AU2021102724A4 - A method for modular multilevel converter (inverter) open-circuit fault identification and positioning - Google Patents

A method for modular multilevel converter (inverter) open-circuit fault identification and positioning Download PDF

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AU2021102724A4
AU2021102724A4 AU2021102724A AU2021102724A AU2021102724A4 AU 2021102724 A4 AU2021102724 A4 AU 2021102724A4 AU 2021102724 A AU2021102724 A AU 2021102724A AU 2021102724 A AU2021102724 A AU 2021102724A AU 2021102724 A4 AU2021102724 A4 AU 2021102724A4
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voltage
open
fault
eso
identifying
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Burri Ankaiah
Ananda M. H.
Mahesh Kumar
Latha N.
Sujo Oommen
Divya B. V.
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Ankaiah Burri Mr
H Ananda M Mr
N Latha Ms
Oommen Sujo Ms
V Divya B Ms
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Ankaiah Burri Mr
H Ananda M Mr
Kumar Mahesh Mr
N Latha Ms
Oommen Sujo Ms
V Divya B Ms
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R31/00Arrangements for testing electric properties; Arrangements for locating electric faults; Arrangements for electrical testing characterised by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere
    • G01R31/26Testing of individual semiconductor devices
    • G01R31/27Testing of devices without physical removal from the circuit of which they form part, e.g. compensating for effects surrounding elements
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R31/00Arrangements for testing electric properties; Arrangements for locating electric faults; Arrangements for electrical testing characterised by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere
    • G01R31/28Testing of electronic circuits, e.g. by signal tracer
    • G01R31/2801Testing of printed circuits, backplanes, motherboards, hybrid circuits or carriers for multichip packages [MCP]
    • G01R31/281Specific types of tests or tests for a specific type of fault, e.g. thermal mapping, shorts testing
    • G01R31/2812Checking for open circuits or shorts, e.g. solder bridges; Testing conductivity, resistivity or impedance
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R31/00Arrangements for testing electric properties; Arrangements for locating electric faults; Arrangements for electrical testing characterised by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere
    • G01R31/28Testing of electronic circuits, e.g. by signal tracer
    • G01R31/317Testing of digital circuits
    • G01R31/31706Testing of digital circuits involving differential digital signals, e.g. testing differential signal circuits, using differential signals for testing

Abstract

A METHOD FOR MODULAR MULTILEVEL CONVERTER (INVERTER) OPEN CIRCUIT FAULT IDENTIFICATION AND POSITIONING Aspects of the present disclosure relate to method (100) for identifying and positioning open 5 circuit faults of multilevel inverter. The Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) is a power electronic structure used for high voltage adjustable speed drives applications as well as power transmission applications and high-voltage direct current. MMC structure presents many advantages such as modularity, the absence of a high voltage DC bus and very low switching frequency. An ESO based fault detection and location (114) method (100) is 10 proposed, which features a low computation burden and relatively quick fault detection and location (114). In this method the voltage difference (106) between the ESO and theoretical voltages is used for setting (108) plurality of sampling points against the output current. From these sampling points the information is acquired (110). The proposed fault diagnosis strategy features a low computation burden and relatively fast speed in fault detection and 15 location (114) as it uses machine learning models based on multivariate gaussian distribution. (FIG. 1 will be the reference figure) - 13 - aippiican name: rage i 01 100 acquiring theoretical full ann voltage by a 102 calculator acquiring ESO full arm voltage by an ESO 104 106 calculating the difference between the theoretical full am voltage and ESO full arm voltage setting plurality of sampling point 108 acquiring current sampling information 110 identifying the open-eircuit fault 112 finding the location of the open-circuit fault using f' 114 a fault detection and location (FDL) method FIG. 1 Flow diagram of method for identifying and positioning open-circuit faults of multilevel inverter. 1

