AU757795B2 - Atomising nozzle - Google Patents

Atomising nozzle Download PDF

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AU757795B2
AU757795B2 AU32633/00A AU3263300A AU757795B2 AU 757795 B2 AU757795 B2 AU 757795B2 AU 32633/00 A AU32633/00 A AU 32633/00A AU 3263300 A AU3263300 A AU 3263300A AU 757795 B2 AU757795 B2 AU 757795B2
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liquid
air
nozzle
orifice
fluid
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Joseph Henry Combellack
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Joseph Henry Combellack
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Priority to AU32633/00A priority patent/AU757795B2/en
Priority to PCT/AU2000/000227 priority patent/WO2000056464A1/en
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Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to an atomising nozzle for use with twin fluids. It is particularly related to one liquid being atomised by a gas. One particular use of the atomising nozzle of the invention is in distribution of agricultural sprays. However the invention is not limited to such use.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION It is common practice in agriculture to treat crops by applying agrochemicals as a dilute liquid spray onto the crop, mostly by using hydraulic nozzles. These nozzles generally have a body, which incorporates functional components to enable the metering, atomisation and distribution of a liquid spray as well as providing a means of attachment to a movable spray unit. Hydraulic nozzles typically produce either an elliptical flat fan, solid cone or hollow cone of droplets.

S. 20There is an increasing demand by users of agrochemicals to use a lower :20 application volume of spray in an endeavor to increase the area treated per unit time. For this to be achieved with hydraulic nozzles while maintaining a similar liquid operating pressure the liquid metering orifice of the hydraulic nozzle has to be reduced in area. A reduction in the area of the metering orifice leads to a propensity for it to block. Also .o smaller metering orifices, which produce a consistent liquid flow rate, are more difficult to manufacture. Further it becomes more difficult to produce an acceptable spray pattern when the liquid flow rate is lowered below 0.5 litres per minute because it is increasingly o troublesome to accurately manufacture a hydraulic spray tip having a suitable liquid spray generating metering orifice for such flow rates. There is also a tendency for such low flow rate hydraulic nozzles to wear increase the area of the orifice) more rapidly. In view of these difficulties users have shunned the use of low flow rate hydraulic nozzles.

A further problem with spray tips is that typically an increasing volume of driftable droplets (those less than 100 im) is produced as the flow rate is decreased while operating at the same hydraulic pressure. The likelihood of droplet drift (defined as the "off target" movement of droplets) increases with a lowering of the liquid flow rate.

T her problem with hydraulic nozzles is their inability to maintain a similar droplet IIAUUuIUUZL Received 29 January 2001 s spectra (defined as a statistical summary of the number and volume of each droplet produced) over a wide range of liquid flow rates. Generally a doubling in flow rate through a typical hydraulic spray tip necessitates a fourfold increase in hydraulic pressure but the droplet spectra becomes smaller as the liquid flow (and hydraulic pressure) increases. The user therefore has to carefully select a nozzle tip and pressure to deliver the required flow rate at the nominated travel speed to obtain the application volume needed for the task.

With hydraulic nozzles typically used in agriculture, the liquid flow should be varied by no more than 25% if a similar droplet size range is to be generated and thus environmental safety is to be maintained. Further if a user sprays a range of pests over a range of crops he will have to frequently change spray tips to accommodate changes in the required application volume and droplet spectra. Changing hydraulic nozzles is time consuming and can be hazardous to the operator.

Twin fluid nozzles used in agriculture mix air and liquid, typically in an internal chamber, before they are dispersed through a relatively large circular orifice and onto a modified anvil nozzle tip. These nozzles are able to maintain a consistently similar droplet spectra over a range of flow rates by changing the air to liquid ratios. They are also able to be used at low liquid flow rates without a propensity to block as the orifice is relatively large and are able to reduce drift by air entrainment within the droplets. Also spray quality can be adjusted from a coarse to a fine spray at a given liquid flow rate by varying the air and liquid pressures. Twin fluid nozzles therefore offer a flexible and feasible way of addressing the challenge of reducing drift while increasing operational efficiency through lower application volumes.

Generally agricultural twin fluid nozzles use the liquid and air pressure to "break up" the liquid and the air flow then carries the partially atomised liquid to a shaped spraying deflector anvil that further atomises the liquid and distributes the atomised liquid over a predetermined spray pattern. A presently commercialised twin fluid nozzle system requires a high air volume (>25 litres/min/nozzle) at pressures up to 180 kPa and even up to 276 kPa if fine sprays are to be produced. Another commercialised system utilises pressures up to 200 kPa and air volumes up to 30 and 50 litres per minute. It is necessary to use a piston or rotary screw compressor to achieve pressures over 150 kPa for the air volumes required. The latter is expensive to purchase and to run. Therefore the air pressure range (69 to 276 kPa) suggested for some commercialised systems is not very practical for field use. As a compromise the commercialised systems sometimes use 3 SMDED SHEET Qev-r 0

P%

PCT/AU00/00227 Received 29 January 2001 s a rotary vane compressor to produce the necessary air volume but many of these can only generate pressures to around 150 kPa. These compressors require at least a 20 HP engine to provide sufficient air volumes (of up to 50 litres/min/nozzle) on a typical 30 meter boom of a movable spray unit. Furthermore, the two commercialised systems are unable to accommodate a "turn down ratio" of much over two, maintain a similar droplet spectra for a doubling of liquid flow), and then only by adjusting both liquid and air pressures.

There is a need to develop a sprayer which is able to maintain a similar droplet size range to accommodate varying vehicle speeds or to enable varying dosages of chemical to be applied to weed patches so as to minimise chemical use by applying a dose which is optimal for a given weed density. It has been rationalised that twin fluid nozzles are a viable option (Combellack and Miller 1998. "Does the technology exist to efficiently and effectively patch spray weeds" in: Precision Weed Management in Crops Pasture; Ed. Medd, R W Pratley. I.E. Proceedings of a Workshop, 5-6 May 1988 Wagga Wagga, 154pp LCRC for Weed Management Systems. Adelaide) but those currently commercialised necessitate that both liquid and air pressure rise and fall so as to accommodate a "turn down ratio" of around 2.0 (throughout this document the "turn down ratio" or TDR the generation of similar droplet size range for a given change in liquid flow rate). Further the two commercialised nozzles (Airjet TM subject of US patent and Airtech TM subject of UK patent) both require relatively large volumes of compressed air, typically over 30 litres per nozzle per minute, at low liquid flow rates.

An improved twin fluid nozzle based on variable air shear has been described (MALAN see AU 48115/96) which required less air (typically less than 20 litres per min) and had a better turn down ratio.

It is an object of the invention to provide a twin fluid nozzle which ameliorates at least some of the problems of the prior art while improving the turn down ratio over the commercialised nozzles.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In accordance with the invention there is provided a twin fluid nozzle able to provide variable recruitment of a first fluid with a second fluid, the nozzle including a nozzle body with a main conduit leading from a first fluid entry orifice to an exit orifice; the nozzle body further including a side second fluid inlet conduit leading to the main conduit; the main conduit portion shaped and enlarging as it progresses away from the intersection with the side second fluid inlet conduit towards the exit orifice so as to create S4 LAMOM 940T T C4, )C' ~r*~rrr rr *n .nr-lrmr- _l.l l J PCT/AU00/00227 Received 29 January 2001 a venturi-like effect and draw in or help draw in the second fluid from the side second fluid inlet conduit to substantially atomise the first fluid and pass the substantially atomised first fluid through the exit orifice.

The nozzle body can include a nozzle head with a distribution anvil wherein the substantially atomised fluid passing through the exit orifice encounters the anvil and is distributed in droplets.

Preferably the twin fluid nozzle has an outer body with a channel and first and second fluid entries to the channel and a replaceable insert able to be received in the outer body channel; the replaceable insert having an insert channel with an inlet feeding from the first fluid entry of the outer body channel, and shaped to form the venturi-like effect portion of the main conduit feeding to an insert outlet; and the insert further including a reduced outer diameter portion smaller than the diameter of the outer body channel to create a substantially circumferential fluid chamber when in position in the channel which is fed from the second fluid entry of the outer body channel; and wherein the side second fluid inlet conduit extends from the reduced diameter portion of the insert to the insert channel forming the main conduit at the beginning of the venturilike effect portion.

A sealing means can be provided between the insert and the outer body channel and between the insert channel inlet and the reduced outer diameter portion to prevent fluid from the first fluid entry entering the circumferential fluid chamber. The twin fluid nozzle can have the ratio of area of the secondary orifice to the primary orifice in the range of 1.5:1 to 4:1 and the spacing of the primary and secondary orifices can be greater than the size of the primary orifice The invention also provides a method of atomisation or droplet generation including the steps of: providing a twin fluid nozzle having a nozzle body with a main conduit having a fluid entry orifice leading to an exit orifice, the nozzle body further including a side air entry orifice leading to the main conduit, the main conduit shaped and enlarging as it progresses away from the intersection with the side air entry orifice towards the exit orifice so as to create a venturi-like effect and draw in or help draw in air from the side air entry orifice to substantially atomise the fluid and with the substantially atomised fluid passing through the exit orifice AMENDED SHEET F FWAqAU

PC',

Received 29 j, (ii) providing liquid under pressure to the fluid entry orifice of the twin fluid nozzle; (iii) providing air under pressure to the side air entry orifice leading to the main conduit; (iv) feeding the substantially atomised fluid passing through the exit orifice to a distribution nozzle.

The twin fluid nozzle venturi like effect and the air provided under pressure at the side air entry orifice is sufficient to allow the doubling of liquid flow to only require substantially doubling of the inlet fluid pressure.

The twin fluid nozzle can have the atomisation or droplet generation forces dependent on the inlet pressure of the two fluids, the relative size of the primary and secondary orifices as well as the relative flow rate of each liquid; whereat as the first fluid passes through the chamber to the secondary orifice it tends to create a vacuum thus drawing in or helping to draw in the second fluid and inducing substantial atomisation of the liquid when it emerges from the second orifice into the main conduit. The extent of atomisation is dependent upon liquid flow and its physical characteristics and fluid pressures.[? is this repetition necessary The ratio of the area of the secondary orifice to the primary orifice can be in the range of 1.5:1 to 4:1. The spacing of the primary and secondary orifices can be greater than the size of the primary orifice.] The twin fluid nozzle can have the venturi-like effect created by the primary and secondary orifices within the removable insert when supplemented by compressed air as the second fluid which minimizes the air volume required to effect droplet generation.

The venturi effect reduces the pressure required to deliver the liquid. In one form of the invention the nozzle has a turn down ratio (TDR) as hereinbefore defined in the range of 2 to The twin fluid nozzle of the invention can generate a narrow droplet size range over a wide range of flow rates when air is delivered as the second fluid at a set pressure.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS In order that the invention can be more readily understood a description of embodiments of the invention is shown in the drawings wherein: Figure I is a schematic cross sectional view of an atomising nozzle including a nozzle body, nozzle insert and nozzle tip in accordance with a first embodiment of the invention.

