BR102012032046A2 - Antenna arrangement and beamforming device - Google Patents

Antenna arrangement and beamforming device Download PDF

Info

Publication number
BR102012032046A2
BR102012032046A2 BRBR102012032046-0A BR102012032046A BR102012032046A2 BR 102012032046 A2 BR102012032046 A2 BR 102012032046A2 BR 102012032046 A BR102012032046 A BR 102012032046A BR 102012032046 A2 BR102012032046 A2 BR 102012032046A2
Authority
BR
Brazil
Prior art keywords
antenna
antennas
antenna array
array
characterized
Prior art date
Application number
BRBR102012032046-0A
Other languages
Portuguese (pt)
Inventor
Marcel Blech
Richard Stirling-Gallacher
Furkan Dayi
Original Assignee
Sony Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to EP11194810 priority Critical
Application filed by Sony Corp filed Critical Sony Corp
Publication of BR102012032046A2 publication Critical patent/BR102012032046A2/en

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q21/00Antenna arrays or systems
    • H01Q21/06Arrays of individually energised antenna units similarly polarised and spaced apart
    • H01Q21/08Arrays of individually energised antenna units similarly polarised and spaced apart the units being spaced along or adjacent to a rectilinear path
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q21/00Antenna arrays or systems
    • H01Q21/06Arrays of individually energised antenna units similarly polarised and spaced apart
    • H01Q21/061Two dimensional planar arrays
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q21/00Antenna arrays or systems
    • H01Q21/28Combinations of substantially independent non-interacting antenna units or systems

Abstract

Antenna arrangement, and beam forming device. The present invention relates to an antenna array comprising a first antenna array (102) comprising a systematic array of first antennas (103), at least two second array arrays (104a, 104b, 104c, 104d) arranged adjacent to each other. to said first antenna array, and each comprising a systematic array of second antennas (105), at least two third antenna arrays (106), each comprising at least a third antenna (107-111), wherein a third antenna array is arranged in a boundary area (112) of said first antenna array and a second antenna array and replaces a first first antenna (103a) closer to the adjacent second antenna array (104a) and a second antenna (105a). ) closest to the adjacent first antenna array (102), wherein one of said first or second antennas is transmitting and the other of said first or second antennas is receiving radiation and wherein at least one t The third antenna is transmitting and / or receiving radiation.

Description

"ANTENNA ARRANGEMENT, AND, BEAM FORMING DEVICE" FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to an antenna array and a beam forming device, for example, for use in an active imaging device to image a scene. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Active imaging systems are becoming increasingly popular at ultrasonic, microwave, millimeter and terahertz frequencies for a variety of applications, including medical and safety applications. The arrangement of the transmitter (here, also called the "lighting unit" or "transmission unit") and the receiver (here, also called the "receiving unit") in an active imaging system can take many different forms. In one embodiment relevant to the present invention, multiple transmitters and receivers work together to perform beam forming, for example, on a MIMO radar or an active MIMO imaging system. There are predominantly two different types of MIMO radar. The first type is called statistical MIMO, in which antennas (in general, "transmit antennas" and "receive antennas") are placed apart from each other to provide different views of the object (generally, the "scene"). "). The second type of MIMO is called a beam-forming (or collocated) MIMO in which the antennas are placed close together and form a sparse array. They act together to form a "virtual" beamforming arrangement or "virtual phase centers". MIMO beamforming can be used in one dimension (MIMO 1D) or in two dimensions (MIMO 2D). The present invention may be used for both cases.

For MIMO beamforming, the combination of transmit and receive antennas form a set of virtual phase centers that are located in space. Each phase center is obtained by convolution of the phase centers of the transmitting and receiving antennas. For an optimal radiation pattern for the final resulting beam, the virtual phase centers need to be separated with equidistant linear spacing (ideally with spacings smaller than wavelength / 2). Achieving this in practice is very challenging as transmitting antennas need to be placed very close to receiving antennas to maintain the linear spacing of virtual phase centers. JHG Ender, J. Klare, "System Architectures and Algorithms for Radar Imaging by MIMO-SAR", IEEE Radar Conference 2009 describes a MIMO 1D beamforming arrangement in which transmitter antenna blocks (Tx blocks) are optimally placed. outside and the receiving antennas (Rx antennas) are placed in the middle of the antenna array. Such an arrangement is considered ideal as the total physical size of the antenna is only slightly larger than the resulting aperture size defined by the location of the virtual phase centers. In this document, basic spacing rules are described to achieve linear spacing of virtual phase centers. A similar arrangement is disclosed in J. Klare, O. Saalmann, H. Wilden, "First Experimental Results with MIMO Radar MIRA-CLEX \ EUSAR Conference 2010. S. Ahmed et al," Near Field mm-Wave Imaging with Multistatic Sparse 2D Arrays ", Proceedings of the 6th European Radar Conference 2009, p. 180-183 describes three different possibilities of 2D MIMO. In all cases, the spacing of the nearest Tx block to the Rx block is kept as (antenna spacing Tx to Tx) / 2 in both dimensions X. Zhuge, "Short Range Ultra-Wideband Imaging with Multiple-Input Multiple-Output", PhD Thesis, Delft University of Technology 2010 describes, in Chapter 4, many different MIMO arrangements The authors conclude that the uniform 2D rectangular array of transmitter and receiver antennas (as seen on page 90, Figure 4.3) has the largest effective aperture, meaning that this 2D array has the largest aperture size for a given physical antenna size This uniform 2D rectangular array of transmitter and receiver antennas is the same as proposed by S. Ahmed (see above). As stated above, for virtual phase centers to be linearly spaced for such an arrangement, the spacing of the Tx block to the Rx block must have a spacing corresponding to (Tx to Tx antenna spacing) / 2. V. Krozer et al, "Terahertz Imaging Systems with Aperture Synthesis Techniques," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 58, No. 7, July 2010, pp. 2.027 - 2.039 describes a variety of different systems. In particular, Section IV.C (page 2.033) describes a 2D MIMO array of Figure 7 in which Rx antennas are placed close together in the middle and Tx antennas are widely spaced outside. This is one way to implement a 2D MIMO arrangement with the required Tx to Rx block spacing. However, such a solution has numerous disadvantages, including the fact that the aperture has low efficiency (arrangement is physically large with a correspondingly small virtual aperture size), the fact that receivers are placed close together, causing coupling problems, and the fact that certain beam angles use a reduced number of receivers, causing a reduction in resolution.

