02 Hall David R Sleeve in a degradation assembly
US7384105B2 (en) * 2006-08-11 2008-06-10 Hall David R Attack tool
US9068410B2 (en) 2006-10-26 2015-06-30 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Dense diamond body
US8960337B2 (en) 2006-10-26 2015-02-24 Schlumberger Technology Corporation High impact resistant tool with an apex width between a first and second transitions
US8109349B2 (en) * 2006-10-26 2012-02-07 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Thick pointed superhard material
US7976238B2 (en) * 2006-12-01 2011-07-12 Hall David R End of a moldboard positioned proximate a milling drum
US8485756B2 (en) * 2006-12-01 2013-07-16 David R. Hall Heated liquid nozzles incorporated into a moldboard
US8403595B2 (en) * 2006-12-01 2013-03-26 David R. Hall Plurality of liquid jet nozzles and a blower mechanism that are directed into a milling chamber
CN101234468B (en) 2007-01-30 2010-05-19 鼎峰电机工业股份有限公司 Method for manufacturing drilling tool and structure thereof
US9051794B2 (en) * 2007-04-12 2015-06-09 Schlumberger Technology Corporation High impact shearing element
US7926883B2 (en) 2007-05-15 2011-04-19 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Spring loaded pick
US8869919B2 (en) 2007-09-06 2014-10-28 Smith International, Inc. Drag bit with utility blades
US7926596B2 (en) * 2007-09-06 2011-04-19 Smith International, Inc. Drag bit with utility blades
US8038223B2 (en) * 2007-09-07 2011-10-18 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Pick with carbide cap
US7832808B2 (en) 2007-10-30 2010-11-16 Hall David R Tool holder sleeve
US8292372B2 (en) 2007-12-21 2012-10-23 Hall David R Retention for holder shank
US8540037B2 (en) 2008-04-30 2013-09-24 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Layered polycrystalline diamond
US7628233B1 (en) 2008-07-23 2009-12-08 Hall David R Carbide bolster
WO2010019092A1 (en) * 2008-08-15 2010-02-18 Sandvik Intellectual Property Ab Core drill bit
US8061457B2 (en) 2009-02-17 2011-11-22 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Chamfered pointed enhanced diamond insert
US20100242375A1 (en) * 2009-03-30 2010-09-30 Hall David R Double Sintered Thermally Stable Polycrystalline Diamond Cutting Elements
US8322796B2 (en) * 2009-04-16 2012-12-04 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Seal with contact element for pick shield
US8701799B2 (en) * 2009-04-29 2014-04-22 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Drill bit cutter pocket restitution
US20100326740A1 (en) * 2009-06-26 2010-12-30 Hall David R Bonded Assembly Having Low Residual Stress
CN104712252A (en) * 2009-08-07 2015-06-17 史密斯国际有限公司 Polycrystalline diamond material with high toughness and high wear resistance
US8261471B2 (en) 2010-06-30 2012-09-11 Hall David R Continuously adjusting resultant force in an excavating assembly
US8449039B2 (en) 2010-08-16 2013-05-28 David R. Hall Pick assembly with integrated piston
US8262168B2 (en) 2010-09-22 2012-09-11 Hall David R Multiple milling drums secured to the underside of a single milling machine
US8728382B2 (en) 2011-03-29 2014-05-20 David R. Hall Forming a polycrystalline ceramic in multiple sintering phases
US8668275B2 (en) 2011-07-06 2014-03-11 David R. Hall Pick assembly with a contiguous spinal region
US8336648B1 (en) 2011-09-02 2012-12-25 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Mechanical attachment of thermally stable diamond to a substrate
EP3245377A1 (en) * 2015-01-12 2017-11-22 Longyear TM, Inc. Drilling tools having matrices with carbide-forming alloys, and methods of making and using same
CN105863517A (en) * 2016-06-13 2016-08-17 四川万吉金刚石钻头有限公司 Composite sheet based on polycrystalline diamond and impregnated diamond

Family Cites Families (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2951683A (en) * 1957-07-16 1960-09-06 Village Of Deming Core drill
US3106973A (en) * 1960-09-26 1963-10-15 Christensen Diamond Prod Co Rotary drill bits
US3407445A (en) * 1966-03-02 1968-10-29 Gen Electric High pressure reaction vessel for the preparation of diamond
US3745623A (en) * 1971-12-27 1973-07-17 Gen Electric Diamond tools for machining
US3938599A (en) * 1974-03-27 1976-02-17 Hycalog, Inc. Rotary drill bit
US4006788A (en) * 1975-06-11 1977-02-08 Smith International, Inc. Diamond cutter rock bit with penetration limiting

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US4098362A (en) 1978-07-04 grant
CA1078371A1 (en) grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3442342A (en) Specially shaped inserts for compact rock bits,and rolling cutters and rock bits using such inserts
US3343308A (en) Cutting and grinding devices
US6196340B1 (en) Surface geometry for non-planar drill inserts
US6651757B2 (en) Toughness optimized insert for rock and hammer bits
US5273125A (en) Fixed cutter bit with improved diamond filled compacts
US7695542B2 (en) Fiber-containing diamond-impregnated cutting tools
US6659199B2 (en) Bearing elements for drill bits, drill bits so equipped, and method of drilling
US4553615A (en) Rotary drilling bits
US4940099A (en) Cutting elements for roller cutter drill bits
US6196910B1 (en) Polycrystalline diamond compact cutter with improved cutting by preventing chip build up
US5279375A (en) Multidirectional drill bit cutter
US20070181348A1 (en) Polycrystalline diamond abrasive elements
US20080164071A1 (en) Superabrasive cutting elements with enhanced durability and increased wear life, and drilling apparatus so equipped
US6187068B1 (en) Composite polycrystalline diamond compact with discrete particle size areas
US6527069B1 (en) Superabrasive cutter having optimized table thickness and arcuate table-to-substrate interfaces
Ersoy et al. Performance characteristics of circular diamond saws in cutting different types of rocks
US20100084198A1 (en) Cutters for fixed cutter bits
US6315652B1 (en) Abrasive tool inserts and their production
US5881830A (en) Superabrasive drill bit cutting element with buttress-supported planar chamfer
US20110259642A1 (en) Cutting elements for earth-boring tools, earth-boring tools including such cutting elements and related methods
US5944129A (en) Surface finish for non-planar inserts
EP0235455A2 (en) Percussion rock bit
US4512426A (en) Rotating bits including a plurality of types of preferential cutting elements
US5871060A (en) Attachment geometry for non-planar drill inserts
US4586574A (en) Cutter configuration for a gage-to-shoulder transition and face pattern

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
MKEX Expiry