AU2014200648B2 - Solvent-cast microneedle arrays containing active - Google Patents

Solvent-cast microneedle arrays containing active Download PDF

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AU2014200648B2
AU2014200648B2 AU2014200648A AU2014200648A AU2014200648B2 AU 2014200648 B2 AU2014200648 B2 AU 2014200648B2 AU 2014200648 A AU2014200648 A AU 2014200648A AU 2014200648 A AU2014200648 A AU 2014200648A AU 2014200648 B2 AU2014200648 B2 AU 2014200648B2
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array
mold
example
layer
casting
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Active
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AU2014200648A
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AU2014200648A1 (en
Inventor
Danir F. Bayramov
Danny Lee Bowers
Guohua Chen
Andy Klemm
Steven Richard Klemm
Parminder Singh
Joseph C. Trautman
Robert Wade Worsham
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Corium International
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Corium International
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Priority to US60/925,262 priority
Priority to AU2008241470A priority patent/AU2008241470B2/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M37/00Other apparatus for introducing media into the body; Percutany, i.e. introducing medicines into the body by diffusion through the skin
    • A61M37/0015Other apparatus for introducing media into the body; Percutany, i.e. introducing medicines into the body by diffusion through the skin by using microneedles
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M37/00Other apparatus for introducing media into the body; Percutany, i.e. introducing medicines into the body by diffusion through the skin
    • A61M37/0015Other apparatus for introducing media into the body; Percutany, i.e. introducing medicines into the body by diffusion through the skin by using microneedles
    • A61M2037/0046Solid microneedles
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M37/00Other apparatus for introducing media into the body; Percutany, i.e. introducing medicines into the body by diffusion through the skin
    • A61M37/0015Other apparatus for introducing media into the body; Percutany, i.e. introducing medicines into the body by diffusion through the skin by using microneedles
    • A61M2037/0053Methods for producing microneedles

Abstract

In an aspect of the invention, an array of microprotrusions is formed by providing a mold with cavities corresponding to the negative of the microprotrusions, casting atop the mold a first solution comprising a biocompatible material and a solvent, removing the solvent, casting a second solution atop the first cast solution, removing the solvent from the second solution, and demolding the resulting array from the mold. The first solution preferably contains an active ingredient.

Description

SOLVENT-CAST MICRONEEDLE ARRAYS CONTAINING ACTIVE CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS [0001 This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application Serial No. 60/923,861, filed April 16, 2007, and U.S. Provisional Application Serial No. 60/925,262, filed April 18, 2007. These priority applications are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety. TECHMCAL FIELD [0002] This invention relates generally to drug delivery using microneedles or other microprojections. BACKGROUND 100031 Arrays of microneedles were proposed as a way of administering drugs through the skin in the 1970s, for example in expired U.S. Patent No. 3,964,482. Microneedle arrays can facilitate the passage of drugs through or into human skin and other biological membranes in circumstances where ordinary transdermal administration is inadequate. Microneedle arrays can also be used to sample fluids found in the vicinity of a biological membrane such as interstitial fluid, which is then tested for the presence of biomarkers. [0004] In recent years it has become more feasible to manufacture microneedle arrays in a way that makes their widespread use financially feasible. U.S. Patent No. 6,451,240 discloses some methods of manufacturing microneedle arrays. If the arrays are sufficiently inexpensive, for example, they may be marketed as disposable devices. A disposable device may be preferable to a reusable one in order to avoid the question of the integrity of the device being compromised by previous use and to avoid the potential need of resterilizing the device after each use and maintaining it in controlled storage. [0005] Despite much initial work on fabricating microneedle arrays in silicon or metals, there are significant advantages to polymeric arrays. U.S. Patent No. 6,451,240 discloses some methods of manufacturing polymeric microneedle arrays. Arrays made primarily of biodegradable polymers have some advantages. U.S. Patent No. 6,945,952 and U.S. Published Patent Applications Nos. 2002/0082543 and 2005/0197308 have some discussion of microneedle arrays made of biodegradable polymers. A detailed description of the -1fabrication of a microneedle array made of polyglycolic acid is found in Jung-Hwan Park et al., "Biodegradable polymer microneedles: Fabrication, mechanics, and transdermal drug delivery," J of Controlled Release, 104:51-66 (2005). [0006] Despite these efforts, there is still a need to find simpler and better methods for the manufacture of polymeric arrays and in particular arrays made of biodegradable polymers. A particular desideratum is a method which works at a relatively low temperature so that temperature sensitive actives may be delivered by means of such arrays. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION [0007] In an aspect of the invention, an array of microprotrusions is provided comprising an approximately planar base and a plurality of microprotrusions, wherein the array comprises a plurality of layers arranged roughly parallel to the plane of the base, at least two of the plurality of layers comprise different polymers, a first layer of the plurality of layers is contained in the microprojections, and optionally at least one layer of the plurality of layers comprises an active ingredient. [00081 In a further aspect of the invention, an array of microprotrusions is formed by (a) providing a mold with cavities corresponding to the negative of the microprotrusions, (b) casting a solution comprising a biocompatible material and a solvent atop the mold, (c) removing the solvent, (d) demolding the resulting array from the mold, and (e) taking at least one measure to avoid the formation or adverse effects of bubbles. FIGURES [0009] FIG. I is an exemplary chart of skin penetration efficiency from the arrays described in Example 11. [00010] FIG. 2 is a scanning electron micrograph of a microneedle produced by processes of the invention. 100011] FIG. 3 depicts schematically a cavity in a mold being filled by means of droplets. The figure is not to scale and in particular the cavity and the droplets are shown with a very different scale from the dispensing head and the apparatus which moves the dispensing head. [00012] FIG. 4 depicts schematically in cross-section a microprojection in which the diameter of the microprojection decreases more rapidly with distance from the base closer to the base compared to further away from the base. [00013] FIGS. 5A-5C depict schematically in cross-section five exemplary types of microprojection arrays of the invention. -2- [000141 FIG. 6 depicts schematically possible shapes of the layer comprising the tips of microneedles after casting. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS [00015] Before describing the present invention in detail, it is to be understood that this invention is not limited to specific solvents, materials, or device structures, as such may vary. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only, and is not intended to be limiting. [00016] As used in this specification and the appended claims, the singular forms "a," "an," and "the" include both singular and plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to "an active ingredient" includes a plurality of active ingredients as well as a single active ingredient, reference to "a temperature" includes a plurality of temperatures as well as single temperature, and the like. [00017] Where a range of values is provided, it is intended that each intervening value between the upper and lower limit of that range and any other stated or intervening value in that stated range is encompassed within the disclosure. For example, if a range of 1 pxm to 8 pm is stated, it is intended that 2 pm, 3 pm, 4 pm, 5 pm, 6 pm, and 7 pm are also disclosed, as well as the range of values greater than or equal to I pm and the range of values less than or equal to 8 pm. 100018] In this application reference is often made for convenience to "skin" as the biological membrane through which the active is administered. It will be understood by persons of skill in the art that in most or all instances the same inventive principles apply to administration through other biological membranes such as those which line the interior of the mouth, gastro-intestinal tract, blood-brain barrier, or other body tissues or organs or biological membranes which are exposed or accessible during surgery or during procedures such as laparoscopy or endoscopy. [000191 In this application reference is also made to "microneedles" as the type of microprotrusion or microprojection which is being employed. It will be understood by persons of skill in the art that in many cases the same inventive principles apply to the use of other microprotrusions or microprojections to penetrate skin or other biological membranes. Other microprotrusions or microprojections may include, for example, microblades as described in U.S. Patent No. 6,219,574 and Canadian patent application no. 2,226,718, and edged microneedles as described in U.S. Patent No. 6,652,478. -3- 1000201 In general it is preferred that the microprojections have a height of at least about 100 pm, at least about 150 pm, at least about 200 pm, at least about 250 pm, or at least about 300 pm. In general it is also preferred that the microprojections have a height of no more than about 1 mm, no more than about 500 pm, no more than about 300 pm, or in some cases no more than about 200 pm or 150 pm. The microprojections may have an aspect ratio of at least 3:1 (height to diameter at base), at least about 2:1, or at least about 1:1. A particularly preferred shape for the microprojections is a cone with a polygonal bottom, for example hexagonal or rhombus-shaped. Other possible microprojection shapes are shown, for example, in U.S. Published Patent App. 2004/0087992. Microprojections may in some cases have a shape which becomes thicker towards the base, for example microprojections which have roughly the appearance of a funnel, or more generally where the diameter of the microprojection grows faster than linearly with distance to the microprojection's distal end. Such a shape may, for example, facilitate demolding. FIG. 4 schematically depicts in cross section a microprojection 40 of this type. As may be seen in the figure, the diameter D of the microprojection's intersection with a plane parallel to the base 46 decreases as the plane moves away from the base 46. In addition, this diameter decreases more rapidly close to the base, in zone 44, than it does further away from the base, in zone 42. [000211 Where microprojections are thicker towards the base, a portion of the microprojection adjacent to the base, which we may call "foundation," may be designed not to penetrate the skin. [00022] The number of microprotrusions in the array is preferably at least about 100, at least about 500, at least about 1000, at least about 1400, at least about 1600, or at least about 2000. The area density of microprotrusions, given their small size, may not be particularly high, but for example the number of microprotrusions per cm 2 may be at least about 50, at least about 250, at least about 500, at least about 750, at least about 1000, or at least about 1500. [00023] In an aspect of the invention, an array of microprotrusions is formed by (a) providing a mold with cavities corresponding to the negative of the microprotrusions, (b) casting atop the mold a solution comprising a biocompatible material and a solvent, (c) removing the solvent, (d) demolding the resulting array from the mold. The solution preferably contains an active ingredient. [000241 The molds used to form the microneedles in methods of the invention can be made using a variety of metliods and materials. In contrast to other methods of making -4microneedle arrays, for the methods of the invention no particularly' high degree of heat resistance is necessarily required of the mold. [00025] The mold may, for example, conveniently comprise a ceramic material. Alternatively, for example, the mold may comprise a silicone rubber or a polyurethane. The mold may alternatively comprise a wax, A particular silicone rubber system which may be used is the.Sylgard@ system from Dow Coming (Midland, MI), for example Sylgard 184. Nusil MED 6215 is an alternative system available from NuSil Technology (Carpinteria, CA). The mold may conveniently be made of or comprise a porous material. [00026] There are a number of ways of making the molds. The molds can be made, for example, by casting the liquid mold material over a master microneedle array and allowing the material to dry and harden. In some cases, curing of the material may take place during the drying process. For some materials curing agents may be added. Silicone rubbers and polyurethane are two types of materials that can be used to make molds in this way. [00027] The molds can be made by heating the mold material until it melts. The liquid is then cast over the master microneedle array and allow the material to cool and harden. Waxes and thermoplastics are two classes of materials that can be used to make molds in this way. [000281 The molds can be made by pressing the master microneedle array into the mold material. For this manufacturing technique, the mold material is preferably much softer than the microneedle array. The mold material can be heated to soften it. Waxes and thermoplastics are two types of materials that can be used to make molds in this way. [000291 The molds can be made by plating metal (such as nickel, copper or gold) onto a master microneedle array. [00030] The molds can be made by machining the cavities into the mold material. Electrostatic discharge machining (EDM) can be used to make cavities in metals. Reactive ion etching (RIE) can be used to create the cavities, for example, in silicon and other semiconductors. [000311 The step of casting may be performed by a number of methods known to those of skill in the art. Example I describes briefly a way of performing the step of casting. Goals of casting include roughly uniform coverage of the surface of the mold on which the microneedle array is expected to be formed. [00032 The solution which is cast preferably comprises one or more polymers in a solvent and an active ingredient. The polymers should be biocompatible. The polymers are preferably biodegradable. By this term we mean that a polymer will degrade under expected -5conditions of in vivo use (e.g., insertion into skin), irrespective of the mechanism of biodegradation. Exemplary mechanisms of biodegradation include disintegration, dispersion, dissolution, erosion, hydrolysis, and enzymatic degradation. [00033] For example, suitable biocompatible, biodegradable, or bioerodible polymers include poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)s (PLOAs), polyanhydrides, polyorthoesters, polyetheresters, polycaprolactones (PCL), polyesteramides, poly(butyric acid), poly(valeric acid), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), block copolymers of PEG-PLA, PEG PLA-PEG, PLA-PEG-PLA , PEG-PLGA, PEG-PLGA-PEG, PLGA-PEG-PLGA, PEG-PCL, PEG-PCL-PEG, PCL-PEG-PCL, copolymers of ethylene glycol-propylene glycol-ethylene glycol (PEG-PPG-PEG, trade name of Pluronic@ or Poloxamer@), dextran, hetastarch, tetrastarch, pentastarch, hydroxyethyl starches, cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na CMC), thermosensitive HPMC (hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose), polyphosphazene, hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), other polysaccharides, polyalcohols, gelatin, alginate, chitosan, hyaluronic acid and its derivatives, collagen and its 'derivatives, polyurethanes, and copolymers and blends of these polymers. A preferred hydroxyethyl starch may have a degree of substitution of in the range of 0-0.9. (000341 The polymers used in the invention may have a variety of molecular weights. The polymers may, for example, have molecular weights of at least about SD, at least about 10 kD, at least about 20 kD, at least about 22 kD, at least about 30 kD, at least about 50 kD, or at least about 100 kD. [00035] Preferred solvents for casting include water, alcohols (for example, C 2 to Cs alcohols such as propanol and butanol), and alcohol esters, or mixtures of these. Other possible non-aqueous solvents include esters, ethers, ketones, nitriles, lactones, amides, hydrocarbons and their derivatives as well as mixtures thereof. [00036] In the step of casting the solution on the mold, it is commonly desired to avoid the presence of bubbles of air between the solution and the mold when it is cast. A number of techniques may be employed within the methods of the invention for avoiding these bubbles. [00037] The mold itself, or portions of it, may be subject to surface treatments which make it easier for the solution to wet the mold surface. For example, the mold surface can be coated with a surfactant such as Jet Dry, polysorbate, docusate sodium salt, benzethonium chloride, alkyltrimethylammonium bromide or hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide -6- (CTAB). Wettability of silicone mold surfaces may be improved by covering them with a solution of hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) in organic solvent. 