However, none of these documents provide a solution of how this spacing from the Tx block to the required Rx block can be achieved in practice.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is an object of the present invention to provide an antenna array and beam forming device that provide a high efficiency aperture and optimal performance.

According to one aspect of the present invention, there is provided an antenna array comprising: a first antenna array comprising a systematic array of first antennas, at least two second antenna arrays arranged adjacent said first antenna array, and each comprising a systematic array of second antennas, at least two third antenna arrays, each comprising at least one third antenna, wherein a third antenna array is arranged in a boundary area of said first antenna array and a second antenna array and replaces a first antenna closer to the second adjacent antenna array and a second antenna closer to the first adjacent antenna array, wherein one of said first or second antennas is transmitting and the other of said first or second antennas is receiving radiation and wherein at least a third antenna is transmitting and / or receiving radiation.

According to a further aspect of the present invention there is provided a beam forming device for treating a scene image comprising an antenna array, a power unit for feeding the antennas of said antenna array and a processing unit for processing the output signals formed by the beam of said antenna array. The present invention is based on the idea of replacing a first antenna of a first antenna array (e.g., an antenna array Rx) closer to a second antenna array (e.g., a antenna array Tx) and a second antenna of said second antenna array closest to said first antenna array, i.e. the two neighboring antennas of the two antenna arrangements, by a third antenna array. In certain embodiments, the present invention allows for a high efficiency aperture of the antenna array, preferably with an aperture size that is only slightly smaller than the physical size of the complete antenna. The transmitting and receiving antennas may be placed close enough to enable uniform or nearly uniform spacing of the resulting virtual phase centers and thus optimal performance.

By replacing the first external antenna and the second internal antenna with a third antenna, preferably a higher number of smaller third antenna elements of the third antenna array, the resulting phase center of the third antenna array can move to multiple positions. opening the third antenna array, depending on how the third antenna array is fed. In this way, the different phase centers of the synthesized Tx and Rx antennas can be placed separately in their ideal positions to produce the best performance for the complete beam forming device that includes a proposed antenna array. The proposed antenna array may comprise one-dimensional or two-dimensional antenna arrays. Additionally, antenna arrangements can be provided for both radiation transmission and reception. At least one of the third antennas is shared between transmission and reception, and preferably is coupled to some antenna control device, for example, a circulator or any other antenna sharing device (for example, a hybrid coupler, duplex filter, ...) that separates the transmit and receive signals.

In accordance with the present invention, several different approaches and embodiments are proposed for arranging the transmitting and receiving antennas, so that the resulting virtual phase centers can be linearly spaced (or nearly uniformly spaced) and thereby producing optimal performance of beam formation. The approach can be used for an ideally filled MIMO array in which the resulting phase centers are optimally spaced according to the Nyquist criterion (at or near wavelength) or in a more "sparse" array. wherein the phase center to phase center spacing is much larger and the number of transmit and receive antennas is reduced in this manner. In a more sparse arrangement, antenna elements that exhibit a narrower beam pattern should be used in order to suppress grid lobes.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

