CA1037272A - Industrial cooling tower - Google Patents

Industrial cooling tower

Info

Publication number
CA1037272A
CA1037272A CA180,985A CA180985A CA1037272A CA 1037272 A CA1037272 A CA 1037272A CA 180985 A CA180985 A CA 180985A CA 1037272 A CA1037272 A CA 1037272A
Authority
CA
Canada
Prior art keywords
membrane
envelope
support
cooling tower
industrial cooling
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired
Application number
CA180,985A
Other languages
French (fr)
Other versions
CA180985S (en
Inventor
Fritz Leonhardt
Jorg Schlaich
Wilhelm Zellner
Wolfhart Andra
Willi Baur
Gunter Mayer
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
MAYER GUENTEER
SCHLAICH JOERG PROF DR
Original Assignee
MAYER GUENTEER
SCHLAICH JOERG PROF DR
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE19722247179 priority Critical patent/DE2247179C3/en
Application filed by MAYER GUENTEER, SCHLAICH JOERG PROF DR filed Critical MAYER GUENTEER
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CA1037272A publication Critical patent/CA1037272A/en
Expired legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04HBUILDINGS OR LIKE STRUCTURES FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSES; SWIMMING OR SPLASH BATHS OR POOLS; MASTS; FENCING; TENTS OR CANOPIES, IN GENERAL
    • E04H5/00Buildings or groups of buildings for industrial or agricultural purposes
    • E04H5/10Buildings forming part of cooling plants
    • E04H5/12Cooling towers

Abstract

ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE:

An industrial cooling tower comprising a support structure resting on a ground surface and a waisted tubular envelope consisting of a continuous membrane having an unbroken surface of saddle shape and made of a material which is capable of supporting tension in all directions in its plane, the membrane being tensioned and carried with its tubular axis upright from the support structure. An open latticework anchors the lower border of the membrane to the ground surface and provides an inlet for entry of cooling air into the interior of the membrane, said membrane having an open upper end serving as an air outlet opening and a ring connected to the upper border of the membrane and to the support structure with the envelope stretched in an axial direction between its upper and lower borders, and with the support structure providing the vertical component of the tensioning. The support structure is of sufficient strength to support the membrane in a sufficiently stretched condition to cause the tensioning to create tensile forces in the membrane in all directions in the plane of the waisted envelope, with the tensile forces being greater than the compression forces created by the wind externally to the shell.

Description

` 1037~Z
- The invention relates to industrial cooling towers such as those employed to house the cooling systems of ; nuclear power plants~
-~ Such i~dustrial cooling towers are inherently and necessarily of large size, and because of this size are subject to the problem of resistance to external wind ; forces.
The object of this invention is to provide a tower which can be made in larger sizes than those presently ; 10 existing, and at the same time is highly resistant to ;;
external wind forces.
Industrial cooling towers are conventionally made in two general forms. One form is used for water cooling, and the other form is a natural-draft tower wherein air cooling is ; employed in areas in which a water supply is not readily available. The dry, natural-draft cooling towers require considerably larger heights than the water cooled types, but the conventional construction of such towers imposes a ~ -- limitation upon the maximum size thereof.
Conventional cooling towers consi-st of a thin shell of reinforced concrete or approximately six inch wall thickness. The largest towers in use are approximately 500 feet high, the maximum height possible for such concrete towers being established at less than 700 feet because of inherent statics problems. At such heights, the thickness of the shell has about the same relationship to the over-all size of the tower as the thickness o an egg shell has to the over-all dimensions of an egg, and the shell of the tower is apparently even more fragile. Thus the concrete shells of the conventional towers are incapable of resisting bending forces or wind pressures at heights over the aforementioned limit.