Description

aippiican name: rage i 01
100 acquiring theoretical full ann voltage by a 102 calculator
acquiring ESO full arm voltage by an ESO 104
106 calculating the difference between the theoretical full am voltage and ESO full arm voltage
setting plurality of sampling point 108
acquiring current sampling information 110
identifying the open-eircuit fault 112
finding the location of the open-circuit fault using f' 114 a fault detection and location (FDL) method
FIG. 1 Flow diagram of method for identifying and positioning open-circuit faults of multilevel inverter.
A METHOD FOR MODULAR MULTILEVEL CONVERTER (INVERTER) OPEN CIRCUIT FAULT IDENTIFICATION AND POSITIONING TECHNICAL FIELD
[0001] The present disclosure relates to a method and system for detection of faults in electric circuits and in particular to the method for modular multilevel converter (inverter) open-circuit fault identification and positioning.
BACKGROUND
[0002] Background description includes information that may be useful in understanding the present invention. It is not an admission that any of the information provided herein is prior art or relevant to the presently claimed invention, or that any publication specifically or implicitly referenced is prior art.
[0003] With new renewable energy production, HVDC is more applicable than ever. More stochastic energy production calls for solutions that can transport power from areas with high generation to areas with lower generation. Offshore wind farms far from the coast require HVDC transmission to the shore and compact and reliable converter technology with large power capability. Connecting the converter to a DC grid should be feasible and the converter should be able to handle fault situations. To gain compactness, the need for filters should be minimized. The emerging topology, the Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) might address these aims.
[0004] The Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) is a power electronic structure used for high voltage adjustable speed drives applications as well as power transmission applications and high-voltage direct current. MMC structure presents many advantages such as modularity, the absence of a high voltage DC bus and very low switching frequency.
[0005] Several fault diagnosis strategies have been proposed for conventional multilevel converters were proposed in Lamb J, Mirafzal B. Open-circuit IGBT fault detection and location isolation for cascaded multilevel converters, IEEE Trans Ind Electron
2017;64(6):4846-56 and Amini J, Moallem M. A fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control scheme for flying capacitor multilevel inverters, IEEE Trans Ind Electron 2017;64(3):1818 26. However, they cannot be directly applied in the MMC system as noticeable differences of topology and operating principle exist in the MMC and conventional multilevel converters. In recent years, several fault diagnosis strategies have been proposed to improve the reliability of the MMC. Sliding mode observer (SMO) based strategies are proposed in Shao S, Wheeler PW, Clare JC, et al. Fault detection for modular multilevel converters based on sliding mode observer, IEEE Trans Power Electron 2013;28(11):4867-72, where the consuming time to locate the faulty power switching device is within 50 ms. Some other observers-based strategies are also proposed to implement fault diagnosis with similar fault location processes, such as extended state observer (ESO) and adaptive observer, where the longest consuming time for locating the faulty power switching device is about 150 ms. However, the fault location is based on an assumption-check process and the real fault position might be the last assumption, which might prolong the time for not only the whole assumption-check process but also the fault diagnosis if there are a large number of submodules. In Deng F, Chen Z, Khan MR, et al. Fault detection and localization method for modular multilevel converters, IEEE Trans Power Electron 2015;30(5):2721-32, a fault diagnosis strategy based on Kalman filter is proposed and the fault position could be located within 100 ms, where the fault location is realized according to the difference of capacitor voltage between normal and faulty submodules. The fault location is fast as it is without assumption-check process, but the difference of the capacitor voltage between normal and faulty submodules may be too small to realize fault location if the capacitor voltage balancing control is achieved by a sorting process.
[0006] Therefore, the present disclosure overcomes the above-mentioned problem associated with the traditionally available method or system, any of the above-mentioned inventions can be used with the presented disclosed technique with or without modification.
[00071 In some embodiments, the numbers expressing quantities or dimensions of items, and so forth, used to describe and claim certain embodiments of the invention are to be understood as being modified in some instances by the term "about." Accordingly, in some embodiments, the numerical parameters set forth in the written description and attached claims are approximations that can vary depending upon the desired properties sought to be obtained by a particular embodiment. In some embodiments, the numerical parameters should be construed in light of the number of reported significant digits and by applying ordinary rounding techniques. Notwithstanding that the numerical ranges and parameters setting forth the broad scope of some embodiments of the invention are approximations, the numerical values set forth in the specific examples are reported as precisely as practicable. The numerical values presented in some embodiments of the invention may contain certain errors necessarily resulting from the standard deviation found in their respective testing measurements.
[0008] The recitation of ranges of values herein is merely intended to serve as a shorthand method of referring individually to each separate value falling within the range. Unless otherwise indicated herein, each individual value is incorporated into the specification as if it were individually recited herein. All methods described herein can be performed in any suitable order unless otherwise indicated herein or otherwise clearly contradicted by context. The use of any and all examples, or exemplary language (e.g. "such as") provided with respect to certain embodiments herein is intended merely to better illuminate the invention and does not pose a limitation on the scope of the invention otherwise claimed. No language in the specification should be construed as indicating any non-claimed element essential to the practice of the invention.
OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION
[0009] It is an object of the present disclosure which provides a method that find open circuit fault.
SUMMARY