Figure 2 is a cross sectional view of the insert of the nozzle insert of Figure 3 is an 6 AMENDED HEET

IPEA)AU

FU I IAUUUUU U/ Received 29 January 2001 s end view of a further embodiment of an atomising nozzle body in accordance with the invention.

Figure 4 is a schematic cross sectional view of the nozzle body of Figure 3 along

A-A.

Figure 5 is a schematic cross sectional view of an atomising nozzle insert in accordance with a second embodiment of the invention.

Figure 5A is an exploded cross sectional view of a portion of the insert of Figure Figure 6 is a schematic cross sectional view of an atomising nozzle tip in accordance with a further embodiment of the invention.

EMBODIMENT OF THE INVENTION Referring to Figures 1 and 2 there is an air recruitment atomising nozzle (hereinafter referred to as ARAN) having a nozzle body 11 with an outer diameter which via shoulders extends to a reduced diameter with outward extending retainer lugs 23. The reduced diameter and retaining lugs 23 are sized and in relative position so as to fit within a nozzle head 13 comprising a cylindrical nozzle tip holder 30 with a central nozzle head cylindrical channel 32 which at an axial end feeds to and holds a nozzle tip 31 including an anvil 33. The nozzle tip holder 30 further includes mounting cavities 34 extending from the nozzle head channel 32 and shaped and configured so as to be able to engage the retainer lugs 23 of the nozzle body 11 to removably retain the nozzle body 11 and nozzle head 13 together. The nozzle body 11 further includes a central axially aligned nozzle body cylindrical channel 20 sized to be able to receive a nozzle insert 12 being substantially an elongated cylinder. The length of the nozzle insert 12 is able to be substantially received within the nozzle body channel 20 of the nozzle body 11 such that it can be retained in position when the nozzle head 13 is attached via the retaining lugs 23 to the nozzle body 11.

The nozzle insert 12 has two primary outer diameter dimensions. The first forms an insert outer wall 58 extending for approximately a first half of the nozzle insert 12 and being only slightly less in dimension than the nozzle body channel 20 so as to allow for insertion of the nozzle insert 12 into the nozzle body channel 20. The second outer diameter is a reduced diameter forming the second half of the nozzle insert 12 being the insert inner wall 57 so as to form an annular opening forming a circumferential fluid chamber when the nozzle insert 12 is in position within the nozzle body channel ST 7 AMENDED

SHEET

IPMAAU

-~~R.riftrtttr V.7' .r ,C I/AUUU/UUZ i Received 29 January 2001 At the end of the nozzle insert 12 having the smaller dimension insert inner wall 57 are two spaced circular ribs 48, 49 axially aligned and which extend to the diameter of the insert outer wall 58 and thereby snugly fit within the nozzle body channel However the ribs 48, 49 are spaced to receive an O-ring 24 therebetween preventing fluid flow along the nozzle body channel 20 past the outside end of the nozzle insert 12. At the other end of the nozzle insert 12 is an outwardly extending circular rib 59 axially aligned and which extends beyond the larger diameter of the insert outer wall 58 and thereby prevents the nozzle insert 12 being fully inserted in the nozzle body channel 20. A nozzle body seat 60 on the end of the nozzle body 11 around the opening of the nozzle body channel 20 is able to receive at least a portion of this locating rib 59. Adjacent to the locating rib 59 at the extreme end of the nozzle insert 12 is outwardly extending locator 61 for a rubber washer 29 with the largest diameter of the locator 61 corresponding with the diameter of the insert outer wall 58 and being axially located. The rubber washer allows for tight fluid connection with the nozzle head 13.

Along the axial centre of the entire length of the nozzle insert 12 is a fluid channel of varying dimensions comprising an insert liquid inlet 41 at the end of the narrower dimensioned insert inner wall 57 at the location of ribs 48, 49. This insert liquid inlet 41 feeds into a very narrow liquid metering orifice 25 which enters a small annulus chamber at the beginning of a main insert conduit 28 and feeds to a secondary orifice being a liquid air exit port 27 having outer shaped walls to provide the correct sizing of the chamber and orifice and flow and entering into insert channel 28 forming the main conduit which extends all the way to the other end of the nozzle insert 12. Air entry ports 26 typically sized slightly larger than the liquid metering orifice 25 extends at right angles from the outer extremities of the insert inner wall 57 into the chamber before the liquid air exit port 27 adjacent the connection with the liquid metering orifice 25. In this way liquid being sent axially through the nozzle insert 12 engages with and is substantially atomised by air being sent through the right angled air entry ports 26 and both the liquid and the air proceed through the liquid air exit port 27 to the insert channel 28 and out the end of the nozzle insert 12.

Novelly ARAN can use much less air (typically maximum of around litres/mm/nozzle) than other twin fluid nozzles. The 'highest' air volume is only needed for the "lowest" liquid flow rates recommended, and then declines rapidly and finally levels off over a wide range of liquid flow (see tables 5 to 15). If the liquid volume ST ontinues to increase it will eventually flood the air line. This latter effect will not be 8 AMENDED SHEET

IPENAU

II.- I: I -I experienced within the liquid pressures that will be recommended (viz. max 600 kPa).

The results presented in Tables 5, 6 and 7 as well as 8, 9, 10 and 11 show that these nozzles when used over the air pressures recommended (75 to 200 kPa) do not approach a "no air" situation. Reduced air capacity makes ARAN more efficient as cheaper air compressor designs can be considered.

It has been uniquely found that the VMD (volume medium diameter) of the droplets generated by the ARAN nozzles remains much more consistent for a wider range of liquid flow rates for a set air pressure than for any other twin fluid nozzle used in agriculture. The reason for the unusual improvement in efficiency is the venturi effect of the ARAN insert design. It has been found that the ratio of the areas of the liquid inlet in Fig. 1) to air/liquid outlet (7 Fig. I) orifice should be between 1:2.25 to 1:3.3 to maximise the venturi effect. The value of the venturi effect, measured as negative °pressure using a transducer, is dependent on liquid pressure and is optimal kPa) when the liquid pressure is over 300 kPa. (see tables 2, 4, and 23). It has been found that So: 15 the most efficient design one that uses the least amount of air and yet produces a high S: TDR) is the one, which gives the optimal negative pressure for a given range of liquid flow rates. When an optimal insert design is used the nozzle can be operated as an "air induction" nozzle, i.e. air is drawn into the nozzle via the air entry port (22 in Fig. 1) when the latter is open to the atmosphere. Using this arrangement ARAN can effectively atomise liquids without the aid of a compressor. "Air Induction" nozzles have a limited S• turn down ratio (TDR the generation of similar droplet size range for a given change in liquid flow rate) of typically 1.6 to 1.75 over a liquid pressure range of 300 to 800 kPa.

"For ARAN the ratio would be similar (Tables 1 to However, "Air Induction" nozzles o* produce a very coarse spray the droplets are large). Such a low TDR and high VMD restricts the value of such nozzles. Further it has been found that the volume of air drawn into the liquid stream varies with the "efficiency" of the venturi and thus the ratio of the area of orifice 25 to 27 (see tables 2, 4 23) for a given distance between the two.

With ARAN novelty has been found when the air inlet orifice (26 in Fig. 1) is connected to a compressor so as to deliver air at a set pressure 75 to 200 kPa).

Using this configuration a wider range of liquid flow rates can be atomised without greatly 10% of the average) changing the VMD than when used as an air induction or conventional twin fluid nozzle. It has been found that the TDR can be increased to 4 to 6 S fold, even if the liquid pressure is restricted to a maximum of 600 kPa, without the need

"P

egan\Pat\32633-OO.doc 9 IE RE- PC/AUOO/00227 Received 29 January 2001 to simultaneously vary both liquid and air pressures.

The three significant advantages of the ARAN design are: it obviates the need for a computer to vary the flow of the two fluids to maintain a similar droplet size range in relation to sprayer output thus to vary ground speed or vary dose rate; (ii) the ARAN nozzle is able to deliver similar droplet size range over a 4 to 6 fold change in liquid flow rate at a set air pressure; (iii) ARAN typically uses less air than other twin fluid nozzles It has been surprisingly found that augmenting the venturi effect with compressed air enables the liquid delivery not to follow the normal square function, i.e. a fourfold increase in pressure for a doubling of liquid flow as is the case when ARAN is used as an "air induction" nozzle (see Tables 1 to If Table 1 is compared with 2 and 3 with 4 it can bee seen that when compressed air is applied to air entry port 22 [Tables 1 and 3] liquid flow is virtually linearly related to liquid pressure whereas when acting as an air induction nozzle [Tables 2 and 4] liquid pressure follows the normal square function. It has been surprisingly found that if one augments air to the air inlet (22 in Fig. 1) via a compressor, the volume of air required to effectively atomise the liquid is less than when delivered without a venturi effect as for other agricultural twin fluid nozzles including MALAN. It has been found that it is possible to design a nozzle around a maximum air consumption of 10 litres/nozzle/mm. for the lowest liquid flow.

Further it has been found that initially as the liquid flow rate is increased the volume of air required decreases linearly with an increase in liquid flow, as with other twin fluid nozzles, but surprisingly air consumption levels off over a wide range of increasing liquid flow. The increase depends upon air pressure, venturi efficiency and nozzle tip orifice size. With careful selection of orifice sizes it has been surprisingly found that air consumption can be limited to 4 to 6 litres/nozzle/ min, typically over a three-fold liquid flow rate range.

Nozzles can be designed to cover a range of flow rates. The liquid orifice (25 Fig. 1) is increased in size to accommodate greater flow rates 1.1 mm for 300 to 1500; 1.4 mm for 500 to 3000; 1 .5 mm for 750 to over 3000 ml min if a maximum liquid pressure of 600 kPa is set).

The air liquid orifice (27 in Fig. 1) should optimally have an area 2.00 to 3.3 times that of the liquid orifice (25 in Fig. 1) when the gap between the two is around 1.5 mm.

It has been found that optimally the area of the nozzle tip orifice should be within RA4i, V- SAMENDED MEET n~'IPE"AU

IPEAIAU

PCT/AU00/00227 Received 29 January 2001 10 to 15% of that for the air/liquid exit orifice. Other features in this embodiment are in the following range: 41 Liquid inlet diam. 4.0 ±0.02 mm (ball nose drill) Liquid metering orifice diam. 1.0 to 1.5 ±0.01 mm length 2.5 mm 0.02 26 Air entry port diam. 1.5 0.02 mm cross drilled 27 "push in" air/liquid exit port diam. 3.95 ±0.01 mm length 7.5 ±0.02 mm; bore 1.7 to 2.5 ±0.01 mm 28 insert channel for Air liquid mixing chamber diam.4.0 0.02mm 48 Rib for ring width2.0 0.02mm diam.9.9 0.02 mm 49 Rib for ring width 2.0 0.02 mm diam. 9.9 0.02 mm ring internal diam. 6.5 mm width 2.0 mm 51 Groove for ring width 2.5 mm 0.02 mm diam. 7.0 mm 0.02 mm Air liquid recruitment annulus diam. 9.9 mm 0.02 mm height 1.55 mm 0.02 mm 57 insert inner wall air annulus diam. 7.0 0.02 mm 58 insert outer wall diam 9.9 0.02 mm 59 Locating seat for nozzle insert diam. 14.95 0.02 mm width 2.0 0.02 mm 61 Locator for rubber washer depth 2.75 mm 0.02 mm inner diam. 7.25 0.02 mm base diam. 9.5 0.02 mm RESULTS OF TESTS TABLE 1 Twin fluid operating parameters for an ARAN nozzle using an insert with a 1.4 mm liquid inlet orifice; two 1.5 mm air ports and a 2.0 mm air/liquid outlet orifice and a Spraying Systems

M

no. 5 anvil nozzle tip at a constant air pressure of 150 kPa 11 AMENDED SHEET

IPEAAU

PCT/AU00/00227 Received 29 January 2001 Liq vol Liq pres Air vol used ml/min kPa L/min 550 159 1000 212 6 1500 310 2000 448 2500 620 4 3000 900 3 Thus maximum turn down ratio if 600 kPa is limiting liquid pressure and 10 litres mm nozzle limiting air 4.5 approx.