1000381 The mold surface can be coated with a salt such as calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate can conveniently be formed in situ from calcium bicarbonate. The mold surface is coated by covering it with a solution containing equivalent quantities of calcium chloride and sodium bicarbonate to form calcium bicarbonate solution in situ. Ultrasonic energy is then applied to precipitate the calcium carbonate salt which is formed as calcium bicarbonate decomposition product under these conditions. 100039] The wettability of the mold surface can also be improved by radiofrequency (RF) or plasma treatment. Alternatively, it is possible to attach to the surface appropriate small molecules, for example in a reaction which is triggered by ultraviolet light. Exemplary small molecules are vinyl monomers comprising carboxyl, primary or secondary or tertiary amine and/or hydroxyl groups, for example acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, allyl amine, or hydroxyethyl methylacrylate (HEMA). [000401 Surface treatments suitable for inducing hydrophilicity are described also in U.S. Published Patent Application No. 20060097361. [00041] A wetting agent, for example Dow Coming Q2-521 1, can be added to the mold itself as it is being formed. Q2-521 I is described by Dow Coming as a low molecular weight nonionic silicone polyether surfactant. Being mixed in with the mold as it is formed, the wetting agent becomes part of the mold. . [00042] A surfactant such as alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (Cetrimide), hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), benzethonium chloride, docusate sodium salt, a SPAN-type surfactant, polysorbate (Tween), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), benzalkonium chloride, or glyceryl oleate can be added to the solution. (00043] An-anti-foaming agent can be added to the solution, Exemplary antifoaming agents include Dow Coming's FG-10 antifoam Emulsion, Antifoam C Emulsion, 190 fluid, and 193C fluid. [00044] The cavities can be filled with a wetting liquid that easily flows into the cavities and will be absorbed by the mold. The wetting liquid could be ethyl acetate or silicone fluid when the mold is made of silicone rubber. The drug solution is cast over the wetting liquid and is drawn into the cavities as the wetting liquid is absorbed. [00045] The drug solution can be cast onto the mold while a vacuum is applied over the cavities. A low-pressure bubble covered with a liquid film of drug solution can form in the -7cavities. When the vacuum is removed, the higher pressure over the liquid film will shrink the bubble in the cavity and push the drug solution in behind it. [00046] Alternatively, the mold may be designed to possess a porosity sufficient to allow air to escape from bubbles that may be found between the solution and the mold, but not sufficient for the solution itself to enter the mold's pores. [00047] A further technique which may be employed to avoid air bubbles is to place the mold under compression prior to casting. The compression may be, for example, from two opposite sides. The compression will tend to reduce the volume of the cavities into which the solution must enter. The solution is then cast on the compressed mold. The compression is then released. Upon releasing the compression, the solution is drawn into the cavities as they expand to their normal volume. This process can be performed across the entire mold simultaneously or can be performed on sections of the mold. [00048] The step of casting may alternatively be carried out under an atmosphere which passes more readily through the solution than air would, for example carbon dioxide or another gas whose solubility is greater than that of nitrogen or oxygen, the major constituents of air. [000491 If a bubble is not prevented from forming in a cavity, several methods can be used to remove the bubble. For example, the bubble may be dislodged by vibrating the mold with the drug solution on it. [00050] Pressurization of the cast solution and mold may help eliminate bubbles. In general, the gas in a bubble is expected to diffuse into the liquid over a period of time. When this happens, drug solution is expected to flow into the cavity due to gravitational pull and hydrostatic pressure. The filling and diffusion processes can be accelerated by pressurization. Drying of the liquid is preferably slowed during this period so the liquid can flow into the cavity as the gas from the bubble diffuses into the liquid. Pressurization can be accomplished by placing the mold with the drug solution on it into a pressure vessel. Pressurization may involve a pressure of at least about 3 psi, about 5 psi, about 10 psi, about 14.7 psi, or about 20 psi above atmospheric. [00051] The Epstein-Plesset equation for the time to the dissolution of a bubble in a liquid gives at least a qualitative understanding of the bubble dissolution taking place when the mold and cast solution are pressurized. However, generally the bubbles in mold cavities will have roughly a conical shape and the bubbles hypothesized by Epstein and Plesset were spherical. -8- [00052] Thus, for example, an exemplary method of casting dispenses the solution on the mold over the cavities. A vacuum is applied, causing air trapped in cavities to expand. The air bubbles flow towards the surface of the solution, which in turn flows down into the cavities. When the pressure is returned to atmospheric, the expanded air left in the cavities compresses down. [00053] Another exemplary method of casting dispenses the solution on the mold over the cavities. An overpressure is applied, for example about 0.5 atmospheres, about 1 atmosphere, or about 1.5 atmospheres, causing air bubbles trapped in cavities to contract. The higher pressure causes the air trapped in the bubbles to dissolve into the liquid and causes the bubbles eventually to disappear. After a suitable time the overpressure can be removed. In order to prevent the formulation from drying during this process, the environment surrounding the mold can be humidified. [000541 A vacuum can be applied after the drug solution is cast over the cavities to make the bubbles expand which increases the force pushing them up through the drug solution. The bubbles then rise to the surface of the liquid and the liquid fills the cavities. Drying of the liquid is preferably slowed during this period so the liquid can flow into the cavity as the bubble rises. [000551 It is possible to combine many of the bubble prevention or elimination methods which are listed above. [00056] During the process of solvent removal, the volume of the cast solution will naturally diminish. With an appropriate choice of solvents, it is possible for the distal ends of the microprojections - those furthest from the base - to become finer as a result of solvent removal. Fineness in these tips may be favorable, all else being equal, for easier penetration of the skin, and may thus be desired. A tip diameter of less than about 10 pn, 5 pm or 2 pm is desirable. A tip diameter of less than about 1.5 pm is desirable, as is a tip diameter of less than about I pm. 100057] The solvent removal may be accomplished, for example, by heat, vacuum, or convection. The solvent removal may be assisted by covering the cast solution with an absorbent material. [00058] Particularly where the active ingredient is macromolecular, it is desirable to avoid extensive use of heat in the solvent removal step because of the possibility of irreversible denaturation of the active, For example, it is preferable if no temperature above about 100 0 C is used (except perhaps for a brief period), more preferably no temperature above about 90*C, -9-.