. . , .. --- 1 -- ~

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`` 1037Z72 It has already also been proposed to manufacture the tubular envelope of such a structure from a three-family cable construction clad or overlaid with plates, and essentially , airtight. In contrast to two-family construction consisting of cables running in straight lines a three-family cable construction has the considerable advantage that only slight .
, deformations result from considerable wind pressures. The ~ , cladding is thus subjected to no disadvantageous stresses and , the high inherent stability further avoids the danger of ,' ' 10 fluttering of the envelope. An envelope of this kind is -however expensive because the envelope is divided between two ', groups of members. The cable construction undertakes the , supporting and bearing function, whereas the cladding serves ;' for the sealing.
~ The object of the invention is to provide the envelope '~ in such a way that it can be produced and erected more simply and cheaply. -According to the present invention, there is ' provided an industrial cooling tower comprising a support -structure resting on a ground surface and a waisted tubular envelope consisting of a continuous membrane having an unbroken ~'~ surface of saddle shape and made of a material which is ' capable of supporting tension in all directions in its plane, the membrane being tensiQned and carried wi,th its~ tubular axis upright from the support structure, an open latticework , anchoring the lower border of said membrane to the ground surface and providing an inlet for entry of cooling air into the interior of said membrane,said membrane having an open upper end serving as an air outlet opening and a ring - 30 connected to the upper border of said membrane and to the support structure with the envelope stretched in an axial , 2 ',: :
. ,~ .
: .
.... . .

- : : :. :- :

` 103727Z .
direction between its upper and lower borders, and with the support structure providing,the vertical component of the tensioning, the support structure being of sufficient strength to support the membrane in a sufficiently stretched condition to cause the tensioning to create tensile forces in the membrane ln all directions in the plane of the waisted envelope,with the tensile forces being greater than the .... .
compression forces created by the wind externally to the shell.
:
The resulting advantage lies in the fact that a very thin-walled membrane can be used, so long as the material is tension-resistant in all directions. Tensioning confers on ~'~ the envelope an excellent inherent stability after erection, . c, "~ i.e., the envelope acts as a true diaphragm-shell. The tensioning is chosen to be such that the compressive forces ; exerted within the diaphragm-shell by wind loading remain - smaller than the tensile forces produced by the tensioning.
: The construction of the cooling tower of the present invention from a stressed membrane shell, rather than from concrete, enables the tower to be erected at much ~- larger heights than conventional cooling towers and still be capable of withstanding wind compression forces encountered ` at these heights, so that the tower may be made of a sufficient size to be used for dry cooling by air in areas where a water supply is not available to provide water cooling.
.
Thus, applicants' structure is capable of being erected in heights of 900 feet and over. At the same time, the shell wall ;; is of relatively small thickness and of relatiyely light - 3Q weight so that it can be easily erected, ,, .

- 3 ~

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., ., ` 103727Z .
It must be emphasized that the emplovment of compres-sion-resistant material for the envelope can be completely dis-pensed with. This is significant particularly compared with the generally customary shells of concrete in which the compressive forces to be born introduce considerable problems of stability.
The dimensions of conventional concrete structures are thereby limited because of the construction of the envelope. The envelope according to the invention on the contrary enables the production of considerably larger structures.
.. 10 The new envelope may be made of a continuous membrane of relatively flexible material which may be aluminium, steel, ~-laminates, especially laminated fabrics, plastics or the like and which, upon tensioning, is capable of supporting tension in all directions in its plane. Fundamentally the envelope can have any cross-section whatever. Thus it is possible for its cross-section to be rotationally symmetrical.
However, its cross-section at least at its bottom may be approximately rectangular or square. This offers the possibility of accommodating rectangular or square components with optimum utilization of space. This is important in connec-tion with cooling towers, since the frames provided in the lower zone for the introduction of the medium to be cooled have as a rule a rectangular or square shape. i The membrane may be attached, at least at its upper end to a supporting and stiffening ring. The ring in turn may be ~ , .
carried from a mast extending up through the envelope and ~
::
providing the reaction for the vertica~ tension. The spoked - wheel construction formed in this manner to a considerable extent ~;: reduces the maximum shear forces which arise as a result of the `

wind loading.

Because of the waisted shape of the tubular membrane ! `~
. :.
': ., ., ,~ .

:.

