- Publication number
- CA1060302A CA1060302A CA 227832 CA227832A CA1060302A CA 1060302 A CA1060302 A CA 1060302A CA 227832 CA227832 CA 227832 CA 227832 A CA227832 A CA 227832A CA 1060302 A CA1060302 A CA 1060302A
- Grant status
- Patent type
- Prior art keywords
- Prior art date
- Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
- A—HUMAN NECESSITIES
- A61—MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
- A61M—DEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
- A61M5/00—Devices for bringing media into the body in a subcutaneous, intra-vascular or intramuscular way; Accessories therefor, e.g. filling or cleaning devices, arm-rests
- A61M5/36—Devices for bringing media into the body in a subcutaneous, intra-vascular or intramuscular way; Accessories therefor, e.g. filling or cleaning devices, arm-rests with means for eliminating or preventing injection or infusion of air into body
- A61M5/365—Air detectors
- A—HUMAN NECESSITIES
- A61—MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
- A61M—DEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
- A61M5/00—Devices for bringing media into the body in a subcutaneous, intra-vascular or intramuscular way; Accessories therefor, e.g. filling or cleaning devices, arm-rests
- A61M5/14—Infusion devices, e.g. infusing by gravity; Blood infusion; Accessories therefor
- A61M5/168—Means for controlling media flow to the body or for metering media to the body, e.g. drip meters, counters ; Monitoring media flow to the body
- A61M5/172—Means for controlling media flow to the body or for metering media to the body, e.g. drip meters, counters ; Monitoring media flow to the body electrical or electronic
- Y—GENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
- Y10—TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
- Y10S—TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
- Y10S128/12—Pressure infusion
A volumetric infusion pump for intravenous administration of fluid to a patient, including a volumetric cassette for receiving fluid from an IV fluid container and for pumping such fluid at a controlled rate using an IV
administration set until a predetermined volume of fluid has been infused into the patient. The volumetric cassette contains, when filled, a predetermined volume of fluid. The cassette, when coupled to a driving mechanism in the pump, provides for the fluid to be pumped from the cassette at a predetermined rate. Once the cassette chamber has been at least partially emptied a predetermined amount by the operation of the pump, the volumetric chamber of the cassette is rapidly filled and the pumping continues with such emptying and filling of the cassette chamber alternately occuring until the predetermined volume of fluid has been pumped. The cassette is of a syringe type having a chamber and a plunger piston and the stroke of the plunger is controlled by the driving mechanism of the pump. A plurality of alarm mechanisms provide safety in the operation of the pump and provide output indications to give the operator a diagnosis of the reason that the pump has been alarmed. These alarms include air-in-line, low battery, occlusion of the line, and infusion complete.
r)-5239 ~L: SPECIFICATION
3 The present invention is directed to a volumetric 4 infusion pump for use in administering fluids intravenously ~ to a patient. It is to be appreciated that the pump may be 6 used for pumping fluids other than for intravenous adminis-7 tration of fluids but the invention will be described with 8 reference to such intravenous administration of fluid to a 9 patient.
11 It is desirable, when administering fluids intra-12 venously to a patient, that the rate at which the fluid is 13 administered and the total quantity of such administered 14 fluid be accurately controlled. The most common method of 15 of administering such fluids is through the use of a standard 16 IV administration set and where a bottle of fluid to be 17 administered is suspended in an elevated position and with 18 the administration of the fluid to the patient passively 19 provided by the operation of gravity.
21 The fluid from the elevated bottle may pass through 22 a drip chamber and with the number of drops per minute being 23 a coarse control of the rate at which the fluid is administered.
24 The nurse must physically check the drip rate and the amount of 25 fluid left in the bottle on a frequent basis, so as to manually 26 adjust the drip rate when necessary, and to stop the adminis-27 trati~n of fluid when the proper quantity of fluid has been 28 aaministered to the patient. The frequent checking by the nurse 29 is time consuming, and the manual c~ntrol of the rate of 30 administering the fluid using the drip chamber is not very 31 aCcurate~
1 In order to overcome the numerous problems of the
2 administration of IV fluids using a nurse adjusted drip chamber,
3 numerous pumps have been proposed to control the administration
4 of the fluid to the patient. One such type of pump uses electronic means to detect the drip rate in a drip chamber 6 and to auto~atically control the drip rate in accordance with 7 the detected rate~ This type of pump may also include a cam-like 8 member to massage the IV tube to provide a positive pumping 9 action to the fluid being administered to the patient. Although this type of pump is an improvement over using the elevated 11` bottle and IV administration set with gravity, it still has 12 some limitations as to the accuracy in the rate of pumping and 13 in the pumping of a controlled volume of fluid to the patient.
Another type of pump which has been proposed, is to 16 eliminate the elevated bottle of fluid and to use a large 17 volumetric chamber which is filled with the fluid to be pumped.
18 The entire chamber is then slowly emptied, using any one of a 19 number of ways, and with the rate of emptying controlled to provide the control of the administration of the IV fluid to 21 the patient. This type of pump has several disadvantages 22 including the fact that the standard IV bottle and a & inis-23 tration set is not used and a special, costly, chamber must 24 bé filled with the fluid to be infused. If this chamber is disposable, the cost of providing such a special large chamber 26 filled with the desired fluid is relatively high compared with 27 standard IV bottles and sets and if the chamber is not disposable, 28 then the chamber must be cleaned and sterilized after each use.
29 In addition, if the rate of infusion is to be low, it might be difficult to accurately control such a low rate of infusion 31 from a large volumetric chamber.
~-5239 ' 106030Z
1 The present invention overcomes many of the 2 difficulties of the prior art methods of administering IV
3 fluids and specifically, provides for the positive pumping 4 of an IV fluid to a patient at an accurately controlled ~ predetermined rate until a predetermined quantity of fluid 6 has been administered and with a number of safety devices 7 to insure that the pumping is either stopped or reduced to 8 a very low rate when certain predetermined conditlons occur.
For example, if air is detected in the line, then 11` the pump is deactivated and cannot be restarted until the 12 air-in-line condition is cleared. If the charge on the 13 battery is low, an alarm is given even though the pump will 14 continue to operate. When the charge on the battery drops 15 below a level sufficient to drive the pump, then the pump 16 is deactivated until the battery is either recharged or 17 replaced or until the battery charger is connected to the 18 battery to both recharge the battery and supply power to 19 drive the pump. When the IV tubing is occluded beyond the pump's capability to pump, then the occlusion alarm is 21 activated and the pump is deactivated until the alarm con-22 dition is cleared. Finally, when the predetermined volume 23 of fluid has been infused into the patient, then the infusion 24 complete alarm is activated and the pumping rate is reduced to a very low flow rate until the nurse either turns off the 26 pump and removes the IV administration set or attaches a 27 fresh supply of fluid and presets the pump to pump an additional 28 amount of fluid to the patient.
)-S239 ~06V302 1 The volumetric infusion pump of the present iDvention 2 provides for the controlled pumping of a fluid through the use 3 of a standard IV administration set which feedq fluid into a 4 disposable volumetric cassette from an elevated bottle of fluid.
5 Specifically, the cassette is of a syringe type, having a
6 chamber of a predetermined volume and a plunger piston which is
7 used to empty the chamber when connected to and driven by the
8 pump. The pump includes a driver shuttle which is coupled to the
9 bottom of the plunger to control the pumping of the fluid out of
10 the cassette at a predetermined rate. Specifically, a stepping
11 motor is used to drive the plunger at a controlled rate in
12 accordance with the number and rate of pulses provided to the-
14 The volume of the chamber in the cassette is relatively 16 small when compared ~7ith the volume of fluid which is normally 17 to be pumped for infusion into the patient. For example, the 18 volume of the cassette may be 5cc and generally, the volume of a 19 fluid to be infused into a patient is a large multiple of 5cc.
20 For example, the patient may receive 500, or lOOOcc of a fluid 21 so that the cassette must be filled and at least partially 22 emptied a predetermined amount a large number of times in order 23 to pump the fluid for infusion into the patient. Since the 24 cassette is small in size it may be relatively inexpensive so that a new sterilized cassette can be used for each infusion of 26 fluid, and with the cassette being discarded after the infusion 27 is complete. The pump itself is designed to never contact the 28 fluid as it is infused into the patient, so that the pump does 29 not have to be sterilized after each use. Therefore, the only part of the combination of the pump and cassette which is in 31 contact with the fluid is the inexpensive disposable cassette.
1 Generally, the cassette is supported by positioning 2 means on the pump so that the driver shuttle of the pump 3 engages an extension of the cassette plunger and the tubing 4 from the fluid bottle is connected to the input of the ~is-5 posable volumetric cassette. The output tubing from the 6 disposable cassette passes through an air-in-line sensor and 7 is then coupled for infusion into the patient. The pump 8 includes presetable dials which are adjusted to the volume of 9 fluid to be infused and to the rate at which such volume is 10 infused. After the air in the lines to and from the cassette 11 are purged, so that there is only fluid in the lines from the 12 fluid bottle to the patient, then the pump is operated to 13 drive the plunger of the cassette to infuse fluid at the preset 14 rate of infusion and until the preset volume of fluid is infused.
16 The cassette is at least partially emptied a 17 predetermined amount and refilled many times during the infusion 18 of fluid and the plunger, during refills, is rapidly operated 19 in the direction opposite to the pumping direction. The portion 20 of time used to refill the cassette chamber is relatively small 21 in comparison with the time during which the chamber is emptied, 22 but in order to insure that the pumping of the fluid for 23 infusion occurs at an accurate rate, the time that it takes to 24 refill the cassette chamber is detected and the stepping motor 25 driving the plunger is fed additional pulses in the next delivery 26 stroke to compensate for the time lost in refilling the cassette 27 chamber, j-5239 ~)60302 .
1 It can be seen, therefore, that the volumetric 2 infusion pump o~ the present invention operates using an 3 inexpensive, sterilized, disposable cassette which is dis-4 carded after each use, and with the cassette including a 5 volume chamber having an accurate cross sectional area which 6 is filled and at least partially emptied a plurality of times 7 before the predetermined ~uantity of fluid is infused into 8 the patient. The rate of the fluid being infused is 9 accurately controlled by ùsing a stepping motor to drive the 10 plunger within the cassette chamber and any time lost in 11 refilling the cassette is compensated by feeding additional 12 compensating pulses to the stepping motor. The accuracy of 13 the cross sectional area of the chamber controls the accuracy 14 Of delivery of fluid and any inaccuracies in the volume of
15 the chamber do not enter into the rate of infusion.