and more preferably no temperature above about 85 0 C or 80*C is employed. More preferably, no temperature above about 50*C, 40*C or 37*C is employed. [00059] Cast microprojection arrays may be removed from the mold by using a de-mold tool which has a rolling angle of about 1-90 degrees from the plane. A double-sided adhesive is placed on the back of microprojection array with one side for adhering to the array and the other side for adhering to the de-mold tool. The array is removed from the mold by gently rolling the de-mold tool over the adhesive on the back of the array with a slight the rolling angle, such as about 1-90 degrees, preferred about 5-75 degrees, more preferred about 10-45 degrees. The microprojection array is then gently peeled off from the de-mold tool. [000601 In an aspect of the invention, an array of microprotrusions is provided comprising an approximately planar base and a plurality of microprotrusions, wherein the array comprises a plurality of layers arranged roughly parallel to the plane of the base, at least two of the plurality of layers comprise different polymers, and optionally at least one layer of the plurality of layers comprises an active ingredient. [00061] Arrays of the invention may be designed, for example, such that at least one layer of the array adheres to human skin. 100062] There are a number of reasons why arrays with multiple layers may be desirable. For example, it is often desirable that, compared to the whole volume of the microprojection array, the microprojections themselves have a higher concentration of active ingredient. This is so, for example, because the microprojections can be expected in many cases to dissolve more rapidly, being more hydrated than the base of the array. Furthermore, in some protocols for array application, the array may be left in for a short period of time during which essentially only the microprojections can dissolve to a substantial extent. The desirability of placing a higher concentration of active in the projections themselves is particularly acute when the active is costly. A way to achieving a higher concentration of active in the projections themselves is to have a first layer which includes the microprojections or a substantial proportion of the microprojections, and a second layer which includes the base or a substantial proportion of the base. [00063] FIG. 5A depicts schematically in cross-section two exemplary microprojection arrays of the invention. In the first microprojection array 50, there is a base 58 and a plurality of microprojections such as 56. The microprojection array comprises two layers 52 and 54 (shaded). As may be seen, the microprojections themselves fall entirely within layer 52, so that layer 54 does not contain any microprojections. In the second microprojection array 60, -10there are also a plurality of microprojections such as 66. The microprojection array comprises two layers 62 and 64 (shaded). However, in array 60 the layer 62 encompasses only a portion of the microprojections which comprises their tips or distal ends. The layer 64 encompasses the portion of the microprojections not contained in layer 62 and also encompasses the totality of the base 68. [000641 FIG. 5B depicts two further types of microprojection arrays schematically in cross-section. In microprojection array 70, there are also a plurality of microprojections such as 76. The microprojection array comprises three layers 72, 74 and 78. However, in array 70 the layer 72 encompasses only a portion of the microprojections which comprises their tips or distal ends. Layer 72 may have a higher concentration of drug substance than layer 74. Layer 74 encompasses only a portion of the microprojections. Layer 78 encompasses the portion of the microprojections not contained in layers 72 or 74. It encompasses the totality of the base. In this type of microprojection array, the depth of drug substance delivered through the microprojection array can be controlled by tailoring the length of portion of tip 72. [00065] In a further type of microprojection array 80 shown schematically in cross-section in FIG. 5B, there is also a plurality of microprojections such as 88. The microprojection array comprises a layer 82 which includes the distal ends of the microprojections. That layer, however, encloses deposits such as 84 which contain active. The layer 82 may be made of a material which serves to control the rate at which the active is released from the deposits 84. There are two further layers 86 and 90. Layer 86 may be made of a material eroding more rapidly than other layers, for example so as to allow separation of the microprojections 88 in use. Layer 90 encompasses the base of the army. [000661 Example 8 discloses fabrication procedures by which microprojection arrays of the type of array 80 may be made. The materials for layer 82 need to be chosen so that the enclosure of the deposits 84 can be achieved. Exemplary polymers suitable for use in layer 82 include poly(lactic acid), poly(glycolic acid), poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid), poly(caprolactone), polyanhydrides, polyamines, polyesteramides, polyorthoesters, polydioxanones, polyacetals, polyketals, polycarbonates, polyphosphoesters, polyorthocarbonates, polyphosphazenes, poly(malic acid), poly(amino acids), hydroxycellulose, polyphosphoesters, polysaccharides, chitin, and copolymers, terpolymers and mixtures of these. -Il- [000671 A further type of three-layer microprojection array 100 is shown schematically in cross-section in FIG. 5C. In array 100 there are also a plurality of microprojections such as 106. The microprojection array comprises three layers 102, 104 and 108. In array 100 the middle layer 104 may be made of a material eroding more rapidly than other layers, for example so as to allow separation of the microprojections 106 in use. In that event the drug substance is preferably contained in layer 102. [00068] While FIGS. 5A-5C depict planar interfaces between the layers making up the microprojection arrays, in reality these interfaces may have a curvature. FIG. 6 depicts certain possible shapes 110 and 112 that the top of the lowermost layer 114 of an array may assume. Each of these shapes may be referred to generally as a "meniscus," although some people might strictly speaking limit that term to the shape of a liquid partially filling a cavity and not extend it to the shape of a cast composition in a cavity after solvent removal. It is known that the form of the meniscus of a liquid is affected by its density and by surface tension parameters, and may be modified by the use of surface-active agents. For the surface of a solvent-cast formulation in a cavity, it is further possible to affect the form of the surface by means of differential drying conditions, for example making it have greater or lesser curvature or to lie deeper or higher in the cavity. Example 10 provides some illustrations of drying regimes which can affect the form of the surface of the solvent-cast film following solvent removal. [000691 In a method of the invention, the solution comprising the active is cast so that it fills the cavities of a mold partially or fills no more than the cavities. This solution is dried. A further solution with a lower or zero concentration of active, constituting a second layer, is then cast over the solution comprising the active. The polymers used in the first layer are preferably not soluble in the solvent used for the second layer. The second layer preferably uses a different polymer or polymers from the ones used in the first layer. This procedure may produce an array which array has two layers and in which the microprojections are enriched in active. In such an array, the active would not be expected to substantially diffuse into the first layer. [00070] The second layer may comprise, for example, cellulose acetate butyrate, cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate propionate, ethyl cellulose, nitrocellulose, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose phthalate, polystyrene, polyacrylates (such as acrylate/octylacrylamide copolymers, Dermacryl 97), polymethacrylates (such as Eudragits E, RL, RS, L100, S100, L100-55), or poly(hydroxyl alkanoates). Preferably the second layer may comprise biocompatible, -12biodegradable polymer(s) such as PLA, PGA, PLGA, polycaprolactone and copolymers thereof. Preferably where the first layer is cast in an aqueous solvent, the second layer is cast in an organic solvent. Preferred solvents for the second layer include alcohols, for example isopropyl alcohol and ethanol, and esters, for example ethyl acetate, heptane, or propyl acetate, or other solvents such as acetonitrile, dimethylsulfone (DMSO), N methylpyrrolidone (NMP), or glycofurol. [00071] In a multi-layer microprojection array, the first layer, instead of being placed into the mold by a method such as bulk casting, may alternatively be transported into each individual mold cavity as an individual droplet. In recent decades systems have been developed for putting down many small drops automatically onto substrates in a regular pattern. Such systems may operate, for example, on a piezoelectric or bubble jet principle. An early application of these capabilities was inkjet printing in which ink was impelled towards a substrate such as a sheet of paper according to a computer-controlled pattern. A variety of other types of liquids, including liquids containing biomolecules, have also been deposited by such techniques. Exemplary patents discussing this type of technology include U.S. Patents Nos. 6,713,021, 6,521,187, 6,063,339, 5,807,522, and 5,505,777. Commercial products for such applications are available, for example, from BioDot, Inc. ([rvine, California), MicroFab Technologies, Inc. (Plano, Texas), and Litrex Corporation (Pleasanton, California). 