BRPI0714026A2 - lighting device packaging - Google Patents

lighting device packaging Download PDF

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Publication number
BRPI0714026A2
BRPI0714026A2 BRPI0714026-6A BRPI0714026A BRPI0714026A2 BR PI0714026 A2 BRPI0714026 A2 BR PI0714026A2 BR PI0714026 A BRPI0714026 A BR PI0714026A BR PI0714026 A2 BRPI0714026 A2 BR PI0714026A2
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BR
Brazil
Prior art keywords
light
refractive index
emitting elements
characterized
lens
Prior art date
Application number
BRPI0714026-6A
Other languages
Portuguese (pt)
Inventor
Ian Ashdown
Shane Harrar
Original Assignee
Tir Technology Lp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US80669406P priority Critical
Application filed by Tir Technology Lp filed Critical Tir Technology Lp
Priority to PCT/CA2007/001196 priority patent/WO2008003176A1/en
Publication of BRPI0714026A2 publication Critical patent/BRPI0714026A2/en

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L33/00Semiconductor devices with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier specially adapted for light emission; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L33/48Semiconductor devices with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier specially adapted for light emission; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof characterised by the semiconductor body packages
    • H01L33/52Encapsulations
    • H01L33/54Encapsulations having a particular shape
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/01Means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected, e.g. chip-to-package, die-attach, "first-level" interconnects; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/42Wire connectors; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/47Structure, shape, material or disposition of the wire connectors after the connecting process
    • H01L2224/48Structure, shape, material or disposition of the wire connectors after the connecting process of an individual wire connector
    • H01L2224/4805Shape
    • H01L2224/4809Loop shape
    • H01L2224/48091Arched
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/01Means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected, e.g. chip-to-package, die-attach, "first-level" interconnects; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/42Wire connectors; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/47Structure, shape, material or disposition of the wire connectors after the connecting process
    • H01L2224/48Structure, shape, material or disposition of the wire connectors after the connecting process of an individual wire connector
    • H01L2224/484Connecting portions
    • H01L2224/48463Connecting portions the connecting portion on the bonding area of the semiconductor or solid-state body being a ball bond
    • H01L2224/48465Connecting portions the connecting portion on the bonding area of the semiconductor or solid-state body being a ball bond the other connecting portion not on the bonding area being a wedge bond, i.e. ball-to-wedge, regular stitch
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L25/00Assemblies consisting of a plurality of individual semiconductor or other solid state devices ; Multistep manufacturing processes thereof
    • H01L25/03Assemblies consisting of a plurality of individual semiconductor or other solid state devices ; Multistep manufacturing processes thereof all the devices being of a type provided for in the same subgroup of groups H01L27/00 - H01L51/00, e.g. assemblies of rectifier diodes
    • H01L25/04Assemblies consisting of a plurality of individual semiconductor or other solid state devices ; Multistep manufacturing processes thereof all the devices being of a type provided for in the same subgroup of groups H01L27/00 - H01L51/00, e.g. assemblies of rectifier diodes the devices not having separate containers
    • H01L25/075Assemblies consisting of a plurality of individual semiconductor or other solid state devices ; Multistep manufacturing processes thereof all the devices being of a type provided for in the same subgroup of groups H01L27/00 - H01L51/00, e.g. assemblies of rectifier diodes the devices not having separate containers the devices being of a type provided for in group H01L33/00
    • H01L25/0753Assemblies consisting of a plurality of individual semiconductor or other solid state devices ; Multistep manufacturing processes thereof all the devices being of a type provided for in the same subgroup of groups H01L27/00 - H01L51/00, e.g. assemblies of rectifier diodes the devices not having separate containers the devices being of a type provided for in group H01L33/00 the devices being arranged next to each other
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L33/00Semiconductor devices with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier specially adapted for light emission; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L33/48Semiconductor devices with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier specially adapted for light emission; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof characterised by the semiconductor body packages
    • H01L33/52Encapsulations
    • H01L33/56Materials, e.g. epoxy or silicone resin

Abstract

 The invention provides a lighting device package having one or more light-emitting elements operatively coupled to a substrate; a composite lens arranged to interact with light emitted by one or more light-emitting elements, a composite lens including at least one inner lens element and one outer lens element, the inner lens element having a first refractive index and the outer lens element having a second refractive index, the first refractive index being greater than the second refractive index; a composite lens, one or more light-emitting elements and the substrate defining a closed space therebetween; and an encapsulation material filling at least part of said space, the encapsulation material having a third refractive index equal to or greater than the first refractive index.

Description

FIELD OF THE LIGHTING FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The invention pertains to light-emitting devices and in particular to the design of optical components of lighting fixtures. KNOWLEDGE

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) may be more effective if the LED packaging is properly designed to effectively extract the light that is generated within the LED packaging under operating conditions. From a device design perspective, effective light extraction can be a problem of improving the chances that an LED cube light can leave the LED wrap without having to suffer unnecessary reflections within the LED wrap. A number of design features can influence the optical paths such as the orientation and position of the optical interfaces and the optical properties of the relevant LED packaging components such as the type of material on either side of an optical interface, for example. Further, the propagation of light within the LED housing may also depend upon its wavelength, intensity, size and luminous efficiency of the LED cube, operating current, opacity of the housing's optical elements. LED conditions, temperature conditions within the LED packaging, the refractive indices of the environment and the material of the LED packaging components, as well as the temperature dependence of the refractive indices of the relevant materials, for example. State-of-the-art LED packaging has at least one LED cube and a wraparound lens. In some LED cases, the lens and surrounding are separated or made of different materials. Accordingly, an LED housing may have an optical hub interface, an optical lens interface, and an optical air-lens interface.