17 The volumetric infusion pump of the present invention
18 includes numerous safety features as generally outlined above.
19 It is important that the pump operate accurately as to the
20 volume of fluid pumped and the rate of pumping, but is is also
21 important that the pump does not endanger the health of the
22 patient by attempting to pump fluid unless the flow of fluid
23 to the patient is uninterrupted. For example, the volumetric
24 infusion pump of the present invention includes an air-in-line
25 detector which detects any air in the line to the patient.
26 When sUch air in the line is detected, the pump is immediately
27 stopped so as to insure that air is not infused into the 2~ patient. For example, should the bottle run dry, then 29 ultimately air i5 present in the fluid line and moving towards 3~ the patient, At that time, the alarm is actuated and the pump ~060302 1 is shut off to prevent any air being infused into the patient.
2 Other conditions in addition to an empty bottle may cause air 3 in the line, or the IV line may not be properly positioned in 4 the air ~etector. In all of these conditions, the pump is 5 stopped and the condition must be cleared before the pump can 6 be restarted.
q 8 The pump also includes a battery alarnl which provides 9 an alarm signal when there is approximately one hour running 10 time for the pump from the charge remaining on the battery.-r 11 When the alarm initially comes on, the operation of the pump 12 is not affected. If, however, the pump is operated beyond the 13 alarm period without plugging in the battery charger, ultimately 14 the battery is discharged so that there is insufficient power 15 to drive the pump and this activates an occlusion alarm in ~; 16 addition to the battery alarm. The battery alarm can be cleared 17 by connecting the battery charger to the battery, and after a 18 brief period of time the pump may be operated through the 19 battery charger while at the same time charging the battery.20 21 The pump also includes an occlusion aIarm to indicate 22 to the operator that the IV tubing has been occluded beyond the 23 pump's preset capability to pump, or when the battery power is 24 insufficient to drive the pump. One major cause of this alarm 2~ 'condition is the tubing being occluded by the patient lying on 26 the ~ubing. In addition, the tubing could be pinched such as 27 in a bedrail, the filter could become clogged, or the tubing 2~ clamp from the bottle may not be open. In order to cancel the 29 occlusion alarm, the cause of the occlusion must be eliminated 3~ before the pump can be reset to operate.
1 The infusion pump of the present invention also 2 includes an infusion complete alarm, which alarm is designed 3 to allow the operator to preset the volume that is to be infused into the patient, and to provide an alarm signal when that volume has been delivered to the patient. Specifically, 6 the volume that is to be infused is set at the front of the 7 pump using a counter dial. The pump automatically counts off 8 the volume dispensed in one cc increments and displays the 9 remaining volume to be infused on the volume dial of the pump.
When the pump dispenses all of the desired preset volume of ~ fluid, the`dial shows zero and the infusion complete alarm is 12 actuated. When the infusion complete alarm is actuated, the 13 instrument is not shut off, but the flow rate from the pump 14 is reduced to a very low keep-open rate of lcc per hour. At this very low flow rate, the venipuncture cannula is less 16 prone ~o being clogged before the operator can attend to the 17 infusion complete alarm. In order to clear this alarm the 18 pump is either deactivated or a new volume of fluid must be 19 set into the volume-to-be-infused-dial, and if necessary, another source of fluid must be provided.
22 It can be seen, therefore, that the present invention 23 provides for a very accurate volumetric infusion pump so as to 24 control a volume of fluid to be infused into a patient at an accurately controlled rate using a standard IV administration 26 set and fluid bottle. The pump includes a disposable volumetric 27 cassette of small volume which is discarded after each use. A
28 clearer understanding of the invention will be had with reference
29 to the following description and drawings wherein:
)-5239 ~ 1060302 1 Figure 1 illustrates a front isometric view of the 2 volumetric infusion pump of the present invention;
4 Figure 2 illustrates an exploded view of the portion 5 of the pump for receiving the cassette and including a driver 6 shuttle for connection to the cassette plunger;
8 Figure 3 illustrates in more detail a disposable 9 volumetric cassette for use with the pump of the present 10 invention;
12 Figure 4 illustrates a rear view of the pump of the 13 present invention;
Figure ~ is a first view of an air-in-line detector 16 for detecting air in the fluid line;
18 Figure 6 is a second view of the air-in-line detector;
Figure 7 is a functional diagram of the electronic 21 control portion of the volumetric infusion pump of the present 22 invention, and 24 Figures 8 through 24 illustrate in detail a schematic 2~ diagram of the electronic control portion of the volumetric 26 infusion pump of the present invention and specifically disclose 27 the details of the functional blocks of Figure 7.
_g_ 1 In Figure 1, an isometric view of a pump of the 2 present invention is shown attached to a pole 10 using a pair 3 of clamps 12 and 14. A standard IV administration set including 4 a bottle 16 is also attached to the pole. The bottle 16 dis-penses fluid to the pump through tubing 20 and it is to be 6 appreciated that the pump will draw fluid by suction and the 7 fluid bottle 16 need not be iocated above the pump. A clamp 8 member 22 controls the flow of fluid from the bottle 16 for ~9 application to the pump.
'` 10 11 The volumetric infusion pump of the present invention 12 incorporates a disposable volumetric cassette 24 to receive 13 fluid from the tubing 20 by connecting the tubing 20 to an 14 input plug 26 of the cassette 24. The volumetric cassette 24 includes a plunger shaft 28 which includes an end portion which 16 fits on a plunger shuttle 30. The plunger shuttle 30 extends 17 from the pump and is used to drive the plunger shaft 28 in 18 a vertical direction to control the flow of fluid into and out 19 of the cassette. A pair of location pins 32 also extend from the pump and the cassette 24 includes openings 34 which snap 21 over the pins 32. A valve motor shaft 36 also extends from 22 the pump into a ualve portion 38 of the cassette to control 23 the valving of the fluid into and out of the cassette so as to 24 provide for the alternate filling and at least partial emptying 25 of the cassette during infusion of the fluid into the patient.
)-5239 .: .
1 The output from the cassette 24 is t~ken from an 2 output plug 40 and is then coupled through an extension tubing 3 42 and on to the patient for infusion into the patient. The ~ 4 extension tubing 42 is also positioned in an air-in-line s 5 detector 44 for detection of any air in the line to the patient.
6 The details of the air-in-line detector 44 and the cassette 24 , 7 in combination with the control mechanisms of the pump will be 8 explained in greater detail in later portions of this 9 specification.
lI The volumetric infusion pump of the present invention 12 includes a plurality of operating mechanisms and alarm ~ 13 indicators on the front panel and the back panel of the pump.
!,~ 14 For example, as shown in Figure 1, a plurality of output s 15 indicators 46 through 52 provide alarm indications for parti-16 cular alarm conditions. Specifically, alarm indicator 46 is 17 an air-in-line alarm indicator. Alarm indicator 48 is a 18 battery alarm indicator. Alarm indicator 50 is an occlusion 19 alarm indicator, and alarm indicator 52 is an infusion complete 20 alarm indicator. The control of the volume of liquid to be 21 infused and the rate at which this liquid is to be infused 2Z is preset using dial mechanisms 54 and 56. Specifically, dial 23 mechanism 54 is a volume-to-be-infused dial and includes 24 output indicators which are counted down as the volume is 25 infused. The dial 56 is a rate dial which can be preset to 26 ~he desired infusion rate for the infusion of the liquid into 27 the patient.
--], 1---52~9 10~i030Z
1 A push button 58 is a purge switch to initially 2 purge the air in the line before infusion of the liquid into J
3 the patient. A switch 60 is an on-off switch and a push 4 button 62 is an operate button to control the operation of 5 the pump after the on-off switch has been switched to the on 6 position.
8 As shown in Figure 4, the back panel of the 9 volumetric infusion pump includes an audio alarm 64 and a 10 switch 66 to control the audio alarm to be on or off. A
lI receptacle 68 is used to provide an output signal at a remote 12 location to indicate to the nurse or other personnel at such 13 remote location that any of the alarm conditions have occurred 14 at the pump.
16 A battery receptacle 70 is used for recharging the 17 battery used to power the pump and a cover 72 is used to cover, 18 but provide access to,the storage portion of the pump which 19 contains the battery charger.
21 Figures 2 and 3 show in greater detail the construction 22 ~f the portion of the pump in combination with the cassette 24 23 which provides for the movement of the plunger shaft 28 of the 24 cassette and the operation of the valve mechanism 38 of the 25 cassette so as to control t~e flow of fluid through the cassette 2~ 24 from the input plug 26 to the output plug 40. As indicated 27 above, the openings 34 in the cassette 24 snap over the pins 32 28 in the pump to lock the cassette in position. The valve motor 29 ~haft 36 is seated within the valve structure 38 of the cassette
30 to control the position of the valve in accordance with the
31 ~peration o a ~otor 74.
32 1 The valve 38 is a two-way valve type to allow for 2 the passage of fluid from the input plug 26 to a volumetric 3 chamber 76 for filling of the chamber for a first position of 4 the valve 38. A second position of the valve 38 provides for the pumping of the fluid from the chamber 76 to the patient 6 through the output plug 40. It can be seen, therefore, that . 7 by the alternate control by the motor 74 to control the position 8 of the shaft 36, the valve mechanism 38 is controlled to allow 9 for the alternate filling of the cassette chamber 76 and pumping of the fluid in the chamber to the patient. The actual 11 filling and emptying of the fluid in the chamber 76 is in ~2 accordance with the movement of a plunger 78 within the chamber 13 76. The plunger shaft 28 is at the end of the plunger 78 and 14 is connected to the plunger shuttle 30. The member 28 snaps 15 over the plunger shuttle 30 when the cassette is snapped into 16 position on the pump. The moving of the valve 38 between the 17 two positions is coordinated with the moving of the plunger 78 18 in the two directions to provide for the filling and emptying 19 of the chamber 76.
