AU2021104339A4 - Simulation device and experimental methods for water movement on hillslope with complex structure of plant root and rock fragment - Google Patents

Simulation device and experimental methods for water movement on hillslope with complex structure of plant root and rock fragment Download PDF

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AU2021104339A4
AU2021104339A4 AU2021104339A AU2021104339A AU2021104339A4 AU 2021104339 A4 AU2021104339 A4 AU 2021104339A4 AU 2021104339 A AU2021104339 A AU 2021104339A AU 2021104339 A AU2021104339 A AU 2021104339A AU 2021104339 A4 AU2021104339 A4 AU 2021104339A4
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soil
water
slope
box body
experiment
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Junfang Cui
Xiangyu Tang
Fei Wang
Genxu Wang
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Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment IMHE of CAS
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    • G01N15/08Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface area of porous materials
    • G01N15/0806Details, e.g. sample holders, mounting samples for testing
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    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
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Abstract

The present disclosure discloses a simulation device for water movement on hillslope with complex structure of plant root and rock fragments, mainly including a box body. The top surface of the box body is a slope. The slope inclination is 300. Two end surfaces, a bottom plate, and a side surface of the box body are outer cement walls. The two end surfaces are respectively located at the upper end and the lower end of the slope of the top surface, and the other side surface is a glass observation wall. The box body is segmented from the highest end to the lowest end in sequence. The depth of each segment increases gradually in sequence. A water outlet is reserved in the bottom of the lowest position of each segment of the box body. Outflow liquid collectors are arranged at the water outlets. A backfill soil layer is arranged at each segment in the box body. A soil water probe and a soil solution collector are arranged in the backfill soil layer of each segment. Surface vegetation is planted on the surface of the backfill soil layer. High-definition cameras are arranged outside the glass observation wall in sequence. ABSTRACT DRAWING: FIG. 1 T5 T 0 30 FIG.1

Description

T5 T
0 30
FIG.1
SIMULATION DEVICE AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS FOR WATER MOVEMENT ON HILLSLOPE WITH COMPLEX STRUCTURE OF PLANT ROOTANDROCKFRAGMENT TECHNICAL FIELD
[01] The present disclosure relates to the technical field of hillslope hydrology, and in particular, to a simulation device and experimental methods for water movement on hillslope with complex structure of plant root and rock fragments.
BACKGROUNDART
[02] Plant roots are one of main biological factors of the formation of macropores in soil as preferential flow channels on a hillslope covered by vegetation for many years. In addition, strong spatial heterogeneity of the distribution and morphology of rock fragments increase the complexity of a soil water movement process. The traditional research paradigm of soil hydrology is insufficient to the research on the influence of complex hillslope structure with plant root and rock fragments. However, the water movement process on hillslope with rich root and rock fragments is complex, which is a main process affecting solute transport and ecological environment in mountainous areas. Therefore, the research on the water movement of the root stone-containing soil body, especially, preferential flow, becomes the focus and difficulty of forest soil hydrology research. Meanwhile, in the mountainous areas with abundant rainfall, especially, in the mountainous areas in Southwest China, high vegetation coverage areas are also high incidence areas of mountain disasters (such as debris flow and landslide). The influence of plant root systems on the occurrence of water infiltration and the preferential flow and the formation of a saturated zone in a loose rock-soil body is very important to the occurrence and development of these natural disasters. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new method system that meticulously describes a water transport process of the rock-soil body in a mountainous area on the basis of fully understanding the water movement characteristics on hillslope with a complex structure of plant root and rock fragments, especially, the formation mechanism of the preferential flow to break through the bottleneck of the hydrological process research in the mountainous areas with high vegetation coverage, which also provides a physical model and a research idea and method for the research of soil hydrology in mountain soil.
SUMMARY
[03] The objective of the patent of the present disclosure is to provide a field large-scale hydrological physical model, an experimental method, and steps which are economic, feasible, and scientific and reasonable in design for the research of water movement on hillslope with rich plant root and rock fragments, especially, preferential flow of hillslope. Experimental data can provide reference for studies on mountain hydrological process and eco-hydrological model.