In addition to changing the direction of propagation of light emitted by an LED cube, optical interfaces can reflect and transmit varying portions of light depending on the wavelength of light, the angle of incidence on an optical interface, and the refractive indices of the two. media on both sides of an optical interface. Partial reflection and transmission on an optical interface of an LED housing can cause a cascade of repetitive transmitted and reflected rays. As a result, certain reflections may lengthen the optical path which may increase the likelihood of unwanted light absorption within the LED housing. Moreover, light may undergo total internal reflection (IRR) which may occur at a certain angle of incidence depending on the proportion of refractive index. This effect can occur when light propagates within a medium that has a first refractive index and encounters an optical interface with a rather thick layer of another medium that has a second refractive index that is smaller than the first refractive index. refraction. TIR substantially completely inhibits light transmission through and far beyond the optical interface. Further, improper design of refractive elements may force the LED to emit light with potentially impractical spatial light-emitting properties that may include brightness or color irregularities in the light-emitting pattern due to chromatic or monochrome aberration.

Even within the visible part of the spectrum, the refractive index, for example, of the LED cube can vary significantly. Most cubes that are used today have refractive indices in the visible spectrum of greater than approximately 1.6. In addition, for example, some blue and green LED cubes have a refractive index of approximately 2.6 to 2.7. For example, if the environment is air, which has a refractive index of approximately 1.0 and if the cube refractive index is 1.6, the widest critical angle for TIR would be approximately 39 cranes for the optical interface. normal. However, for other wavelengths the critical angle may be considerably smaller. Any light falling on the optical interface at greater angles will be fully reflected internally.

A known solution for reducing unwanted reflections is to cover the LED cube with material having a refractive index that is between that of air or more, generally employing materials at the optical interfaces that yield a low refractive index ratio. For example, one or more LED cubes may be placed in the center of a hemispherical lens and the space between time the cube a lens may be filled with a transparent envelope. The materials for the envelope and a lens are chosen such that, among other requirements, their common refractive index, for example 1.5, progressively coincides with the cube refractive index, for example, 2.65, for that of environment which is 1.0. However, this design requires relatively large lens size when two or more LED cubes are grouped together under one lens. For better color mixing it may be desirable, however, to have multiple LED cubes within the same housing.

Some of these principles have been recognized in a number of publications. For example, U.S. Patent No. 6,610,598 describes a light emitting diode device (SMD LED) surface mounted device whose components typically have a surface plane. By calculating Snell's Laws, most light fails to emit directly from the component because of the difference in epoxy resin refractive index and atmosphere (the refractive index index of light in the atmosphere is 1, the index epoxy resin refraction is about 1.5). A light-emitting diode surface-mounted device includes several small lenses or diffraction lenses on the planar surface of the SMD LED5 where a lens that increases the critical angle can increase the opportunity for direct direct light from an emission chip. light, which in turn increases the brightness of the LED.

U.S. Patent Nos. 6,590,235 and 6,204,523 provide an LED component, emitting light in the UV wavelength range near green. The light-emitting semiconductor cube is encapsulated with one or more silicone compositions, including a rigid outer shell, inner gel or pliable layer, or both. The silicone material is stable over temperature and humidity ranges, and over exposure to ambient UV radiation. As a consequence, the LED component has an advantageously long service life in which it is free from "yellowing" attenuation that would reduce the output of UV light near green.

United States Patent No. 6,639,360 provides a high power radiation emitting device and heat dissipation packaging for electronic components. Electronic component packaging includes a sealed chamber; a liquid or gel contained in the sealed chamber; at least one electronic component disposed in the sealed chamber in physical and thermal contact with the liquid or gel; and at least one electrical conductor electrically coupled to the electronic component and extending from the sealed chamber. The electronic component (s) may include any one or combination of a radiation emitter, an optical or thermal sensor, a resistor, and a microprocessor or other semiconductor component.

U.S. Patent No. 6,867,929 describes a light source device that is safe for human eyes and which is switched at high speed. The light source device comprises one or more laser light sources for emitting a monochromatic or polychromatic light beam, a diffuser, which may be transmissive, reflective, or a mixture thereof, to diffuse the received light beam directly from the beam. laser light source or through an optical focus system; and an optical collimator, which collimates a diffused beam of light from the diffuser.