1000721 A typical dispensing arrangement (see FIG. 3) uses a dispensing head 10 which is movable in an X-Y plane by means of a suitable apparatus 20. The dispensing head commonly comprises a reservoir of liquid, a pre-dispensing zone, and an opening into the pre-dispensing zone. The liquid in the pre-dispensing zone does not pass through the opening on account of surface tension. A transducer, typically piezoelectric, is operatively connected to the pre-dispensing zone. In operation, a pulsing of the transducer reduces the volume of the pre-dispensing zone and so imparts sufficient energy to the liquid in the pre-dispensing zone that surface tension is overcome and a drop is dispensed. 1000731 In addition to piezoelectric transducers, other ways of impelling the liquid from a dispensing head have been discussed in the literature. For example, a gas may be used, or the movement of a member driven by a magnetic field. [000741 A major consideration favoring the placement of the first layer in the form of droplets into the mold cavity is the potential savings of drug substance that can result if the -13first layer is the only drug-containing layer. This can be of particular value if the drug substance is expensive. 100075] A consideration in the placement of the first layer in the form of droplets is the variability in the size of the droplets which is placed in each cavity. It is preferred that the droplet volumes have a coefficient of variation of no more than about 25%, no more than about 15%, no more than about 10%, no more than about 5%, or no more than about 2%. [00076] It is also desirable that the droplets arrive fairly precisely into the centers of the mold cavities so that following the process of filling they are located near the bottoms of the cavities. Cavity openings may typically have diameters on the order of approximately 100 pm. It may therefore be desired, for example, that the droplet center lie within a radius of about 15, 25, or 35 pm around the center of the cavity opening. As will be seen by the person of skill in the art, a number of factors go into determining whether this degree of precision can be achieved routinely. For example, the molds should have a dimensional stability which makes this degree of precision achievable. Their alignment relative to the dispensing device should also be controllable to the requisite degree of precision. [00077] Preferably the droplets would displace the air in the mold cavities so air would not be trapped inside the mold cavities under the formulation. Each droplet preferably enters the cavity into which it is transported without splashing or bouncing (i.e., remains in the cavity after being transported into it). In order to achieve this, it may be desirable to control the energy or velocity or momentum of the droplets at the time that they strike the cavity. Additional drops of formulation could be added to the cavities either before or after the formulation that was previously dispensed has dried. FIG. 3 depicts three droplets 22, 24, 26 in succession being transported into a cavity 30 which already contains liquid 32. [000781 The diameter of the droplets is preferably smaller than the opening of the microneedle cavity in the mold. For example, a typical microneedle may be 200 pm long with a hexagonal base and a 10* draft on each face. The base of this microneedle would then be 71 pm from face to face. The volume of this microneedle is approximately 280 pL. The cavity in the mold to make this microneedle has approximately the same dimensions. A drop of fluid used to fill the cavity is preferably smaller in diameter than the opening of the cavity. To meet this constraint, the drop should consequently be less than 71 Pm in diameter. A 71 pm diameter sphere has a volume of 187 pL. Thus, it may be desirable to dispense droplets in the range from about 50 pL to about 100 pL, about 150 pL, about 200 pL, about 250 pL, about 300 pL or about 500 pL, or about I nL. -14- [00079] The biodegradability of a microneedle array may be facilitated also by the inclusion of sugars. Exemplary sugars which may be included in a microneedle array include dextrose, fructose, galactose, maltose, maltulose, iso-maltulose, mannose, lactose, lactulose, sucrose, and trehalose. Sugar alcohols, for example lactitol, maltitol, sorbitol, and mannitol, may also be employed. Cyclodextrins can also be used advantageously in microneedle arrays, for example a, P, and y cyclodextrins, for example hydroxypropyl-p-cyclodextrin and methyl-p-cyclodextrin. Sugars and sugar alcohols may also be helpful in stabilization of certain actives (e.g., proteins) and in modifying the mechanical properties of the microprojections by a plasticizing-like effect. [000801 The biodegradability of a microneedle array may be facilitated by inclusion of water-swellable polymers such as crosslinked PVP, sodium starch glycolate, celluloses, natural and synthetic gums, or alginates. [00081] In a multilayer array, the sugars and other polymers which facilitate biodegradability may be located only in a layer or layers which encompass the microprojections. [000821 The microneedle arrays of the invention are suitable for a wide variety of drug substances. Suitable active agents that may be administered include the broad classes of compounds such as, by way of illustration and not limitation: analeptic agents; analgesic agents; antiarthritic agents; anticancer agents, including antineoplastic drugs; anticholinergics; anticonvulsants; antidepressants; antidiabetic agents; antidiarrheals; antihelminthics; antihistamines; antihyperlipidemic agents; antihypertensive agents; anti-infective agents such as antibiotics, antifungal agents, antiviral agents and bacteriostatic and bactericidal compounds; antiinflammatory agents; antimigraine preparations; antinauseants; antiparkinsonism drugs; antipruritics; antipsychotics; antipyretics; antispasmodics; antitubercular agents; antiulcer agents; anxiolytics; appetite suppressants; attention deficit disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder drugs; cardiovascular preparations including calcium channel blockers, antianginal agents, central nervous system agents, beta-blockers and antiarrhythmic agents; caustic agents; central nervous system stimulants; cough and cold preparations, including decongestants; cytokines; diuretics; genetic materials; herbal remedies; hormonolytics; hypnotics; hypoglycemic agents; immunosuppressive agents; keratolytic agents; leukotriene inhibitors; mitotic inhibitors; muscle relaxants; narcotic antagonists; nicotine; nutritional agents, such as vitamins, essential amino acids and fatty acids; ophthalmic drugs such as antiglaucoma agents; pain relieving -15agents such as anesthetic agents; parasympatholytics; peptide drugs; proteolytic enzymes; psychostimulants; respiratory drugs, including antiasthmatic agents; sedatives; steroids, including progestogens, estrogens, cortidosteroids, androgens and anabolic agents; smoking cessation agents; sympathomimetics; tissue-healing enhancing agents; tranquilizers; vasodilators including general coronary, peripheral and cerebral; vessicants; and combinations thereof [000831 In general certain drug substances (e.g., nitroglycerin) will transport readily through skin, without any special formulation requirements. Other drug substances will transport through skin with greater difficulty and, with a practical-sized system for application, only with the assistance of enhancers. Other substances are not suitable for transdermal administration even with available enhancers and thus benefit