These and other aspects of the present invention will be apparent from the embodiments described hereinafter, and will be explained in more detail below with respect to them. In the following drawings: Figure 1 shows one embodiment of a known MIMO 1D antenna array, Figure 2 shows one embodiment of a known MIMO 2D antenna array, Figure 3 shows the embodiment of the known MIMO 1D antenna array with marked spacing Figure 4 shows a first embodiment of a 2D antenna array in accordance with the present invention; Figure 5 shows an embodiment of a supply network for the third antenna array used in the antenna array shown in Figure 4; 6 shows beam pattern diagrams of a third antenna array and a standard Rx antenna, figure 7 shows a second embodiment of a 2D antenna array according to the present invention, figure 8 shows one embodiment of a For the third antenna array used in the antenna array shown in Figure 7, Figure 9 shows a third embodiment of a 2D antenna array in accordance with the present invention, Figure 1. 0 shows one embodiment of a supply network for the third antenna array used in the antenna array shown in FIG. 9, FIG. 11 shows another embodiment of a known MIMO 1D array with marked spacings, FIG. 12 shows various embodiments of a 2D antenna array according to the present invention with inverted Tx and Rx antennas compared to the first to third embodiments, Figure 13 shows various embodiments of a 1D antenna array according to the present invention, Figure 14 shows various embodiments of an antenna array 1D according to the present invention with inverted Tx and Rx antennas compared to the embodiments shown in figure 13, and figure 15 shows a schematic diagram of a beam forming device according to the present invention. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Figure 1 shows one embodiment of a known MIMO 1D antenna array 10 comprising a Tx 12 antenna array of several transmit antennas 13 and an Rx 14 antenna array of several receive antennas 15. In order to To obtain an equidistant virtual aperture distribution of the (virtual) phase centers 16 of the virtual antenna elements synthesized by a bidirectional pattern, the antenna elements Tx and Rx 13, 15 of antenna MIMO array 10 must be in the correct position. The bidirectional radiation pattern results from the multiplication of the Tx and Rx patterns, while the virtual phase centers 16 are obtained by a convolution of the Tx and Rx phase centers. In figure 1 this is illustrated only qualitatively. Figure 2A shows one embodiment of a known 2D MIMO antenna array 20 comprising a first antenna array 22 comprising a systematic array of first antennas 23 and four second antenna arrays 24 arranged adjacent said first antenna array 22, in particular, at the corners of said first antenna array 22, each of said four second antenna arrangements 24 comprising a systematic arrangement of second antennas 25. In most embodiments, the first antennas 22 are the receiving antennas and the second antennas. 25 are the transmit antennas; however, antenna functions can also be changed. Figure 2B shows the location of the virtual phase centers 26 in principle.

Both of these examples shown in Figures 1 and 2, preferably with closely spaced exterior Tx antenna arrays and widely spaced interior Rx antennas, represent arrangements that have high space efficiencies. This means that the final physical size transposed by the antennas is only slightly larger than the resulting aperture size transposed by the virtual phase centers. The aperture size transposed by these virtual phase centers defines the 'sharpness' or resolution of the final beam. A larger aperture size results in a sharper antenna beam pattern and thus a higher resolution of the resulting image.

In the following explanation of the present invention, arrangements shown in Figure 2A will be used as examples due to the desirable high space efficiency, but the present invention can also be used for other even less efficient implementations which will also be explained later. Additionally, in the following explanations, it is considered that the first antennas 23 are receive antennas (Rx) and that the second antennas 25 are transmit antennas (Tx), that is, if Rx antennas are mentioned below, reference is made, In general, for the first antennas and if Tx antennas are mentioned below, reference is generally made to the second antennas. However, the following explanations are equally or equivalently valid for other implementations, wherein the first antennas 23 are transmitting antennas and the second antennas 25 are receiving antennas.

To ensure that the resulting phase centers are uniformly placed in these arrangements, it is preferable that certain spacing rules be obeyed. First, Tx antennas must be evenly spaced, and an even number of Tx antennas must be provided. This spacing is defined as Tx to Tx spacing. Second, the Rx spacing for an even or odd number of Rx antennas must be where NTx is the total number of transmit antennas in each x or y direction of the antenna array. For the case shown in figure 2, NTx = 8, and for the case shown in figure 1, NTx = 4. Finally, to ensure that the phase centers are evenly distributed, the spacing between the antenna array Tx and the array Antenna array Rx is preferably chosen as block spacing Tx to block spacing Rx = (spacing Tx to Txi / (2) 2) As an objectivity, Figure 3 shows the example of the MIMO 1D antenna array 10 shown in Figure 1 again. The spacing rule described in equation (2) is, in practice, the most challenging due to the physical size of the elements.Solving this problem is one of the objects of the present invention.