United States Patent No. 7,015,516 describes a

A microelectronic light-emitting package comprising a light-emitting diode having a first region of a first conductivity type, a second region of a second conductivity type, and a light-emitting pn junction between the first and second. regions. The light emitting diode defines a lower contact surface and a projecting platform growing from the lower contact surface. The first region of a first conductivity type is arranged on the platform and defines a top surface of the platform, and the second region of a second conductivity type defines the lower contact surface that substantially surrounds the platform. The platform includes at least one side wall extending between the top surface of the platform and the lower contact surface, or at least one side wall having a rough surface to optimize light extraction from the packaging. United States Patent No. 7,023,022 describes a

light emitting packaging comprising a substantially transparent substrate having a first surface and a second surface including a lens. The housing also includes a light-emitting diode (LED) adapted to emit light having a predetermined wavelength, the LED being held over the first substantially transparent substrate surface. The second surface of the substrate defines a main light-emitting surface of the packaging. The lens on the second surface has a grid pattern that coincides with the predetermined wavelength of light emitted from the LED to control the emission geometry of light emitted by the housing. The grid pattern has a radial configuration including a series of circles that are concentric.

U.S. Patent No. 6,921,929 discloses an enveloping amorphous fluoropolymer light-emitting diode (LED) and amorphous fluoropolymer lens. The lens and casing are made from an amorphous fluoropolymer to an LED or laser diode, such as an ultraviolet LED. A semiconductor diode cube is formed by growing a diode in a substrate layer such as sapphire. The diode cube is turned such that it emits light through the face of the layer. An amorphous fluoropolymer envelope surrounds the emitting face of the diode cube, and may be shaped like a lens to form an integral lens / envelope. Or, an amorphous fluoropolymer lens may be attached to the envelope. Additional lenses together or separately may also be used. The lens / envelope is transmissive to UV light as well as infrared light. Encapsulation methods are also provided.

United States Patent No. 7,026,657 describes a high radiation LED chip and a method for producing it. A light emitting diode chip comprises an active radiation emitting region and a window layer. To increase light efficiency, the cross-sectional area of the active region of radiation emission is smaller than the cross-sectional area of the window layer available for light decoupling. The invention is further directed to a method of manufacturing a lens structure on the surface of a light emitting component.

United States Patent No. 6,903,380 describes a method and system for LED packaging. LED packaging may comprise a contact structure having an annular contact and a base contact. An LED cube may be coupled to the annular and base contacts such that the P-type material portion is electrically connected to an annular contact and the N-type material is electrically connected to a base contact. Alternatively, the N-type material portion may be electrically connected to the annular contact and the P-type material portion may be electrically connected to the base contact. A lens may be attached to the contact structure and an optical material may be located in a cavity defined by the lens, the base contact, and the annular contact. The optical material may be a gel, grease, a malleable material, a non-malleable material, a rigid material, a liquid material or a non-liquid material. The method and system may further comprise a mounting device, wherein the LED packaging is mechanically coupled to the mounting device in a socket, bayonet, or screw mode. The method and system may further comprise a strip comprising an annular contact array used to form an LED housing array and a carrier strip comprising receiving devices for receiving the LED housing array. A portion of the lens may either be coated with or light excitable material such that the system emits white light.

U.S. Patent No. 6,480,389 describes a light-emitting diode (LED) that includes a heat dissipation structure characterized by having a heat dissipation flow coolant filled in a hermetically sealed compartment where at least one LED chip mounted on a metal substrate is packed inside. The heat dissipating structure is configured with a metal wall raised from the metal substrate, which is used to hold a transparent sealed compartment cover in place. Further, the raised wall wraps around at least one LED chip such that the joule heat generated from it can be rapidly spread out through the heat dissipating flow coolant to the erected wall. , and then diffused along the wall below to the metal substrate which adjoins a larger external heat deposit to drain the heat, thereby preventing at least one overheating LED. Another feature of the invention is that the transparent cover of the sealed compartment is made of transparent materials, where a convex portion in contact with the heat dissipating flow coolant is formed on the surface of the transparent cover. So if there is any air bubble inside the compartment due to insufficient filling, it will not reside in the line of sight field due to fluctuations. The possibility of LED light scattering due to bubbles and therefore is avoided.

U.S. Patent No. 5,077,587 discloses an anti-reflection layer optimized light-emitting diode. Improved light output from LEDs or the like is obtained by modifying the combined thickness dimensions of a transmissive diffusion mask layer and an anti-reflection coating layer at the window periphery forming the light-emitting region.

U.S. Patent No. 2006/0083000 discloses a lens for a light-emitting diode formed of a material having a refractive index of n, a lens including a base, a first curved circumferential surface extending from the base. a curved centered margin surface extending from the first curved circumferential surface, and a curved centered surface extending from the curved centered edge surface. The base includes a groove for receiving a light emitting chip in it. In the lens, a distance from a center of the base to a point of the curved centered edge surface is always shorter than the radius of curvature to the point of the curved centered edge surface. The more centered curved surface has a concave shape with respect to the base. In addition, when an obtuse angle formed between a major axis of the lens and a tangent line of the most centered curved surface point is Al, and an acute angle formed between a straight line connecting the center of the base to the most centered curved surface point and the main axis of the lens is A2, the lens satisfies the equation: Al + A2 <90 + l / sen (l / n).

United States Patent No. 2005/0221519 describes

semiconductor light-emitting devices including a luminescence conversion element and methods for packaging the same. Methods of packaging the semiconductor light emitting device include dispensing a first amount of surrounding material into a cavity including the light emitting device. The first amount of surrounding material in the cavity is treated to form a hardened upper surface therein having a selected shape. A luminescence conversion element is provided on the upper surface of the first treated amount of surrounding material. The luminescence conversion element includes a wavelength conversion material and has a thickness in the mid-cavity region greater than near a cavity sidewall.