particularly from the channels which microneedles are able to produce. Such substances include, for example, peptidic or other large molecule substances for which oral administration is also not an option. [000841 Examples of peptides and proteins which may be used with microneedle arrays are oxytocin, vasopressin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), epidermal growth factor (EGF), prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, luliberin or luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH), insulin, somatostatin, glucagon, interferon, gastrin, tetragastrin, pentagastrin, urogastrone, secretin, calcitonin, enkephalins, endorphins, kyotorphin, taftsin, thymopoietin, thymosin, thymostimulin, thymic humoral factor, serum thymic factor, tumor necrosis factor, colony stimulating factors, motilin, bombesin, dinorphin, neurotensin, cerulein, bradykinin, urokinase, kallikrein, substance P analogues and antagonists, angiotensin II, nerve growth factor, blood coagulation factors VII and IX, lysozyme chloride, renin, bradykinin, tyrocidin, gramicidines, growth hormones, melanocyte stimulating hormone, thyroid hormone releasing hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, parathyroid hormone, pancreozymin, cholecystokinin, human placental lactogen, human chorionic gonadotropin, protein synthesis stimulating peptide, gastric inhibitory peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide, platelet derived growth factor, growth hormone releasing factor, bone morphogenic protein, and synthetic analogues and modifications and pharmacologically active fragments thereof. Peptidyi drugs also include synthetic analogs of LHRH, e.g., buserelin, deslorelin, fertirelin, goserelin, histrelin, leuprolide (leuprorelin), lutrelin, nafarelin, tryptorel in, and pharmacologically active salts thereof -16- [000851 Macromolecular active agents suitable for microneedle array administration may also include biomolecules such as antibodies, DNA, RNA, antisense oligonucleotides, ribosomes and enzyme cofactors such as biotin, oligonucleotides, plasmids, and polysaccharides. Oligonucleotides include DNA and RNA, other naturally occurring oligonucleotides, unnatural oligonucleotides, and any combinations and/or fragments thereof Therapeutic antibodies include Orthoclone OKT3 (muromonab CD3), ReoPro (abciximab), Rituxan (rituximab), Zenapax (daclizumab), Remicade (infliximab), Simulect (basiliximab), Synagis (palivizumab), Herceptin (trastuzumab), Mylotarg (gemtuzumab ozogamicin), CroFab, DigiFab, Campath (alemtuzumab), and Zevalin (ibritumomab tiuxetan).. [000861 Macromolecular active agents suitable for microneedle array administration may also include vaccines such as, for example, those approved in the United States for use against anthrax, diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b, human papillomavirus, influenza, Japanese encephalitis, measles/mumps/rubella, meningococcal diseases (e.g., meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine and meningococcal conjugate vaccine), pneumococcal diseases (e.g., pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and meningococcal conjugate vaccine), polio, rabies, rotavirus, shingles, smallpox, tetanus/diphtheria, tetanus/diphtherialpertussis, typhoid, varicella, and yellow fever. [00087] In a further aspect of the invention, it may be desired that the microprojections of the array detach from the array following insertion of the array into skin. [00088] One major advantage of detaching and dissolving microprojections is elimination of sharp disposal requirements. Another advantage of detaching and dissolving microprojections is elimination of needle stick injury. Another advantage of detaching and dissolving microprojections is elimination of misuse, for example needle sharing, since the substrate without microprojections or with microprojections whose tips have been blunted due to biodegradation will not penetrate the skin. Another advantage of detaching and dissolving microprojections is the avoidance of drug misuse because drug enriched tips are dissolved in the skin and no or minimal drug is left in the array. [00089] Detachable microprojections may be accomplished by a number of approaches. A layered approach, for example, may be used in which the array is composed of multiple layers, and a layer comprising the attachment areas of the microprojections to the array is more readily degradable than other layers. For example, the layer comprising the attachment areas of microprojections to array may be one which is more rapidly hydrated than the other layers. -17- .3 [00090] Alternatively, an array made of a homogeneous material may be employed, in which the material is more readily degradable at lower pH's. Arrays made of such a material will tend to degrade more readily near the attachment points because these, being closer to the surface of the skin, are at a lower pH than the distal ends of the microprojections. (The pH of the skin's surface is generally lower than that of the skin further inwards, pH being for example approximately 4.5 on the surface and approximately 6.5 to 7.5 inward.) [00091] Materials whose solubility is dependent on pH can be, for example, insoluble in pure water but dissolve in acidic or basic pH environment. Using such materials or combination of materials the arrays can be made to differentially biodegrade at skin surface (pH approximately 4.5) or inside skin. In the former, the whole array can biodegrade while in latter the microneedle portion of the array will biodegrade while substrate can be removed away. 1000921 Materials whose degradability in an aqueous medium is dependent on pH may be made, for example, by utilizing the acrylate copolymers sold by Rohm Pharma under the brand name Eudragit, which are widely used in pharmaceutical formulation. A further example of a material with pH variable solubility is hydroxypropyl cellulose phthalate. [00093] Microneedle arrays made of materials with pH dependent solubility may have additional-advantages besides facilitating detachment and differential absorption. For example, they may simplify packaging and handling because of their moisture resistance and rapid hydration and bioadhesion in the buffered acidic or basic environment of the skin. [000941 Microprojection arrays may also be made in which the microprojections have a biodegradability which varies with temperature over the range of expected use conditions, for example in the range of about 25*C to about 40'C. This may be achieved, for example, by the use of thermosensitive or thermoresponsive polymers. For example, PLGA biodegrades more slowly at higher temperatures. Certain Pluronic polymers are able to solidify with rising temperature. A use for the variation of degradability with temperature is, for example, due to the fact that the microprojections when inserted in skin will tend to have their distal ends at a higher temperature than the portions closer to the base, including the portions (if any) which are not inserted into skin and are thus at a temperature closer to the ambient temperature. The use of a temperature-dependent biodegradability thus offers a further way to tailor the biodegradability along the length of the microprojections. [00095] In a further aspect of the invention, it may be desired that the microneedle array or a layer of the array comprise a polymer or polymer blend with certain bioadhesive -18characteristics, which within a certain range of moisture will have higher adhesive strength the greater the moisture. It is particularly preferred in a multilayer array that the layer or layers in which the microneedles principally lie possess bioadhesive characteristics. [00096] While usable microneedles may be made of a number of biodegradable polymers as indicated in the patents and patent applications cited in the background section, a polymer that has a bioadhesive character has the advantage that no additional array attachment mechanism, for example an additional adhesive arranged along the exterior perimeter of the microneedle array, may be needed. Use of a bioadhesive polymer may also facilitate detachment of the microneedles or microprojections because they will have a greater adhesion to the interior of the skin where there is greater moisture. [00097] The bioadhesive polymers used in the methods of the invention may, for example, increase in adhesiveness from a moisture content of about 2%, about 5%, or about 10% to some upper limit of moisture content. The upper limit of moisture content beyond which adhesiveness ceases to increase is preferably at least about 20%, more preferably at least about 30%, 40%, 50% or 60% moisture content. 