[0010] The present concept of the present invention is directed towards the method for identifying and positioning open-circuit faults of multilevel inverter, said method involving the steps of: acquiring theoretical full arm voltage by a calculator; acquiring ESO full arm voltage by an ESO; calculating the difference between the theoretical full arm voltage and ESO full arm voltage; identifying the open-circuit fault based on the calculated difference; setting plurality of sampling point to determine relative positional relationship between output current and the calculated difference; acquiring current sampling information at the plurality of sampling points to obtain the relative positional relationship between the output current and the calculated difference using system modulation method; finding the location of the open-circuit fault after identification of the open-circuit fault using the fault detection and location (FDL) method.
[0011] In an aspect, input variables to the calculator for acquiring the theoretical full arm voltage include status of submodules and voltage of capacitors in submodules, wherein the status of submodules is the status of power switching devices. If the difference between the theoretical full arm voltage and ESO full arm voltage is over a positive threshold value in time range of Tth then Ti occurs else T 2 fault occurs. the location of the open-circuit fault is determined according to change rate of capacitor voltage in each arm of the multilevel inverter.
[0012] One should appreciate that although the present disclosure has been explained with respect to a defined set of functional modules, any other module or set of modules can be added/deleted/modified/combined, and any such changes in architecture/construction of the proposed system are completely within the scope of the present disclosure. Each module can also be fragmented into one or more functional sub-modules, all of which also completely within the scope of the present disclosure.
[0013] Various objects, features, aspects and advantages of the inventive subject matter will become more apparent from the following detailed description of preferred embodiments, along with the accompanying drawing figures in which like numerals represent like components.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
[0014] The accompanying drawings are included to provide a further understanding of the present disclosure and are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification. The drawings illustrate exemplary embodiments of the present disclosure and, together with the description, serve to explain the principles of the present disclosure.
[0015] FIG. 1 illustrates an exemplary flow diagram method for identifying and positioning open-circuit faults of multilevel inverter.
[0016] FIG. 2 illustrates an equivalent circuit of single-phase MMC.
[00171 It should be noted that the figures are not drawn to scale, and the elements of similar structure and functions are generally represented by like reference numerals for illustrative purposes throughout the figures. It should be noted that the figures do not illustrate every aspect of the described embodiments and do not limit the scope of the present disclosure.
[0018] Other objects, advantages and novel features of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed description of the present embodiment when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION
[0019] In the following description, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of embodiments of the present invention. It will be apparent to one skilled in the art that embodiments of the present invention may be practised without some of these specific details.
[0020] Embodiments of the present invention include various steps, which will be described below. The steps may be performed by hardware components or may be embodied in machine-executable instructions, which may be used to cause a general-purpose or special purpose processor programmed with the instructions to perform the steps. Alternatively, steps may be performed by a combination of hardware, software, and firmware and/or by human operators.
[0021] Various terms as used herein are shown below. To the extent a term used in a claim is not defined below, it should be given the broadest definition persons in the pertinent art have given that term as reflected in printed publications and issued patents at the time of filing.
[0022] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, FIG. 1 illustrates an exemplary method (100) for identifying and positioning open-circuit faults of multilevel inverter. said method (100) involving the steps of: acquiring theoretical full arm voltage (102) by a calculator; acquiring ESO full arm voltage (104) by an ESO; calculating the voltage difference (106) between the theoretical full arm voltage (102) and ESO full arm voltage (104); setting plurality of sampling point (108) to determine relative positional relationship between output current and the calculated voltage difference (106); acquiring current sampling information (110) at the plurality of sampling points to obtain the relative positional relationship between the output current and the calculated voltage difference (106);
[0023] identifying the open-circuit fault (112) based on the calculated voltage difference (106) using system modulation method; finding the location (114) of the open circuit fault after identification of the open-circuit fault using the fault detection and location (FDL) method.
[0024] In an aspect of the present invention, the voltage difference (106) differential between theoretical and observed full arm voltage can be obtained. The inputs of ESO are circulating current ixz and DC link voltage Vdc. The outputs are the tracking signal ixz and the observed full arm voltage vxo. The theoretical full arm voltage (102) vxd is obtained by a calculator and the input variables include the status of submodules and voltage of capacitors in submodule. Then, the filtered value of observed and theoretical full arm voltage (102), namely vxoT and vxdT, as well as their differentials vxoD and vxdD are acquired by the TDs.
Finally, the voltage difference (106) differential between the theoretical and observed full arm voltage(VxdD - VxoD) is obtained.
[0025] In another aspect of the present invention, setting plurality of sampling point (108) to determine relative positional relationship between output current and the calculated voltage difference (106). The setting of sampling points (108) in each interval can be used for determining sampling point position based on the relative position relationship between the output current and the calculated difference between the theoretical full arm voltage (102) and ESO full arm voltage (104).