For the MIMO 1D antenna array 10 shown in Figures 1 and 3, this spacing rule is maintained by the movement of Tx antennas above Rx antennas. However, in some MIMO 1D situations, this solution may not be possible. For the 2D arrangement, a solution like this is impossible, as there is generally no space in the second dimension. For the MIMO 2D antenna array 20 shown in Figure 2, the diameter of the Rx and Tx antennas (i.e., black and white circles) represent examples of physical aperture sizes of the antenna elements. However, it is clear that these are only examples of antenna shapes; Antennas may not be physically round, but may have any physical shape, shape or size. As can be seen from this example shown in Figure 2, it is impossible to maintain this spacing rule defined in equation (2) if the antenna elements are of any reasonable size. In order to satisfy this spacing rule and to obtain uniformly spaced phase centers, several different approaches and embodiments of the present invention are explained below. These embodiments are shown for an example of a MIMO 2D antenna array similar to the MIMO 2D antenna array 20 shown in Figure 2, but these embodiments can also be used for other MIMO 2D antenna arrays and MIMO 1D antenna arrays. Figure 4 shows a first embodiment of a 2D antenna array 100 according to the present invention. The overall arrangement of antenna arrangements is almost identical to the arrangement of antenna array 20 shown in Figure 2. Antenna array 100 comprises a first antenna array 102 which comprises a systematic arrangement (in this example, along the rows and columns of a rectangular grid) of first antennas 103, four (generally at least two) second antenna arrays 104a, 104b, 104c, 104d arranged adjacent said first antenna array 102, and each comprising a systematic array (in this example, along the rows and columns of a rectangular grid) of second antennas 105. In the above mentioned manner, the first antennas 103 are preferably receiving antennas and the second antennas 105 are preferably transmitting antennas. However, inverted modalities are also possible.

Unlike the embodiment shown in FIG. 2, antenna array 100 comprises four (generally at least two; FIG. 4 shows only one) third antenna arrangements 106, each comprising five (generally at least one) third antennas. 107, 108, 109, 110, 111. Each third antenna array 106 is arranged in a boundary area 112 of said first antenna array 102 and a second antenna array 104, that is, as there are four second antenna arrays 104 and four boundary areas 112 (only one boundary area 112 is indicated in Fig. 4), there are four third antenna arrays 106. Each third antenna array 106 replaces a first antenna 103a closest to the adjacent second antenna array 104a and a second antenna. 105a closest to the first adjacent antenna array 102. In other words, adjacent antennas 103a and 105a are removed and replaced with a third antenna array 106, as indicated by arrow 113.

Preferably, the at least one third antenna is transmitting and / or receiving radiation. In the embodiment shown in Fig. 4, the third antenna array 106 comprises a transmit / receive antenna 107, three receive antennas 108 - 110, and a central antenna 111 in the center of the other four antennas 107 - 110 with a square orientation. Said central antenna 111 serves primarily to prevent grid lobes in the pattern of the third antenna array 106.

Typically, the central element 111 is much smaller than the external antenna elements 107-110 and, as an example, it may be a rectangular open waveguide (shown in Figure 4) or a circular open waveguide. Preferably, its phase center coincides with the ideal phase center of the large receiving antenna 103a, which is replaced. The transmit / receive antenna 107 (shaded) is located at the position of the internal transmit antenna 105 to which it is replaced. Preferably, the receiving (unshaded) receiving antennas 108 - 110 of the third antenna array 106 exhibit spacing extending the opening of the third antenna array 106 to approximately the same area as the receiving antenna aperture 103a.

One embodiment of a feeder network 120 for a third antenna array 106 in order to properly match the antennas 107-111 of the third antenna array 106 is shown in Figure 5. This may be done by a 5: 1 power combiner or by signal processing using digital beam formation. In each case, an antenna 107 is shared between Tx and Rx. In the supply network, signals Tx and Rx may be separated by a circulator 122 or an equivalent antenna sharing circuit, said circuit being coupled to both the transmit signal channel 124 and the receive signal channel 126.

The resulting patterns from the third antenna array 106 are the Tx pattern, which is the same as all other Tx antenna patterns, and the synthesized Rx pattern, which is similar to the individual Rx antenna patterns. Fig. 6 shows beam pattern diagrams of a third antenna array 106 (Fig. 6B) and a standard Rx 103 antenna (Fig. 6A). The half-power beamwidth (HPBW) of the synthesized Rx antenna (i.e., the third antenna array 106) is 26 ° (see Figure 6B) instead of 34 °, which is the standard for external Rx antennas 103 on first antenna array 102 (see figure 6A). As overall the antenna arrays are relatively large in terms of the number of antenna elements, this has no significant effect on the resulting beam HPBW.

In a practical embodiment, the third antenna array 106 shown in Fig. 4 may be implemented by four corrugated conical horns used as external antennas 107 - 110 and an open rectangular waveguide 111 placed in the middle. Figure 7 shows a second embodiment of a 2D antenna array 200 according to the present invention. Basically, it comprises the same first and second antenna arrays 102, 104 of the first embodiment of the 2D antenna array 100 shown in Fig. 4. Therefore, the same elements are provided with the same reference signals. The third antenna array 206 used in this embodiment comprises a transmit antenna 207 and two receive antennas 208, 209. The transmit antenna 207 is positioned at the desired location of the internal transmit antenna 105a of the second antenna array 104a. The center of the two receiving antennas 208, 209 coincides with the ideal phase center position of the external receiving antenna 103a.

One embodiment of a supply network 220 for a third antenna array 206 is shown in Figure 8. In this embodiment, no isolator is required. The transmit antenna 207 is coupled to a separate transmit channel 124 from the two receive antennas 208, 209 which are coupled to a receive channel 126.