21 The plunger shuttle 30 is connected to a sliding 22 structure 80 which is driven by a shaft member 82. The shaft 23 member 82 is in turn rotated by a stepper motor 84. The shaft 24 member 82 drives the slider member 80 through a lead screw and ~5 lead nut 86 to ~rovide precise movement of the plunger shuttle 26 30. A disc member 88 containing a plurality of slots 90 is 27 also coupled to the shaft 82 and two detectors 92 and 94 each 28 formed by a light source anda light detector provide for 29 detection of the rotation of the shaft 82 each time a slot 30 passes by one of the detectors 92 and 94. The slotted disc 31 member 88 and the detectors 92 and 94 are used to detect for an 32 occlusion in the line by aetecting stalling of the motor 84.
i0~;0302 It can be seen with reference to Figures 2 and 3 that as the motor 84 is driven by stepping pulses, the shaft 82 ro-tates to provide vertical movement of the slider 80 and the plunger shuttle 30. This in turn provides vertical movement of the plunger 78 in the volumetric chamber 76 to either pump fluid in the chamber 76 for one position of the valve 38 and with the plunger 78 being moved in a controlled slow speed in an upward direction, or to draw fluid into the chamber 76 for a second position of the valve 38 and with the plunger 78 being moved at a rapid speed in a downward direction. The alternate rapid fil-ling and slow pumping of fluid in the chamber 76 by the movement of the plunger 78 provides for an accurate control of the rate of infusion of fluid into the patient until a predetermined quantity of fluid has been infused.
Figures 5 and 6 illustrate in detail the air-in-line detector 44 shown in Figure 1. As can be seen in Figures 5 and 6, the air-in-line detector includes a passage 96 which receives the tubing 42 shown in Figure 1. A pair of light sources 98 and lO0 are positioned above the passage 96 to provide light energy through the tubing 42 and specifically with each light source providing a beam of light from the outside of the tubing 42 through a point tangential to the inner bore of the tubing. The light source 96 provides detection of air in the line in the rearward half of the tubing 42 and the light source 100 provides detection of air in the forward half of the tubing 42. A pair of detectors 102 and 104 are positioned to detect the presence or absence of light refracted through the tubing-fluid composite.
Since the composite refractive index of tubing containing fluid t is relatively constant but significantly different from that of tubing ~ith air the detectors 102 and 104 provide output signals which differentiate between the two conditions ~-5239 1 The volumetric inPusion pump of the present 2 invention is generally operated by a nurse or other hospital 3 personnel in the following manner. The rate dial 56 is 4 initially set to zero before the on-off switch 60 is moved to the "on" position. The air-in-line alarm indicator 46 is 6 now activated and stays lit until the tubing 42 is placed in 7 the air detector 44 and untii the air in the tubing 42 has 8 been purged from the system. The purge switch 58 is pushed 9 in and maintained in that position until the slot at the end of the valve motor shaft 36 is at a 45 angle to the left.
11 This is the position of the valve motor shaft 36 shown in 12 Figure 2.
14 The volumetric cassette 24 is now snapped into position over the cassette locator pins 32 and with the valve 16 38 locked into the slot at the end of the valve motor shaft 17 36. The cassette plunger shaft 28 is then positioned over the 18 plunger shuttle 30 and pressed to snap into a locked position.
19 The extension tubing 42 is now positioned into the air detector 44 and coupled to the output plug 40 of the cassette.
~-5239 1 The IV administration set including the tubing 20 2 is now filled from the fluid bottle 16 before the tubinq 20 3 is connected to the input plug 26 of the cassette. The clamp 4 22 is maintained in the open position and the purge switch 58 is pushed to operate the pump in the purge mode until the 6 cassette 24 and the extension tubing 42 all the way down to the venipu~cture cannula at the end of the extension tubing 8 42 are void of air. At this time, a puncture may be made into 9 the patient's vein for the infusion into the patient of the 10 fluid from the fluid bottle 16 and under control of the pump -11 of the present invention.
13 The rate dial 56 is now set to the desired rate in 14 cc per hour. The volume-to-be-infused dial ~4 is then set to 15 the desired volume of fluid to be infused into the patient.
16 The operate button 62 is then pressed to begin the infusion 17 of the fluid into the patient.
19 During the operation of the volumetric infusion pump 20 of the present invention, a number of alarm conditions may occur, 21 and the pump is designed to provide safety for the patient by 22 controlling the operation of the pump in accordance with the 23 alarm condition. In order to insure a rapid clearing of the 24 alarm condition, the alarms provide a visual diagnosis of the 25 reason that the instrument has been alarmed. A particular one 26 of the indicators lights when a specific alarm condition occurs 27 but any of the alarm conditions provides an audible alarm 28 from speaker 64 when so controlled by the audible alarm on-off 29 ~itch 66.
The specific alarm conditions are air-in-line, low battery, occlusion, and infusion complete. The air-in-line alarm is activated when the bottle 16 runs dry or any other condition which would cause any air on the output side of the cassette which would be moving towards the patient, or if the IV tubing 42 is not placed in the air detector 44. When this alarm condition occurs, the pump shuts off and the output light 46 is activated. The pump cannot be restarted until the air-in-line condition is cleared. Once the air-in-line condi-tion is cleared, the pump may be restarted by pressing theoperate button 62.
The battery alarm is activated when there is approximately one hour running time remaining on the battery charge. The alarm provides an output indication by the output indicator 48, but the pump continues to operate. If, however, the pump is operated for more than one hour without plugging in the battery charger to recharge the battery, the battery discharges and there is insufficient power to drive the pump which in turn activates the occlusion alarm. The battery alarm condition can be corrected by plugging in the battery charger to the battery and allowing the battery to charge for a short period of time, such as two or three minutes, and then pressing the operate button 62. The pump is now operated through the battery charger while charging the battery.
~-5239 1 The occlusion alarm is activated when the IV tubing 2 has been occluded beyond the instrument's preset capability 3 to pump, or when the battery is discharged, so that there is 4 not sufficient power to drive the pump. Other causes for acti-5 vating the occlusion alarm may be that the tubing is occluded 6 by the patient lying on the tubing, the tubing may be pinched 7 in a bedrail, or the tubing may be pinched by some other 8 physical element. In addition, the filter in the IV set may 9 be clogged, or the tubing clamp 22 from the bottle 16 may be ~0 closed. In order to cancel the occlusion alarm, the particular 11 cause of the occlusion must be eliminated and then the operate 12 button 62 must be pushed.
14 The infusion complete alarm is activated once the predetermined volume has been infused into the patient. This 16 alarm allows the operator to preset the volume of fluid that i5 17 to be infused and when that volume of fluid has been delivered, 18 the infusion complete alarm is activated. The volume-to-be-19 infused dial 54 is set to the desired volume to be administered and as the volume of fluid is being infused into the patient, 21 the pump automatically counts off the volume dispensed to the 22 patient, and displays the remaining volume to be infused on the 23 dial 54. When the dial 54 reaches zero, the instrument displays 24 an alarm condition by activating the indicator 52, and then shuts 2~ down the flow rate of the infused fluid to a very low keep-open 26 rate of lcc per hour. This keep-open flow of fluid prevents the Z7 venipuncture cannula from being clogged until the operator can 28 attend to the pump. To clear the infusion complete alarm, a 29 new volume of fluid must be set into the volume-to-be-infused dial 54 and if necessary, another source of fluid such as a 31 ne~ bottle 16 must be provided.
1 The control of the operation of the pump to 2 administer fluid to a patient in accordance with the preset 3 conditions is controlled by the electronics portion of the 4 pump which is mounted in a conventional way on a printed circuit board and is contained within the casing of the pump.
6 A functional diagram of the electronic portion of the pump 7 is shown in Figure 7 as a series of blocks labeled, in 8 alphabetical order, A through Z and AA through DD. In 9 Figure 8 through 24, the details of the circuitry necessary to provide the particular functions are shown and the dotted 11 blocks, also labeled A through Z and AA through DD, correspond 12 to the blocks as shown in Figure 7. Keeping in mind the 13 specific details of the circuits shown in Figures 8 through 14 24, a general description of the functional operation of each 15 block shown in Figure 7 will be given.
17 Block A is indicated to be the slew control. It is 18 the function of block A to receive the commands to determine 19 the direction of rotation of the stepper motor 84 which drives 20 the sh~uttle 30, which in turn, drives the plunger 78 in the 21 cassette 24. Block A also contains the purge control switch 22 functions.
-,19~, i-s2 39 iO6030Z
1 Block B provides a divide-by-96 function and i5 SO
2 labeled. The circuitry of block B is used to count the motor 3 drive pulses and when 96 pulses have been accumulated, a pulse 4 signal is provided from block B which pulse signa~ is coupled S to block C. The function of block C is to provide a driver 6 pulse for a predetermined counter which counter includes the 7 volume-to-be-infused dial 54, shown in Figure 1. Block DD
8 represents the predetermined counter itself and is so labeled.
9 As indicated above, the predetermined counter includes a 10 volume-to-be-infused dial 54 which is used to set the volume 11 Of fluid which is to be infused into the patient.
13 In the pump of the present invention, 96 motor 14 pulses are the equivalent of lcc of fluid being administered 15 to a patient so that each time 96 pulses are counted by block 16 B, the driver C counts the predetermined counter DD down by 17 one. The dial 54 also includes output indicators which are 18 counted down to zero as the pump operates to administer fluid 19 to a patient to provide a visual indication at all times of the volume of fluid still remaining to be infused into the 21 patient. When the predetermined counter DD counts down to 22 zero, the normal operation of the pump is stopped and the 23 pump is shifted into a keep-open mode, as described above, 24 where the pump operates to administer fluid at a very low rate. The block DD includes a contact closure which is used 26 to indicate that an infusion is complete.
~-5239 i060~02 1 Tke function of block K is to provide a motor stall 2 detector circuit and the block K receives pulses from two stall 3 sensors which determine when the motor 84 shown in Figure 2 is 4 stalled. Specifically, the pulses received from the stall 5 sensors are used to reset a counter located within block K.
The stepping motor driver circuit represented by 8 block 0 drives the stepping motor represented by block Z
g in accordance with stepping pulses. These stepping pulses are 10 also accumulated in the motor stall detector circuit K as the 11 stepping motor 84 advances. As shown in ~igure 2 the small 12 disc 88 on the shaft of the stepping motor 84 is used to 13 provide stall sensor pulses which pulses reset a counter within 14 the stall detector circuit K to zero each time a slot 90 passes 15 by one of the photodetectors. If the motor stall detector 16 circuit K receives more motor drive stepping pulses than can 17 be accumulated within the counter before receiving a stall 18 sensor reset pulse, this provides an output signal from the lg block K. This output signal indicates that although motor 20 stepping pulses are being supplied to the motor 84, the shaft 21 82 is not moving and the pump must be stalled.