TABLE 2 Air induction parameters for an ARAN nozzle comprising an insert with a 1.4 mm liquid inlet orifice; two 1.5 mm air entry ports with a 2.0 mm air/liquid outlet orifice and a Spraying Systems T M no. 5 anvil nozzle tip Liq pres Liq vol vacuum Air recruited kPa ml/min kPa ml/min 100 1155 -19 180 200 1690 -38 450 300 2140 -59 660 400 2480 -96 900 500 2675 -100 1040 600 2910 -100 1200 Thus maximum turn down ratio if 600 kPa is limiting liquid pressure and -50 kPa minimum vacuum 1 .45 approx.

Legends for tables Volume Median Diameter diameter whereby half of the volume of the spray is contained droplets larger and smaller Drop Vol. <200 gm volume of the spray in droplets less than <200 Pm Drop Vol. >500 [im volume of the spray in droplets greater than >500 pm !0 Drop Vel. the mean droplet velocity of the spray Air Vol. the volume of compressed air used 12 AMENDED SHEET

IPEAAU

1 r, 1 1/UUUIUUL I Received 29 January 2001 TABLE 3 Twin fluid operating parameters for an ARAN nozzle using an insert with a 1 .4 mm liquid inlet orifice; two 1.5 mm air ports and a 2.3 mm air/liquid outlet orifice and a Spraying Systems M no. 5 anvil nozzle tip at a constant air pressure of 150 kPa Liq vol Liq pres Air vol used ml/min kPa L/min 535 125 1000 237 1500 373 2000 556 6 2460 786 Thus maximum turn down ratio if 600 kPa is limiting liquid pressure and 10 litres mm nozzle limiting air volume =4.0 approx.

TABLE 4 Air Induction parameters for an ARAN nozzle comprising an insert with a 1.3 mm liquid inlet orifice; two 1.5 mm air entry ports with a 2.3 mm air/liquid outlet orifice and a Spraying SystemsTM no. 5 anvil nozzle tip Air pres Liq vol Vacuum Air recruited kPa L/min kPa ml/min 100 1080 -18 100 200 1580 -35 280 300 1990 -53 380 400 2310 -69 480 500 2490 -82 580 600 2730 -95 700 Thus maximum turn down ratio if 600 kPa is limiting liquid pressure and minimum vacuum 1.4 approx.

AgralTM is an ICI, UK, nonyl phenol ethoxylate surfactant which is known to induce air bubbles in droplets generated by twin fluid nozzles Ulvapron T M is an emulsifiable 150 N oil manufactured by BP Australia, which is known not to induce air bubbles in droplets generated by twin fluid nozzles Table 5 ARAN 50 litre/ha 1 liquid inlet x 1.8 liquid/air outlet with Spraying 13 AMENDED SHEET

IPEA/AU

i' I/AUUU/UU227 Received 29 January 2001 1:2.68). Solution:- Agral

TM

at 0. 1% v/v SystemsTM no. 4 anvil tip; ratio inlet to outlet Liq Liq pres Air vol AIR PRESSURE 100 kPa vol kPa L/min VMD <200 >500 Vel m/sec ml/mi n 321 112 8 435.6 5.66 38.34 2.51 590 154 5.5 417.4 5.02 35.56 3.47 890 224 4.8 386.3 6.82 24.64 3.42 1211 330 4.8 358.3 9.94 18.08 3.84 1509 458 4.8 348.1 12 16.87 4.63 1784 600 4.8 327.3 15.04 14.54 4.95 Max. volume range:- 650 to 1800 ml min./ nozzle if 600 kPa max. liquid pressure: TDR 2.75:1 and 10% median VMD of 367 pm.; Sprayer Speed Range:- 15 to 43 km/hr.

if applying 50 1/ha.

Table 6 ARAN 50 litre/ha 1 liquid inlet x 1 .8 liquid air outlet with Spraying SystemTM no. 4 anvil tip; ratio inlet to outlet 1:2. 68); Solution AgralTM at 0.1% v/v Liq Liq pres Air vol AIR PRESSURE 150 kPa vol kPa L/min VMD <200 >500 Vel. m/sec ml/m in 317 163 10.5 370.8 7.77 22.41 2.16 637 213 6.8 387.8 7.58 25.9 3.32 897 276 5.5 365.7 7.92 18.41 3.30 1232 387 5.5 344.3 10.59 12.48 3.61 1695 598 5.5 334.5 13.69 15.45 4.53 Max. volume range:- 400 to 1700 ml min. nozzle if 600 kPa max. liquid pressure and ±10% median VMD of 360pm TDR 4.25:1: Sprayer Speed Range:- 9.5 to 40 km/hr. if apply Table 7 ARAN 50 litre/ha (1.1 liquid inlet x 1.8 liquid air outlet with Spraying Systems T no. 4 anvil tip; ratio inlet to outlet 1:2. 68). Solution Agral T M at 0. 1% v/v 14 AMENDED SHEET O IPEA/AU I:I1.L. YL I /AUUU/UUZZ/ Received 29 January 2001 Liq Liq pres Air vol AIR PRESSURE 200 kPa vol kPa L/min VMD <200 >500 Vel m/sec ml/mi n 302 106 11.5 322.9 8.61 8.86 1.63 500 238 10.5 394 7.35 27.59 2.7 623 260 8.5 372.3 8.72 22.91 2.89 916 338 6 356.9 9.38 20.04 3.36 1240 443 5.7 345.7 10.51 12.94 3.47 1610 604 5.5 325.9 13.42 12.65 3.71 Max vol range:-500 to 1610 ml/mm nozzle if 600 kPa max. liquid pressure and median VMD of 358 um: TDR 3.2:1: Sprayer Speed Range:- 11 to 37 km/hr. when applying 50 1/ha.

Table 8 ARAN 100 litre/ha liquid inlet 1 .4 liquid/air outlet 2.0 mm; ratio inlet to outlet 1:2.05]; Solution:- AgralTM at 0. 1% v/v Liq Liq pres Air vol AIR PRESSURE 75 kPa vol kPa L/min VMD <200 >500 Vel m/sec ml/m in 459 88 7 438.7 4.11 39.62 2.92 838 128 4.5 439.7 3.98 37.45 3.63 1420 193 4 399.8 6.84 29.51 3.78 1620 278 3.9 362.9 10.89 21.72 4.04 2000 386 3.7 353 13.94 23.13 5.21 Max. volume range:- 500 to 2500 ml min nozzle if 600 kPa max liq pressure and median VMD of approx. 400 am: TDR 5.0:1: Sprayer speed range:- 6 to 30 km/hr when applying 100 I/ha.

Table 9 ARAN 100 litre/ha (liquid inlet 1.4 liquid/air outlet 2.0mm; ratio inlet to outlet 1:2.05) AMENDED SHEET

IPEA/AU

fI I/AUUU/UU27 Received 29 January 2001 Liq Liq Air AIR PRESSURE 100 kPa vol pres vol VMD <200 >500 Vel ml/m kPa L/min m/sec in 396 107 9.8 418.9 6.24 34.19 2.66 821 150 5.5 419.7 5.26 33.68 3.81 1230 214 4.3 381.2 8.3 23.58 3.9 1620 302 4.2 352.1 11.46 18.01 4.36 1970 402 4.2 341.3 13.31 18.29 4.48 2330 520 3.8 333.7 14.48 15.98 5.13 Max. volume range:median 400 to 2500 ml/mm. if 600 kPa max. liquid pressure and VMD of approx. 370 gm: TDR 6.2:1: Sprayer Speed Range:- 5 to 30 km/hr when applying 100 1/ha.

Table 10 ARAN 100 litre/ha (liquid inlet 1.4 liquid/air outlet 2.0 mm; ratio inlet to outlet 1:2.05). Solution:- Agral T M at 0. 1% v/v Liq Liq Air vol AIR PRESSURE 150 kPa vol pres L/min VMD <200 >500 Vel ml/m kPa m/sec in 530 167 10.5 372.2 7.7 23.06 2.83 810 199 7.5 387.8 6.54 25.25 3.67 1220 264 5.2 378.5 7 22.51 4.15 1690 368 5 348.6 10.48 20.15 4.34 1990 458 5 333.8 13.46 18.25 4.75 2350 578 4.8 321.6 16.01 16.65 5.05 Max. volume range:-550 to 2500 median ml/mm. if 600 kPa max. liquid pressure and VMD of approx. 355 pm: TDR 4.5:1: Sprayer Speed Range:- 6.5 to 30 km/hr when applying 100 1/ha 16 SAMENDED SHEET s

IPIEAAU

rL II/AUUU/uuZ Received 29 January 2001 Table 11 ARAN 100 litre/ha (liquid inlet 1 .4 liquid/air outlet 2.0 mm; ratio inlet to outlet 1:2.05). Solution:- Agral T M at 0. 1% v/v Liq vol Liq Air AIR PRESSURE 200 kPa ml/min pres vol VM <200 >500 Vel m/sec kPa L/min D 658 230 10.5 353.7 8.85 16.95 2.74 824 250 8.5 349.2 9.64 16.16 3.14 1230 318 6.5 346.3 9.52 14.57 3.82 1630 412 5.7 338.1 11.65 18.14 4.29 2170 561 5.5 326 13.24 11.47 4.19 Max. volume range:- 650 to 2300 ml/mm. if 600 kPa max. liquid pressure and median VMD of approx. 340 TDR 3.5:1: Sprayer Speed Range:- 7.5 to 27 km/hr when applying 100 I/ha Table 12 ARAN 50 litre/ha (1.1 liquid inlet x 1.8 liquid air outlet with Spraying Systems no 4 anvil tip; ratio inlet to outlet 1:2.68). Solution UlvapronTM 1% v/v Liq vol Liq Air vol AIR PRESSURE 100 kPa pres ml/min kPa L/min VMD <200 >500 Vel m/sec 436 129 5.8 349.5 9.52 17.1 2.7 624 161 4.5 354.4 7.84 16.08 3.15 809 205 4 350.7 8.97 15.55 3.25 1280 363 4.1 307.3 15.16 10.16 3.48 1620 522 4.2 387.2 19.71 6.58 3.73 Max. volume range:- 400 to 1700 ml/min if 600 kPa max. liquid pressure and median VMD of approx. 330 pm: TDR 4.25: Sprayer Speed Range:- 10 to 42 km/hr when applying 50 I/ha.