Due to the asymmetrical aperture formed by the two receiving antennas 208, 209, the resulting pattern has an elliptical shape. But, as already mentioned, this has no severe impact on the array pattern, which results from many antenna elements. Although the pattern is non-symmetrical, the most important requirement is met, namely the phase center is located in the ideal position. Figure 9 shows a third embodiment of a 2D antenna array 300 according to the present invention. Compared to the first and second embodiments shown in Figures 4 and 7, this embodiment produces an equivalent grid of the virtual aperture distribution, which is not exactly uniform, but is almost uniform. In this embodiment, the third antenna array 306 comprises only a single transmit / receive antenna 307 which is shared between transmit and receive (i.e. to transmit and receive radiation simultaneously), for example by use of a circulator 322 or of an equivalent circuit shown in the third embodiment of the supply network 320 shown in FIG. 10.

Preferably, said single third antenna 307 is identical to the second antennas 105 of the adjacent second antenna array 104a. In alternative embodiments, said single third antenna 307 is identical to the first antenna of the adjacent first antenna array 102. Advantageously, said single third antenna 307 is arranged in a position in which the replaced second antenna 105a of said second antenna array would have been placed (to resemble the systematic arrangement of second antennas 105 of second antenna array 104a, if said second antenna 105a was not replaced). In an alternative embodiment, said single third antenna 307 is arranged at or near a position in which the first substituted antenna (not shown in Figure 9) of said first antenna array 102 would have been placed.

In other words, in the embodiment shown in Fig. 9, the external antenna (103a of Figs. 4 and 7) of the first antenna array 102 is removed. The second antenna array 104a moves to a position such that the position of the second internal antenna 105a of the second antenna array 104a coincides with the position of the first removed external antenna (103a) of the first antenna array 102. The pattern of the shared receive antenna 307 is different from the standards of other receive antennas 103. However, this is less important for all MIMO standard. Despite this, virtual phase centers are almost equidistant. This has a greater impact on the resulting MIMO pattern.

In the three disclosed embodiments of the present invention, the use of this high efficiency aperture MIMO approach, which is ideal for rectangular Tx and Rx antenna arrays, has been described. In these embodiments, the closely spaced Tx antennae antenna arrays are on the outside and the widely spaced Rx antennas are on the inside. Due to reciprocity, Tx and Rx functionality can be switched. However, the general ideas of these modalities can also be applied to an alternative MIMO arrangement that has lower space efficiency.

An example of a known MIMO 1D array 30 such as this is shown in Fig. 11, where now the closely spaced Tx antennas 33 of the Tx antenna array are in the middle and the widely spaced Rx antennas 35 of the Rx antenna array 34 are abroad. For such an arrangement, slightly different spacing rules apply than for the previously presented high efficiency arrangements. If you consider that transmit antennas 33 are those closely spaced in the middle with a Tx to Tx spacing spacing, the Rx spacing is set to both odd and even number of Tx antennas as Rx = Νχχ x spacing (Tx to Tx spacing) ( 3) where NTx is the total number of transmit antennas in each x or y direction. For the case shown in Figure 10, NTx = 4. The spacing (in the x and y direction) between the Tx 32 antenna array and neighboring Rx antennas 35 must be maintained in accordance with block spacing Tx until block spacing Rx = (spacing Tx to Tx! / (4) 2 for phase centers to be linearly evenly spaced Like the high efficiency aperture approach, this last rule (equation 4) is the most difficult to implement in practice.