23 The block L represents the stepper motor drive logic 24 circuit which circuit provides output signals representing 25 whether the motor is to be driven clockwise or counterclockwise.
26 These signals are alternately provided to the stepper motor 27 driver circuit 0.
`239 1 Block P represents the latches for the fault and 2 sensor output circuit and block P is used to individually 3 activate the indica~ors such as LED indicators shown on the 4 face of the pump in ~igure 1. Specifically, the LED indicators 5 are designated as indicators 46 through 52 and these indicators 6 provide a visual alarm of a problem in the operation of the 7 pump. The indicators 46 through 52 designated as block X are 8 driven by the LED drivers represented by block T. The output 9 signals from ~lock P, representing the various alarm conditions, are also supplied to the fault and indicator controls repre-11 sented by block T which controls the operation of the pump in 12 accordance with an alarm condition. Block W represents the 13 nurse call relay driver which provides the nurse call output 14 signal at the nurse call receptacle 68 shown in Figure 4.
16 Block D represents an oscillator and specifically 17 a 211.11 hz oscillator. This oscillator provides pulses to 18 a pulse width control circuit represented by block G. The 19 output pulses from the block G in turn drive a three decade rate scaler represented by block I. The scalers in block I
21 are controlled by digital switches represented by block BB, 22 which digital switches are formed by the rate dial 56 shown 23 in Figure 1. ~he settings of the switches forming the rate 24 dial 56 are used to provide motor drive stepping pulses at the right freguency so as to ~dminister the fluid to the 26 patient at the predetermined rate.
~-5239 ~06(~302 1 Block J represents a refill time rate compénsation 2 circuit which is used to accumulate pulses during the time 3 that the cassette chamber 76 is being refilled by moving the 4 plunger 78 in the reverse direction. As the plunger starts to move forward again to pump fluid, the block J provides for 6 compensation for the lost time by adding to the motor drive 7 pulses the additional pulses that were accumulated during the 8 refill time so that the accuracy of the rate of administering 9 the fluid is not impaired by the periodic stopping of the pumping to refill the cassette chamber.
11 ' ' 12 Block M represents an audible and LED period timer 13 and is used to provide for a beep rate for the audible alarm 14 64 shown in Figure 4 and for a flashing of the indicators 46 through 52. A low battery detector circuit represented by 16 block N initially turns on the alarm indicator 48 and for a 17 predetermined period of time, such as an hour, the pump will 18 operate even though indicator 48 represents a low battery.
19 When the battery is discharged and thereby insufficient to drive the pump, then the instrument is turned off and the 21 occlusion indicator 50 is activated in addition to the indi-22 cator 48. Block N therefore detects the condition when the 23 battery is low, but still has sufficient powér to run the pump 24 and with a low battery alarm indication provided by the indicator 48 and with the pump continuing to operate to 26 administer fluid to a patient. A second stage is reached 2~ where the charge on the battery is insufficient to drive the 28 pump and at that time, the oçclusion indicator 50 is additionally 29 activated.
r'-5239 1 Block Q represents a power on reset circuit and 2 when the power is first turned on, the output from the block 3 Q provides that all the circuits are set to the proper condition.
4 The block Q insures that the pump is not in an operate mode 5 without first pressing the operate button, or that other 6 undesirable operations do not occur unless properly activated.
8 Block R represents the forward reverse logic and the 9 output from Block R is responsible for determining the direction of rotation of the DC motor 74 shown in Figure 2 which motor is lI used to operate the valve 38 in the cassette. Block R receives 12 inputs from the DC motor control logic and drive circuit 13 represented by block S. Specifically, block S includes a pair 14 of position sensors to detect the position of the slider mechanism 80 at the upper and lower positions. The detection 16 of these positions indicates that a reversal of the direction 17 of motor 84 is necessary and also that the motor 84 must be 18 controlled to control the position of the valve in the cassette.
19 The position sensors are shown in Figure 2 and include two pairs of light emitters and detectors 150 and 152.
22 Block U represents the light emitter and detector 23 combinations used for detecting the air-in-line, or an air 24 embolism. The structure of these sensors are shown in Figures 5 and 6.
~0 --2~---5239 10~30Z
1 As indicated above, block T represents the fault 2 and indicator controls and block T contains the coding networks 3 to determine the actions that are taken during an alarm condition.
4 Specifically, the pump is either maintained in a keep-open rate or is shut off entirely during an alarm condition. In addition 6 during the initial low battery alarm condition the pump is maintained in an operating condition. The keep-open rate is 8 maintained after the infusion complete but there is no keep-open 9 rate when there is air in the line, an occlusion of the line, or when the battery is dead.
12 Block AA represents a battery charger and is used 13 to chaxge the battery through the receptacle 70 shown in 14 Figure 4.
16 Turning now to Figures 8 through 24, which figures 17 illustrate in detail circuits to form the blocks shown in 18 Figure 7 and also illustrates interconnecting portions between 19 the blocks shown in Figure 7. In Figures 8 through 24, the various portions of the circuit which correspond to the blocks 21 shown in Figure 7 are surrounded by dotted lines and the 22 portions surrounded by lines are identified by the same alpha-23 betical reference provided for the blocks shown in Figure 7.
1 The oscillator block D is shown in Figure 8 and 2 includes a pair of inverters 200 and 202. A variable resis-3 tance network including resistor 204 and potentiometer 206 4 is coupled between a junction between the inverters and a junction between a resistor 208 and a capacitor 210. The 6 pair of inverters 200 and 202 provide for the polarity of 7 the voltage potential across the capacitor 210 to alternate 8 so that the direction of charging the capacitor is alternated.
9 For example, as the capacitor 210 is charging in one direction, the voltage at the input to inverter 200 has a positive or 11 negative potential depending upon the direction of charging 12 of the capacitor 210. This provides for a similar positive 13 or negative potential at the output of inverter 202 so that 14 the polarity at the other side of the capacitor 210 tends to 1~ reverse the direction of charging. It can be seen, therefore, 16 that the charging of the capacitor alternates so as to provide 17 for an oscillating voltage pulse output from the oscillator D.
18 The oscillating voltage output from the oscillator is a basic 19 reference signal used in the electronic portion of the pump and may have a frequency of 211.11 hz.
22 The pulse signal from the oscillator D may be used 23 as an input to the pulse width control block G shown in Figure 24 10. Specifically, the pulse signal may be applied to a counter 2~ divider 212. This counter divider may be a conventional four 26 stage divide by eight Johnson counter. The counter is 27 advanced ~y the positive pulse signal applied to the clock 28 input Four of the clock outputsare used with a switch 214 29 80 as to provide for an output signal having a desired pulse position as shown by the position of the pulses next to the -~6-~-5239 ; I06(~302 ~
four output positions in accordance with the position of the 2 switch 214. The output signal from the counter divider is 3 applied to a latch circuit 216 as the set input and another 4 one of the outputs from the counter divider 212 having a pulse position as shown is applied as the reset input to the 6 latch circuit 216. The difference between the set and reset 7 inputs to the latch 216 provide for variable pulse width 8 signals from the latch 216 in accordance with the position 9 of the switch 214. The counter divider 212 may be a monolithic silicon digital integrated circuit of a conventional type such 11 as an RCA type CD 4022. The latch 216 may be one of a number 12 of such latches contained on a monolithic silicon digital 13 integrated circuit such as RCA type CD 4043.
The counter divider 212 therefore provides an output 16 signal having a particular pulse position once in each cycle 17 of eight input pulse signals and with the output signal used 18 to set a latch circuit. The latch circuit is reset once each 1~ cycle so as t~ provide an output signal to an inverter 218 having a frequency equal to one eighth of the input signal to 21 the pulse width control G. The pulse width of the output 22 signal in accordance with a desired pulse width as chosen by 23 the switch 214. Specifically, the particular pulse width is 24 chosen on an individual basis so as to provide the appropriate 2~ pulse width to drive the stepping motor 84. This is necessary 26 since some stepping motors require a greater pulse width 27 signal than others to provide for the drive o~ the stepping 28 motor.
2g -~7 ~-5239 1 An output signal from the pulse width control block 2 G is applied to the block I shown in Figure 16 which block 3 contains the decade rate scaler. The decade rate scaler 4 includes three decade counters 220, 222 and 224 used for the ones, tens and hundreds of the rate control of the pumped 6 fluid. The operator control of the rate is provided by the 7 digital switch BB which is formed by the rate switches 56 on 8 the front panel of the pumps. Specifically, the switches 9 56 include switches 226, 228, and 230 for the ones, tens, IO and hundreds and although the visual indications to the lI operator of the pump are decimal in character, the switches 12 provide for BCD inputs to the decade rate scaler as shown in 13 block I.
When the operator of the pump adjusts the switches 16 226, 228 and 230 to the desired rate at which the fluid is to 17 be administered, the BCD inputs to the decade counters 220, 18 222, and 224 and the input line clocking signal control, the 19 decade rate scaler to provides an output signal having a pulse 20 rate per unit time in accordance with the setting of the 21 switches 226, 228 and 230. A plurality of resistive groups 22 232, 234 and 236 are used to provide bias of the BCD input 23 signals to the decade rate scaler as shown in block I. An 24 input signal to the switches 226, 228 and 230 is provided 2~ through an inverter 237 and with the input to the inverter 26 being a finish delivery signal. A plurality of NOR gates 238, 27 240 and 242 are used in conjunction with a NAND gate 244 to 28 insure that a purge of the pump can only occur when all of 29 the switches 226, 228 and 230 have been set to zero on the front panel dial 56 ~-5239 1060302 .
1 The output signal from the decade rate scaler as 2 shown in block I are the motor drive pulses and these pulses 3 are applied to the slew control block A shown in Figure 8 4 and the reverse time rate compensation circuit block J shown 5 in Figure 17. Specifically, the motor drive pulses applied 6 to the reverse time rate compensation circuit block J are q applied as one input to an AND gate 246. The other input to 8 the AND gate 246 is a not forward signal. Therefore, there 9 is an output from the AND gate 246 when the pump is not forward in direction. The output from the AND gate 246 is applied as 11 an input to an OR gate 248 and with the output from the OR
12 gate 248 used as a clocking input to a pair of counters 250 13 and 252. The counters may be a four stage up-down counter 14 including the clock input, a carry in input, jam inputs, an 15 up-down input, and a preset enable input. The counters also 16 include a carry out signal an an output. The up-down counter 17 may be of a conventional type and may, for example, be a 18 monolithic silicon digital integrated circuit and may be an 19 RC~ tyPe C~ 4029.