[04] To achieve the objective above, the present disclosure adopts the following technical solutions:
[05] A simulation device for water movement on hillslope with a complex structure of plant root and rock fragments mainly includes a box body.
[06] The top surface of the box body is a slope. The slope inclination is 300. Two end surfaces, a bottom plate, and a side surface of the box body are outer cement walls. The two end surfaces are respectively located at the upper end and the lower end of the slope of the top surface, and the other side surface is a glass observation wall.
[07] The box body is segmented from the highest end to the lowest end in sequence. The depth of each segment increases gradually in sequence. A water outlet is reserved in the bottom of the lowest position of each segment of the box body. Outflow liquid collectors are arranged at the water outlets.
[08] A backfill soil layer is arranged at each segment in the box body. A soil water probe and a soil solution collector are arranged in the backfill soil layer of each segment. Surface vegetation is planted on the surface of the backfill soil layer. High-definition cameras are arranged outside the glass observation wall in sequence.
[09] A soil water probe and a soil solution collector are mounted at each of three different depths, that is, the upper, the middle, and the lower, of the two ends of the backfill soil layer of each segment.
[10] The device can use the following several simulation experimental methods:
[11] A rainfall event response simulation experiment for water movement of a slope is performed. The experiment includes the following steps:
[12] 1) simulating an artificial rainfall event according to the rainfall of 5 mm/h;
[13] 2) automatically monitoring the water content of each soil layer by using mounted soil water probes during an experiment;
[14] 3) collecting the outflow liquid of each soil layer;
[15] 4) respectively drawing a dynamic change chart of water in a rock-soil body of the slope and a dynamic chart of outflow liquid of each layer along with rainfall events;
[16] 5) respectively performing the researches on water movement processes of the slope under the rainfall conditions of 20 mm/h and 50 mm/h according to the steps above.
[17] (2) A macro-porous preferential flow simulation experiment in the slope is performed in combination with a tracer experiment. The experiment includes the following steps:
[18] 1) setting a tracer releasing area with the width of 10 cm and the length as the width of a soil trough at 20 cm at the top of the slope, isolating by using a steel plate with the width of 10 cm as a boundary, and inserting the steel plate into the ground surface 5 cm;
[19] 2) first, injecting five pore volumes (the pore volume of the whole slope can be obtained by converting after the volume weight is calculated according to the volume of the slope and the weight of the backfill rock-soil body) of pure water in the tracer releasing area (at this time, the outflow liquid of a soil column is ensured to reach a steady flow field); then, injecting two pore volumes of KBr solution (containing 100 mg Br-/L as a nonreactive tracer); finally, injecting five pore volumes of pure water (ensuring that all the Br added in the previous step have been drained);
[20] 3) collecting once every other 15 minutes by using the outflow liquid collectors, and measuring the Br- concentration of each sample, so as to draw a Br- breakthrough curve.
[21] (3) A simulation experiment of the influence of plant root and rock fragments on the water movement is performed. The experiment includes the following steps:
[22] 1) respectively selecting a rock-soil body area that contains the root stone structure and a rock-soil body that does not contain the root stone structure;
[23] 2) respectively arranging high-definition cameras at the central positions of the two areas;
[24] 3) simulating an artificial rainfall event according to certain rainfall (for example, 20 mm/h);
[25] 4) recording images within a range by using high-definition cameras in the experiment, acquiring time sequence images, and analyzing the images to obtain a transfer dynamic state of an infiltration frontal surface of the root stone-containing rock-soil body.
[26] The present disclosure has the technical effects:
[27] (1) the hydrological physical model contained in the present disclosure is constructed according to a natural section, and surface soil is backfilled with an undisturbed soil layer to restore the real situation of the slope to the greatest extent, so its data is more realistic and reasonable;
[28] (2) the device fully considers the characteristics of multi-means and multi-technology paths for hydrology researches of tracer experiments, artificial rainfall simulation, soil body water real-time monitoring, outflow liquid collection, and the like;
[29] (3) the device and the experimental methods can provide new methods and ideas for the research of the water movement on hillslope with a complex structure of plant root and rock fragment structure and for studies on the formation and mechanism of preferential flow on hillslope.