1000981 Exemplary polymers with bioadhesive characteristics include suitably plasticized polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinylpyrrolidone. An extensive discussion of a class of bioadhesive polymer blends is found in U.S. Patent No. 6,576,712 and U.S. Published Patent Applications Nos. 2003/0170308 and 2005/0215727, which are incorporated by reference for their teaching of bioadhesive polymer blends and adhesion testing. Preferable bioadhesive polymers are those which possess hydrogen-bonded crosslinks between strands of the primary polymers. These crosslinks may comprise a comparatively small molecule which forms hydrogen bonds to two primary polymer strands. It is believed that certain sugars may act as a small molecule crosslinker in this manner with particular primary polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol. [00099] The bioadhesive character of a polymer or blend may be determined by testing the bulk material for adhesion (e.g., by a peel test) at different levels of hydration. Alternatively, the bioadhesive character may also be seen if a microneedle array as applied to skin becomes more difficult to remove in minutes or tens of minutes after application, since the array may be assumed to become more hydrated during that period of time. [0001001 The bioadhesive nature of polymer may allow the polymer to form a channel or plug in the skin to keep pores open for prolonged period of time for drug diffusion. This is particularly useful if the substrate of the array is used as a drug reservoir, containing the same -19active ingredient or a different active ingredient from the one contained in the microneedles. The bioadhesive array can be also be used to pretreat the skin and leave bioadhesive microneedles inside the skin. This may be followed by application of a solid or liquid reservoir. Due to the channel formation, drug may freely diffuse through bioadhesive channels created and located in the skin. [0001011 A bioadhesive array embedded in skin or in another membrane may also be used as a biosensor. It may respond, for example, to biomarkers, pH, hydration, or temperature by itself. Alternatively, it may facilitate the flow of matter from inside the skin through the bioadhesive channel and onto the base or a reservoir placed in the skin adjacent to the array. For example, if the rate of dissolution of microprojections in skin is correlated with some property of the skin (e.g., pH), that property may be measured by embedding microprojections in skin for a measured period of time and then observing the degree to which they have dissolved. 1000102] Because microprojection arrays penetrate human skin, it may be desirable to take steps which tend to eliminate the presence of microorganisms in the array. Such steps include, for example, the use of a formulation with highsugar concentration which will act as an osmotic agent to dehydrate microorganisms in the formulation. An alternative technique is the use of a non-physiological pH (e.g., below pH 6 and above pH 8) to retard growth and destroy microbial viability. The formulation may be made with organic solvents which are then dried in order to dehydrate microorganisms. Apart from the dehydration effect, the use of organic solvents is also inherently bactericidal since they disrupt bacterial cell membranes. In addition, the microprojection arrays may be packaged in a sealed, low oxygen environment to retard aerobic microorganisms and eventually destroy their viability. The arrays may also be packaged in a low moisture environment to dehydrate microorganisms. [0001031 A further technique to deal with microorganisms is to include a pharmaceutically acceptable antibacterial agent in the formulation or the packaging. Examples of such agents are benzalkonium chloride, benzyl alcohol, chlorbutanol, meta cresol, esters of hydroxyl benzoic acid, phenol, and thimerosal. [0001041 As a further alternative, a surfactant or detergent can be added to the formulation to disrupt the cell membrane of any microorganisms to kill them. A desiccant could be added to the packaging to dehydrate microorganisms and kill them. [000105 Antioxidants may be added to the formulation, for example to protect the active from oxidation. Exemplary antioxidants include methionine, cysteine, D-alpha tocopherol -20acetate, DL-alpha tocopherol, ascorbyl palmitate, ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxyquinone, butylhydroxyanisole, hydroxycomarin, butylated hydroxytoluene, cephalin, ethyl gallate, propyl gallate, octyl gallate, lauryl gallate, propylhydroxybenzoate, trihydroxybutyrophenone, dimethylphenol, ditertbutylphenol, vitamin E, lecithin, and ethanolamine. [000106] In the evaluation of solvent cast or other microneedle arrays, various figures of merit may be employed. A simple visual figure of merit is the completeness of the array under microscopic examination: are any of the microneedles of an unsuitable shape, for example broken off or with unduly blunt or fine ends? It is desirable that no more than about 20%, no more than about 10%, preferably no more than about 5%, and more preferably no more than about 2% of the microneedles have an unsuitable shape upon demolding. [000107] An alternative figure of merit may be obtained by setting up a consistent test for skin penetration efficiency. An exemplary test requires the placement of the microneedle array upon a test sample of cadaver skin, the insertion of the array with a reproducible or standardized force, and the withdrawal of the array after a period of time. At that time the percentage of openings in the skin sample that are deemed to allow adequate transport of material may be taken as a figure of merit. A material that may be used to test adequacy of transport is India ink. It is desirable that at least about 80%, preferably at least about 90%, and more preferably at least about 95% of the openings in the skin allow adequate transport of material. [000108] A further figure of merit for microneedle arrays is transepidermal water loss (TEWL) after application of the array, which is conveniently expressed in units of mass per unit area and time. TEWL measurement has a number of dermatological applications. Commercially available instruments exist for the measurement of TEWL, for example from Delfin Technologies Ltd., Kuopio, Finland. TEWL is conveniently measured before and after the application of a microneedle array to a human test subject, the ratio of the two measured values being an indication of the degree to which the microneedle array disrupts the barrier function of the skin. [000109] For microneedle arrays it may be desired that the ratio of TEWL's after and before application of the microneedles be at least about 1.5, at least about 2.0, more preferably at least about 2.5. [000110] In practice, it may often be helpful for the microneedles produced by processes of the invention to be applied to the skin by means of some mechanism which helps insure a -21greater uniformity in the skin penetration efficiency. Such mechanisms may include, for example, the applicators disclosed in U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/881,905, which is incorporated by reference. 1000111] It is to be understood that while the invention has been described in conjunction with the preferred specific embodiments thereof, the foregoing description is intended to illustrate and not limit the scope of the invention. Other aspects, advantages, and modifications within the scope of the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art to which the invention pertains. 