United States Patent No. 2004/0079957 discloses an energized surface mounted light-emitting cube housing. Cube packaging includes a substrate, a reflective plate, and a lens. The substrate may be made of thermally conductive but electrically insulating material or a material that is both thermally and electrically conductive. In embodiments where the substrate is made from an electrically conductive material, the substrate further includes a thermally conductive material, and electrically formed insulator in the electrically conductive material. The substrate has traces for attaching a light-emitting diode (LED) to a mounting pad. The reflective plate is coupled to the substrate and substantially surrounds the mounting pad. The lens substantially covers the mounting pad. The heat generated by the LED during operation is taken out of the LED by both the substrate (acting as a bottom heat container) and the reflective plate (acting as a top heat container). The reflector plate includes a reflective surface to direct light from the LED in a desired direction.

United States Patent No. 2004/0041222 describes

a surface mounted light-emitting cube housing. Cube packaging includes a substrate, a reflective plate, and a lens. The substrate may be made of thermally conductive but electrically insulating material. The substrate has traces for connecting an external power source to a light-emitting diode (LED) on a mounting pad. The reflective plate is coupled to the substrate and substantially surrounds the mounting pad. The lens is free to move relative to the reflective plate and is capable of being raised or lowered by the wetting and adhering envelope and is placed at an optimal distance from the LED chip (s). The lens may be coated with an optical system comprising optical chemicals that affect device performance. The heat generated by the LED during operation is drawn off from the LED through both the substrate (acting as one as the bottom heat container) and the reflective plate (acting as a top heat container). The reflector plate includes a reflective surface to direct light from the LED in a desired direction.

International Patent Publication No. 2006/021837 describes light emitting diode systems including semiconductor diodes arranged in cooperation with electrical contacts, mounting arrangements, and optical couplings; where the optical couplings include at least one Fresnel lens. A Fresnel lens is further coupled to additional optical elements such as a concave or "negative" lens and further to a reflector operating by principles of total internal reflection. Both the concave lens and the reflector are spherical in preferred versions. A single plastic cover element may be formed in a molding process wherein all three of these optical elements, i. and. Fresnel lens, negative lens and reflector, are formed in one plastic part. Further, the plastic part may also be stowed to accommodate ancillary systems such as alignment mooring and indexing means as well as interlocking peripheral configurations.

International Patent Publication No. 2005/107420 describes a light emitting apparatus including a light source for emitting light; a downconversion material receiving the emitted light, and converting the emitted light into transmitted light and back transmitted light; and an optical device configured to receive back transmitted light and transfer back transmitted light outside the optical device. The light source is a semiconductor light emitting diode, which may include a light emitting diode, a laser diode, or a resonant cavity light emitting diode. The downconversion material includes one of, phosphorus or other light-absorbing material in another spectral region. The optical device, or lens, includes a light transmissive material.

And yet, it is not described how unwanted internal reflections on lighting fixtures can be reduced. Therefore there is a need for a new packaging project that overcomes some of the drawbacks of known designs.

This knowledge information is provided to reveal information believed by the applicant to be of possible relevance to the invention. No admission is necessarily intended, nor should it be construed, that any of the foregoing information constitutes prior art against the invention. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

An object of the invention is to provide a lighting device package. According to one aspect of the invention, a lighting device package is provided comprising: one or more light emitting elements operatively coupled to a substrate; a composite lens having a surface facing one or more light-emitting elements, the composite lens including at least one inner lens element and one outer lens element, the inner lens element having a first refractive index and the an external lens having a second refractive index, the first refractive index being greater than the second refractive index; the composite lens, the one or more light-emitting elements and the substrate defining a closed space therebetween; and an encapsulation material filling at least part of said space, the encapsulation material having a third refractive index equal to or greater than the first refractive index.

According to another aspect of the invention, there is provided a lighting device package comprising: one or more light emitting elements operatively coupled to a substrate; a composite lens arranged to interact with light emitted through one or more light-emitting elements, the composite lens including at least one inner lens element and one outer lens element, the inner lens element having a first refractive index and the outer lens element having a second refractive index, the first refractive index being greater than the second refractive index; the composite lens, the one or more light-emitting elements and the substrate defining a closed space therebetween; and an encapsulation material filling at least part of said space, the encapsulation material having a third refractive index equal to or greater than the first refractive index. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

Figure 1 schematically illustrates a cross section of a lighting device housing according to one embodiment of the invention.

Figure 2 schematically illustrates a cross section of a lighting device housing according to an embodiment of the invention. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Definitions

The term "light-emitting element" (LEE) is used to define a device that emits radiation in a region or combination of regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, for example, the visible region, infrared and / or ultraviolet region, when activated by applying a potential difference through it or passing a current through it, for example. Therefore a light emitting element may have monochromatic, near monochromatic, polychromatic or broadband spectral emission characteristics. Examples of light emitting elements include semiconductor, organic, or polymer / polymer light emitting diode devices, optically pumped phosphor-coated light emitting diodes, optically pumped nano crystal light emitting diodes or the like as would readily be understood by a skilled artisan. Further, the term light-emitting element is used to define the specific device that emits radiation, for example an LED cube.