Table 13 ARAN 50 litre/ha (1.1 liquid inlet x 1 .8 liquid air outlet with Spraying Systems no 4 anvil tip; ratio inlet to outlet 1:2.68). Solution UlvapronTM 1% v/v I v Air vol L/min AIR PRESSURE 200 kPa <200 >500 17 AMENDED SHEET

IPEAAU

rL ILAU JVUU/UU I Received 29 January 2001 Max. volume range:- 450 to 1600 ml/mm. if 600 kPa max, liquid pressure and median VMD of approx. 300 gm: TDR 3.6:1: Sprayer Speed Range:- 11 to 38 km/hr when applying 501/ha Table 14 ARAN 100 litre/ha (liquid inlet I .4 liquid air outlet 2.0 mm; ratio inlet to outlet 1:2.05). Solution UlvapronTM 1% v/v Liq vol Liq Air AIR PRESSURE 100 kPa pres vol ml/min kPa L/min VMD <200 >500 Vel m/sec 793 150 5.2 368.2 7.06 22.32 3.48 1170 208 4.5 337.4 9.6 14.96 3.74 1610 305 4.3 306.4 14.84 11.69 3.9 2020 418 4 298.9 18.11 10.32 4.73 Max. volume range:- 750 to 2750 ml/mm. if 600 kPa max. liquid pressure and median VMD of approx. 325 gm: TIDR 3.7:1: Sprayer Speed Range:- 9 to 33 km/hr when applying 1001/ha.

Table 15 ARAN 100 litre/ha (liquid inlet 1.4 liquid air outlet 2.0 mm; ratio inlet to outlet 1:2.05); Solution UlvapronTM 1% v/v Liq vol Liq Air vol AIR PRESSURE 200 kPa ml/min pres L/min VMD <200 >500 Vel kPa m/sec 825 250 8.88- 295.5 15.6 6.18 3.05 1250 320 6.2 301.7 15.86 8.3 3.68 1640 409 5.8 285.1 16.9 6.65 3.47 2050 525 5.2 278.3 20.16 9.1 4.19 Max. volume range:- 800 to 2500 ml/mm. if 600 kPa max. liquid pressure and 18 AM DED IP EEAU 0 IPEAVAU r, IAIUvUIUULL I Received 29 January 2001 median VMD of approx. 290 pm: TDR 3.1:1: Sprayer Speed Range:- 10 to 30 km/hr when applying 100 1/ha.

Novelly ARAN can use much less air [typically maximum of 10 liters/mm/nozzle] then other twin fluid nozzles. The 'highest' air volume is only needed for the "lowest" liquid flow rates recommended, it then declines rapidly and finally levels off over a wide range of liquid flow [see tables 5 to 15]. if the liquid volume continues to increase it will eventually flood the air line. This latter effect will not be experienced within the liquid pressures that will be recommended [viz. max 600 kPa]. The results presented in Table 6 and 7 as well as 8, 9, 10 and 11 show that these nozzles when used over the air pressures recommended [75 to 200 kPa] do not approach a 'no air' situation. Reduced air capacity makes ARAN more efficient as cheaper air compressor designs can be considered As can be seen from the above it has been uniquely found that the VMD [volume median diameter] of the droplets generated by the ARAN nozzles remains much more consistent for a wider range of liquid flow rates for a set air pressure than for any other twin fluid nozzle used in agriculture. The reason for the unusual improvement in efficiency is the venturi effect of the ARAN insert design, it has been found that the ratio of the areas of the liquid inlet [25 in fig. 1] to air/liquid outlet [27 in fig. 1] orifice should be between 1:2.00 to 1:3.3 to maximise the venturi effect. The value of the venturi effect, measured as negative pressure using a transducer, is dependent on liquid pressure and is optimal -90 kPa] when the liquid pressure is over 300 kPa. [see table 23]. It has been found that the most efficient design i.e. one that uses the least amount of air and yet produces a high TDR] is the one, which gives the optimal negative pressure for a given range of liquid flow rates. When an optimal insert design is used the nozzle can be operated as an "Air Induction" nozzle i.e. air is drawn into the nozzle via the air entry port [22 in fig. 1] when the latter is open to the atmosphere. Using this arrangement ARAN can effectively atomise liquids without the aid of a compressor. "Air Induction" nozzles have a limited turn down ratio ['TDR the generation of similar droplet size range for a given change in liquid flow rate] of typically 1.6 to 1.75 over a liquid pressure range of 300 to 800 kPa. For ARAN the ratio would be similar [Tables 1 to 4].

However "Air Induction" nozzles produce a very coarse spray the droplets are large]. Such a low TDR and high VMD restricts the value of such nozzles. Further it has been found that the volume of air drawn into the liquid stream varies with the 19 AMENDED SHEr

PFEAIAU

lUIV/tU /VLL I Received 29 January 2001 "efficiency" of the venturi and thus the ratio of the area of orifices 25 to 27 [see Tables 2, 4 23] for a given distance between the two.] With ARAN novelty has been found when the air inlet orifice [2 fig I] is connected to a compressor so as to deliver air at a set pressure 75 to 200 kPa]. Using this configuration a wider range of liquid flow rates can be atomised without greatly of the average] changing the VMI) than when used as an air induction or conventional twin fluid nozzle. It has been found that the TDR can be increased to 4 to 6 fold, even if the liquid pressure is restricted to a maximum of 600 kPa, without the need to simultaneously vary both liquid and air pressures.] Figures 3 and 4 show a further embodiment of the invention which is substantially the same as the first embodiment with the liquid inlet port 21 at right angles to the nozzle body channel 20 and thereby feeds the first fluid through a right angle channel directly into the end of the nozzle body channel. The air entry port is however at right angles to the liquid entry but still be fed into the insert via the annulus 55. Nb liquid entry is same as fig 1 air entry is 90 degree different but still feeds the same chamber AN IMPROVED EMBODIMENT OF THE INVENTION ARAN (Air Recruitment Atomising Nozzles) are specialised twin fluid nozzles, which have been developed for agricultural and other uses. It generates droplets in an internal chamber by having air and liquids mixed together. The droplets then pass through a specially designed passage and exit via a large circular orifice onto a specialty designed anvil nozzle tip.

The twin fluid nozzles of the invention are able to provide variable recruitment of a first fluid with a second fluid the nozzle including a nozzle body with a main conduit leading from a first fluid entry orifice to an exit orifice; the nozzle body further including a side second fluid inlet conduit leading to the main conduit; the main conduit portion shaped and enlarging as it progresses away from the intersection with the side second fluid inlet conduit towards the exit orifice as to create a venturi-like effect and draw in or help draw in the second fluid from the side second fluid inlet conduit to substantially atomise the first fluid and pass the substantially atomised first fluid through the exit orifice.

The replaceable insert forms part of the main conduit. The insert includes an insert channel with an inlet feeding from the first fluid entry of the outer body channel, and shaped to form the venturi-like effect portion of the main conduit feeding to an insert utlet; and the insert further including a reduced outer diameter portion smaller than the ,p 2 0 000 AMENDD IeT PE- AU A I WW WWI&.&'J 'JJ~ I Received 29 January 2001 diameter of the outer body channel to create a substantially circumferential fluid chamber when in position in the channel which is fed from the second fluid entry of the outer body channel. The side second fluid inlet conduit extends from the reduced diameter portion of the insert to the insert channel forming the main conduit at the beginning of the venturi-like effect portion to effect the atomisation.

NOZZLE TYPES :-THERE ARE THREE ARAN NOZZLE TYPES: ARAN BALA (Broad Area Low Air). This nozzle uses an anvil outlet nozzle offset to the outlet channel of the atomised liquid. The outlet channel ends in a bore well. The anvil nozzle opens outwards from the outlet channel near but not at the end of the bore well allowing flow of atomised droplets over the face of the anvil nozzle rather than impact onto the anvil. This together with particular nozzle insert configuration including a main conduit portion shaped with a frusto-conical shape with angle of 11 degrees or more and spaced downstream of the secondary orifice results in a wide spray sheet angle of 130 to 150 degrees.

These ARAN BALA nozzles have been designed for spraying broad area crops. They offer a flexible and feasible way to apply low application volumes (50 1/ha or less) of very coarse to medium sprays and yet accommodate a wide range (up to four fold) in sprayer speed or liquid flow rate at the same speed without a significant change in the droplet size. Droplet size is changed by changing air pressure and can be done when spraying. This means that the risk of spray drift can be lessened as it is possible to increase droplet size and reduce drift near sensitive areas without changing nozzles or leaving the cab. As air consumption is low cheaper piston compressors can be used. It is not necessary to use a spray controller with these nozzles so they can be used as the basis for a very simple yet flexible sprayer.

ARAN ES (Even Spray). These nozzle tips are similar to the Spraying Systems TM [no 4 and 5 anvil tips] as described hereinbefore and offer similar flexibility in droplet size range and liquid throughput to ARAN BALA. However they only provide a distribution angle between 80 and 120 degrees. They have been designed for even spraying either inter row or over the row. With these nozzles the band width varies with nozzle height.

Droplet size can be changed when spraying by changing air pressure. This means that the risk of spray drift can be lessened by increasing droplet size near sensitive areas. As air consumption is low cheaper piston compressors can be used. It is not necessary to use a spray controller with these nozzles so they can be used as the basis for a very simple O sprayer.

21 AMENDED SHEET

IPFNAU

_r I I'UVVVU/.& I Received 29 January 2001 ARAN BAXA (Broad Area Extra Air). These nozzles make use of extra air being forced into the main conduit immediately after the main conduit shaped portion providing the venturi-like effect. The extra air is fed into a further second fluid inlet conduit into the main conduit to effect substantial secondary atomisation. The ARAN BAXA nozzles have been designed to generate fine to coarse sprays and thus are suitable for most crops. To achieve the wide range in droplet size extra air is necessary therefore the use of a rotary vane compressor is recommended. To maintain a similar droplet size over a wide range of liquid flow rates it is essential to use a spray controller, which is able to vary both air and liquid pressures. When such a spray controller is used these nozzles provide the most flexible spraying system available as they can produce a fine to coarse spray over a very wide range of flow rates without changing nozzle tips. This is the nozzle of choice for contractors or large multi cropping farmers who need to change spray quality.

Referring to the drawings and particularly Figures 5, 5A and 6 there are shown particular nozzle inserts and nozzle tips nb we should include the ES tip] used in the improved embodiments. Figure 5 and 5A shows a nozzle insert 72 nb 72 not shown on the drawing similar to the insert 12 of the first embodiment shown in Figures 1 and 2.

