CA1041231A - Liquid wastes redistribution apparatus and method - Google PatentsLiquid wastes redistribution apparatus and method
- Publication number
- CA1041231A CA1041231A CA223,386A CA223386A CA1041231A CA 1041231 A CA1041231 A CA 1041231A CA 223386 A CA223386 A CA 223386A CA 1041231 A CA1041231 A CA 1041231A
- Prior art keywords
- liquid wastes
- filter media
- Prior art date
- Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
An apparatus and method for the redistribution of liquid wastes discharged from a distribution means over a bio-logical filter for the treatment of the wastes, particularly a filter comprised primarily of vertical surfaces, is disclosed.
The apparatus includes a plurality of layers of horizontally dis-posed surfaces positioned between the distribution nozzles and the filter media, which surfaces intercept, retard and evenly distribute the liquid wastes prior to their flow down through the filter media. A maze-like flow channel construction is also disclosed to reduce surges in the flow rate caused by periodic impulses or discharges of liquid wastes, as is commonly en-countered in rotary arm distribution apparatus.
BACKGROUND OF T~IE INVENTIO_ The use of biolo~ical filters or habitats in the treat-ment of liquid wastes, such as sewage and industrial wastes, has become quite common and widespread. There are several different types of apparatus for the distribution of the li~uid wastes over the biological habitat or filter media. Similarly, there are -several different types of filter media and numerous methods of treatment and auxiliary apparatus used in connection with the biological filter.
Two of the most common approaches for the distribution of liquid wastes over a biological filter are through the use of fixed nozzles or stand pipes and the use of a movable (prefer-ably rotary) arm or arms which periodically advance over the entire filter media. These types of distribution systems have various relative advantages and disaclvantages, and both are in wid2spread use presently. In recent years, high-rate and low-rate trickling filters have been vast:ly improved by reason of the advent of new forms of filter meclia. Earl~ biological habi-tats ~imply employed rock as the filter media over which the liquid wastes were distributed and on which the biological slimes grew. The new forms of filter media can be broadly classified -into t~o groups, namely, vertical media and horizontal media. In the vertical media, virtually all of the surfaces providing the area over which the liquid wastes flow and on which the biological slimes ~row are vertically extending. In the horizontal media, the primary growing surfaces are upwardly and/or downwardly fac-ing horizontal surfaces. Additionally, the vertical media has most usually been formed of plastic material. An example of a typical vertical filter media construction is shown in U. S.
Patent No. 3,347,381. An example of a typical horizontal filter media is shown in U. S. Patent No. 3,496,101. Whether these new ~l~4~31 1 orms of filter media are used as a replacement for rock in an existing biological filter system or are employed in specially designed and newly constructed filters, several problems have been encountered which reduce the effectiveness of these media as employed as a habitat in biological filters. The problems have been heightened substantially when vertical media is em-ployed, but exist to some extent in connection with horizontal media and certain distribution systems.
In a fixed nozzle liquid wastes distribution system, achievement of a uniform distribution of the li~uid wastes over the top of the filter media is quite difficult. This problem of an uneven distribution is caused, in large part, by the fact that the rate at which sewage is discharged over t~e filter may vary substantially from day-to-day and within the day, causing large changes in the flow rate out the fixed stand pipes or nozzles and changes in the area over which the nozzles disperse the liquid wastes. The problem wit~l fixed stand pipes is fur-ther heightened when vertical media is used in that the vertical channels tend to maintain the flow of liquid wastes in the pre-determined vertical channels into which the wastes entered atthe top of the filter. Thus, although the vertical media is usually staggered, the lateral distribution or dispersion of the liquid wastes is relatively minimal as it travels in verti-cal channels from the top of the filter to the bottom.
When a rotary arm distribution system is used, the - li~uid wastes are more evenly distributad over the top of the filter by reason of the constant motion of the rotary arm over all portions of the filter. The changes in flow rate or load-ing of the filter tend to affect all portions of the filter in the same way and do not create dry spots and attendant failure in the growth of biological slimes. Accordingly, rotary arm :1~41~3~
1 distribution means are preferred when vertical channel plastic filter media i5 employed. The rotary arm apparatus, however, creates a different but related problem. As the rotary arm passes over a portion of the filter, there is a tremendous surge or pulse in the flow rate of liquid wastes over that portion of the filter onto which the wastes have been discharged by means of the rotary arm. Again, the vertical media is particularly adversely affected by the surge encountered when rotary arm distribution means are employed. The high flow rate combines with the vertical channel to build up a substantial velocity of liquid sewage in the vertical channels of the media, with the result that biological slimes do not grow effectively and are eroded from the upper surfaces of the filter media. One so-lution to this problem has been to construct the media to a very substantial height, for example, as high as 21 feet or more. In such a construction, a portion of the upper filter area, when a rotary arm distribution means is employed, may not contain any substantial quantity of biological slimes, since the flow rate of liquid sewage surging from the rotary arm at the upper eleva-tions in the filter media is too high to allow biological growth.Similarly, although to a lesser extent, horizontal media may have its upper surfaces eroded and washed free of biological slimes as a result of the surge from the rotary arm distribution appa-ratus. Typical rotary arm distribution means are shown in U. S.