As used herein, the term "about" refers to +/- 10% of the

r

change in nominal value. And to be understood that such a variation is always included in any given value provided herein, whether or not specifically referred to.

Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood in the art to which this invention belongs. The invention provides a lighting device package comprising one or more light-emitting elements operatively coupled to a substrate, and a composite lens arranged to interact with the light emitted by one or more light-emitting elements. or directly, for example, through a lens surface facing one or more light-emitting elements, or indirectly, for example, through one or more optical elements such as reflectors, diffusers, windows and the like.

In general, the composite lens may be formed of two or more lens elements, for example each element may be a suitably thick lens layer of homogeneous or inhomogeneous thickness. The refractive index of the outermost lens element of the composite lens is typically lower than the refractive index of the innermost lens element, i. and. a lens element closer to the LEEs. An encapsulation material fills a closed space located between a composite lens, the substrate and one or more light-emitting elements. The encapsulation material is selected to have a refractive index equal to or greater than the inner lens lens element of the composite lens but less than the refractive index of LEEs. In general, the refractive indices are decreased with the distance of the respective components of the light emitting elements in order to reduce the chances of internal (total) reflection of the light emitted by the LEEs within the light emitting element housing.

The invention may provide reduced total internal reflection (TIR) lighting fixture packaging compared to existing packaging design technologies. To facilitate small TIR, lighting fixture packaging has a number of optical components made of materials that provide appropriate refractive indices. Optical components may be formed and disposed generally to control the propagation of light within the lighting fixture and specifically to control the propagation of light emitted by the LEEs. The light emitting element package may have one or more light emitting elements, for example, LED hub, which emits light under operating conditions. Light emitting elements may be of different types and may emit light which may be nominally different in color or brightness. According to the invention, the lighting device housing configuration determines how light originating from one or more light-emitting elements is guided out of the light-emitting element housing.

Many light-emitting elements, for example, the LED cube are made of composite materials that may have high refractive indices. In one embodiment, one way to effectively guide light from a light emitting element to the environment outside light emitting element packaging is to have the light consecutively propagated through a succession of materials with relatively small discontinuities between their indexes. of refraction. The closer the refractive indices are to adjacent materials on an optical interface, the smaller the solid angle within which total internal reflection can occur on that interface. Light propagation in the storage device

Lighting can also be affected by the type of light-emitting element, for example, by how an LED cube is mechanically and electrically connected to a substrate. It is noted that the light emitting elements can be arranged and operatively connected using a number of different technologies as is known in the art. For example, LEEs may be wire bound from the top of a substrate or

surface mounted using a ball grid for a switching chip. Also, there may be one or more LED cube within a light emitting element, for example. As mentioned above, the IRR at each optical interface can be reduced if the profile of the refractive index profile, for example through the elements of a composite lens, is characterized by small discontinuities or small gradients. The same considerations apply to the refractive index profile along the entire optical path from one or more light-emitting elements to the environment. The composite lens can have a number of elements, each element having a different refractive index, where the refractive indices vary with the distance of the LEEs to address the refractive index of the environment. For many applications, the environment has a low refractive index close to 1.0, as air has, for example. If the environmental refractive index is lower than the refractive index or LEE indices, the elements of a composite lens may be designed to have refractive indices that decrease with increasing distance from the LEEs. Composite Lens

A composite lens is positioned relative to the substrate such that it can effectively interact optically with light emitted through one or more light-emitting elements. In one embodiment, the composite lens may be arranged to interact directly with the emitted light, namely through the lens surface facing one or more light emitting elements. In one embodiment of the present invention, the composite lens may be arranged to interact indirectly with the emitted light, namely through one or more reflectors, diffusers, windows, and other such optical elements. In one embodiment of the present invention, the composite lens may be arranged to interact directly and indirectly with emitted light.

The composite lens may be formed of two or more material elements with different refractive indices. The refractive index of the outermost element of the composite lens is typically lower than the refractive index of one or more internal elements of the material. In one embodiment of the invention, the composite lens comprises one or a combination of solid materials, gel, liquid, encapsulation materials or the like.

In one embodiment of the invention, the outer surface of the light emitting member housing is hemispherically shaped and may be defined through a composite lens. Compared to a monolithic optical element of similar size and shape but of uniform composition or uniform optical properties, such a composite lens may offer better light extraction for lighting arrangement with two or more light-emitting elements, or for Large area light emitting elements, eg LED cube. As a result, improved light extraction can allow packaging of lighting devices with higher light emitting element densities. In one embodiment, hemispherical lenses may be worn.

to manufacture lighting fixtures that can emit light with Lambertian emission standards. If it is desired that the lighting fixture may emit light having other than Lambertian emission standards, the optical component of the composite lens may suitably have the shape or thickness, or relative distances between the optically sized optical components. suitable for providing optical interfaces other than spherical shapes.

In one embodiment of the invention, in order to achieve minimum normal incidence angles for light striking the inner surface of the inner member of the composite lens, the inner radius of the lens cavity may be about three or more times the size of the surrounding circular area. o one or more light emitting elements. In one embodiment of the invention, the hemispherical lens may be disposed relative to the substrate such that the light-emitting elements are positioned near the spherical center of the inner hemispherical lens cavity.