[0026] In another aspect of the present invention, acquiring current sampling information (110) at the plurality of sampling points to obtain the relative positional relationship between the output current and the calculated voltage difference (106). Then we have to acquire the current sampling information (110) at the various sampling points to determine the relative positional relationship between the output current and the calculated voltage difference (106). the relative positional relationship includes center symmetry point of the calculated voltage difference (106).
[00271 In an aspect of the present invention, If the voltage difference (106) differential (VxdD - VxoD) is over the positive threshold value in a time range of Tth, Ti fault might occur. Similarly, if the voltage difference (106) differential is smaller than the negative threshold value in a time range of Tth, T 2 fault might occur. Because the threshold Vth for fault detection is only used to judge the polarity (positive or negative) of the voltage difference (106) differential, the value of threshold Vth only needs to be bigger than the noise caused by the TD and sampling process. For avoiding the uncertainty and accelerating the fault diagnosis, the time range Tth could be chosen as tens of the control cycle of the MMC system. It should be noted that if the time range Tth is too small, the noise might affect the accuracy of the fault detection, while large time range Tth might prolong fault detection time.
[0028] In yet another aspect of the present invention, the fault location (114) process can be where VexiD and VexiD_min are the change rate of capacitor voltage and the minimum value of the change rate obtained by TD, respectively. It should be noted that the comparison of the change rate in capacitor voltage is only conducted in each arm, because in one arm the same current passes through all the submodule. By comparing all the submodules in one arm, the submodule with minimum change rate of capacitor voltage could be found out. The difference of change rate between other submodules and the submodule with minimum change rate could be calculated. If the difference of change rate for capacitor voltage in a submodule is bigger than the threshold value in time range Tth1, then this submodule is in failure. The threshold value should be chosen carefully, for it is applied to distinguish the faulty and normal submodule. The change rate of capacitor voltage is related to the operation condition of the MMC.
[00291 In yet another aspect of the present invention, the capacitor voltage includes dc, fundamental and twice fundamental components. Then, the capacitor voltage vc could be expressed as:
VC = vcO + Avc 1 in(wt + p1) + Avc2in(2t + p 2 )
where vco is the magnitude of the dc component. Avel and 91 are the magnitude and phase angle of the fundamental component, respectively. Avc2 and p2 are the magnitude and phase angle of the twice fundamental component, respectively. CO is the angle velocity of the current.
[00301 In yet another aspect of the present invention, then change rate of the capacitor voltage could be expressed as
- = cAvc cos(ot + 1) + 2coAvc 2 cos(2ct + #2) dt
In above equation, it can be seen that the change rate of the capacitor voltage is proportional with the magnitude of the variation components, including the fundamental and twice fundamental components.
[00311 In yet another aspect of the present invention, the voltage Ave is related to the operation condition of the MMC, where large output power of the MMC system will lead to large Ave. Then (k*Ave) is variable according to the operation condition of the MMC system, which guarantees the accuracy of fault diagnosis. The factor k may be chosen by experience.
[0032] In yet another aspect of the present invention, the fault detection and location (FDL) method is based on machine learning, wherein a dataset and a model based on multivariate Gaussian distribution is created and used for tracking the location (114) of an open-circuit fault.
[00331 In yet another aspect of the present invention, Multivariate Gaussian distribution is the generalization of the Gaussian distribution in the vector form. For a n dimensional vector x = [xl, x2,...,xn] that follows multivariate Gaussian distribution, the probability density function can be expressed as:
p(x) = 1 exp(- !(x - y)TEI(x - p)) (21r)2IZ1z12
The mean vector A and covariance matrix = are calculated respectively:
and
[0034] In yet another aspect of the present invention, for construction of dataset the voltages are selected as the key indicator for FDL due to the open-circuit fault characteristics. The voltages in different working states are collected by the voltage sensors in time-domain sequences. For fault location in next step, each sequence should be associated with the corresponding number of sub module. Sliding window method is used to split the voltage sequences into multiple short fragments. The 5 time-domain features are extracted from all the fragments to represent the characteristics of the voltage fragments.
[00351 In yet another aspect of the present invention, Model Construction with dataset. The dataset is split into 3 parts: training set, validation set and testing set. After all the parameters of the model are determined, the FDL method can be executed on the testing set. For each sample composed of five features, the probability density is calculated using the probability equation provided above. If the probability density is bigger than the threshold, the sample is considered normal while the sample is considered faulty if the probability density is smaller than the threshold.
[00361 In yet another aspect of the present invention, to get the prediction accuracy of the model, all the predictions of the samples will be compared with the real labels. Since the dataset is randomly split and the testing set has never participated in the training of the model, the accuracy on testing set can represents the generalization ability of the model.
[00371 In yet another aspect of the present invention, FIG. 2 illustrates an equivalent circuit of single-phase MMC.
[00381 While the foregoing describes various embodiments of the invention, other and further embodiments of the invention may be devised without departing from the basic scope thereof. The scope of the invention is determined by the claims that follow. The invention is not limited to the described embodiments, versions or examples, which are included to enable a person having ordinary skill in the art to make and use the invention when combined with information and knowledge available to the person having ordinary skill in the art.
[00391 Thus, the scope of the present disclosure is defined by the appended claims and includes both combinations and sub-combinations of the various features described hereinabove as well as variations and modifications thereof, which would occur to persons skilled in the art upon reading the foregoing description.