Patent Nos. 2,168,208 and 2,355,640, while typical fixed-nozzle liquid wastès treatment apparatus may be seen in U. S. Patent Nos. 3,112,261 and 3,496,101.
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a liquid wastes redistribution apparatus and method ; 30 which will effect an even distribution of liquid wastes over the top of a biological habitat for a wide range of filtex load . "
~4l~3l 1 rates and tend to reduce the surges in flow rate onto the habitat.
It is another object of the present invention to pro- ^
vide a liquid wastes redistribution apparatus and method which may be readily employed with a variety of distribution means and filter media constructions at either existing or new installa-tions.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a liquid wastes redistribution apparatus and method which is easy to construct, install, operate and maintain.
Still another object of the present invention is to ~;~ provide a liquid wastes treatment apparatus and method which in-creases the durability of the combined filter and redistribution system, affords cost savings in the construction of the filter media and operation of the filter, and improves the overall fil-ter strength.
Other objects and advantages of the liquid wastes re-distribution apparatus and method c~f the present invention will become apparent and are set out in more detail in connection with ; the description of the preferred embodiments.
: `; 20 SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The apparatus and method of the present invention is , comprised, briefly, of a liquid wastes distribution media posi-tioned between the top of biological filter media and distribu-`~ tion discharge outlets. The redistribution media is formed wlth a plurality of vertically spaced and superimposed layers of up-wardly facing substantially horizontal surfaces with openings therethrough for downward flow of the liquid wastes to the fil-ter media. The horizontal surfaces are formed and arranged to interrupt, retard and redistribute the liquid wastes and may in-clude, as one aspect of the invention, a maze~like flow channel to reduce surges in filter loading. Lath-like horizontally , 1 oriented, relatively spaced, side-by-side members preferably provide th~ redistribution media, and the layers of members may be relatively staggered and/or oriented in an intersecting man-ner to eliminate vertical channels.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIGURE 1 is a si~e elevational view of a schematic representation of a biological filter having a redistribution apparatus constructed in accordance with the present invention installed thereon.
FIGURE 2 is an enlarged, fragmentary, cross-sectional j view of that area of the apparatus of FIGURE 1 encircled by line 2-2.
FIGURE 3 is a side elevational view of the redistribu-tion apparatus of the present invention installed on horizontal ; media and used with a rotary arm distribution means.
FIGURE 4 iS an enlar~ed, t:op plan view of liquid wastes redistribution apparatus constructecl in accordance with the pres-ent invention.
FIGURE 5 is a side elevational view of the redistribu-tion apparatus shown in FIGURE 4.
FIGURE 6 is an enlarged, side elevational view, in cross-se¢tion, of the alternative embodiment o~ the redistribution ap-paratus of the pre~ent invention shown in FIGURE 3 and constructed to control surgin~.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED El~BODIMENT
The liquid wastes redistribution apparatus and method of the present invention may be conveniently used with conven-tional biological filter apparatus, as shown in FIGURE 1. The liquid wastes treatment apparatus shown in FIGURE 1 includes a filter media, generally designated 21, having a plurality of sur-~aces, shown in FIGURE 2 as being vertically extending surfaces 22, 1 which provide a biological habitat over which liquid wastes flow and on which biological slimes grow. Additionally, distribution means, generally designated 23, is provided with distribution outlets 24, positioned over the top of media 21 for discharge of liquid wastes 26 on the top of the media and gravitation of the liquid wastes down through the media.
Additionally, the biological filter will normally con-tain a collecting basin or under-drain 27 on which media 21 is supported by a plurality of foundation runners 28, which allow flow of liquid wastes on the sloping under-drain 27 to collection basin 29 for gravitational or pumped flow (schematically repre-sented by arrow 31) to other treatment apparatus, such as clari-fiers and the like. Sewage distribution means 23 includes verti-cal stand pipes 32 on which distribution outlets or nozzles 24 are mounted and which stand pipes are supplied by supply pipe 33.