21 The counters 250 and 252 only accumulate pulses from 22 the OR gate when a not-on signal from the pump used as a preset 23 enable signal is low. The counter counts up when the up-down 24 signal is high and counts down when the up-down signal is low.
25 The up-down signal is provided by the not-forward signal and 26 it can be seen that the not-forward signal is high to count up 27 when the pump is refilling the cassette, and the not-forward 28 ~ignal is low to count down when the pump is emptying the 29 cassette. Output pulses are therefore accumulated by the 30 counters 250 and 252 as the pump is refilling the cassette and 31 the~e pulses are then counted down when the pump is empt~ing 32 thc casP,ette, _~9_ ~-5239 1 The output signal from the counters is applied to 2 a flip-flop 254 through a NAND gate 256. The NAND gate is 3 used to insure that the counter output is applied to the 4 flip-flop 254 only when the pump is in the forward direction, 5 and when there is a signal from the period timer block M.
7 The flip-flop 254 is clocked by the output signal 8 from the pulse width control block G so that the logic level 9 opposite to that present at the "D" input is transferred to 10 the Q output during the positive-going transition of the clock 11 pulse from the pulse width control block G. The output from 12 the flip-flop 254 is used as an input to counter 224 so as to 13 periodically adjust the rate of output pulses to the stepping 14 motor to a higher rate in accordance with the clocking of the 15 flip-flop until all of the pulses have been counted down by 16 the counters 250 and 252.
18 The output signal from the flip-flop 254 is also 19 used as an input signal to an AND gate 258 which, in conjunction 20 with the forward signal provides a second input signal to the 21 OR gate 248. The output signal from the OR gate 248 is the 22 clock input to the counters 250 and 252 and during the forward 23 operation of the pump, this clock input provides for the count-2~ down of the accumulated pulses.
1 The pulse rate signal to drive the stepping motor 2 is applied as one input to a NAN~ gate 260 shown in Figure 8.
3 The second input to the rJAND gate 260 is the forward signal 4 and the third input to the NAND gate is from the start/operate latch circuit block F. When the operate switch 62 is activated 6 in the proper sequence, an RC circuit 262 eliminates any noise 7 and a latch 264 is reset. The latch circuit 264 may be of 8 the same type of latch circuit described above and specifically 9 may be one of the latch circuits contained on an RCA type CD
4043 integrated circuit. The output of the latch passes through 11 an inverter 266 for application to a NAND gate 268. The output 12 of the N~YD gate 268 is one of the inputs to the NAND gate 260.
14 The set input of the latch 264 is controlled from the reset or stop operate logic block H. Specifically, 16 circuitry of block H includes a NAND gate 270 which receives 17 three inputs representing conditions which determine when the 18 latch 264 of circuit block ~ is to be set.
19 - .
The output from the NAND gate 260 is applied to a 21 second NA~D gate 272 and the output of this NAND gate 272 is 22 the motor drive signal. The NAND gate 272 provides the motor 23 drive signal in accordance with the operation of the slew 24 control block A, the operation of which will be described at 25 a later portion of this specification.
~--5239 1 The output from the NAND gate 272 is also coupled 2 to the divide-by-96 circuit block B shown in Figure 9. The 3 circuit of block B includes a pair of counter dividers 274 4 and 276. The first counter divider 274 provides a division 5 by 6 and the second counter divider 276 provides a division 6 by 16. The combination of these dividers provides a division 7 by 96 and in the pump of the present invention,96 motor drive 8 pulses represents the delivery of lcc of fluid.
The divider 274 may be provided by using the lI appropriate output of a divide-by-8 circuit. For example, 12 the divider 274 may be a four stage divide-by-eight Johnson 13 counter of the type described above which may be an RCA type 14 CD 4022. The CE input is a clock enable input and this input is provided by the output of a divider enable NAND gate 278.
16 The inputs to the NAND gate 278 are the forward signal and the 17 not-load signal representing the pump operating in the forward 18 direction and not loading the cassette.
The outputs from the divider 274 are provided as 21 the set and reset inputs to a latch circuit 280 which may be 22 Of the conventional type described above. The latch 280 is 23 set and reset in accordance with the divider 274 counting 24 from zero up to 6 pulses on an alternate basis. The latch 2~ 280 is used to provide for a clearing and resetting of the 26 divider 274 after each count of six clock pulses. Specifically, 27 the output of the latch 280 is coupled through an inverter 28 282 t~ a NAND gate 284 so as to provide for a reset signal to 2g the divider 274 in accordance with the NAND gate receiving a not-po~er-on reset signal and the output signal from the 31 inverter 282.
1 One of the output signals from the divider 274 is : ,..
2 coupled to the diviaer 276 as a clock input and for each six 3 pulses received by the divider 274, the divider 276 receives 4 one pulse. The divider 276 may be of a binary counter of the type described above as represented by RCA type CD 4029. The 6 carry-out signal from the divider 276 is used as the output signal and occurs one for each sixteen input pulses to the 8 divider 276. The output from the divider 276 is applied to 9 block C which is the driver for the predetermined counter 10 which counter is included in block DD.
11 . , 12 The output from the divide-by-96 circuit block B is 13 coupled through a capacitor 286 and to a resistor 290 as a 14 differentiated input to an inverter 288. The resistor 29~
15 also provides the proper biasing of the input signal to the 16 inverter 288. The output from the inverter 288 is coupled 17 through a resistor 292 to the base of a driver transistor 294.
18 A diode 296 decouples the inductive spike at the collector of 19 the transistor 294.
21 The output of the transistor 294 is coupled to the 22 predetermined counter DD which includes the volume-to-be-infused 23 dial 54 shown in Block DD. The counter is set by the operator 24 Of the pump at the face of the pump by adjusting the knobs of 25 the dial 54 to the total number of cubic centimeters of fluid 26 to be administered to the patient. Each time the divide-by-96 27 circuit shown in block B counts 96 motor pules, the predetermined 28 counter is counted do~n one digit, representing one cc of fluid 2~ administered to ~ patient and the indicators of the dial 54 are 30 reduced by one digit. When the counter reaches zero, a switch 31 29g clo~es to provide an output signal from the counter block DD.
1 Returning now to block A shown in Figure 8 which is 2 the slew control. The circuitry of block A is used to provide 3 signals which ultimately control the speed at which the motor 4 is driven. For example, during the purge mode of the pump, 5 the motor is driven rapidly in both the forward and reverse 6 directions to rapidly fill the cassette and then rapidly pump 7 the fluid from the cassette to purge the lines. During the 8 normal operation of the pump, the motor is driven in a forward 9 direction at a preselected rate for the administration of the fluid as controlled by the preselected positions of the switches 11 226, 228 and 230 which are part of the rate dial 56.
~2 14 The motor drive pulses, at the proper rate, are one 1~ Of the three inputs to the NAND gate 260. The other inputs 16 to the NA;~ gate 260 are a signal representing the motor in 17 the forward direction, and an output from the start/operate 18 latch block F representing the operation of the operate switch 19 62. The output from the NAND gate 260 is applied to the NAN~
20 gate 272 and the output from the NAND gate 272 is the motor 21 drive signal when the pump is operated in the normal operate 22 mode.
-3~-~239 ~ The purge switch 58 is normally in the open position 2 unless operated by pushing the switch 58 to provide the switch 3 to be in the purge or load position. When the siwtch 58 is in 4 the purge position, this provides one input to a NAND gate 300.
5 The other inputs to the NAND gate come from NAND gates 302 and 6 304. The NAND gate 304 is controlled by the load and not-load 7 signals since a first input to the NAND gate 304 is the load 8 signal as passed through an inverter 306. The second input to 9 the NAND gate 304 is the output signal from a latch 308 as 10 passed through an inverter 310 to the NAND gate 304. The set 11 input to the latch 308 is the not-load signal. This portion of 12 the circuit insures that the purge signal is not passed through 13 the NAND gate 300 unless the pump is not in the load mode. A
14 forward stop signal representing the situation when the motor is 15 to go into a reverse drive to refill the cassette is used to 16 reset the latch 308. A pair of resistors 312 and 314 are 17 connected to a supply voltage to bias the purge and load signals.
19 The output of the NAND gate 300 is used as a data 20 input to the fllp-flop 316 and this flip-flop may be one of 21 a dual data type flip-flop of a conventional type such as ~CA
22 type CD 4013. The level of the signal of the data input is 23 transferred to the "Q" output during the positive-going 24 transition of the clock signal. A clock input to the flip-flop 25 316 is provided from the "Q" output of a second flip-flop 318 26 of a similar type. The flip-flop 318 is controlled by the 27 reference oscillator signal produced by the oscillator shown in 28 ~loc~. D. The "Q" output from the flip-flop 316 is used as one 29 input to a NAND gate 320, The other input to the NAND gate 320 30 i~ the "Q" output from the flip-flop 318. The output from the ~-5239 1 NAND gate 320 is used as the second input to the N~ND gate 372 2 to provide the motor drive output signal from the NAND gate 272.
4 The motor drive output signal from block M is applied as an input signal to block L shown in Figure 11 which is the 6 stepping motor drive logic circuit. Specifically, the motor 7 drive output signal is applied as a clock input signal to a 8 pair of flip-flops 322 and 324. The flip-flops 322 and 324 9 may be data type flip-flops wherein the level of the signal at the data input is transferred to the Q output during the 11 positive-going transition of the clocking signal. Both flip-12 flops 322 and 324 may be contained on a digital integrated 13 circuit of the type such as RCA type CD 4013.
The forward and not-forward signals are applied as 16 inputs to AND gates 326 and 328 and with the output from the 17 AND gates applied to an OR gate 330. The combination of AND
18 gates 326 and 328 and OR gate 330 form an and/or select gate 19 and the three gates may be part of a digital integrated cir-cuit such as an RCA type CD 4019. The outputs from the flip-21 flop 324 which are labeled N and ~ are also applied as inputs 22 to the AND gates 326 and 328. The inp~t to the flip-flop 322 23 is therefore a signal representing either the forward or not-24 forward condition for the motor drive.