The nozzle insert 72 is able to provide variable recruitment of a first fluid with a second fluid. 'the nozzle insert has an insert channel 74, 75, 76 extending through a substantially elongated tubular body from an inlet 73 feeding from a first fluid entry of the outer body channel, within which the insert is mounted in a nozzle body, through to an insert outlet 77. The insert channel is shaped and enlarges downstream to form a venturi-like effect portion 75 of the main conduit of the nozzle. The insert 72 further includes a reduced outer diameter portion 81 smaller than the diameter of the outer body channel in which the inset is placed in the nozzle to create a substantially circumferential fluid chamber 82 when in position in the channel. This chamber 82 is fed from the second fluid entry of the outer body channel. Four side second fluid inlet conduits 85, 86 extend at right angles from the reduced diameter portion 82 of the insert 72 to the insert channel 73, 74 forming the main conduit at the beginning of the venturi-like effect portion. The main conduit 74 portion shaped and enlarging as it progresses away from the intersection with the side second fluid inlet conduit towards the insert outlet 77 so as to create a venturi-like effect and draw in or help draw in the second fluid from the side second fluid inlet conduit to substantially atomise the first fluid and pass the substantially atomised first fluid through the exit orifice. The venturi-like portion generally comprises a frusto-conical portion 22 AMENDED

SHEET

IPEAAU

r I/AUUu/U ZZ/ Received 29 January 2001 preferably having an angle between 100 and 200 or greater. At the intersection of the second fluid inlet conduits 85, 86 to the main conduit74, 75 is a mixing chamber 88 for receipt of the first and second liquids and wherein the exit of the main conduit into the mixing chamber 88 forms a primary orifice and the exit from the mixing chamber to the continuation of the main conduit 75 having the venturi-like portion and forms a secondary orifice Preferably the ratio of the area of secondary orifice to the primary orifice is substantially in the range of 1.5 to 4:1. The secondary orifice is greater than the size of the primary orifice in order to ensure recruitment of the second liquid into the mixing chamber and along the continuation of the main conduit including the main conduit shaped portion 75. The second fluid entry orifices leading from the second fluid inlet conduits 85, 86 into the mixing chamber 88 are also preferably greater than the size of the primary orifice. It has also been found that the spacing of the venturi-like portion 92 of the main conduit is downstream from the secondary orifice by a spacing tubular portion 91 of the main conduit has an effect on the amount of second fluid recruited. The spacing tubular portion 91 has a cross-sectional size substantially the same as the secondary orifice wherein the increase in length of the spacing tubular portion limits the required second liquid to effect substantial atomisation. For a 1.2mm liquid orifice the air liquid secondary orifice diameter when varied from 1.6 to 2.1mm is optimal at 1.9 mm.

For low air consumption the length of the spacing tubular portion 91 should be 8.0 to 9.0 mm if air consumption is to be restricted to 10 litres per min when an air pressure of 100 kPa is used to atomise around 450 to 500 ml/min of liquid at a liquid pressure of around 125 kPa. The frusto-conical venturi-like portion 92 should have an angle around 100 or greater. For medium air consumption the length of the spacing tubular portion 91 should be 2.5 to 8.0 mm with 3.5 mm being optimal if air consumption is restricted to around 15 litres per min. Further the frusto-conical venturi-like portion 92 should have an angle around 150 or greater. The droplet size is reduced with this configuration compared to the low air consumption set -up. {nb we need to include two cross drilled orifices around 1.0mm diameter 2.0 to 3.0mm below the end of the tubular portion 91 but starting still within 82. The extra air supplied via encourages secondary atomrnisation at this point as per Xtra air nozzle thus generating a lower VMD Referring to Figure 6 there is shown a nozzle tip 95 used with the ARAN BALA. The nozzle tip 95 comprises an anvil outlet 96 offset to the outlet channel of the atomised 23 'F AMENDED SHEET

IPEAIAU

rItI~UuuVVhL I Received 29 January 2001 liquid. The outlet channel 97 ends in a bore well 98. The anvil outlet 96 opens outwards from the outlet channel 97 near before the end of the bore well 98 allowing flow of atomised droplets over the face of the anvil outlet 96 rather than impact onto the anvil.

Generally with ARAN, the nozzle has been planned around a removable insert attached to which is the nozzle tip. The insert has been designed so that the liquid creates a vacuum (see tables 2, 4 23). This surprisingly improves both the efficiency of air delivery as well as that of the liquid. With air it has been found with ARAN BALA and ES that effective medium to coarse droplet generation can be achieved with a maximum of around 10 litres per minutes per nozzle of air. Further these two nozzles are able to maintain a very similar droplet size range over a wide range of flow rates by varying the air to liquid flow rates (see tables 24, 25, 26 27 for BALA and 29, 30, 31, 32 33 for ES). Uniquely their air consumption remains similar over a wide liquid flow rate range.

Also with ARAN BALA, BAXA and ES a wide range of liquid flow rates can be utilised over a limited change in liquid pressure as it has been unusually found that it is not necessary to have a fourfold increase in liquid pressure to double flow rate as with conventional nozzles. For example, with the ARAN BALA nozzles the flow rate range is 400 to 1800ml/min nozzle (see tables 24 to 27). Further with ARAN BALA and ES the droplet size can be varied by altering the air to liquid ratios, by increasing (decreases droplet size) or decreasing (increases droplet size) air pressure it is possible to vary spray quality (see tables 24 to 27 for BALA and 29 to 33 for ES). Typically the volume of small droplets (<200 tm) generated by ARAN BALA and ES tips is very low at mostly less than 5% by volume (see tables 24 to 27 and 29 to 33). Another way to alter droplet size is to use the alternative ARAN BAXA nozzle which has a quite different insert. This nozzle uses more air (maximum around 35 litres per minute) but enables finer sprays at lower air pressures (see table 28).

To operate ARAN a compressor needs to be fitted on the sprayer. For ARAN BALA and ES tips droplet size is varied be fixing the air pressure and then varying liquid flow.

To calculate the size of compressor for these nozzles allow for 13.5 litres per mm. per nozzle even though the maximum suggested is 10. This is necessary to accommodate differences in air volume with atmospheric conditions as well as compressor wear. Thus fit two nozzles per CFM [cubic foot per minute] or 3.5 per m 3 /hour or multiply the number of nozzles by 13.5 litres to obtain an exact air volume and divide by 28.3 for CFM. The ARAN BAXA nozzles enable smaller droplet size to be generated at lower 24 AMENDED SHEET

SIPEA/AU

S ,r I1/t UV/UULL/ I Received 29 January 2001 maximum air pressures but require more air, For ARAN BAXA allow for 35 litres [1.25 CFM] of air per nozzle.

Of the compressor types which can be used rotary vane or piston are the best options.

1 Piston compressors:- These are typically cheaper than rotary vane but have to be used with an air receiver which will occupy space. They can be used with ARAN BALA and ES but with ARAN BAXA boom width will be limited due to compressor capacity. Compressor capacity should be calculated as above. It is suggested that the volume for the air receiver should be a minimum of 0.25 of the maximum air demand per minute, The air receiver should be pressurised to at least 5 bar to ensure that the pistons of are well lubricated. The system will need to be fitted with appropriate pressure regulators to adjust the outlet air to the required line pressures. An efficient air filter on the inlet side of the compressor is essential to prevent piston wear. A fan to cool the compressor is highly recommended. The compressor could be driven by hydraulic motor, belt drive, PTO or separate motor. As such a compressor would be a useful tool on the sprayer, for cleaning nozzles or operating air actuated diaphragms etc, a separate line should be installed directly linked to the receiver tank.

2 Rotary Vane Compressors:- The advantages of the rotary vane is their simplicity with only a few moving parts. They can be direct coupled for efficient and reliable performance and can be relatively quiet running. Operational speed can be as low as 1440 rpm. Compressor capacity should be calculated as above. These compressors are ideal for ARAN BAXA however if they are to be at air pressures above 140 kPa for long periods they should be liquid or air cooled. They are low on maintenance and typically give low oil levels in the air. They are more expensive than piston compressors, An efficient air filter on the inlet side of the compressor is essential.

The compressor could be driven by hydraulic motor, belt drive, PTO or separate motor this type of compressor is recommended for those using the sprayer for long periods for example contractors.

NB. As all compressors can disperse small amounts of oil with the compressed air it may be advisable to use an oil catcher in the system because the oil can affect the life of diaphragms for example.

Air lines must be of a sufficient size to ensure that there is little pressure drop maximum is suggested]. This needs to be calculated for the highest air flow at the lowest STk 1

,K-

AMENDED SHEE PEAIAu SiL; I/AUUU/00227 Received 29 January 2001 pressure to be used for each section of pipe. Therefore calculate the maximum volume of air to flow to each boom section [no. of nozzles 2 CFM and from the table below determine the most appropriate pipe size. From this it can be seen that the delivery line from the compressor to the boom sections should be 30 mm and that for each boom section either 18 or Table 16 Maximum suggested air flow CFM through standard pipe Air pres Normal standard pipe size [mm] kPa 6 9 12 18 1.7 3.9 7.7 11 21 100 2.3 5.2 10.1 14.5 28 150 3 6.6 13 18.5 200 4.3 9.1 17.7 26.3 48 There are three ARAN body types each suitable for the BALA, BAXA and ES tips.

I. Model DT is designed to attach onto the liquid line by way of a 3/8" BSP threaded DCV, such as ARAG series 402 [model DC].

2. Model QY fits onto a quick coupling nozzle holder with DCV e.g. for wet booms ARAG series 402, Spraying Systems type QJ 17560-NYB or QJ22187-NYB or for dry booms e.g. ARAG series 413, Spraying Systems type QJ200 or 300 3. Model DCV fits onto a quick coupling nozzle holder without DCV e.g.

for wet booms ARAG series 400, Spraying Systems type QJ7421-NYB or for wet booms ARAG series 413, Spraying Systems type QJ 100 The air line should be connected to the 1/8" BSP side port using a barb with a bore of at least 3.5 mm and hose with the same sized bore. The nozzles should be spaced at 500 mm and nominally operated at 500 mm height. The nozzle body should be aligned so that it is at right angles to the boom and parallel to the ground and pointed toward the direction of travel. The nozzle tip and the metering orifice in the insert are machined in T26 AMENDED SHEET

IPEA/AU

Received 29 January 2001 316 stainless steel and the remainder of the insert in Delrin. They come joined together as a set. However it should be noted that the aran bala and baxa inserts are different and must not be mixed on a boom. The insert and tip can be separated for cleaning and a new tip can be fitted following damage or wear. Nozzle tips are self aligned through the use of a locating pin and a half round cut out on the flange of the tip. There are two rings on the insert the one, which comes in contact with the liquid, is made of viton and the other nitrile. The rings sit in grooves so are not lost when cleaning the tip. The inserts and tips have been designed to be handled with gloves. To change to a different nozzle size, or tip type, both the tip and insert should be changed.