Encapsulation and lens materials with suitable refractive indexes may include PMMA, polycarbide, nylon, COC, BK7 glass and silicone, for example, which typically absorb low visible light and only some ultra violet (UV) light. Some of these types of materials may provide resistance to discoloration under prolonged exposure to UV light and a range of suitable refractive indexes.

The composite lens can be manufactured in different ways, for example by instant injection molding or other suitable manufacturing processes as would be known to a skilled artisan.

In one embodiment of the invention, two, three or more lens elements may be fabricated using an instant multiple injection molding process. For example, instant double injection molding can be used to make a lens composed of two elements. Instant injection double molding can be used to fabricate components that provide mechanical interlocking elements. Interlocking elements can be formed during the molding process and provide subsequent mechanical stability by locking the two composite lens components relative to each other. The type of interlocking can either be a destructively or non-destructively releasable bond depending on the shapes of the interlocking elements, the nature of the materials employed and the nature of the molding process. In general, injection molding components

Instantaneous images are formed in sequence of increasing complexity of their secondary parts or components. As is widely known, factors such as no bonding or other undesired stress-induced effects during fabrication due to, for example, different thermal expansion coefficients between molding materials, may determine alternative fabrication sequences. To provide individual parts with the desired refractive indexes, a composite lens may be made of varying grids of the same type of materials as certain silicones, or the like, for example.

As is known, the manufacture of composite optical components requires control of the amount and unwanted types of inclusions within the composite elements and at the interfaces between the elements.

It is noted that other types of molding processes may be used to fabricate separate parts which may be assembled into composite components or adhered together using, for example, optically using clear adhesives. The adhesive may be chosen to provide a certain refractive index. The refractive index of the adhesive may be among the refractive indices of the immediately adjacent parts, for example.

Typical composite lens materials that are suitable for lighting fixtures may have refractive indices of approximately 1.40 or greater, although materials with other refractive indices may be used. Encapsulation Material

An encapsulation material fills all or a portion of a space between one or more light-emitting elements and the composite lens. According to the invention, the encapsulation material is selected to have a refractive index equal to or greater than the refractive index of the innermost composite lens element and less than the refractive index of LEEs. Typically, encapsulation materials will have refractive indices of about 1.55.

Total internal reflection can be reduced when there are no unwanted voids included at the interfaces or within the encapsulation material, for example. In one embodiment, the encapsulation material may have a refractive index similar to one of the LEEs. Encapsulation materials with adequate refractive indices slightly lower than the refractive index of LEEs may reduce the chances of light suffering IRR at the optical interface between an LEE and the encapsulation material.

In one embodiment, the encapsulation material is made of, for example, highly elastic or fluid materials that can assist in thermally induced stress control at or near optical interfaces to lessen the undesirable effects of different thermal expansion coefficients and conditions. floating thermal operation Fluid encapsulation material may additionally provide heat dispersion through convection.

In one embodiment of the invention delicate or fluid encapsulation materials or optical silicone may be sealed, for example, between an adjacent optical component such as the composite lens and other elements such as the substrate. It is noted that the encapsulation material may or may not be in direct thermal contact with one or more light emitting elements.

Typical encapsulation materials include certain silicones and elastics or light gel with low ionic impurity such as Cl, K, Na, for example. A number of encapsulation materials are well known in the art and available under brand names such as Dow Corning ™, Nye ™ or Nusil ™, for example. Substrate

The one or more light-emitting elements are therefore

operative, coupled to a substrate. The substrate may be a ceramic plate, for example AlN, a sheet metal PC plate, a ceramic metal LTCC, an attached pad for inserting molded LED contact structures or the like as is well known in the art. The surface of the substrate facing the cavity, or certain areas thereof, may be diffuse or specular reflective, for example. Reflection properties may result from, for example, aluminum or silver coatings and applied reflective films, for example. Refractive Index Rating

In one embodiment, it may be shown that the refractive indices nA, nB, nc of a succession of materials A, B and C may be chosen according to nB = V nA nc, to reduce the chances of IRR when light travels through. of two adjacent planar parallel optical interfaces AB and BC. The combination of refractive indices that reduce IRR can be governed by different nonplanar or non-parallel adjacent optical interface formulas. For example, the refractive index obtained for medium B based on the refractive index of A and C for optimal plane parallel optical interfaces may provide a reasonable estimate for the refractive index of medium B also for nonplanar or non-planar interfaces. Parallel.

Another theoretical or experimental method for determining the refractive index of the encapsulation material based on the refractive indexes of the composite lens and LEE surrounding materials would be readily understood by one skilled in the art. It would also be understood that the refractive indices and other parameters of the lighting device packaging components may be selected to optimize one or more optical characteristics, which may include spectral and spatial radiation distributions, for example. Coatings

In one embodiment of the present invention, reflections within the lighting fixtures may be further reduced by employing thin anti-reflective coatings on certain surfaces of certain lighting fixture components. Such coatings may comprise multiple layers or films of material having different optical characteristics. Each additional coating introduces another optical interface and can be adjusted to enhance the optical transmission characteristics of that interface and the lighting fixture package as a whole. Typically, coatings that can suppress unwanted reflections are characterized by uniform thickness. The thickness may be smaller, but in the order of the wavelength of the light used. Their films may have suitable refractive indices. For example, the surface of the outer composite lens may be coated with a thin layer of material that has a refractive index that is smaller than that of the material forming the outermost layer, but larger than that of ambient air. Coating materials typically require high transmission capacity, discoloration resistance and proper adhesion to the coated component.