1 The forward a~d not-forward signals are also applied - . .
2 to a pair of AND gates 332 and 334, the output of which are 3 appli~d to an OR ga~e 336. The AND gate 332 and 334 and OR
4 gate 336 form an and/or select gate identical to the one 5 described above and which may be part of an integrated circuit 6 of an RCA type CD 4019. The other inputs to the ~ND gates 7 332 and 334 are the outputs from the flip-flop 322 and these 8 outputs are labeled M and M.
The four output signals M and M and N and N are used 11 as the input signals to the stepping motor driver block o shown 12 in Figure 15 and specifically are used to provide the driving 13 of the stepping motor 84 in the proper direction and at the 14 proper speed.
16 It can be seen in Figure 15 that the stepping motor 17 driver block O uses the signals N and N and M and M as input 18 signals to a plurality of N~D gates 338 through 344. The four 19 NAND gates 338 through 344 may all be part of an integrated 20 circuit such as an RCA type CD 4011. The other input to the 21 NAND gates 338 through 344 is an output signal from the over 22 rate detection circuit block E shown in Figure 12.
24 The outputs from the NAND gates 338 through 344 are 26 coupled through inverters 346 through 352 to a plurality of 26 transistors 354 through 360. The output from the transistors 354 2~ through 360 are coupled as a plurality of inputs to the stepping 28 motor 84 so as to provide for driving the stepping motor in 29 particular directions and at particular speeds in accordance with 3~ the input ~ignals. The stepping motor may be of a conventional 31 ~ype and ag an ex.ample may be a tepping motor manufactured by 32 ~ayden ~fg, Corp. as a type R86201.
1 The coupling of the output signals from the inverters 2 346 to 352 to the transistors 354 through 360 is provided 3 through resistors 362 through 368. The power supply to the 4 transistors 354 through 360 is provided from a source of 5 positive voltage and through a resistor diode combination for 6 each transistor which resistor diode combinations are desig-7 nated 370 through 376. The transistor 360 also receives as 8 an input an output signal coupled through a resistor 378 9 from the over rate detection circuit block E shown in Figure 12.
lI The over rate detection circuit shown in block E
12 includes input signals representing the rate of infusion of 13 the fluid which rate is set by the dial 56 on the front panel 14 Of the pump. Specifically, the input signals are taken from 15 the binary coded counters 220, 222 and 224 and represent the 16 most significant digit of the ones, all of the digits for the 17 tens, and the two digits used for the hundreds. This provides 18 for a total of seven input signals which are summed using a 19 plurality of seven diodes collectively designated as 380 and 20 a plurality of seven resistors collectively designated as 382.
21 An output signal is formed having a voltage representative of 22 the rate which has been preset by the operator of the pump.
23 The output signal from the summing network is coupled across 24 a voltage biased RC circuit 384 and through an inverter 386 2~ to form one input signal to transistor 360 shown in block O
26 in Figure 15.
3g -3g-)-5239 1 The motor drive signal from Block A is coupled 2 through a diode 388 and an RC circuit 390 including a pair 3 of resistors and a capacitor to an inverter 392. The output 4 from the inverter is coupled through a resistor 394 for 5 summing with the electrical input from the dial 56. A pair 6 of diodes 396 and 398 are used to isolate the motor drive q signal from the electrical input information which has been 8 preset in the dial 56.
The motor drive signal is also coupled through an 11 inverter 400 to a NAND gate 402 and with the not-full on 12 signal used as a second input to the NAND gate. The output 13 from the NAND gate 402 which represents the motor drive pulses 14 is also used as an input to the NAND gates 338 through 344 shown in block O. The signal from the NAND gate 902 is also 16 passed through the diode 398 to the summing point. As long 17 as the motor drive pulses are not over-rate by a particular 1~ amount, the output signal from the inverter 386 does not 19 represent an over-rate condition.
21 Block K shown in Figure 11 is the motor stall 22 detector circuit and provides a comparison of the motor drive 23 pulse rate with the actual speed of the stepping motor 84.
24 Specifically, the pair of stall sensors 92 and 94 shown in Figures 2 and 21 provide input signals across resistors 404 26 and 406 to NAND gates 408 and 410. The output from the NAND
27 gates 408 and 410 as applied to a NAND gate 412 and the 28 output from the NAND gate 412 is in accordance with the rate 29 at which the motor is driving the pump. The output from the N7~D gate 412 is applied to a flip-flop 414 and is used as 1 the clo,ck input to the flip-flop 414. Flip-flop 414 may be 2 of the type described before and specifically may be an RCA
3 type CD 4013. The Q and Q outputs from the flip-flop 414 are 4 applied as second inputs to the NAND gates 408 and 410. The 5 Q output from the flip-flop 414 is also used as the data 6 input to the same flip-flop.
8 The output from the NAND gate 412 is also applied g across a capacitor 418 as an input to a NAND gate 416. The 10 second input to the NAND gate 416 is from the block R shown ,-11' in Figure 22, wh`ich is the forward-reverse logic circuit. The 12 output from the NAND gate 416 is applied as a reset signal to 13 a counter-divider 420. The motor drive pulse signal to a 14 counter-divider 420. The motor drive pulse signal is applied to the counter-divider 420 as a clock signal. The counter-16 divider 420 may be a five stage Johnson Decade counter which 17 is used as a comparator between the reset input and the clock 18 input. Specifically, the counter-divider 420 may be a digital 19 integrated circuit of the type such as P~CA type CD 4017.
21 The motor dirve pulse signal used as a clock input 22 to the counter-divider 420 provides for the counter-divider to 23 count one count for each positive clock transition provided 24 by the motor drive pulse signal as long as the clock enable 2~ input is low. It can be seen that one of the counter outputs 26 is applied to the clock enable input. If the counter continues 27 to count up to the value provided by the counter output, then 28 the clock enable goes high to indicate that the motor is in a 29 stall condition. If however, the output from,the N~ND gate 416 occurs on a periodic basis to reset the counter 420, then the 31 , 1 output from the counter 420 never goes high, thereby indicati~g 2 the motor is operating properly and not in a stall condition.
3 The block K is essentially an electrical mechanical comparator 4 since the signals from the stall sensors relate to the actual motion of the shaft of the motor 84, as detected by the stall 6 sensors, and with this mechanical motion compared with the ~ electrical pulse signal used to drive the motor 84. The output 8 from the counter 420 is used as an input to the latch for 9 fault and sensor outputs circuit block P shown in Figure 18.
11 The block P shown in Figure 18 which is the latch 12 for fault and sensor outputs is shown to receive a plurality 13 of input signals representing various fault and alarm conditions.
1~ The block P includes four (4) latch circuits 422, 424, 426, and 428. These latch circuits may all be part of a single 16 integrated circuit such as an RCA type CD 4043.
18 The latch 422 receives as an input signal the output 19 from the air-in-line sensors which are formed by light emitters 98 and 100 and photodetectors 102 and-104 shown in block U, in 21 Figure 21 and in Figures ~ and 6. The light emitters receive 22 supply current from a source of positive voltage through a 23 resistor 430. The output from the photodetectors 102 and 104 24 are coupled in series and applied to the latch 422 across a 2~ resistor 432.
The input to the latch 424 is, as indicated above, 2 from the motor stall detector circuit block K and is a signal 3 representative of the motor in a stall condition which would 4 normally represent an occlusion of the fluid line. The input 5 to the block K is from the stall sensors 92 and 94 which provide 6 output signals in parallel. The light emitter portion of the 7 stall sensors receive electrical supply from a source of pos-8 itive voltage through a resistor 434.
The latch 426 receives an input signal from the lI predetermined counter 54 shown in block DD representing the 12 infusion of fluid complete. Specifically, the switch 298 13 shown in Figure 9 closes when the counter 54 reaches a zero 14 reading. At that time, the output signal from the counter 54 15 is applied to the latch 426 across a resistor 436.
17 Finally, the latch 428 receives an input signal 18 representing a low battery signal from the low battery detector 19 block N shown in Figure 18. The low battery detector block N
detects when the voltage level of the battery is below a 21 certain predetennined value. Specifically, the battery voltage 22 is applied across a voltage divider including a resistor 438 23 and a potentiometer 440 and with a zener diode 442 coupled in 24 parallel across the potentiometer 440. The output of the 2~ potentiometer 440~ taken from the arm of the potentiometer, 26 provides or a threshold adjustment and with this output signal 27 coupled through an inverter 444 and a resistor 446 and applied 28 as an input signal to a second inverter 448. A capacitor 450 29 is al~o coupled between the battery voltage and the input to the inverter 448. The output o~ the inverter 448 is a signal . 5239 ~06030Z
1 representative of the voltage level of the battery and when 2 the level of the battery falls below a predetermined level, 3 as determined by the position of the adjustable arm of the 4 potentiometer 440, the low battery detector shown in block N
5 provides a signal to control the latch 428 shown in block P.
~ The output from the latches 422 through 428 shown 8 in block P are supplied to the fault and indicator control 9 block T shown in Figures 18 and 19. The circuitry of block T
10 includes a plurality of inverters- 452 through 458 which supply 11 output signals to the nurses call relay driver block W shown 12 in Figure 19. The portion of block T shown in Figure 19 also 13 includes logic circuitry to provide output signals represen-14 tative of the finish of the delivery of the predetermined 15 quantity of fluid and to control a minimum delivery of fluid 16 thereafter.
18 In the portion of block T shown in Figure 18, the 19 output from the inverters 452 through 458 are coupled to a plurality of inverters 460 through 466. The output of these 21 inverters are used to drive the LEDs 46, 48, 50 and 52 22 representing the output indicators on the front panel of the 23 pump and designated at block X in Figure 18.
2g _~3_ ~-5239 106()30Z
1 The actual power to the LEDs 46 through 52 and an 2 operate IED 62, all shown in block X, is provided by the LED
3 and audible timer circuit block M and the LED driver block V
both shown in ~igure 17. Specifically, in the circuitry of 5 block M, a pulse signal having a fast rate is supplied to a 6 divider 468 r nd this pulse signal may be suppli~d from the 7 divider 224 sho~ in Block I as the first rate stage signal.
8 The divider 468 may be, ~or example, a four stage divide-by-9 eight Johnson counter such as the type provided by an RCA type 10 CD 4022. Particular outputs from the divider 468 are used so 11 that the pulse signal applied to the divider are counted down 12 and with these output signals coupled to NOR gates 470 and 13 472. For example, NOR gate 472 receives signals representing 14 the zero output and the four output while NOR gate 470 receives 1~ inputs representing the zero output, the two output, and the 16 five output. The outputs from the NOR gates 470 and 472 are 17 therefore pulse signals at a lower rate than the input 18 signal to the divider 468.