As relatively high liquid volumes can pass through the nozzles, up to around 1800 ml mm., at a pressure of up 600 kPa, liquid lines must be installed so as to prevent pressure drop of no more than Pressure drop is a function of line diameter, liquid flow and line pressure. Therefore as liquid flow and pressure increase so must line diameter. Line size should be selected on the basis of the highest expected flow [for the ARAN BALA and BAXA tips nominally 2 L./min./nozzle x number of nozzles] at the highest expected highest pressure [nominally 600 kPa]. Thus for a 10 nozzle boom section 12-mm line would be suitable; for 15 nozzles 18 mm line and for 16 to 20 nozzles 25 mm line would be required. Obviously the diameter of delivery line from the pump to the take off points to each boom section would need to be a larger depending on number of sections. N.B.

While ARAN nozzles and bodies can be operated up to 1000 kPa many of the fittings on sprayers cannot be used over 600 kPa. hence the latter is suggested as the nominal maximum liquid pressure.

As there is no need to vary air pressure as liquid flow increases with ARAN BALA or ARAN ES, special controllers are not a necessity. For example a spray control monitor is not necessary if a pump is driven by a chain via a wheel on the ground, thus relating output to forward speed. Further if relatively constant forward speed is anticipated the use of a mechanically adjusted by-pass valve would suffice. With such sprayers, select the air pressure which will give the most appropriate droplet size range and drive within the speed limits to deliver a nominated volume rate for a selected nozzle set up [see tables 17, 18, 19 20]. Good quality glycerin filled 150-mm diameter pressure gauges for both air [suggested range 0 to 250 kPa and liquid [suggested range 0 to 800 kPa] are recommended, but they should be fitted outside the cabin of the vehicle and be easily read. Alternatively good quality pressure transducers with digital read outs fitted inside the cabin could be installed. Air and liquid flow should be turned on and off by suitable sT, Z 27 AMENED HEET

IPEA/AU

Sr I/AUWuuuuZ I Received 29 January 2001 solenoids. As it is essential that air be turned on before the liquid is turned on, and off after the liquid has been turned off, a special switch needs to be installed to ensure that this occurs.

A basic monitor device is useful to alert the operator when selected air pressure and liquid limits have been reached, such a unit is essential with ARAN BAXA and can be used with ARAN BALA. It is suggested that it should be set on the basis of a nominal maximum liquid pressure of 600 kPa and minimal pressure of 20 kPa above the air pressure at low [75 to 200 kPa] liquid pressures. The monitor should also be programmed to ensure pump output is related to ground speed. A good quality air pressure regulator is essential. Good quality glycerin filled 150-mm diameter pressure gauges for both air [suggested range 0 to 250 kPa] and liquid [suggested range 0 to 800 kPa] are recommended, which should be fitted outside the cabin of the vehicle so that they can be easily read. Alternatively good quality pressure transducers with digital read outs fitted inside the cabin could be installed. Air and liquid flow should be turned on and off by suitable solenoids. As it is essential that air be turned on before the liquid is turned on, and off after the liquid has been turned off, a special switch needs to be installed or command written into the monitor's programme to ensure that this occurs.

Both the Cleanacres "Airtee®" and Spraying Systems "Airjet®" twin fluid nozzles use a special monitor/controller; the "Magic Box" for "Airtee®" and "Airmatic® Airjet® Sprayer Controller" m for the "Airjet®'. Both units adjust the ratio of liquid to airflow to achieve a predetermined ratio so as to generate a selected droplet size range. Both systems prefer a rotary vane compressor. Both monitors could also be used with ARAN BALA and BAXA Tables 19 20 should be used to programme flow rates, pressures and spray quality.

ARAN NOZZLES SPRAY QUALITY SPRAY QUALITY is that suggested by the British Crop Protection Council (ref Doble et al 1985; Miller et al 1995] viz: Very Coarse VMD [Volume Median Diameter]>350 um; Coarse VMD 280 to 350 pm; Medium VMD 220 to 280 pm; Fine VMD 160 to 220 4m; Very fine VMD<160 jAm.

28 AMENDED

SHEET

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PL /AUUU/UU22:/ Received 29 January 2001 Table 17: ARAN BAXA: Air and for a set liquid flow liquid pressures to achieve selected spray quality Air pres Liquid pres Liq vol Air vol Spray quality kPa kPa ml/min L/min 95 500 20.5 Medium 100 120 500 23 Medium/Fine 125 142 500 26 Fine 150 170 500 28 Fine 175 195 500 30 Very Fine 200 215 500 33 Very Fine 225 235 500 38 Very Fine 250 260 500 38 Very Fine Air pres Liquid Liq vol Air vol Spray quality kPa pres ml/min L/min kPa 145 750 17.5 Coarse 100 170 750 20.5 Coarse/Medium 125 195 750 23 Medium 150 220 750 25 Medium/Fine 175 245 750 27 Fine/Medium 200 265 750 28.5 Fine 225 290 750 30 Fine 250 310 750 32 Fine AMENDED SHEET

IPEA/AU

ri.. I/fUUUIUUVV Received 29 January 2001 Medium Medium/Fine Fine/Medium Fine Fine Air pres kPa

I

Liquid pres kPa Liq vol ml/min Air vol L/min Spray quality 305 1250 6 Coarse 100 335 1250 10 Coarse/Medium 125 360 1250 14 Medium 150 385 1250 17.5 Medium 175 405 1250 20.5 Medium/Fine 200 422 1250 23 Fine/Medium 225 452 1250 25 Fine 250 470 1250 26 Fine Air pres Liquid pres Liq vol Air vol Spray quality kPa kPa ml/min L/min 415 1500 4 Very coarse 100 430 1500 6.5 Coarse 125 460 1500 9.5 Coarse/Medium 150 485 1500 13 Medium 175 505 1500 16 Medium 200 535 1500 18 Medium/Fine 225 552 1500 20.5 Fine/Medium 250 578 1500 23 Fine AMENDED SHEET

IPEAIAU

A AI £1 VW WWI A« I Received 29 January 2001 530 1750 3.2 Very Coarse 100 562 1750 4.5 Coarse 125 580 1750 7.5 Coarse 150 610 1750 9 Coarse/Medium 175 625 1750 11.5 Medium 200 640 1750 14.5 Medium 225 678 1750 16,5 Medium 250 695 1750 18.5 Fine Table 18 ARAN BALA and spray quality for a set liquid flow ES: Air and liquid pressures to achieve selected Air Liquid pres Liq vol Air vol Spray pres kPa ml/min L/min quality kPa 100 120 to 600 400 to 1800 10 to 3.5 Very Coarse 150 170 to 600 450 to 1750 10 to 4.5 Coarse 200 215 to 600 500 to 1700 10 to 6.0 Medium

OPERATION

1 SELECTING NOZZLE SIZE ARAN nozzle size selection assumes 500 mm nozzle spacing] SPEED RANGE X APPLICATION VOLUME 1 From product label determine application volume required and adjust spray monitor or gearing on ground driven sprayer.

2 Select speed range applicable for the task.

3 Choose ARAN set up from Table 19.

4 Decide on and set air pressure required.

Spray within calculated speed range.

Table 19 ARAN BALA and ES: Speed range [km/h] for selected application volume [500mm spacing] for varying spray quality 31 AMENDED

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r% JII.tUVVIL)., I Received 29 January 2001 ARAN Spray Air Liquid Application vol 1/ha Quality pressure flow 50 75 100 150 kPa ml/mi n BALA Very 100 450 10 to 7 to 5 to 3 and Coarse to1800 43 28 21 to 14 ES Coarse 150 500 to 11 to 8 to 6 to 4 1750 42 28 21 to 14 Medium 200 550 to 13 to 9 to 7 to 1700 40 27 20 to 13 As air pressure increases droplet size decreases thus increasing drift potential.

Therefore always use low air pressures in sensitive situations even at the expense of efficient pest control. Do not spray in adverse weather conditions i.e. when wind is over km/h, relative humidity is less than 50% or air temperatures are over 30 0 C. When using products, which may result in, unacceptable off-target residues in sensitive situations or damage to sensitive off-target species always use as coarse a spray as possible even at the expense of efficacy.

Table 20 ARAN BAXA:-Speed range [km/h] for selected application volume [500mm spacing] and varying spray quality Spray Air Liquid Application rate vol 1/ha Quality pressur flow 50 75 100 150 e ml/min kPa Fine 100 350 to 400 9 to 5 to 6 4 to 5 2 to 3 125 400 to 10 to 6 to 8 5 to 6 3 to 4 500 12 150 500 to 12 to 8 to 6 to 7 4 to 600 15 600 to 725 15 to 10 to 7 to 9 5 to 6 32 AMENDED SHEET

IPENAU

Ak A/ I l %.J1JI I Received 29 January 2001 200 725 to 18 to 12 to 9 to 6 to 7 850 21 14 225 850 to 21lto 14 to 10 to 7 to 8 1000 25 16 12 250 1250 25 to 16 to 12 to 8 to t i 4- 4 mediu 400 to mediu 500 10 to 6 to 8 5 to 6 3to 4 100 500 to 12 to 8 to 6 to 8 4 to 700 17 125 700 to 17 to 10 to 8 to 5 to 7 850 21 14 150 850 to 21lto 14 to 10 to 7tol10 1200 30 20 175 1200 to 30Oto 20Oto 15 to 10 tol12 1500 37 24 18 200 1750 37 to 24 to 28 18 to 12 to 14 Coarse 75 600 to 15 to 10 to 7 to 5 to 8 1000 25 16 12 100 1000 to 25 to 16 to 12 to 8 to 12 1500 37 24 18 125 1500 to 37 to 24 to 18 to 12 to 14 1750 43 28 22 N.H. With ARAN nozzles it is suggested that a: COARSE OR VERY COARSE SPRAY is used when applying phenoxy, glyphosate and pre-emergence herbicides; MEDIUM SPRAY is used for fop and dim grass herbicides FINE SPRAY is used for contact herbicides [paraquat, diflufenican and bromoxynil] insecticides and fungicides Z .33 AMENDED SHEET

IRNAU

rT II1UVV/VVLL I Received 29 January 2001 As air pressure increases droplet size decreases thus increasing drift potential.

Therefore always use low air pressures in sensitive situations even at the expense of efficient pest control. Do not spray in adverse weather conditions i.e. when wind is over km/h, relative humidity is less than 50% or air temperatures are over 30 0 C. When using products which may result in unacceptable off target residues in sensitive situations or damage to sensitive off-target species always use as coarse a spray as possible even at the expense of efficacy application volume and spray quality at set speed If using a monitor set the application volume and travel at the selected speed. Without a monitor: 1 From the product label determine the application volume and spray quality required.

2. Select speed to be used.

3. From Table 19 for ARAN BALA and Table 20 for ARAN BAXA select spray quality.

4. Note air pressure and for your nominated speed range and application volume across the page.

From Table 21 below follow across the table for nozzle flow at your nominated speed.