The liquid wastes are preferably pumped rom a tank or basin 34, which may be a primary clarifier, or a mixing basin. Pump 36 withdraws the liquid sewage from basin 34 and conduit 37 supplies the basin either from a clarifier or after screenin~.
The liquid wastes treatment apparatus thus far described is in widespread use, and there are numerous variations commonly employed in connection with such apparatus, including changes in piping configurations, pumping or gravitational flow, and collec-tion basin geometries. Additionally, other forms of fixed nozzle ~ distribution means have been employed, such as systems in which the ; stand pipes 32 in the filter media are eliminated and an overhead supply system employed. Additionally, the use of movable or ro-tary arm distribution systems will be described in more detail in connection with the apparatus of FIGURE 3.
In order to insure an even distribution of liquid wastes over the top of filter media 21, the apparatus of the present in-41;~;31 1 vention includes a liquid wastes redistribution media, generally designated 41, positioned between the top 42 of filter media 21 and beneath discharge outlets 24 of distribution means 23. As best may be seen in FIGURE 2, filter media 41 is formed with a plurality of vertically spaced and superimposed layers 46-50 of upwardly facing substantially horizontally extending surfaces 52 formed to define openings 53 therethrough for the downward flow of liquid wastes from outlets 24 through the redistribution media to filter media 21. Thus, as the liquid wastes 26 hit layer 50 of the redistribution media, horizonta~ surfaces 52 cause the downward flow of the liquid waste to be interrupted and retarded with a redistribution in a lateral direction of a portion of the wastes. As the wastes progress downwardly under the action of gravity, each successive layer tends to further disperse or laterally redistribute the liquid wastes and to slow down their ; downward flow so that by the time the wastes have reached media 21, their downward flow is greatly reduced and more evenly distributed over the plan area of top 42 of the media. When evenly distributed over the vertical media, the undesirable ef-fect of channeling the liquid wastes in individual vertical channels, as defined by surfaces 22 in the filter media, it is not as significant since the flow in each channel is now more nearly equal. Additionally, and very importantly, the retarding effect of the horizontal surfaces in the redistribution media will cause the liquid sewage to have a much lower downward velocity. This in turn results in vertically extending sur-faces 22 in the ilter media adjacent top 42 being able to sup-port and retain biological slimes and act as an effective bio-logical habitat. Thus, the redistribution media tends to elimi-nate erosion off the upper surfaces of the vertical channels in filter media 21. ~ccordingly, a foot or even less of redistri-:1~4~;~31 1 bution layers can be used with vertical plastic media in a fil-ter which lower in height without decreasing substantially the filter performance. The importance of such a reduction in the plastic filter media hei~ht is twofold. First, the reduction in filter hei~ht will have an attendant savings in costs of ;~ media. Additionally, increased filter height normally requires increased pumping cost in order to pump the liquid wastes to a height where they may be distributed over the filter media.
Accordingly, a savings in filter media height results in an attendant savings in pumping cost.
While the redistribution media of the present inven-tion may be most advantageously employed as positioned over the top of the filter media, it may also be positioned within the filter media. As above noted, the vertical channels in plastic media confine the liquid sewage to a single downwardly extending path. The effect is to maintain a relatively high velocity in the downward ~low o~ the liquid wast;es and to elim.~nate lateral movement of the wastes within the filter media. Accordingly, several layers of redistribution media may be positioned at various levels throughout the vertical height of filter media 21 in order to slow the downward velocity of the liquld wastes and to ~urther redistribute and even out the flow in each vertical channel of the plastic media. Since plastic vertical media is typically manufactured in cube-like units which are self-support-ing and stacked on one another, it is a simple matter to inter-sperse the filter media with layers of redistribution media.
In FIGURE 1 such an intermediate zone of layers of redistribu-tion media within filter media 21 is shown at zone 54.
Redistribution media 41 may be constructed of a number of different materials and arrays of horizontally extending sur-faces. It has been found to be preferable and advantageous, 1 however, to employ a media, which has been found to be effec-tive as a horizontal filter media, as the redistribution media.
Such a media is set forth and described in detail in U. S.