[30] (4) the experiment results can provide key parameters for the simulation of a mountain hydrological process model, and can also provide reference and simulation basis for the initiation of natural disasters in mountainous areas (for example, landslide and debris flow).
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
[31] FIG. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of the present disclosure.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS
[32] The present disclosure is further described in combination with an accompanying drawing and embodiments.
[33] As shown in FIG. 1, a simulation device for water movement of a root stone structure-containing rock-soil body slope mainly includes a box body 1. The top surface of the box body 1 is a slope. The slope inclination is 300. Two end surfaces, a bottom plate, and a side surface of the box body 1 are outer cement walls. The two end surfaces are respectively located at the upper end and the lower end of the slope of the top surface, and the other side surface is a glass observation wall.
[34] The box body 1 is segmented from the highest end to the lowest end in sequence. The depth of each segment increases gradually in sequence. A water outlet is reserved in the bottom of the lowest position of each segment of the box body 1. Outflow liquid collectors 5 are arranged at the water outlets.
[35] A backfill soil layer 2 is arranged at each segment in the box body 1. A soil water probe 3 and a soil solution collector 4 are arranged in the backfill soil layer 2 of each segment. Surface vegetation 7 is planted on the surface of the backfill soil layer 2. Multiple high-definition cameras are arranged outside the glass observation wall in sequence.
[36] A soil water probe 3 and a soil solution collector 4 are mounted at each of three different depths, that is, the upper, the middle, and the lower, of the two ends of the backfill soil layer 2 of each segment.
[37] The soil solution collector 4 is a soil solution sampler.
[38] The whole box body 1 is 9 meters long and 1 meter wide; the upper part is 0.5 meter deep; the lower end is 2 meters deep; the slope inclination is 300. In addition, the length of the device can also be set as 3 meters and 6 meters as required; the corresponding segment numbers are reduced.
[39] The bottom, an upper end retaining wall, a lower end retaining wall, and one side surface of the box body 1 are all of reinforced cement concrete structures. A water outlet is reversed at the positions, 3 and 6 meters away from an upper end, of the bottom of the box body 1 and the lowest end of the device, and the outflow liquid collectors 5 are arranged to facilitate the collection of the outflow liquid. The diameter of the water outlet is 8 cm. The other side surface of the box body 1 adopts a tempered glass retaining wall. The strength of the tempered glass retaining wall is high, which can ensure the bearing capacity of the retaining wall. In addition, the visualization of the tempered glass is used as an observation window for the vertical movement of water in the section of the rock-soil body aiming to the study of influence of plant root on soil water movement. A high-definition camera is mounted every other 1 meter. The movement process of the infiltration frontal surface can be recorded in real time through the cameras in an experiment process. The data of the multiple cameras can record the water infiltration situation of the whole hillslope.