Claims (7)

We Claim:
1. A method (100) for identifying and positioning open-circuit faults of multilevel inverter, said method (100) involving the steps of:
acquiring theoretical full arm voltage (102) by a calculator;
acquiring ESO full arm voltage (104) by an extended state observer (ESO);
calculating the voltage difference (106) between the theoretical full arm voltage (102) and ESO full arm voltage (104);
characterized in that,
setting plurality of sampling point (108) to determine relative positional relationship between output current and the calculated voltage difference (106);
acquiring current sampling information (110) at the plurality of sampling points to obtain the relative positional relationship between the output current and the calculated voltage difference (106), wherein the current sampling information (110) includes the direction of the output current and polarity of the voltage difference (106);
identifying the open-circuit fault (112) based on the acquired current sampling information (110) using system modulation method;
finding the location (114) of the open-circuit fault after identification of the open-circuit fault using a fault detection and location (FDL) method which uses multivariate Gaussian distribution technique for finding the location of fault.
2. The method (100) for identifying and positioning open-circuit faults of multilevel inverter as claimed in claim 1, wherein input variables to the calculator for acquiring the theoretical full arm voltage (102) include status of submodules and voltage of capacitors in submodules, wherein the status of submodules is the status of power switching devices.
3. The method (100) for identifying and positioning open-circuit faults of multilevel inverter as claimed in claim 1, wherein input variables to the ESO for acquiring the ESO full arm voltage (104) are circulating current ixz and Vc.
4. The method (100) for identifying and positioning open-circuit faults of multilevel inverter as claimed in claim 1, wherein if the voltage difference (106) between the theoretical full arm voltage (102) and ESO full arm voltage (104) is over a positive threshold value in time range of Tth then Ti occurs else T 2 fault occurs.
5. The method (100) for identifying and positioning open-circuit faults of multilevel inverter as claimed in claim 1, wherein the relative positional relationship includes center symmetry point of the calculated voltage difference (106).
6. The method (100) for identifying and positioning open-circuit faults of multilevel inverter as claimed in claim 1, wherein the location (114) of the open-circuit fault is determined according to change rate of capacitor voltage in each arm of the multilevel inverter.
7. The method (100) for identifying and positioning open-circuit faults of multilevel inverter as claimed in claim 1, wherein the fault detection and location (FDL) method is based on machine learning, wherein a dataset and a model based on multivariate Gaussian distribution is created and used for tracking the location (114) of the open-circuit fault.
Application no.: Total no. of sheets: 2 21 May 2021 2021102724 Applicant name: Page 1 of 2
FIG. 1 Flow diagram of method for identifying and positioning open-circuit faults of multilevel inverter.
Application no.: Total no. of sheets: 2 21 May 2021 2021102724 Applicant name: Page 2 of 2
FIG. 2 Equivalent circuit of single-phase MMC
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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN113884944A (en) * 2021-09-10 2022-01-04 武汉大学 Non-invasive two-level three-phase converter multi-tube open-circuit fault diagnosis method and system based on average phase voltage model

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN113884944A (en) * 2021-09-10 2022-01-04 武汉大学 Non-invasive two-level three-phase converter multi-tube open-circuit fault diagnosis method and system based on average phase voltage model
CN113884944B (en) * 2021-09-10 2022-07-19 武汉大学 Non-invasive two-level three-phase converter multi-tube open-circuit fault diagnosis method and system based on average phase voltage model

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