Patent No. 3,496,101. Briefly, this redistribution media is provided by lath-like members 56 which provide upwardly facing surfaces 52 and downwardly facing surfaces 57. The members 56 are positioned in the layers of the redistribution media in side-by-side and generally parallel and spaced apart relation to define openlngs 53 therebetween. Members 56 are supported on cross members or supporting members 58, usually by the use of fasteners or adhesives. The redistribution media may be formed of wood, such as redwood or pressure treated fir, and additionally may be formed of plastic material. Since the pri-mary purpose of the redistribution media is not to afford a bio-logical habitat, but rather to redistribute and retard the down-ward flow of the liquid wastes, the redistribution media need not be constructed or positioned in a manner desi~ned to opti-mize its e~fectiveness as a biological habitat.
In order to minimize the number of layers which may be required in the redistribution media in order to effect even-in~ out and retardation of flow of the liquid wastes, it is a further feature of the present invention that the layers of re-distribution media may be relatively horizontally displaced in relation to the next vertically adjacent layer to superimpose horizontal surfaces over openings in the adjacent layers. This may best be seen by reference to FIGURE 4 wherein lath-like mem-bers 61 form the top layer in the redistribution media and lath-like members 62 form the third layer in the media. As will be seen, laths 62 are in superimposed relation to the openings 63 between laths 61. Thus, by horizontally displacing layer three relative to layer one, in the media of FIGURE 4, the laths in 1 the third layer are aligned with the openings in the first layer of the media. In FIGURE 2 laths 56 are all superimposed over each other, as are openings 53, creating the possibility that liquid wastes may fall down openings 53 without impacting any of the laths. In FIGURES ~ and 5 the second and fourth layers of laths have been perpendicularly oriented to the first and third layers such that the longitudinal axes of laths 66 in the second layex of FIGURES 4 and 5 are perpendicular to the longitudinal axes of laths 61 and 62. Similarly, the lon-gitudinal axes of laths 67 are perpendicular to the axes of 61and 62. Additionally, the layers including laths 66 and 67 are also relatively horizontally displaced so that the laths are superimposed with the openings. Thus, the orientation of the layers and their relative positioning in FIGURES 4 and 5 result in there being no uninterrupted vertical channel down which liquid waste may travel before impac:ting the filter media.
While it has been found that this staggering and criss- -crossing of layers of media is undesirable if the entire filter is to be constructed of horizontal media, the stag~ering and crisscrossing of media is highly desirable when the media is used as a redistribution media, since its primary function is not as a biological habitat. It should also be noted that the alignment of laths as shown in FIGURE 2 may require a few more layers in order to insure an evening of the downward flow over a given horizontal area, this alignment works in a satisfactory fashion in most instances and is a substantial improvement over discharge of the liquid wastes directly on the top of the ver-tical filter media. This is particularly true since there is considerable splashing off of the horizontal surfaces. Thus, a relatively small depth of redistribution media composed with the depth of filter media virtually eliminates the opportunity ^-10--1 for liquid wastes to pass down the channels defined by open-ings 53. A further height reduction in the redistribution media can be accomplished, however, by staggering and crisscrossing the layers.
The use of a redistribution media as above described has several additional advantages attendant thereto. First, a common problem encountered with plastic media, whether verti-cal or horizontal, is that it checks and breaks down under ultra-violet li~ht on ~he top surfaces which are exposed to the sun-light. Use of a redistribution media, particularly if it is awood media, will eliminate the exposure to sunlight and this breakdown of the plastic filter media. Additionally, and very important, biological filters must often be walked upon by in-stallation and maintenance personnel. Thus, the filter media is subject to localized loading which is much greater than would be experienced in merely supporting the weight of the media above it. Thus, plastic media has not infrequently been crushed by personnel installing the same or at a later date working upon the media. One approach to avoid the problem has been the use of portable walkways, such as ~oards and the like which are removed after installation and/or maintenance. Another approach has been to cover the entire top 42 of media 21 with a single perforated sheet having enough strength to transfer localized loads over a greater surface area. The redistribution media of the present invention can be formed of a relatively heavy gauge material which can be readily walked upon and will trans-fer localized loads over a substantial surface area. Thus, the need for a self-supporting plastic media which further is formed ;
to support local~zed loads can be eliminated, and the plastic media can be manufactured out of a thinner gauge material. Thus, the use of redistribution media of the present invention can 1~4~
; 1 result in a substantial cost savings in the ability to reduce the gauge of the material in the filter media. It might be noted further that since the redistribution media is preferably of a relatively heavy gauge, it may be constructed of plastic material which the ultraviolet light from the sun will check and cause to break down, but which can be sufficiently strong so that the loss in mechanical strength from the sunlight is not significant. The redistribution media of the present in-vention, therefore, has the effect of reducing the cost of the filter media and increasing the overall strength and durability of the biological filter.