[40] After the construction of an external main body of the device is completed, the backfilling of the rock-soil body can be performed only after the external main body of the device is dried completely. In order to ensure that experimental results are close to the actual process in the field to the greatest extent, the surface is backfilled with undisturbed soil, and subsurface and deep soil is backfilled in a manual backfilling manner. The surface undisturbed soil can be collected in a form of'excavating ground'. To facilitate collection and transportation, the undisturbed soil is 1 meter long and 1.1 meters wide. The width is set as 1.1 meters wide to mainly ensure that the undisturbed soil can be cut according to the width of the device during backfilling, so as to avoid a crack between a soil body and a wall body of the device. The subsurface and deep rock-soil bodies are collected in a manner of excavating layer by layer. The collected samples are air-dried and sieved by a 2 mm sieve. Gravel (>2 mm) in each soil layer is carefully sorted for later use. When the deep and subsurface soil bodies are backfilled, the gravel is backfilled first according to the actual content of the gravel of each soil layer in the field; then, the soil body is backfilled, and the soil body is slightly compacted after each layer is backfilled, so as to ensure that the soil bulk density is consistent with the condition in the field. The surface of the soil body must be roughened by using a hairbrush after being compacted, which avoids an artificial interface between an upper soil layer and a lower soil layer. If necessary, water can be sprayed on the surface after the backfilling of each layer is ended, so as to make the soil body compact. Finally, the surface undisturbed soil is backfilled. After the surface undisturbed soil is backfilled, the ground surface is ensured to be slightly lower than the height (about 3 to cm) of the edge of the device, so as to ensure that the surface runoff cannot leak out of a system. The surface vegetation selects the original vegetation in an excavating sample area of the rock-soil body. However, it should be noted that the planted trees should not be too large. The root system distribution diameter range should be less than half of the width of the device, that is, 0.5 meter.
[41] After the backfilling of the rock-soil body and the vegetation planting are ended, the soil water probes 3 and the soil solution collectors 4 are respectively mounted at different depths of the upper part, the middle part, and the lower part of the device according to observation requirements. The device mounting depth is shown in FIG. 1.
[42] The simulation experimental device can be used for monitoring a dynamic process of soil water, observing the movement of the preferential flow of the soil in the vertical direction and the transverse direction, and exploring the following questions based on a physical model: (1) the research on water movement of hillslope based on rainfall event; (2) the research on macro-porous preferential flow in the hillslope in combination with a tracer experiment; (3) the research on the influence of the complex structure of plant root with rock fragments on water movement; (4) hillslope water movement response to rainfall event under varied soil initial water content conditions; and (5) hillslope pedohydrology study based on water balance method since the device is provided with outflow liquid collection devices, and dynamic change of various water components are deduced by using water balance under the conditions of known rainfall and evapotranspiration conditions. The experimental steps of question (1), question (2), and question (3) are listed as follows in detail:
[43] A rainfall event response simulation experiment for water movement on hillslope is performed. The experiment includes the following steps:
[44] 1) an artificial rainfall event is simulated according to the rainfall of 5 mm/h;
[45] 2) the water content of each soil layer is automatically monitored by using mounted soil water probes 3 during an experiment;
[46] 3) the outflow liquid of each soil layer is collected;
[47] 4) a dynamic change chart of water in a rock-soil body of the slope and a dynamic chart of outflow liquid of each layer along with rainfall events are respectively drawn;
[48] 5) the researches of water movement processes of the slope under the rainfall conditions of 20 mm/h and 50 mm/h can be performed respectively according to the previous steps.
[49] (2) A macro-porous preferential flow simulation experiment in the slope is performed in combination with a tracer experiment. The experiment includes the following steps:
[50] 1) a tracer releasing area with the width of 10 cm and the length as the width of a soil trough is set at the top of the slope, and a steel plate with the width of 10 cm is isolated as a boundary, and the steel plate is inserted into the ground surface 5 cm;
[51] 2) first, injecting five pore volumes (the pore volume of the whole slope can be obtained by converting after the volume weight is calculated according to the volume of the slope and the weight of the backfill rock-soil body) of pure water in the tracer releasing area (at this time, the outflow liquid of a soil column is ensured to reach a steady flow field); then, injecting two pore volumes of KBr solution (containing 100 mg Br-/L as a nonreactive tracer); finally, injecting five pore volumes of pure water (ensuring that all the Br added in the previous step have been drained);
[52] 3) the outflow liquid collectors 5 are used for collecting once every other 15 minutes, and the Br- concentration of each sample is measured, so as to draw a Br- breakthrough curve.