In one embodiment of the present invention, the LEEs, for example, the LED hub, may be coated with a, for example, anti-reflective coating conforming to a refractive index between that of the wrapping means and that of the light emission. Similarly, the coating material has good transmittance, particularly for visible light, discoloration resistance, and good adhesion to the light emitting element.

Anti-reflective coatings may comprise one or more layers of different materials or may be microscopically patterned as is widely known. Moreover, many coatings can be designed to provide optimal utility for light of a certain wavelength or polarization as well as for a certain angle of incidence, for example. It is noted however that appropriately designed multilayer films can provide high transmission capability over a wide range of incident angles.

The invention will now be described with reference to specific examples. It will be understood that the following examples are intended to describe embodiments of the invention and not intended to limit the invention in any way. EXAMPLES EXAMPLE 1:

Figure 1 schematically illustrates a cross section of an LED housing 100 according to one embodiment of the invention. The LED housing comprises a two-layer lens 110 which defines a cavity 120 with an inner and outer hemispherical surface as well as a hemispherical interface between the two.

r

132 and 134. It is understood that the inner and outer surfaces as well as the interface of the two layers may have other shapes and that the inner and outer surface shapes may be different for different embodiments.

The LED hub 190 and 191 are arranged on a substrate 140 and face the cavity. It is noted that a different number of LED cube may be positioned within the package. Cavity 120 may be filled with an encapsulation material. The substrate 140 may be a ceramic plate, for example, AlN, FR4 or other printed circuit board (PC), a metal veneer PC plate, a ceramic metal LTCC, or an attached pad to insert the LED contact structure. molded. The cavity-facing substrate surface 140, or a certain area of the substrate near the hub 190 and 191, may be diffuse or specular reflective, for example. Reflection properties may result from, for example, aluminum or silver coatings.

The lens 110 comprises two layers of materials providing different refractive indices. For example, the outer layer 134 of the lens may be made to have a lower refractive index than the inner layer 132. The inner layer 132 forms the cavity of the inner hemispherical lens. The lens may have a wall thickness suitable for the overall size of the package, for example between about 0.2 mm and layer thickness of about 1 mm. To help achieve the angle of minimum normal light incident on the inner surface of the lens, the inner radius of the lens hemispherical cavity may be about three or more times the size of the circular area surrounding the LED cube and the light cube. LED should be arranged near the spherical center of the inner hemispherical lens cavity. As defined above, it can be shown that the refractive indices nA, nB, nc of a succession of materials A, B and C can be chosen according to nB = V nAnc, to reduce the chances of IRR when light travels through two. adjacent planar parallel optical interfaces AB and BC. For example, if the lens layer refractive index 13®4 is about 1.40 and one of the encapsulation material 120 is about 1.55, the material for lens layer 132 should provide a refractive index of about 1.47 (= V, 40 * 1.55). The two-layer lens can be manufactured in a process

instant injection molding For example, instant double injection molding can be used to make two-layer composite lenses. Instant double injection molding can be used to fabricate components that provide additional interlocking elements. Figure 1 illustrates an example of a two-layer lens with interlocking elements 150. The interlocking elements may be formed during the molding process and provide subsequent mechanical stability by locking the two components relative to each other. The type of interlocking can either be a destructively or non-destructively releasable bond depending on the shapes of the interlocking elements, the nature of the materials employed and the nature of the molding process. In general, instant injection molded components are formed in increasing complexity sequence from their parts or secondary components. For example, it may be easier to shape the lens layer 132 and subsequently deposit the lens layer 134 on a second instant injection molding. EXAMPLE 2:

Figure 2 schematically illustrates a cross section of another LED housing 200 according to another embodiment of the invention. This embodiment is similar to that illustrated in Figure 1 but comprises a composite lens 210 with a solid hemispherical inner lens element 232 which is covered by an outer lens layer 234. The outer lens layer 234 is attached to the solid hemispherical inner lens element. 232 by interlocking elements 250.

In order to accommodate the LED hub 290 and 291 under the composite lens, they are arranged in a recess 220 on substrate 240. The recess defines a cavity between the composite lens 210 and substrate 240. The surface of the solid hemispherical lens element near the LED hub may be essentially flat, but may be shaped or structured to improve light penetration of the cavity into the lens element. The cavity may be filled with a wrap with a suitable refractive index.