The output from the NOR gate 472 is applied through 21 a resistor 474 to a transistor 476 which form bloc~ V. The 22 ~ansistor 476 supplies an alternating potential to drive the 23 IEDs shown in block X and also to drive the audible horn 64 24 when the switch 66 is in the closed position as shown in Pigure 19. The output from the NOR gate 470 is coupled as 26 one input to a NOR gate 478 and with the other input to the 27 NOR gate 478 being the input to the divider 468. The output 28 from the NOR gate 478 is coupled as one input to the N~ND gate 29 256 sho~7n in block J. The LEDs shown in the block X are ~0 3~
driven with a flash rate and with the audible alarm having a beep rate in accordance with the pulse rate of the output signal from the transistor 476 shown in block V.
Block W shown in Figure 19, which is the nurse call relay driver, receives as inputs all of the alarm conditions from the block T and with these inputs applied to a NOR gate 480 and an inverter 482. Specifically, only the low battery fault condition is supplied to the inverter 482 while the other fault signals are supplied to the NOR gate 480. The outputs of the NOR gate 480 and the inverter 482 are applied as inputs to a NAND gate 484. It can be seen that aside from the low battery signal, the other fault conditions which are coupled from the NOR gate 480 are used to provide a not-fault signal which is used as an input signal to the NAND gate 270 which is part of the reset or stop logic block H, shown in Figure 8. If a fault occurs, the pump is therefore stopped.
If the low battery condition is allowed to continue for a sufficient period of time without recharging the battery, then there will be insufficient power to drive the pump and this has the effect of stalling the motor 84. This is detected by the stall sensors so that the NOR gate 480 produces the signal to control the reset stop logic block H to stop the pump when there is insufficient power from the battery.
_45-~--5239 1 The output from the NAND gate 484 is applied to a 2 pair of inverters 486 and 488 in parallel to control a nurse 3 call relay 490 and the audible alarm 84. The relay ~90 4 receives power from a source of positive voltage through a 5 diode 492. The audible alarm 64 is coupled to the block W
6 through a resistor 494 and a diode 496. When any of the alarm conditions occur, the nurse call relay 490 is activated 8 to provide an output signal to the nurse call jack 68 and if 9 the switch 66 is closed, the audible alarm is sounded in lO addition to activating the appropriate one of the LEDs shown 11 in block X.
13 As shown in the portion of block T shown in Figure 14 19, the alarm signals and specifically, the signals repre-15 senting infusion complete, air-in-line, and occlusion are 16 used to provide for a finish delivery signal and a not-minimum 17 delivery signal. Specifically, when the infusion is complete, 18 a signal is applied to a I~OR gate 498 ~hich provides an output 19 signal through an inverter 500 to a NAND gate 502. The output 20 from the inverter 500 is the finish delivery signal. The two 21 alarm signals representing air-in-line and occlusion are 22 coupled to a NOR gate 504 which also provides an input signal 23 to NAND gate 502. The output from the NAND gate 502 is the 24 not-minimum delivery signal and it will be appreciated that as explained above, after the delivery of the predetermined 26 ~uantity of fluid is complete, the pump provides for a minimum 27 delivery at a very low rate such as one cc per hour. However, 28 it is not desirab]e to provide this minimum delivery unless 29 neither of the ~ault conditions representing air-in-line or occlusion is present.
-~6-~-5239 106030Z .
, . .
1 The block X representing the LEDs on the front panel 2 of the pump also includes an LED which provides for a light 3 in the operate button 62 when the pump is operating. As 4 shown in Figure 20, a not-on signal is coupled through an 5 inverter 506 to provide for the on signal. In addition, the 6 output from the inverter 506 is coupled through an inverter 7 508 to produce a signal from a resistor 510 to control the 8 operation of the LED 62 portion of the LED and the operate 9 button 62 shown in block X.
11 ~lock R shown in Figure 22, which is the forward 12 reverse logic, is responsible for determining the direction 13 of rotation of the DC motor 74 which operates the value 14 control member 36 shown in Figure 2. The member 36 controls 15 the operation of the valve 38 of the cassette 24 shown in 16 Figure 3. A pair of light detectors 506 and 508 form block 17 Y shown in Figure 18 and the detectors 506 and 508 are also 18 shown in Figure 2. The detectors 506 and 508 provide output 19 signals representative of the forward valve stop position and 20 the reverse valve stop position. A source of power supply 21 is coupled to a resistor 510 to supply power to the light 22 emitting portions of the light detectors 506 and 508.
2g ~2 -~7-~-5239 106~30Z
A disc member 512 having a slot 514, as shown in 2 Figuxe 2, may be used in combination with the light detectors 3 506 ana S08 to provide for the output signals representing the 4 positions of the valve 38. The signals from the light 5 detectors 506 and 508 and their logical opposites plus other 6 signals developed in the electronic portion of the system 7 shown in Figures 8 through 24 are used as various inputs to 8 the forward reverse logic block R. Specifically, the reverse g and forward signals are applied to a NOR gate 516 to provide an output signal used as an input to the flip-flop 316 which 11 is part of the block A shown in Figure 8. The output from 12 NOR gate 516 is passed through an inverter 518 to provide an 13 input signal to a NOR gate 520 and also to provide a signal 14 used as an input to the NAND gate 416 shown in block K which is the motor stall detector circuit.
1~ ' 17 The not-RVS signal and the forward signal are used 18 as input signals to a NOR gate 522 and with the output of the 19 NOR gate 522 used as a reset signal for a latch circuit 524.
21 The reverse stop signal is applied through an 22 inverter 526 as an input to NAND gate 528 and the not-force 23 forward signal is applied as an input to the NAND gate 528.
24 The output from the NP~7D gate 528 is used as a set input to a 2~ latch 530 and with the forward stop signal used as a reset 26 input to the latch 530. The output from the latch 530 passes 27 through an i~verter 532 to produce the drive valve forward 28 signal and the output from the inverter 532 is passed through 29 a ~econd inverter 534 to be the drive valve reverse signal.
~1 -~8-~ 5239 1 The output of the inverter 534 is also used as an - 2 input to a NAND gate 536. The output from the inverter 532 3 is used directly as an input to a NAND gate 538. The not-4 power on reset signal is used as a second input to NAND gates 536 a~d 538. The output from the NAND gate 536 is used as 6 the reset input for the latch 524. The output from the 7 latch 524 is passed through a pair of inverters 540 and 542 8 to produce the reverse signal.
The forward valve stop signal and the clock signal lI from flip-flop 254 shown in block J are applied as inputs to 12 ~AND gate 544. A resistor 546 supplies positive voltage to 13 the ~AND gate 544 at the same input position as the forward 14 valve stop signal. The output from the NAND gate 544 is 15 applied as one input to a NOR gate 548 and the reverse signal 16 from inverter 542 is applied as the second input to the NOR
17 gate 548. The output from the NOR gate 548 is used as a 18 reset input to a latch 550. The set input to the latch 550 19 is from the NAND gate 538. The output from the latch 550 is passed through an inverter 552 to provide the not-forward 21 signal and through a second inverter 554 to provide the 22 ~orward signal.
24 Block S shown in Figure 24 represents the DC motor control logic and drive circuit to control the DC motor 74 26 which operates the valve 38 within the cassette. The drive 27 valve forward signal and the drive valve reverse signal from 28 block R shown in Figure 22 are used as inputs to NAND gates 29 556 and 558. The other input to the NAND gates 556 and 558 is from the NOR gate 520 in block R. The output of NAND
1 gate 556 is coupled directly to NAND gate 560 and is coupled 2 through a pair of inverters 562 and 564 and a resistor 556 3 to the base of a transistor 568. The output of NAND gate 558 4 is used as the other input to the NAND gate 560 and is applied 5 through a pair of inverters 570 and 572 and a resistor 574 6 to the base of a transistor 576. The collectors of the 7 transistors 568 and 576 are coupled through diodes 578 and 8 580 to ground and the outputs across the diodes 578 and 580 9 are used as input signals to the D~ motor 74.
11 The output from the NAND gate 560 is coupled through 12 a capacitor 582 and across a parallel resistor diode circuit 13 584 to a pair of inverters 586 and 588 which are also in 14 parallel. The output of the inverters 586 and 588 is used to 15 drive a solenoid winding 590 to control a switch 592 which 16 provides dynamic braking to the DC motor. A diode 594 is 17 coupled across the solenoid winding S90. A pair of transistors 18 596 and 598 are also used to control the DC motor 74 and 19 specifically to control the direction of rotation of the motor 74. The rotation of the motor 74 in turn controls the position 21 of the valve 38 in the cassette 24.
23 The collector of the transistors 596 and 598 are 24 coupled through diodes 600 and 602 to a source of positive voltage. The base of transistor 598 is coupled through a 26 resistor 604 to the collector of transistor 596 and alternately 27 the base of transistor 596 is coupled through a resistor 606 28 to the collector of transistor 598. When the transistor 568 29 is conducting in response to a valve drive signal in a first direction, then transistor 598 will conduct to compl~te the 31 current path ~7hile transi~tor 596 will be turned off. The 1 reverse situation occurs when transistor 576 is conductive in 2 response to a valve drive signal in a second direction. The 3 solenoid 590 is used to provide dynamic braking to the DC motor 4 74.
6 The forward stop and reverse stop light detectors 7 150 and 152 are used to provide the forward stop and reverse 8 stop signals used in block R shown in Figure 22 and these 9 light detectors are also designated as a second portion of 10 block R shown in Figure 21. A resistor 608 is used to supply.
11 power to the light emitter portion of the light detectors 12 lSO ana 152. The output from the light detectors 150 and 13 152 are in parallel and are supplied to a pair of resistors 14 610 and 612 shown in Figure 14 and which resistors are coupled lS to a source of positive voltage. The output across the 16 resistor 610 is coupled through a pair of N~D gates 614 and 17 616 to produce the forward stop signal.
19 In order to provide for the power on reset signal 20 used in various portions of the system shown in Figures 8 21 through 24, the block Q shown in Figure 23 is used. The output 22 from the operate switch is used as one input to a NOR gate 618.