`` 103727Z ~
the stretching of the membrane in a vertical and axial direction provides the vertical component of the tensioning, whereby the tensioned membrane becomes a shell which is rendered wind-resistant by the tensioning creating tensile forces in all directions in the plane of the shell. The tensioning is made sufficient to create such tensile forces which are greater than the compression forces created by the wind externally to the shell. The use of the central mast 4 is not essential to the invention since there may be substituted several internal masts , or any supporting structure located exteriorly to the membrane and overhanging the latter, provided that the supporting structure is capable of supporting the vertical component of all forces by the tensioning and sufficient to withstand external wind forces.

. . .

The structure may have, at the bottom of the envelope a latticework of diaphragm tongues, cables or rods, which forms ~-essentially triangular openings. This latticework serves to ~ -~
conduct the forces resulting from wind loading and tensioning via a foundation into the subsoil. Because of the triangular form ; 20 of the openings provision is made for the latticework to become, as regards its supporting behaviour, a component of the envelope.
In the case of employment as a cooling tower the cooling air can flow into the envelope through these openings.
Preferably the membrane is composed of prefabricated members attached to one another, the members consisting of plates, axial strips, truncated cone-shaped sections or a strip wound in the shape of a helix. The number of prefabricated members employed .. . .
depends upon the kind of material selected, i.e., upon its ability to adapt itself to a waisted shape.
One example of a natural-draught cooling tower constructed in accordance with the invention is illustrated diagram-`'' P~

:` 1037Z7Z
matically in the accompanying drawing containing a single figure.

The tower has a waisted tubular envelope 1 consisting of a continuous membrane having an unbroken surface of saddle shape and made of a material which is tension-resistant in ~ .
all directions in its plane. At the upper end of the envelope a supporting and stiffening ring 2 is attached. Cables 3 engage -~
this supporting and stiffening ring, by which the envelope is suspended from a central mast 4 which forms a support structure. ' At the lower end of the envelope there is an open latticework 5, which provides a connection to a foundation 6.
The membrane is stretched between the founda-tion and the top end of the central mast. It forms the shape of a rotationally symmetrical waisted surface and acts as a true diaphragm-shell.
The latticework 5 forms in the present case a component of the envelope and because of the triangular shape of its open- -ings is in the position to convey into the foundation the forces resulting from wind loading and tentioning. The openings furthermore allow the access of cooling air to the interior of the cooling tower.
The latticework is connected to the envelope by a further supporting and stiffening ring 2. Additional stiffening rings of the kind can be distributed over the height of the envelope. In conjunction with prestressed spokes they serve to ; , .. . .
reduce still further the shear forces resulting from the wind loading, and so long as the spokes run obliquely upwards to the central mast, to adapt the -tension better to the variation of the shear forces over the height of the diaphragm-shell.

.. . . . . . . .
..

Claims (10)

The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive property or privilege is claimed are defined as follows:
1. An industrial cooling tower comprising a support structure resting on a ground surface and a waisted tubular envelope consisting of a continuous membrane having an unbroken surface of saddle shape and made of a material which is capable of supporting tension in all directions in its plane, said membrane being tensioned and carried with its tubular axis upright from said support structure, an open latticework anchoring the lower border of said membrane to the ground surface and providing an inlet for entry of cooling air into the interior of said membrane, said membrane having an open upper end serving as an air outlet opening and a ring connected to the upper border of said membrane and to said support structure with said envelope stretched in an axial direction between its upper and lower borders, and with said support structure providing the vertical component of said tensioning, said support structure being of sufficient strength to support said membrane in a sufficiently stretched condition to cause said tensioning to create tensile forces in said membrane in all directions in the plane of said waisted envelope, with said tensile forces being greater than the compression forces created by the wind externally to said shell.
2. An industrial cooling tower according to claim 1, wherein the cross section of said tubular envelope has ro-tational symmetry.
3. An industrial cooling tower according to claim 1, wherein the cross section of said tubular envelope at least at its bottom is substantially rectangular or square.
4. An industrial cooling tower according to claim 1, wherein said ring is a supporting and stiffening ring.
5. An industrial cooling tower according to claim 4, wherein said supporting and stiffening ring is carried from a mast extending up through said envelope, and supported on said ground surface.
6. An industrial cooling tower according to claim 1 in which said latticework is formed of diaphragm tongues, cables or rods, forming essentially triangular openings at the bottom of said envelope.
7. An industrial cooling tower according to claim 1 wherein said membrane is composed of pre-fabricated plates attached to one another,
8. An industrial cooling tower according to claim 1 wherein said membrane is composed of pre-fabricated axial strips attached to one another.
9. An industrial cooling tower according to claim 1 wherein said membrane is composed of truncated cone-shaped sections attached to one another.
10. An industrial cooling tower according to claim 1 wherein said membrane is composed of a pre-fabricated strip wound in the shape of a helix with its adjacent longitudinal edges attached together.
CA180,985A 1972-09-26 1973-09-14 Industrial cooling tower Expired CA1037272A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE19722247179 DE2247179C3 (en) 1972-09-26 1972-09-26 SADDLE AREA SHAPED SHEET FOR TUBULAR STRUCTURES, IN PARTICULAR FOR COOLING TOWERS