Additional embodiments of an antenna array according to the present invention are shown in Figures 12 to 14. Black circles are examples of Tx antennas and white circles are examples of Rx antennas. The dotted circles indicate shared antennas. It is important to note that the diameter of the black and white circles represents examples of physical aperture sizes of the elements. These are only exemplary forms of antenna elements, and antenna elements may not necessarily be physically round and may have any physical shape, shape or size. Figure 12 shows various embodiments of a 2D antenna array according to the present invention with inverted Tx and Rx antennas compared to the first to third embodiments. In particular, Figure 12A shows the initial configuration 40 (which is not an embodiment of the present invention) with overlapping antennas in the boundary areas 46 of the central Tx antenna array 42 and external Rx antenna arrays 44. Figure 12B shows a first inverted embodiment of a 2D antenna array 400 comprising a third antenna array 406, as in the first embodiment shown in Figure 4, comprising five third antennas (and a circulator or similar element shown in Figure 5). Figure 12C shows a second inverted embodiment of a 2D antenna array 410 comprising a third antenna array 416, as in the second embodiment shown in Figure 7, comprising three third antennas. Figure 12D shows a third inverted embodiment of a 2D antenna array 420, comprising a third antenna array 426, as in the third embodiment shown in figure 9, comprising a (large) third antenna (and a circulator or similar element shown in figure 10). Figure 12E shows a fourth inverted embodiment of a 2D antenna array 430 comprising a third antenna array 436, as in the third embodiment shown in Figure 9, comprising a (small) third antenna (and a circulator or similar element shown in Figure 10). ). Figure 13 shows various embodiments of a 1D antenna array according to the present invention. In particular, Figure 13A shows the initial configuration 50 (which is not an embodiment of the present invention) with overlapping antennas in the boundary areas 56 of the central Tx antenna array 52 and external Rx antenna arrangements 54. Figure 13B shows a first embodiment of a 1D antenna array 500 comprising a third antenna array 506, as in the first embodiment shown in FIG. 4, however, comprising only four third antennas (and a circulator or similar element shown in FIG. 5). The three antennas 501, 502, 503 are part of a triangle with equal sides. The open waveguide 504 is placed in the position of the large (replaced) anterior Rx horn antenna. Depending on the length of the triangle sides, the internal open waveguide 504 is optional. The 501 shaded antenna is used for both Tx and Rx at the same time by employing a circulator or any antenna sharing device. Figure 13C shows a second embodiment of a 1D antenna array 510 comprising a third antenna array 516, as in the second embodiment shown in Figure 7, however, comprising only two third antennas. The Tx 511 antenna is used for transmission only. Rx 512, 513 antennas are used for reception only. Figure 13D shows a third embodiment of a 1D antenna array 520 comprising a third antenna array 526, as in the third embodiment shown in Figure 9, comprising a (large) third antenna (and a circulator or similar element shown in Figure 10). . The external antenna Rx is removed, the antenna array Tx 524 moves to the position of the previous antenna Rx and the third antenna 527 is simultaneously shared as the antenna Tx and Rx. Figure 14 shows various embodiments of a 1D antenna array according to the present invention with inverted Tx and Rx antennas compared to the modalities shown in Figure 13. In particular, Figure 14A shows the initial configuration 60 (not is an embodiment of the present invention) with overlapping antennas in the boundary areas 66 of the central Tx antenna array 62 and external Rx antenna arrangements 64. Figure 13B shows a first inverted embodiment of a 1D 600 antenna arrangement comprising a third antenna array. antenna 606, as in the first embodiment shown in figure 13B, comprising four third antennas (and a circulator or similar element shown in figure 5). Figure 14C shows a second inverted embodiment of a 1D antenna array 610, comprising a third antenna array 616, as in the second embodiment shown in Figure 13C, comprising two third antennas. Figure 14D shows a third inverted embodiment of a 1D antenna array 620, comprising a third antenna array 626, as in the third embodiment shown in Figure 13D, comprising a (small) third antenna (and a circulator or similar element shown in Figure 10). Figure 14E shows a fourth inverted embodiment of a 1D antenna array 630, comprising a third antenna array 636, as in the third embodiment shown in Figure 9, comprising a (large) third antenna (and a circulator or similar element shown in Figure 10).

For this low space efficiency approach (in 1D or 2D) all proposed modalities can be used to satisfy the exposed spacing rules to obtain evenly (or nearly) evenly spaced phase centers.

Example application areas in which this invention may be used are for any type of MIMO radar system. Any frequency can be used. Currently, such systems use ultrasonic frequencies (where small speakers and microphones are used instead of antenna) up to tens of terahertz. In the future, other frequencies may be used.

A beam forming device 700, for example, for obtaining image information of the scene 710 according to the present invention is schematically shown in Figure 15. It comprises a proposed antenna array 720 according to the present invention and how Earlier discussed, a power unit 730 for feeding the antennas of said antenna array 720 and a processing unit 740 for processing said output signals formed by the beam. Then, the output signals of said processing unit 740 may be used for various purposes, for example to construct an image of the scene 710 into an image unit (not shown) generally provided with a forming device. active image The invention has been illustrated and described in detail in the drawings and the foregoing description, but such illustration and description should be considered illustrative or exemplary rather than restrictive. The invention is not limited to the disclosed embodiments. Other variations in the disclosed embodiments may be understood and made by those skilled in the art in the practice of the claimed invention from a study of the drawings, the disclosure and the appended claims.

In the claims, the word "comprising" does not exclude other elements or steps, and the indefinite article "one" or "one" does not exclude a plurality. A single element or other unit may fulfill the functions of various items cited in the claims. The fact that certain measures are cited in mutually different dependent claims does not indicate that a combination of these measures cannot be used to advantage.

No reference sign in the claims should be construed as limiting the scope.

Claims (24)