Referring now to FIGURE~ 3 and 6, an alternative em-bodiment of the redistribution media of the present invention may be described. In FIGURE 3 a schematic representation of the biological filter system is illustrated in which incoming liquid wastes enter tank 71 through conduit 72 and are pumped by pump 73 through conduit 7~ to a rotary arm-type of distribu-tion means 76. The rotary arm distribution means is fairly ef-fective in evenly distributing the liquid wastes over the top surface of the filter media, but as above described, the primary defect of such distribution apparatus is that they cause surges or impulses in the flow rate over the filter media. In a manner similar to that previously described in connection with FIGURE 1, the biological filter is provided with an under-drain 77 includ-- ing a collecting basin 78 from which filter under-drain flow may be pumped for further treatment. Mounted on under-drain 77 are runners 79 and a filter media, generally designated 81. Super-imposed over filter media 81 is a redistribution media, generally designated 82 In order to act as a surge control apparatus, the re-distribution media of the present invention may be formed with ~6~41'~:3i 1 the horizontally upwardly facing surfaces oriented and con-structed in a manner resulting in a substantial delay and slow-ing of the downward progress of the liquid wastes through the redistribution media. Thus, as best may be seen in FIGURE 6, redistribution media 82 includes upwardly facing surfaces 83-86, with surface 83 defining an inlet opening 88 and the remain-ing surfaces defining a maze-like flow channel 89 formed to im-part a horizontal component to the direction of flow of the liquid wastes deposited over the redistribution media. The re-distribution maæe is formed with a discharge opening, or in thiscase openings 91, for flow of the liquid wastes onto the top sur-face of filter media 81. The redistribution media of FIGURES 3 and 6 can be formed of lath-like members, for example by posi-tioning members 56 in FIGURE 2 in abutting relation, but is pref-erably formed as shown in FIGURE 6.
The filter media illustrated in FIGURE 6 is illustrated as horizontal media of the type disc;Losed in U. S. Patent No.
3,~96,101 and of the type that may be employed as a redistribu-tion media, as illustrated in FIGURE 2. Since horizontally ex-tending filter media tends to redistribute the liquid wastes as ;~ they travel down throu~h the filter, location of the discharge ; openings 91 in the redistribution media over only a portion of the top surface of the filter media is not too critical.
When a rotary arm distribution means is employed, the surge as the arm passes over a unit of redistribution media is quite substantial. This is particularly true at the outer ends of the rotary arm, where the volume and velocity of liquid wastes must be greater in light of increased speed at which the arm passes over an area. Accordingly, in order to slow the surge and even out the flow~ the partitions 84 and 85 in media 82 cause the direction of flow of the liquid wastes to be reversed ~13~
~4:~31 1 several times and the flow rate correspondingly reduced over thepeak rate at which flow was discharged from the distribution means 76 onto the upper surface 83 of the redistribution media. It is preferable in order to reduce the downward flow rate and spread the tirne over which the liquid wastes are discharged on the filter media to construct the redistribution media with a flow channel 89 which has a greater horizontal than vertical length. Thus, the flow channel as illustrated in FIGURE 6 is substantially longer in the horizontal direction than the height of the redistribution media.
In order to both control surging and obtain an even dis-tribution, it is possible to combine the redistribution media con-struction shown in FIGURE 2 with the redistribution media construc-tion shown in FIGURh` 6. There~ore, if what has heretofore been described as filter media 81 in FIGURE 6 was merely layers of re-distribution media which in turn were superimposed over a vertical filter media such as media 21, as shown in FIGURE 2, both surge control and even distribution can be achieved. This approach is particularly ad~antageous when vertical filter media is employed since discharge openings 91 will tend to cause preferential ~low of
2~ the liquid ~astes from the surge controlling flow channel 89. It should be noted that the inlet opening 88 and the flow channel throughout its length, as well as discharge openings 91, must be of s~bstantial dimension in order to avoid plugging by solids carried in the liquid wastes. Accordingly, the first discharge opening 91 ; must be of substantial dimension and will, for that reason, be the ~; opening from which most of the li~uid wastes are discharged from the redistribution means. This phenomenon is precisely the problem which has~been encountered in connection with prior redistribution systems which have been employed. If a single perforated sheet is attempted to be used to evenly disperse liquid wastes over a given area of filter, the holes must be relatively small in order to ~r~ 3~
1 insure an even distribution. When the holes are small, however, they plug, and when the holes are large enough to avoid plugging, they result in preferential discharge onto the filter media and uneven distribution.