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
CA1037272A true CA1037272A (en) 1978-08-29

Family

ID=5857419

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CA180,985A Expired CA1037272A (en) 1972-09-26 1973-09-14 Industrial cooling tower

Country Status (15)

Country Link
JP (1) JPS5216651B2 (en)
AT (1) AT327967B (en)
AU (1) AU499949B2 (en)
BE (1) BE805275A (en)
CA (1) CA1037272A (en)
CH (1) CH560828A5 (en)
DD (1) DD106674A5 (en)
DE (1) DE2247179C3 (en)
ES (1) ES195495Y (en)
FR (1) FR2325290A5 (en)
GB (1) GB1436249A (en)
HU (1) HU173238B (en)
IT (1) IT994331B (en)
NL (1) NL7313204A (en)
SU (1) SU579927A3 (en)

Families Citing this family (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
AT320693B (en) * 1971-11-05 1975-02-25 Balcke Duerr Ag Cooling tower
DE2845194A1 (en) * 1978-10-17 1980-04-30 Leonhardt Fritz SADDLE-SHAPED SHEATH FOR TUBULAR CONSTRUCTIONS AND METHOD FOR THE PRODUCTION THEREOF
FR2461794B1 (en) * 1979-07-24 1984-01-06 Electricite De France
FR2472154B1 (en) * 1979-12-20 1982-05-21 Metalliques Entrepr Cie Fse
FR2476190B1 (en) * 1980-02-18 1983-10-21 Electricite De France
FR2546554B1 (en) * 1983-05-26 1985-07-05 Commissariat Energie Atomique
DE8529309U1 (en) * 1985-10-11 1985-11-21 Mannesmann Ag, 4000 Duesseldorf, De
FR3006753B1 (en) * 2013-06-11 2017-12-15 Jacir COOLING TOWER WITH SOFT LATERAL WALLS
CN109579559B (en) * 2018-12-12 2019-10-22 同济大学 A kind of Inflated film rope combination cooling tower

Family Cites Families (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE7141758U (en) * 1900-01-01 Duerrwerke Ag
DD92118A1 (en) * 1971-08-03 1972-08-20 Cooling tower construction

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
ES195495U (en) 1975-02-01
BE805275A (en) 1974-01-16
AU6056373A (en) 1975-03-27
ATA820173A (en) 1975-05-15
BE805275A1 (en)
AU499949B2 (en) 1979-05-03
ES195495Y (en) 1975-06-16
IT994331B (en) 1975-10-20
GB1436249A (en) 1976-05-19
DE2247179A1 (en) 1974-04-04
CH560828A5 (en) 1975-04-15
FR2325290A5 (en) 1977-04-15
HU173238B (en) 1979-03-28
NL7313204A (en) 1974-03-28
DE2247179B2 (en) 1975-08-14
DE2247179C3 (en) 1978-01-19
CA1037272A1 (en)
DD106674A5 (en) 1974-06-20
SU579927A3 (en) 1977-11-05
JPS5216651B2 (en) 1977-05-11
AT327967B (en) 1976-02-25
JPS5052833A (en) 1975-05-10

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