  1. Antenna array, characterized in that it comprises: a first antenna array (102) comprising a systematic array of first antennas (103), at least two second antenna arrays (104a, 104b, 104c, 104d) arranged adjacent said first antenna array and each comprising a systematic array of second antennas (105), at least two third antenna arrays (106) each comprising at least a third antenna (107 - 111), wherein a third array The antenna array is arranged in a boundary area (112) of said first antenna array and a second antenna array and replaces a first first antenna (103a) closer to the adjacent second antenna array (104a) and a second antenna (105a). closest to the adjacent first antenna array (102), wherein said first or second antennas are transmitting and the other of said first or second antennas is receiving radiation, and wherein the at least one third antenna is is transmitting and / or receiving radiation.
  2. Antenna array according to claim 1, characterized in that said first antenna array comprises a line (52) of first antennas and wherein two second antenna arrays, each comprising a line (54) of second antennas, and two third antenna arrays 56, each comprising at least two third antennas, are provided.
  3. Antenna array according to claim 1, characterized in that said first antenna array comprises a two-dimensional field (102) of first antennas (103) and wherein four second antenna arrays, each comprising a field. two-dimensional (104a, 104b, 104c, 104d) of second antennas (105), and four third antenna arrays (106) are provided.
  4. Antenna array according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that a third antenna array comprises a two-dimensional field (106) of at least three third antennas (107-111).
  5. Antenna array according to claim 4, characterized in that said third antenna array comprises a two-dimensional field (106) of four systematically arranged third antennas (107 - 110), said four third antennas (107 - 110) being arranged at the corners of a rectangle or square or along a circular path.
  6. Antenna array according to claim 5, characterized in that a third antenna array further comprises a fifth third antenna (111) arranged between said four third antennas (107 - 110).
  7. Antenna arrangement according to claim 6, characterized in that said fifth third antenna (111) comprises an open waveguide, in particular with a rectangular or circular cross-section.
  8. Antenna arrangement according to claim 6 or 7, characterized in that said fifth third antenna (111) is arranged in a position in which the first substituted antenna of said first antenna array (103a) would have been placed. .
  9. Antenna array according to claim 4, characterized in that said third antenna array comprises a two-dimensional field (206) of three third antennas (207, 208, 209), said three third antennas (207, 208, 209) being arranged at the corners of a triangle or along a circular path.
  10. Antenna arrangement according to claim 9, characterized in that two third internal antennas (208, 209) of a third antenna array (206) arranged closest to the adjacent first antenna array (102) are arranged in a similar manner. such that the center between said two third internal antennas (208, 209) is arranged in a position in which the first substituted antenna (103a) of said first antenna array (102) would have been placed.
  11. Antenna arrangement according to claim 9 or 10, characterized in that said two third internal antennas (208, 209) comprise open waveguides, in particular with a rectangular or circular cross-section.
  12. Antenna array according to any one of claims 5 to 11, characterized in that a third external antenna (207) of a third antenna array (206) arranged closest to the adjacent second antenna array (104a) is arranged in a position in which the replaced second antenna (105a) of said second antenna array (104a) would have been placed.
  13. Antenna arrangement according to claim 12, characterized in that said third external antenna (207) is identical to the second antennas (105) of said second antenna arrangement (104a).
  14. Antenna arrangement according to claim 12 or 13, characterized in that said third external antenna (207) is configured to transmit and receive radiation simultaneously, in particular by the use of an antenna sharing element (122). ), and the other third antennas (208, 209) of the same third antenna array (206) are performing the same action of transmitting or receiving radiation as the first antennas (103) of the first antenna array (102).
  15. Antenna arrangement according to any one of claims 5 to 14, characterized in that the third antennas (208, 209) of a third antenna array except said third external antenna (207) have a cross section. smaller than the first replaced antenna (103a).
  16. Antenna array according to any one of claims 5 to 15, characterized in that the third antennas (208, 209) of a third antenna array (206), except for said third external antenna (207), cover substantially the same area as the first substituted antenna (103a).
  17. Antenna arrangement according to claim 3, characterized in that a third antenna array (306) comprises a single third antenna (307) which is configured to transmit and receive radiation simultaneously, in particular by the use of a Antenna Sharing Element (322).
  18. Antenna array according to claim 17, characterized in that said single third antenna (307) is identical to the second antennas (105) of the adjacent second antenna array (104a) or the first antennas (103) of the first adjacent antenna array (102).
  19. Antenna arrangement according to claim 17 or 18, characterized in that said single third antenna (307) is arranged in a position in which the replaced second antenna (105a) of said second antenna array (104a). would have been placed.
  20. Antenna arrangement according to any one of claims 17 to 19, characterized in that said single third antenna (307) is arranged in or near a position in which the first replaced antenna (103a). of said first antenna array (102) would have been placed.
  21. Antenna arrangement according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that all first antennas (103) are identical and / or all second antennas (105) are identical.
  22. Antenna arrangement according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the antennas (105) that are configured to transmit radiation have an opening area that is smaller than an opening area of the antennas that are configured to receive. radiation.
  23. Antenna arrangement according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that all first antennas (103) are evenly spaced and / or all second antennas (105) are evenly spaced.
  24. A beam forming device (700), characterized in that it comprises: an antenna array (720) as defined in claim 1, a supply unit (730) for feeding the antennas of said antenna array (720) , a processing unit (740) for processing said output signals formed by the beam of said antenna array (720).
BRBR102012032046-0A 2011-12-21 2012-12-14 Antenna arrangement and beamforming device BR102012032046A2 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
EP11194810 2011-12-21

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
BR102012032046A2 true BR102012032046A2 (en) 2015-04-14

Family

ID=48638061

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
BRBR102012032046-0A BR102012032046A2 (en) 2011-12-21 2012-12-14 Antenna arrangement and beamforming device

Country Status (4)