In this embodiment, different considerations for refractive indices apply compared to the previous embodiment because of the different shape and geometry of the optical interface between lens and encapsulation material. For example, the encapsulation material may have a refractive index of about 1.55, and the solid hemispherical inner lens element may have a refractive index of about 1.55. It is noted that depending on the LED cube emission characteristics, improper choice, refractive indexes of the solid hemispherical inner lens element and the encapsulation material of the LED housing 200 may result in an unwanted IRR. The total light extraction efficiency of the LED 200 package can be improved if the encapsulation material and solid hemispherical inner lens element provide equal refractive indices, for example. In one embodiment, the formation of desired radiation patterns, for example a bat-shaped emission pattern, may be facilitated by arranging one or more LED hubs next to suitably shaped reflector elements (not shown). For example, the recess in FIG. 2 or the surface of the substrate facing the cavity in FIG. 1 may be coated with a highly reflective material to form a reflective element or a reflective element may be disposed in the cavity. A number of the foregoing components or other additional components may be employed in LED packaging which may act as reflective elements. Reflective elements may be formed of suitably coated or molded components, for example cavities in a metal heat spreader, substrate or contact structure. Alternatively, reflective elements may also be obtained using materials that provide refractive indices in such sequences that may cause full internal reflection of large amounts of light.

It is apparent that the foregoing embodiments of the invention are exemplary and may be varied in many ways. Such present or future variations are not to be construed as departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, and all such modifications as would be obvious to one skilled in the art are intended to be included within the scope of the following claims.

Claims (21)

1. Lighting device package, characterized in that it comprises: (a) one or more light-emitting elements operatively coupled to a substrate; (b) a composite lens with a surface facing one or more light-emitting elements, the composite lens including at least one inner lens element and one outer lens element, the inner lens element having a first refractive index, and the outer lens element having a second refractive index, the first refractive index being greater than the second refractive index; the composite lens, the one or more light-emitting elements and the substrate defining a closed space therebetween; and c) an encapsulation material filling at least part of said space, the encapsulation material having a third refractive index equal to or greater than the first refractive index.
Lighting device package according to Claim 1, characterized in that the light-emitting elements have a higher refractive index than the third refractive index.
Lighting device package according to Claim 1, characterized in that the inner lens element comprises interlocking elements for engaging the outer lens element.
Lighting device package according to Claim 1, characterized in that the outer lens element comprises interlocking elements for engaging the inner lens element.
Lighting arrangement according to Claim 1, characterized in that the substrate has a surface on the side of the light-emitting elements that is at least reflective close to the light-emitting elements.
Lighting arrangement according to Claim 5, characterized in that the substrate has a reflective coating disposed on the side of the light-emitting elements at least close to the light-emitting elements.
Illumination package according to claim 1, characterized in that the composite lens is at least partially shaped into a spherical shape.
Lighting arrangement according to Claim 1, characterized in that the composite lens comprises a large number of elements having refractive indices which decrease with increasing distance of the light-emitting elements.
Lighting device package according to Claim 8, characterized in that the large number of elements have discontinuous decreasing refractive indices.
Lighting device package according to Claim 8, characterized in that the large number of elements have continuously decreasing refractive indices.
Lighting device package according to Claim 1, characterized in that the composite lens is manufactured by instant injection molding.
Illumination package according to claim 1, characterized in that the composite lens is manufactured by instantaneous multiple injection molding.
Lighting device package according to Claim 1, characterized in that the surface of the inner lens element is in plane with one side of the substrate with the light-emitting elements.
Lighting arrangement according to claim 1, characterized in that the surface of the outer lens element is in plane with one side of the substrate with the light-emitting elements.
Lighting device package according to claim 1, characterized in that the surface of the composite lens is in plane with one side of the substrate with the light-emitting elements.
Lighting arrangement according to Claim 1, characterized in that the light-emitting elements are arranged in a recess of the substrate.
Lighting arrangement according to claim 1, characterized in that an interface between the encapsulation material and the inner lens element is substantially flat and that the third refractive index is approximately equal to the first index. refraction.
Lighting arrangement according to Claim 1, characterized in that the third refractive index is greater than the first refractive index.
A lighting device package, characterized in that it comprises: (a) one or more light-emitting elements operatively coupled to a substrate; b) a composite lens arranged to interact with light emitted through one or more light-emitting elements, the composite lens including at least one inner lens element and one outer lens element, the inner lens element having a first refractive index and the outer lens element having a second refractive index, the first refractive index being greater than the second refractive index; the composite lens, one or more light-emitting elements and the substrate defining a closed space therebetween; and c) an encapsulation material filling at least part of said space, the encapsulation material having a third refractive index equal to or greater than the first refractive index.
Lighting arrangement according to claim 19, characterized in that the composite lens comprises a surface facing one or more light-emitting elements and thereby provides direct interaction between the composite lens and the light. emitted through the light-emitting elements.
Lighting arrangement according to claim 19, characterized in that the composite lens is arranged to interact indirectly with the light emitted by the light-emitting elements through one or more optical elements.
BRPI0714026-6A 2006-07-06 2007-07-06 lighting device packaging BRPI0714026A2 (en)

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US80669406P true 2006-07-06 2006-07-06
PCT/CA2007/001196 WO2008003176A1 (en) 2006-07-06 2007-07-06 Lighting device package

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JP2009543321A (en) 2009-12-03
WO2008003176A1 (en) 2008-01-10
CN101485004A (en) 2009-07-15
JP5178714B2 (en) 2013-04-10
KR20090031446A (en) 2009-03-25
CN101485004B (en) 2012-05-02
RU2009103911A (en) 2010-08-20

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