In the redistribution media and method of the present invention, the horizontal orientation of surfaces to cause an im-pacting or impinging of the liquid wastes thereon for retardation of the downward flow of such wastes is of substantial importance.
Ob~iously, some skewing or tilting from a perfectly horizontal position can be tolerat~d with the redistribution media being effective both in retarding and in redistributing the liquid wastes. If, by contrast, vertical media of the type of media 21 in FIGURE 2 is attempted to be employed, however, neither re-tardation nor horizontal dispersement of the liquid wastes is ac-complished.
As will be obvious, several forms of maze-like channels can be employed to spread the time of discharga over the filter media out over that which is the resuLt of the rotary arm. Addi-tionally, the length of the maze-like flow channel can be increased i~ accordance with the desired delay and normal operating condi-tions of the biological filter. In connection with a maze-like channel, the surfaces need not be so nearly horizontal if the ef-fect is to delay and even out the flow over the media with respect to time.
a liquid wastes redistribution media positioned between the top of said filter media and beneath said dis-charge outlets, said redistribution media being of relatively small depth compared to said filter media and formed with a plurality of vertically spaced and superimposed layers of upwardly and downwardly facing substantially horizontally extending surfaces of substantial area and connecting verti-cally extending surfaces of substantially less area than said horizontally extending surfaces, said horizontally extending surfaces being formed to define openings therethrough for the downward flow of said liquid wastes from said outlets through said redistribution media to said filter media with said hori-zontally extending surfaces interrupting, retarding and redis-tributing said liquid wastes as said liquid wastes pass from one layer to the next vertically adjacent layer of said re-distribution media.
2. The liquid wastes treatment apparatus as defined in Claim 1 wherein, said surfaces in said redistribution media are provided by surfaces on elongated lath-like members, and at
least one of said layers of said redistribution media is positioned with the longitudinal axes of said lath-like members in said layer transverse to the longitudinal axes of said lath-like members in a vertically adjacent layer.
said upwardly facing horizontally extending surfaces in said redistribution media are arranged to form an inlet opening, a maze-like flow channel communicating with said inlet opening and formed to impart a horizontal component to the direction of flow of said liquid wastes therethrough and change the direction of flow of said liquid wastes prior to discharge thereof onto said filter media, and a discharge opening whereby the flow rate of said liquid wastes from said discharge opening is reduced below the flow rate during surges from said outlets.
(a) positioning a plurality of vertically spaced and superimposed layers of grid-like redistribution media between the top of said filter media and said outlets, each said layer of redistribution media being formed with a plurality of rela-tively spaced apart surfaces; and (b) orienting said spaced apart surfaces in said redis-tribution media in a substantially horizontal orientation to interrupt, retard and redistribute the flow of liquid wastes before said wastes pass over said vertically extending surfaces of said filter media.
Priority Applications (1)
|Application Number||Priority Date||Filing Date||Title|
|CA223,386A CA1041231A (en)||1975-03-25||1975-03-25||Liquid wastes redistribution apparatus and method|
Applications Claiming Priority (1)
|Application Number||Priority Date||Filing Date||Title|
|CA223,386A CA1041231A (en)||1975-03-25||1975-03-25||Liquid wastes redistribution apparatus and method|
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|CA1041231A true CA1041231A (en)||1978-10-24|
Family Applications (1)
|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|CA223,386A Expired CA1041231A (en)||1975-03-25||1975-03-25||Liquid wastes redistribution apparatus and method|
Country Status (1)
|CA (1)||CA1041231A (en)|
Cited By (1)
|Publication number||Priority date||Publication date||Assignee||Title|
|WO1980002556A1 (en) *||1979-05-21||1980-11-27||C2F Investment Co||On-site wastewater treatment system|
- 1975-03-25 CA CA223,386A patent/CA1041231A/en not_active Expired
Cited By (2)
|Publication number||Priority date||Publication date||Assignee||Title|
|WO1980002556A1 (en) *||1979-05-21||1980-11-27||C2F Investment Co||On-site wastewater treatment system|
|US4251359A (en) *||1979-05-21||1981-02-17||C2 F Investment Company||On-site wastewater treatment system|
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