23 The second input to the NOR gate 618 is from the source of 24 positive voltage as applied through a resistor 620 and an 25 inverter 622. The input to the inverter 622 is taken across 26 a resistor capacitor parallel combination 624. The output from 27 the inverter 622 is the POR signal and the output representing 2~ the not-POR signal is the signal used as an input to the 29 in~erter 6~2. The outpu~ from the NOR gate 618 is a not-POR*
30 ~ignal and this signal as inverted by the inverter 626 is the ~-5239 i06030Z
1 PO~* signal. The POR signal is used as the reset input to 2 the latch circuits in block P.
4 The battery charger 628 shown in Figure 13 as block 5 AA is coupled through a line plug to the 110 line voltage.
6 The battery charger 628 may be of any conventional type and 7 the output of the battery charger is coupled to the plug 70 8 at the rear of the pump to supply charging current to the 9 battery 630. The battery 630 is the main source of power for 10 the pump. A fuse 632 is used to fuse the charging of the 11 battery and the switch 60 on the front panel of the pump is 12 used to control the application of battery supply voltage to 13 the various circuits within the pump.
In the general operation of the pump, the initiation 16 of the operation of the pump occurs by turning the power on 1~ using the switch 60 shown in block AA which is the battery 18 charger on-off circuit. When the power is turned on, the 19 power on reset block Q provides the signals to reset all t~le 20 circuits within the pump so that the pump is ready for the 21 loading of a cassette 24. When a cassette 24 is loaded, the 22 reset dial 56 including the switches 226, 228 and 230 are all 23 set to zero. This zero condition is represented by the output 24 signal from the NAND gate 244 which receives as its input signals, output signal from the NOR gates 238, 240 and 242.
2~ m e output signal from the NAND gate 244 is used to 28 enable the load purge switch 58 so that the load purge switch 29 does not provide for operation without the output signal from the NA~JD gate 244.
~-5239 ~060302 1 The directional slew control circuit block A is used 2 to control the motor drive logic circuit block L to provide 3 output signals which represent the proper direction and the 4 proper speed for the motor 84. These output signals from the 5 block L are coupled to the stepping motor driver block 0 and 6 then on to block Z which is the stepping motor 84.
8 After the lines to the pump and to the patient are 9 purged, the operator of the pump sets into the rate dial 56 I0 shown in block BB, the desired rate of infusion. The decade 11 rate scaler shown in block I provides output pulses in 12 accordance with the desired rate-of infusion, and with the 13 decade rate scaler driven from the oscillator shown in block 14 D and through the pulse width control block G. Specifically, the pulses provided as the input to the decade rate scaler 16 block I are counted down and dependent upon the particular 17 points set by the rate dial 58 and specifically the switches 18 226, 228 and 230 the decade rate scaler select decoding points 19 to produce pulses which relate to one pulse equal to 1j96 of a cc and with the rate of these pulses in accordance with 21 desired rate of infusion.
23 ~he predetermined counter 54 shown in block DD is 24 also set to the desired total volume of fluid to be infused.
At this time, the plunger in the cassette is being driven up 26 to infuse fluid into the patient, and with the position of the 27 plunger at its upward extremity and downward extremity detected 28 by the light sensors shown in block R. The forward and reverse 2g stop points are ultimately provided to block A to decode the direction of the drive for the motor. As the motor drive 3~
~-5239 10603~)2 . . .
1 -pulses are used to drive the motor 84, these pulses are also 2 accumulated by the divide-by-96 circuit, block B. Each time 3 96 pulses are counted, one pulse is sent to the driver for 4 the predetermined counter block B which is used to count the 5 predetermined counter block DD down one count. When the 6 predetermined counter 54 shown in block DD counts down to 7 zero, this indicates that the volume of fluid infused is 8 complete and instead of stopping the pump completely, the 9 pump is put into a keep-open rate of one cc per hour.
11 The motor stall detector circuit block K is also - -12 accumulating motor drive pulses and is also receiving pulse 13 signals relating to the actual rotation of the motor shaft, 14 so as to detect an occlusion in the line or a stalled motor.
15 When either of these conditions occurs, the pump is turned 16 off. Specifically, the disc on the stepper motor includes 17 an encoder wheel having six (6) slots so that the number of 18 pulses required to advance the motor 1/6 of a revolution is 19 compared with the actual revolution of the encoder wheel as 20 detected by the stall sensors 92 and 94. If the motor is 21 stalled, or if an occlusion occurs so that the motor can not 22 drive the pump, block K receives more motor drive pulses -23 than desired before the next slot is detected and at that 24 time, the pump is turned off and the occlusion alarm is activated.
27 Among the other alarm conditions are an air embolism 28 alarm, which detects for the presence of air in the line to 29 reactivate the pump and to activate the alarm. In addition, ~ the lo~ battery and infusion complete alarms are controlled 31 in the manner described above.
-5~-)-5239 1 The reverse time rate compensation circuit block J
2 compensates for the loss of accuracy that would occur because 3 of the period of time during which the plunger is returned to 4 the bottom position so as to fill the cassette 24. Generally, 5 this period of time is about five (5) seconds and at higher 6 rates of infusion, this period could represent a considerable 7 loss of pulses to drive the motor which would provide for a 8 loss in accuracy in the infusion rate. The circuit shown in 9 block J accumulates any motor drive pulses that are produced 10 during the refill time for the cassette and then these pulses 11 are slowly added back along with the normal motor drive pulses.
12 For some period the rate is therefore slightly more than is 13 being generated by the decade rate scaler shown in block I.
14 The circuitry of block J therefore provides for a slow administration of additional fluid across a time period to 16 compensate for the loss of accuracy because of the refill 17 time for the cassette.
19 The forward reverse logic block R produces slgnals 20 to control the forward and reverse operation of the motor 74 21 which motor controls the valve 38 within the cassette 24.
22 This valve must be controlled to be in a first position during 23 the infusion of fluid into a patient and in a second position 24 during the refill of the cassette after the plunger has emptied the cassette.
~-5239 1 The various circuits which form the blocks shown in 2 Figure 7 have been described in detail with reference to 3 Figures 8 through 24. In addition, it will be noted that 4 many of the logic gates,flip-flops, counters, etc., include 5 additional reference characters other than those described 6 above. Specifically, these reference characters are those 7 starting with Z such as Z12, 18, 32, etc., which refer to a 8 particular integrated circuit. For example, as shown in 9 Block ~ in Figure 11, a total of four` (4) AND gates and two t2) OR gates all include the reference character Z18. This lI identifies all of these gates as being present in the same 12 integrated circuit. A second reference character which is 13 sometimes present, is a four-digit number such as 4019 shown 14 in the AND and OR gates marked "Z18". This reference 15 character refers to a specific type of integrated circuit 16 commercially available from RCA as the CD series and the 17 reference character 4019 refers to an RCA type CD 4019.
18 Although it is appreciated that other companies manufacture 19 similar conventional integrated circuits, the RCA types are 20 used throughout as a convenient standard in describing the 21 application. Eor example, in block L, a pair of flip-flops 22 322 and 324 are both marked Zl9 and the four-digit number 23 4013. This indicated that both flip-flops 322 and 324 are 24 part of the same integrated circuit characterized by Zl9 and 2~ that it is an RCA type CD 4013. The other numbers and letters 26 sho~m adjacent to specific input and output lines such as in 27 flip-flop 322 refer to standard input and output lead desig-28 nating de5ignations usçd in the RCA type integrated circuits.
J-5239 ~0~302 1 It is to be appreciated that these conventional 2 designations are shown merely to provide clarification as 3 to the specific operation of the invention, and that the 4 invention is not to be limited to these specifics. Although 5 the invention has been described with reference to a 6 pàrticular embodiment, it is to be appreciated that other 7 adaptations and modifications may be made and the invention 8 is only to be limited by the appended claims.
49. A volumetric pump for pumping fluid dispensed from a source volume of fluid to an output line at a preselected controlled rate until a preselected volume of fluid has been pumped, including a volumetric cassette for receiving fluid from the source volume of fluid and providing fluid to the output line, and including a chamber of a predetermined volume which predetermined volume is a fraction of the source volume of fluid and with the cassette also including a plunger movable within the chamber for filling and at least partially emptying the chamber a predetermined amount upon movement of the plunger in alternate directions, and a plunger driving mechanism coupled to the plunger for driving the plunger in alternate directions to fill and at least partially empty the chamber, control means coupled to the plunger driving mechanism for controlling the plunger driving mechanism and with the control means including first means for alternately driving the plunger at a controlled speed in one direction to at least partially empty.
the cassette chamber a predetermined amount at a preselected rate until the chamber is at least partially empty and for driving the plunger in the opposite direction to refill the cassette, and second means for monitoring the alternate driving of the plunger in the one direction to determine the volume of fluid pumped from the cassette until a preselected volume of fluid has been pumped,
56. A battery operated volumetric pump for pumping fluid dispensed from a source volume of fluid to an output line at a preselected controlled rate, including a volumetric cassette for receiving fluid from the source volume of fluid and providing fluid to the output line, and including a chamber of a predetermined volume which predetermined volume is a fraction of the source volume of fluid and with the cassette also including a plunger movable within the chamber for filling and at least partially empting the chamber a predetermined amount upon movement of the plunger in alternate directions, and
57. A volumetric pump for pumping fluid dispensed from a source volume of fluid to an output line at a preselected controlled rate until a preselected volume of fluid has been pumped, including a volumetric cassette for receiving fluid from the source volume of fluid and providing fluid to the output line, and including a chamber of a predetermined volume which predeter-mined volume is a fraction of the source volume of fluid and with the cassette also including a plunger movable within the chamber for filling and at least partially emptying the chamber upon movement of the plunger in alternate directions,
Priority Applications (1)
|Application Number||Priority Date||Filing Date||Title|
|US05473901 US3985133A (en)||1974-05-28||1974-05-28||IV pump|
Applications Claiming Priority (1)
|Application Number||Priority Date||Filing Date||Title|
|CA 321641 CA1078692A (en)||1974-05-28||1979-02-16||Iv pump|
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|CA1060302A true CA1060302A (en)||1979-08-14|
Family Applications (1)
|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|CA 227832 Expired CA1060302A (en)||1974-05-28||1975-05-27||Iv pump|
Country Status (3)
|US (1)||US3985133A (en)|
|CA (1)||CA1060302A (en)|
|GB (2)||GB1517541A (en)|
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