[53] (3) Study on the influence of the complex structure of plant root with rock fragments on water movement on hillslope. The experiment includes the following steps:
[54] 1) a rock-soil body area that contains the root stone structure and a rock-soil body that does not contain the root stone structure are respectively selected;
[55] 2) high-definition cameras are respectively arranged at the central positions of the two areas;
[56] 3) an artificial rainfall event is simulated according to certain rainfall (for example, 20 mm/h);
[57] 4) images within a range are recorded by using high-definition cameras in the experiment, time sequence images are acquired, and the images are analyzed to obtain a transfer dynamic state of an infiltration frontal surface of the root stone-containing rock-soil body.

Claims (5)

WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:
1. A simulation device for water movement on hillslope with complex structure of plant root and rock fragments, mainly comprising a box body (1), wherein the top surface of the box body (1) is a slope; the slope inclination is 300; two end surfaces, a bottom plate, and a side surface of the box body (1) are outer cement walls; the two end surfaces are respectively located at the upper end and the lower end of the slope of the top surface, and the other side surface is a glass observation wall; the box body is segmented (1) from the highest end to the lowest end in sequence; the depth of various segments increases gradually in sequence; a water outlet is reserved in the bottom of the lowest position of each segment of the box body (1); outflow liquid collectors (5) are arranged at the water outlets; a backfill soil layer (2) is arranged at each segment in the box body (1); a soil water probe (3) and a soil solution collector (4) are arranged in the backfill soil layer (2) of each segment; surface vegetation (7) is planted on the surface of the backfill soil layer (2); high-definition cameras are arranged outside the glass observation wall in sequence.
2. The simulation device for water movement on hillslope with complex structure of plant root and rock fragments according to claim 1, wherein a soil water probe (3) and a soil solution collector (4) are mounted at each of three different depths, that is, the upper, the middle, and the lower, of the two ends of the backfill soil layer (2) of each segment.
3. An experiment method for the simulation device for water movement on hillslope with complex structure of plant root and rock fragments according to claim 1 or 2, being used for a rainfall event response simulation experiment for the water movement of a slope, wherein the experiment comprises the steps: 1) simulating an artificial rainfall event according to the rainfall of 5 mm/h; 2) automatically monitoring the water content of each soil layer by using mounted soil water probes (3) during an experiment; 3) collecting the outflow liquid of each soil layer; 4) respectively drawing a dynamic change chart of water in a rock-soil body of the slope and a dynamic chart of outflow liquid of each layer along with rainfall events; 5) respectively performing the researches of water movement processes of the slope under the rainfall conditions of 20 mm/h and 50 mm/h according to the steps above.
4. The experiment method for the simulation device for water movement on hillslope with complex structure of plant root and rock fragments according to claim 1 or 2, wherein a macro-porous preferential flow simulation experiment in the slope is performed in combination with a tracer experiment; the experiment includes the following steps: 1) setting a tracer releasing area with the width of 10 cm and the length as the width of a soil trough at 20 cm at the top of the slope, and isolating by using a steel plate with the width of 10 cm as a boundary, and inserting the steel plate into the ground surface 5 cm; 2) first, injecting five pore volumes of pure water in a tracer releasing area; then, injecting two pore volumes of KBr solution, wherein the KBr solution contains 100 mg Br-/L as a nonreactive tracer; finally, injecting five pore volumes of pure water to make sure that all the Br- added in the previous step has been drained; 3) collecting once every other 15 minutes by using the outflow liquid collector (5), and measuring the Br- concentration of each sample, so as to draw a Br- breakthrough curve.
5. The experiment method for the simulation device for water movement on hillslope with complex structure of plant root and rock fragments according to claim 1 or 2, wherein a simulation experiment of the influence of a root-stone structure on the water movement of soil; the experiment includes the following steps: 1) respectively selecting a rock-soil body area that contains the root stone structure and a rock-soil body that does not contain the root stone structure; 2) respectively arranging high-definition cameras at the central positions of the two areas; 3) simulating an artificial rainfall event according to certain rainfall; 4) recording images within a range by using high-definition cameras in the experiment, and acquiring time sequence images, and analyzing the images to obtain a transfer dynamic state of an infiltration frontal surface of the root stone-containing rock-soil body.
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