6. Follow down the page to determine the liquid volume per minute from each nozzle.

7. Multiply the number of nozzles by the volume per nozzle and set the flow rate by adjusting the liquid pressure.

8. Set the correct air pressure for the nominated spray quality.

NB Adjust when spraying if necessary 1 34 sPEA/AU Ft I/AUUU/UU22 Received 29 January 2001 Table 21 Application volume I/ha at set speed ARAN Liq SPRAYER SPEED km/h BALA flow 5 10 15 20 25 30 and ml/min

BAXA

Yes 500 120 60 40 30 24 20 17 Yes 750 180 90 60 45 36 30 Yes 1000 240 120 80 60 48 40 34 Yes 1250 300 150 100 75 60 50 42 Yes 1500 360 180 120 90 72 60 yes 1750 420 210 140 105 84 70 59 1 ARAN PATTERNATION RESULTS Method:- Four ARAN BALA nozzles were spaced 500 mm apart and 500 mm above a 75-mm pattemator. Tap water plus 0.1% v/v non-ionic wetter [Spreadwet 1000, Gulfagg, Melbourne] was used as the test liquid. The boom was operated for 2 or 3 mins.

depending on volume. The liquid was collected and weighed in the 8 containers below the 2 nd and 3 r d nozzles and the coefficient of variation calculated. The liquid flow rate varied with air pressure because maximum operating limits of 10 litres of air per minute [which influences the lowest liquid volume] and 600-kPa liquid pressure [which influences the highest liquid flow rate] were imposed.

Table 22:- ARAN BALA Coefficient of variation [%j AMENDED SHEET

IPEAIAU

rL( iIAuuuVV/ZIZ/ Received 29 January 2001 150 6.4 5.6 2.9 3.6 Air Liquid flow ml/min/nozzle pressure 680 1000 1350 kPa 200 7.5 4.5 Data in Table 22 show that with 0. 1% non-ionic wetter ARAN BALA gives uniform patternation over the recommended liquid and air volume ranges.

2 AIR RECRUITMENT BY ARAN NOZZLES Method:- The liquid is passed through the nozzle. The air line is replaced with a line which is connected to either a rotameter to measure air volume recruited [Platon GTF 2CHD] or a gauge to measure vacuum [Ampray Instruments] Table 23:- Air induction parameters for ARAN BALA Liq Liq vol Vacuum Liquid vol Air vol pressure ml/min kPa ml/min recruited kPa ml/min 100 870 -31.5 750 300 200 1180 -69 1070 500 300 1380 -98 1300 700 400 1550 -98 1510 900 500 1700 -98 1700 1100 DROPLET SIZE GENERATION BY ARAN NOZZLES Al ARAN BALA nozzles using PMS Method:- Droplet size range was measured at Silsoe Research Institute, England with a PMS using a lull double plane scan at 50 mm/sec for ARAN LVES and half double plane scan at 40 mm/sec for the BALA set ups. Three solutions were used 0. 1% v/v Agral [non ionic surfactant. ICI, England], which is known to produce air, bubbles within droplets, water, which induces a few bubbles and 1 .0 v/v Ulvapron [Emulsifiable petroleum oil. BP Australia], which induces virtually no air, bubbles. With this nozzle it has been observed that when using a non-ionic wetter such as Agral a large portion of the volume of the droplet is trapped air. Thus the droplet size data is not a true reflection of 36 SAMENDED

SHEET

IPEA/AU

Received 29 January 2001 the volume of liquid. Because of the entrained air it is difficult to classify the droplet size range as per BCPC. To estimate the volume of liquid in the "droplet sizes" measured it is suggested that the data be multiplied by 0.8. This assumes that around 50 of the measured volume is air which is considered a reasonable estimate from other studies.

Table 24:- ARAN BALA Droplet size data for 100 and 200-kPa air pressure using water Air Air Liq Liq Droplet Data Me pres vol pres vol DV DV DV Span an vel [bar] [bar] [ml/ 0.1 0.5 0.9 [m/se min] min] [pm] [pm] [mn] c] 100 10 125 400 251.4 459.1 761.3 1.11 2.4 100 6.5 200 790 231.9 443.8 691.3 1.04 2.7 6 100 5.3 300 1170 243.4 427.3 663.7 0.98 100 3 5 450 1486 244.2 438.4 660.5 0.9S 3.2 100 3.5 600 1800 228.5 411.9 655.7 1.04 3.6 4 200 15 225 420 207.6 348.8 600.6 1.13 1.9 7 200 10.5 300 780 218.7 366.9 551.5 0.91 2.1 4 200 10 324 883 220 379.6 601.5 1.01 2.6 1 200 8 450 1253 215.9 376 589.7 0.99 2.9 3 200 7.2 600 1590 202.6 347.6 503.4 0.87 Table 25 ARAN BALA Droplet size data for 100 and 200-kPa air pressure I'l I /AU UU/UUZZ Received 29 January 2001 200 10.5 300 780 244.8 408. 626. 0.93 2.22 9 3 Thus the droplet size data is not a true reflection of the volume of liquid. Because of the entrained air it is difficult to classify the droplet size range as per BCPC. To estimate the volume of liquid in the "droplet sizes" measured it is suggested that the data be multiplied by 0.8. This assumes that around 50 of the measured volume is air which is considered a reasonable estimate from other studies.

Table 26: ARAN BALA Droplet size data for 100 and 200 kPa pressure using v/v UIvapron Air Air Liq Liq Droplet Data Mean pres vol pres vol DV DV DV Span vel [kP [kP [ml/ 0.1 0.5 0.9 [m/sec a] min] a] min] [pm] [gIm] [tpm] 100 5.3 300 112 236. 405. 600 0.9 2.82 0 1 8 200 11 300 792 218. 358. 518. 0.84 2.32 7 8 3 The droplet size data with water shows that ARAN BALA can be used over a wide flow rate range without greatly changing the droplet size range produced. Because of the encapsulated air, even in water droplets c.f. VMD water and Ulvapron (Tables 24 and 26); at 100 kPa air it was 427 [tm] with water 405.8 [pn] with Ulvapron and with 200 kPa air it was 366.9 [rm] with water and 358.8 [gm] with Ulvapron. The addition of the non-ionic wetter increased the VMD over that for water or Ulvapron [cf. VMD's Tables 24, 25 and 26] due to air inclusions. Such data make it difficult to classify the droplet size range as per BCPC. It is suggested that ARAN BALA produces a coarse spray at 100 to a medium spray at 200-kPa-air pressure. It will be noted that where the air volume used was significantly greater, more than 10 litres per min., [see air pressure 200 liquid volume 420 ml/mm air volume 1.7 litres per min Table 24] the VMD was predictably reduced.

A2 ARAN BALA and BAXA Nozzles using Oxford 38 AMENDED SHEET

IPEA/AU

YL 1 I/AUUU/UUZ I Received 29 January 2001 Method:- The droplet size data for ARAN BALA and BAXA was generated at Silsoe Research Institute, England and measured with an Oxford using a half double plane scan at 40 mm/sec using 0.1 v/v Agral as the spray solution.

Table 27: ARAN BALA Droplet size data for 100. 150 and 200-kPa air pressure using 0.1% v/v Agral Air Liq Liq vol Droplet data pressure pres [ml/min] DV DV 0.5 DV 0.9 Span [bar] [bar] 0.1 [am] [rm] 100 120 415 176.7 420.6 931.1 1.79 100 200 806 222.8 501.3 906.1 1.36 100 400 1390 223.6 469.6 831.5 1.29 100 600 1800 210.1 417.7 717.5 1.21 150 170 447 158.9 354.6 720.5 1.58 150 200 598 181.7 405.6 772 1.46 150 400 1270 212.1 423.2 815.8 1.25 150 600 1720 203.5 409.7 716.1 1.48 200 220 468 145.5 321.6 621.5 1.48 200 300 823 182 372.6 699.4 1.39 200 40( 1150 195.5 397.1 697.7 1.26 200 600 1610 201.1 392.8 687.3 1.24 The data from the Oxford are different to those generated by PMS as the VMD is slightly larger and relative span always significantly larger.[delete compare tables 9,10 and 11 with 12] Also at the time the Oxford did not measure velocity. Even so these data are sufficiently similar to those generated by PMS to confirm the general trends for droplet size generation by ARAN BALA. The droplet size data is not a true reflection of the volume of liquid. Because of the entrained air it is difficult to classify the droplet size range as per BCPC. To estimate the volume of liquid in the "droplet sizes" measured it is suggested that the data be multiplied by 0.8. This assumes that around 50 of the measured volume is air which is considered a reasonable estimate from other studies.

B ARAN BAXA Nozzles Method:- The droplet size data for ARAN 39 AMENDED SHEET tOFW IPEAIAU r i I/AUUUI/U22/ Received 29 January 2001 BAXA was generated at Silsoe Research Institute, England and measured with an Oxford Using a half double plane scan at 40 mm/sec using 0. 1% v/v Agral as the spray solution Table28: ARAN BAXA Droplet size data for 100, 120 and 140 kPa air pressure using 0.1%v/v Agral Air Air Liq Liq Droplet Data pres vol pres vol DV DV DV Span [bar] [1/min [bar] [ml/ 0.1 0.5 0.9 min] [rtm] [pm] [pm] 100 18.5 120 551 135.7 281.2 507.2 1.32 100 12.0 200 872 161.1 331.1 620.7 1.39 100 9.5 400 1390 204.8 411.1 750.8 1.33 100 5.5 600 1800 213.1 427.9 861.1 1.51 120 26 140 567 132.5 278.5 489.1 1.28 120 23 200 813 151.1 311.4 576.9 1.37 120 13 400 1350 186.2 378.9 693.4 1.34 120 7.5 600 1760 202.9 417.6 831.9 1.51 '140 29 160 600 131.7 271.1 532.5 1.48 140 25.5 200 761 147.2 301 562.3 1.38 140 17.5 400 1320 171 354.2 638.2 1.32 140 9.5 600 1730 184 369.2 647.1 1.25 The data show that ARAN BAXA can be used over a wide flow rate range without greatly changing the droplet size range produced providing both air and liquid pressures are adjusted. The droplet size data is not a true reflection of the volume of liquid.

Because of the entrained air it is difficult to classify the droplet size range as per BCPC.

To estimate the volume of liquid in the "droplet sizes" measured it is suggested that the data be multiplied by 0.8. This assumes that around 50% of the measured volume is air which is considered a reasonable estimate from other studies. The data from the Oxford are different to those generated by PMS as the VMD is slightly larger and relative span always significantly larger. The reasons for this are not altogether clear.

C ARANES Method:- Droplet size range was measured at Silsoe Research Institute, England with oxF AMENDED

SHEET

IPEA/AU

Received 29 January 2001 a PMS using a full double plane scan at 50 mm/sec for ARAN LVES and half double plane scan at 40 mm/sec for the BALA set ups. Three solutions were used, 01% v/v Agral [non ionic surfactant, ICI, England] which is known to produce air bubbles within droplets, water which induces a few bubbles and 1 .0 v/v Ulvapron [Emulsifiable petroleum oil. BP Australia], which induces virtually no air, bubbles.