Country Link
US (1) US9203160B2 (en)
KR (1) KR20130072173A (en)
CN (1) CN103178356B (en)
BR (1) BR102012032046A2 (en)

Families Citing this family (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102013102424A1 (en) * 2013-03-11 2014-09-11 Stefan Trummer Polarimetric radar for object classification and suitable method and use thereof
CN104685843B (en) * 2013-09-30 2018-02-23 华为技术有限公司 A kind of antenna and communication equipment
US9568600B2 (en) * 2014-03-05 2017-02-14 Delphi Technologies, Inc. MIMO antenna with elevation detection
US20150253419A1 (en) * 2014-03-05 2015-09-10 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Mimo antenna with improved grating lobe characteristics
US9541639B2 (en) * 2014-03-05 2017-01-10 Delphi Technologies, Inc. MIMO antenna with elevation detection
CN105874646B (en) * 2014-03-21 2019-02-05 华为技术有限公司 A kind of array antenna
CN105022268A (en) * 2015-07-09 2015-11-04 哈尔滨工程大学 Linear constraint virtual antenna beam forming method
CN106546983A (en) * 2015-09-17 2017-03-29 松下电器产业株式会社 Radar installations
CA3004897A1 (en) * 2015-12-17 2017-06-22 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Methods and systems for near-field microwave imaging
CN105589058B (en) * 2016-01-29 2019-05-31 宋春丽 A kind of antenna assembly and three-dimensional radar system
US10305622B1 (en) * 2016-05-10 2019-05-28 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Space-time coding with separation
CN106054181B (en) * 2016-05-18 2018-07-20 中国电子科技集团公司第四十一研究所 A kind of one-dimensional thinned array method for arranging for Terahertz real time imagery
KR101921182B1 (en) * 2017-07-25 2018-11-22 엘지전자 주식회사 Array antenna and mobile terminal

Family Cites Families (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7664533B2 (en) * 2003-11-10 2010-02-16 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson (Publ) Method and apparatus for a multi-beam antenna system
US7952525B2 (en) * 2005-06-03 2011-05-31 Sony Corporation Antenna device associated wireless communication apparatus and associated control methodology for multi-input and multi-output communication systems
EP1989570B1 (en) 2006-01-17 2016-07-27 Teledyne Australia Pty Ltd. Surveillance apparatus and method
JP5218221B2 (en) * 2009-03-31 2013-06-26 富士通株式会社 Antenna installation method, communication apparatus and communication system in MIMO communication system
CN102024290B (en) * 2009-09-23 2014-01-15 国民技术股份有限公司 Method and system for controlling radio frequency communication distance

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CN103178356A (en) 2013-06-26
KR20130072173A (en) 2013-07-01
US9203160B2 (en) 2015-12-01
CN103178356B (en) 2016-12-28
US20130162475A1 (en) 2013-06-27

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Hong et al. Multibeam antenna technologies for 5G wireless communications
ES2657869T3 (en) High efficiency antenna and related manufacturing process
US10263342B2 (en) Reflectarray antenna system
US7167139B2 (en) Hexagonal array structure of dielectric rod to shape flat-topped element pattern
US9692117B2 (en) Antenna
US6650291B1 (en) Multiband phased array antenna utilizing a unit cell
CN1150662C (en) Integrated transmit/receive antenna with arbitrary utilisation of antenna aperture
JP2016058790A (en) Array antenna and device using the same
KR20140021380A (en) Dielectric resonator array antenna
US5189433A (en) Slotted microstrip electronic scan antenna
US8558746B2 (en) Flat panel array antenna
US7034753B1 (en) Multi-band wide-angle scan phased array antenna with novel grating lobe suppression
CN103178357A (en) Microwave antenna and antenna element
RU2012146984A (en) Device and method for spatial division duplex (sdd) for millimeter range communication system
JP4469009B2 (en) Method and apparatus for improving performance in a waveguide-based spatial power combiner
JPWO2012053223A1 (en) Antenna device
US20050024282A1 (en) Dual polarization vivaldi notch/meander line loaded antenna
US8902117B2 (en) Antenna apparatus including dipole antenna and parasitic element arrays for forming pseudo-slot openings
Ala-Laurinaho et al. 2-D beam-steerable integrated lens antenna system for 5G $ E $-band access and backhaul
US10038240B2 (en) Wide band reconfigurable planar antenna with omnidirectional and directional radiation patterns
Schulwitz et al. A compact dual-polarized multibeam phased-array architecture for millimeter-wave radar
Tomura et al. A 45$^\circ $ Linearly Polarized Hollow-Waveguide Corporate-Feed Slot Array Antenna in the 60-GHz Band
EP2923412A1 (en) Beam-forming network for an array antenna and array antenna comprising the same
KR20130142105A (en) Antenna, base station and beam processing method
US3553692A (en) Antenna arrays having phase and amplitude control

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
B03A Publication of an application: publication of a patent application or of a certificate of addition of invention
B11A Dismissal acc. art.33 of ipl - examination not requested within 36 months of filing
B11Y Definitive dismissal acc. article 33 of ipl - extension of time limit for request of examination expired