Table 29: ARAN ES: Droplet size data 100 kPa air using Aural at 0. 1%v/v Air Air Liq Liq Droplet size data Drop pres vol pres vol DV DV DC Span vel [kPa] [1/min] [kPa] [ml/ 0.1 0.5 0.9 [m/sec] min p.m pm Jpm 100 8 112 321 232.5 435.6 600.7 0.54 2.51 100 5.5 154 590 238.5 417.4 689.7 1.08 3.47 100 4.8 224 890 220.2 386.3 627.1 1 05 3.42 100 4.8 330 1211 200.3 358.3 549.2 0.97 3.84 100 4.8 458 1509 190 348.1 574.5 1.1 4.63 100 4.8 600 1784 175.6 327.3 546.3 1.31 4.95 DV 0.5 mean 378.8; mean 359.9 to 398.6; mean 10% 340.9 to 416.7.

Table 30: ARAN ES Droplet size data 150 kPa air using Agral at 0.1% v/v Air Air Liq Liq Droplet size data Drop pres vol pres vol DV DV DC Span vel [kPa] [1/min] [kPa] [ml/ 0.1 0.5 0.9 [m/sec] min pm pm pm 150 10.5 163 317 217.6 370.8 603 8 1 04 2.16 150 6.8 213 637 214.5 387.8 604.3 1.01 3.32 150 5.5 276 897 212.8 365.7 571.5 0.98 3.3 150 5.5 387 1232 197.2 344.3 522.9 0.95 3.61 150 5.5 598 1695 180.4 334.5 550.8 1.11 4.53 DV 0.5 mean 360.4; mean 342.4 to 378.4; mean ±10% 324.4 to 396.4 41 AMENDED SHEET

IPEA/AU

Received 29 January 2001 Table 31: ARAN ES Droplet size data 200 kPa air usine Agral at 0. 1%v/v Air Air Liq Liq Droplet size data Drop pres vol pres vol DV DV DC Span vel [kPa] [1/min] [kPa] [ml/ 0.1 0.5 0.9 [m/sec] min pm m .m 200 11.5 206 302 20.6 322.9 488.8 0.88 1.63 200 10.5 238 500 216.6 394 639 1.07 2.7 200 8.5 260 623 206.8 372.3 612.7 1.09 2.89 200 6 338 916 203.2 356.9 571 1.03 3.36 200 5.7 443 1240 197.7 345.7 517.8 0.93 3.47 200 5.5 604 1610 182.4 325.9 521.9 1.04 3.71 DV 0.5 mean 352.9; mean 355.3 to 370.5; mean 10% 317.6 to 388.2 The droplet size data is not a true reflection of the volume of liquid. Because of the entrained air it is difficult to classify the droplet size range as per BCPC. To estimate the volume of liquid in the "droplet sizes" measured it is suggested that the data be multiplied by 0.8. This assumes that around 50% of the measured volume is air which is considered a reasonable estimate from other studies.

Table 32: ARAN ES Droplet size date 100 kPa air using Ulvapron at l%v/v Air Air Liq Liq Droplet size data Drop pres vol pres vol DV DV DC Span vel [kPa] [1/min] [kPa] [ml/ 0.1 0.5 0.9 [m/sec] min pm pm pm 100 5.8 129 436 202 349.5 550.5 0.99 2.7 100 4 161 624 211.6 354.4 560.1 0.98 3.15 100 4 205 809 205.1 350.7 541.2 0.96 3.25 100 4.1 363 1280 178.1 307.3 502 1.05 3.48 100 4.2 522 1620 159.6 287.2 457.2 1.04 3.73 DV 0.5 mean 329.8; mean 313.3 to 346.3; mean +10% 296.8 to 362.8 S42 4' AMENDED SHEE

IPEA/AU

I r~L /AUUU/UUZz I Received 29 January 2001 ES Droplet size date 200 kPa air using Ulvapron at 1%v/v Table 33: ARAN Air Air Liq Liq Droplet size data Drop pres vol pres vol D DV DC Span vel [kPa] [1/min] [kPa] [ml/ V 0.1 0.5 0.9 [m/sec] min pm plm ltm 200 10.8 225 434 179.6 331.2 460.4 0.85 2.35 200 7 303 811 179.4 308.6 4839 099 3.22 200 5.5 434 1220 175.2 287.7 461 0.99 3.08 200 5.5 610 1610 161.1 273.8 488.6 1.2 3.73 DV 0.5 mean 300.3; mean 5% 285 to 315; mean +10% 270 to 330 The droplet size data shows that ARAN ES can be used over a wide flow rate range, without greatly changing the droplet size range produced. Also the data shows that when generating droplets with solutions containing typical non ionic surfactants they appear larger and their velocity lower compared to data for Ulvapron. This reflects air encapsulation in the droplets. Because of the encapsulated air it is difficult to classify the droplet size range as per BCPC. It is suggested that ARAN ES changes from a coarse spray at 100 to a medium spray at 200 kPa air pressure.

Spray Drift Spray drift usually results from the movement of small droplets away from the treated area moved by wind or air currents. If the nearby organisms are susceptible or the environmental situation is fragile extreme care must be exercised when spraying with any nozzle type including ARAN. It has to be realised that it is not possible to spray without some drift and that nozzle choice merely reduces the amount that drifts.

ST

OF1 43 AMENDED

SHEET

IPEA/AU

Claims (13)

1. A twin fluid nozzle able to provide variable recruitment of a first fluid comprising a liquid with a second fluid comprising a gas, the nozzle including: a nozzle body with a main conduit leading from a first fluid entry for receiving the liquid under pressure to an exit orifice; the nozzle body further including a side second fluid inlet path leading to and intersecting the main conduit and for passing gas under pressure; the main conduit having an expansion zone formed by a portion thereof which enlarges in area in the downstream direction of flow in the main conduit, the intersection of the side second fluid inlet path with the main conduit being upstream of the expansion zone whereby there is created a vacuum from venturi-like effect to thereby help draw in the gas from the side second fluid inlet path to substantially atomise the liquid, the substantially atomised liquid passing through the expansion zone and then through the exit orifice. wherein at the intersection of the second fluid inlet path with the main conduit is a mixing chamber for receiving the pressurised liquid and gas, the main conduit entering into the mixing chamber at a primary orifice, and the exit from the mixing chamber to the continuation of the main conduit having the expansion zone forms a secondary orifice, with the area of the secondary orifice being greater than the area of the primary orifice so that there is an expansion in area for liquid passing from the primary orifice to the secondary orifice.
2. A twin fluid nozzle according to claim 1 wherein the ratio of the area of the secondary orifice to the area of the primary orifice is sufficient to create a vacuum in the mixing chamber.
3. A twin fluid nozzle according to claim 1 or 2 wherein the mixing chamber has a diameter which is larger than the diameter of the secondary orifice through which liquid and air exits from the mixing chamber.
4. A twin fluid nozzle according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the spacing from the primary orifice to the secondary orifice is greater than the diameter of the primary orifice.
A twin fluid nozzle according to claim 4 wherein the area for flow of gas entering from the side second fluid inlet path into the mixing chamber is greater than the area of the primary orifice. "RA 44 AMENDEr PCT/AU00/00227 Received 02 May 2001
6. A twin fluid nozzle according to claim 4 or 5 wherein the expansion zone of the main conduit is spaced downstream from the secondary orifice by a tubular portion of the main conduit having a cross-sectional area substantially the same as the secondary orifice wherein the provision of the tubular portion limits the required gas to effect substantial atomisation.
7. A twin fluid nozzle according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the nozzle includes a further gas inlet path for feeding some of the pressurised gas into the main conduit downstream of the expansion zone to effect substantial further secondary atomisation.
8. A twin nozzle according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the nozzle body has an outer body with a channel therein and a replaceable insert received in the outer body channel; the replaceable insert having the mixing chamber therein and having the expansion zone downstream of the mixing chamber therein; the insert further including a reduced outer diameter portion smaller than the internal diameter of the outer body channel to create a substantially circumferential gas chamber surrounding the insert for receiving pressurised gas; and wherein the side second fluid inlet path extends from the gas chamber at the reduced diameter portion of the insert to the mixing chamber in the insert.
9. A twin fluid nozzle according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the liquid is an agricultural liquid and the gas is air. A method of atomisation of a liquid for distribution as a spray to be applied to a product, the method including the steps of: providing a twin fluid nozzle which includes a nozzle body with a main conduit leading from a first fluid entry for receiving the liquid under pressure to an exit orifice; the nozzle body further including a side second fluid inlet path leading to and intersecting the main conduit and for passing gas under pressure; the main conduit having an expansion zone formed by a portion thereof which enlarges in area in the downstream direction of flow in the main conduit, the intersection of the side second fluid inlet path with the main conduit being upstream of the expansion zone whereby there is created a vacuum from venturi-like effect to thereby help draw in the gas from the side second fluid inlet path to substantially atomise the liquid, the substantially atomised liquid passing through the expansion zone and then through the exit orifice.
AMENED GHE v 144~e PCT/AU00/00227 Received 02 May 2001 wherein at the intersection of the second fluid inlet path with the main conduit is a mixing chamber for receiving the pressurised liquid and gas, the main conduit entering into the mixing chamber at a primary orifice, and the exit from the mixing chamber to the continuation of the main conduit having the expansion zone forms a secondary orifice, with the area of the secondary orifice being greater than the area of the primary orifice so that there is an expansion in area for liquid passing from the primary orifice to the secondary orifice; supplying under pressure the liquid to be atomised to the first fluid entry of the twin fluid nozzle; supplying air under pressure to the side second fluid inlet path leading to the main conduit; and feeding the substantially atomised liquid passing through the exit orifice to a distribution nozzle and distributing the atomised liquid as a treatment liquid applied to a product.
11. A method of atomisation of a liquid according to claim 10 wherein the venturi-like effect and the air provided under pressure through the side fluid second fluid inlet path are sufficient to achieve a doubling of liquid flow through the nozzle upon approximate doubling of the inlet liquid pressure.
12. A method of atomisation of a liquid according to claim 10 or 11 wherein the nozzle has a turn down ratio (TDR) as hereinbefore defined in the range of 2 to 5 for liquid pressure less than 6 bar maximum pressure.
13. A method according to any one of claims 10 to 12 wherein the liquid is an agricultural liquid and the gas is air. 0 46 AWMi' D J N~j 8:ET,
AU32633/00A 1999-03-22 2000-03-22 Atomising nozzle Ceased AU757795B2 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

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AUPP9368 1999-03-22
AUPP9368A AUPP936899A0 (en) 1999-03-22 1999-03-22 Atomising nozzle
AU32633/00A AU757795B2 (en) 1999-03-22 2000-03-22 Atomising nozzle
PCT/AU2000/000227 WO2000056464A1 (en) 1999-03-22 2000-03-22 Atomising nozzle

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Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1998002250A1 (en) * 1996-07-17 1998-01-22 Newteam Limited Aerating arrangement primarily for a shower head
US5826795A (en) * 1996-08-19 1998-10-27 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Spray assembly

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1998002250A1 (en) * 1996-07-17 1998-01-22 Newteam Limited Aerating arrangement primarily for a shower head
US5826795A (en) * 1996-08-19 1998-10-27 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Spray assembly

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