10001121 All patents, patent applications, and publications mentioned herein are hereby incorporated by reference in their entireties. However, where a patent, patent application, or publication containing express definitions is incorporated by reference, those express definitions should be understood to apply to the incorporated patent, patent application, or publication in which they are found, and not to the remainder of the text of this application, in particular the claims of this application. [000113) The following examples are put forth so as to provide those of ordinary skill in the art with a complete disclosure and description of how to implement the invention, and are not intended to limit the scope of what the inventors regard as their invention. Efforts have been made to ensure accuracy with respect to numbers (e.g., amounts, temperature, etc.) but some errors and deviations should be accounted for. Unless indicated otherwise, parts are parts by weight, temperature is in "C and pressure is at or near atmospheric. EXAMPLE 1 GENERAL PROCESS FOR ARRAY CASTING [000114] The mold to be used to form a microneedle array is cleaned with water or other suitable solvent and dried in an incubator: The mold is then placed in a Petri dish. One dispenses a small amount of formulation, for example, 20 pL, on the mold. The formulation may contain, for example, 25% bovine serum albumin (BSA), 20% polyvinyl alcohol, 27% trehalose, and 28% maltitol in water solvent, such that the formulation has, for example, 20% solids content as applied. The formulation is spread manually over the mold using a transfer pipette with a trimmed tip. The formulation is then vortexed, for example for five seconds, using a commercial vibrating instrument to even out the formulation. The mold with the formulation covering it is placed in a pressure vessel under I atm for about 10 minutes. Pressure is then removed. The mold is placed in an incubator at a temperature of 32*C, for -22about 1 hr. The array may then be demolded, for example using double-sided adhesive tape, and optionally attached to a backing. EXAMPLE 2 GENERAL PROCESS FOR CASTING TWO-LAYER ARRAYS [000115] Following the drying step of Example 1, an additional layer is cast on the mold using similar procedures. The additional layer may, for example, consist of 75 pL of 20 wt% Eudragit EPO in a 3:1 mixture of ethanol and isopropyl alcohol. The additional layer may be spread out, for example, using a glass slide. The mold is placed in a pressure vessel and pressurized at I atm for 2 minutes. The pressure is released and the mold is allowed to dry in the pressure vessel for an additional five minutes, without disturbing. The mold is again dried in the incubator for 1 hr at 32*C, and then demolded. EXAMPLE 3 SOLVENT-CAST MICRONEEDLE ARRAYS COMPRISING POLYVINYL ALCOHOL [0001161 Microneedle arrays were cast from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model drug, water as a solvent, and proportions of PVA, BSA, and other ingredients as indicated below, The general procedure of Example I was followed with some variations. Each array was evaluated by microscopic examination. The details of the arrays and their evaluations are given in the table below. Ex.# BSA PVA Trehalose Other Solids in BSA in Evaluation % USP, % ingredients casting casting % solution solution Al 0 100 10 0 clear, good A2 25 75 8.0 2.0 good A3 75% 22kD 25 PVA 13.3 3.3 good A4 25 25 50% mannitol 15.8 3.9 white, good AS 25 25 50% HP-j-CD 15.8 3.9 clear, good A6 25 25 50 16.1 3.9 clear good A7 5 25 70% mannitol 22.0 1.1 white, OK A8 62.8% 5 32.2 mannitol 15A 0.8 white, OK A9 5 32.2 62.8 15.4 0.8 clear, good A10 19.9% HP-p 5.4 29.9 44.8 CD 15.9 0.9 clear, good -23- All 20.7% HP-p 5 24.8 49.6 CD 18.4 0.9 clear, good A12 20.7% PVP 5 24.8 49.5 K30 20.6 1 clear, good A13 5 20 50 25% HP--CD 20.3 1 clear, good A14 5 20 30 15% HP--CD, 20.3 1 clear good 30% maltitol A15 5 20 25 10% HP-0-CD, 20.3 1.0 white, good 40% mannitol A16 5.1 25.6 9.9% H-P-P- 28.9 1.5 white, good CD, 39.6% mannitol A17 5 20.1 34.9 30% mannitol, 21.8 1.1 white, good -10% Lutrol 68 A1S 21 - - 52% 22K PVA 22.8 4.8 white, good 26% sucrose [000117] In this table, percentages are by weight, the mannitol is always D-mannitol, and HP-p-CD means hydroxypropyl 0-cyclodextrin. [0001181 The following table gives the evaluation of a further set of microneedle arrays. Ex. # BSA PVA Tre- Other ingredients Solids in BSA in Evaluation % USP, halose casting casting % % solution solution % % A19 40 20 20 20% maltitol 15.6 6.3 clear, good A20 30 20 25 25% maltitol 18.2 5.5 clear, good A21 25 20 27 28% maltitol 16.3 4.07 clear, good [000119] It is seen from the tables above that a wide variety of compositions can result in acceptable microneedle arrays. EXAMPLE 4 CASTING TWO-LAYER ARRAYS [0001201 A microneedle array with two layers can be prepared by the following steps: 10001211 1) Casting a solution comrising an active, polymer, and possibly other components in a mold. The clean mold is placed in a mold holder. One dispenses a small amount of formulation, for example, 75 p.L, as a droplet on the mold, placing a cover slip on top of the droplet to help spread the liquid onto the whole surface of the mold. The -24formulation may contain, for example, 15% human parathyroid hormone 1-34 fragment (hPTH1-34), 65% dextran 70, 20% sorbitol in a histidine buffer solvent, such that the formulation has, for example, 30% solids content as applied. The mold with the formulation covering it is placed in a pressure vessel under ca. 50 psi for about 30 seconds. Pressure is then removed. The excess formulation is wiped with a silicone wiper with the interference between wiper edge and surface of mold about 1-10 mils. The mold is placed in an incubator at a temperature of 32 0 C, for about half an hour. 1000122] 2) Casting an additional layer on top of the first layer in the mold. The mold with drug-containing layer cast is removed from the drying oven, any residue of dry formulation left on the base of the mold is removed by tape strip using a 3M 1516 single-sided adhesive. Then about 150 fL of "basement" solution which comprises poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with L/G ratio of 75/25 in acetonitrile is placed on the mold (atop the first solution). A thin film is cast using a wiper with the clearance between edge of the wipe and the surface of the mold about 10-20 mil. The mold is then placed into a pressure vessel under 10-30 psi with controlled venting for about 5 min. The mold is further dried at room temperature for about 30 min. The array may then be demolded, for example using double sided adhesive tape, and optionally attached to a polyethylene terephthalate film as backing. EXAMPLE 5 SOLVENT-CAST MICRONEEDLE ARRAYS COMPRISING POLYVINYL ALCOHOL, DEXTRAN, TETRASTARCH AND OTHER EXCIPIENTS [000123J Microneedle arrays were cast from PVA with sucrose as a sugar excipient, or dextran with sorbitol as a sugar excipient, or tetrastarch with sorbitol as a sugar excipient, bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model drug, and histidine buffer, pH 5-6, as a solvent. The proportions of polymer, sugar and drug are indicated below. The general procedure of Example 4 was followed with some variations. The details of the formulations used to form the arrays are given in the table below. -25- [0001241 Ex. # Polymer Sugar BSA Solids in casting solution Type Wt% Type Wt% Wt% Wt% B1 PVA 54.5 Sucrose 27.2 18.2 22 B2 PVA 54.5 Sucrose 18.2 27.2 22 B3 Dextran 70 71 Sorbitol 14 14 28 B4 Dextran 70 67 Sorbitol 20 13 30 B5 Dextran 40 75 Sorbitol 12 13 28 B6 Dextran 40 65 Sorbitol 23 12 30 B7 Tetrastarch 67 Sorbitol 20 13 30 B8 Tetrastarch 75 Sorbitol 13 12 25 [000125] The following table gives the details of formulations to form microneedle arrays with hPTHI(1-34) as the drug substance. Ex. # Polymer Sugar hPTH Solids in (1-34) casting solution Type Wt% Type Wt% Wt% Wt% B9 PVA 52.6 Sucrose 26.3 21.1 22.8 B10 PVA 46.2 Sucrose 23.1 30.7 26 B11 Dextran 70 67.5 Sorbitol 14 18.5 33 B12 Dextran 70 64.9 Sorbitol 19.5 15.6 30.8 B13 Dextran 40 67.5 Sorbitol 14 18.5 33 B14 Dextran 40 64.9 Sorbitol 19.5 15.6 30.8 B15 Tetrastarch 67.5 Sorbitol 14 18.5 33 B16 Tetrastarch. 64.9 Sorbitol 19.5 15.6 30.8 FBl7* Dextran 70 64.8 Sorbitol 19.3 15.5 31.2 *ca. 0.4 wt/o of methionine is added to the formulation as an antioxidant agent. [000126] It is seed from the tables above that a wide variety of compositions can be used to form microneedle arrays in accordance with this invention. EXAMPLE 6 POLYMERIC SOLUTIONS FOR CASTING "BASEMENT" LAYERS OF MICRONEEDLE ARRAYS 10001271 Different polymeric solutions can be used for casting the basement layer for the microneedle arrays. The polymer solutions are prepared by dissolving the polymers in a solvent or solvent mixture at room temperature with polymer concentration about 15-30% by weight. Thd details of composition of certain polymer solutions used for casting the basement of microneedle arrays are summarized in the table below. -26- Ex. # Polymer Solvent Type Wt% Type Wt% Cl Ethanol/IPA 80 Eudragit EPO 100 20 3/1 C2 Ethanol/ IPA 70 Eudragit EPO 100 30 3/1 C3 Eudragit EPO 80 100/PVP Ethanol/ IPA (1:1) 20 3/1 C4 PLGA (75/25) 10 Ethyl acetate 90 C5 PLGA (75/25) 15 Ethyl acetate 85 C6 PLGA (75/25) 15 Acetonitrile 85 C7 PLGA (75/25) 20 Acetonitrile 80 C8 PLGA (75/25) 30 Acetonitrile 70 C9 PLGA (65/35) 20 Acetonitrile 80 CI0 PLA 20 Acetonitrile 80 Cli Polycaprolactone 20 Acetonitrile 80 10001281 In this table the following abbreviations are used: Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP); poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (L/G ratio 75/25, 65/35); poly(lactic acid) (PLA); and isopropyl alcohol (IPA). EXAMPLE7 CASTING MICRONEEDLE ARRAYS WITH THREE LAYERS [000129 A microneedle array with three layers can be prepared in the following steps: 10001301 1) Casting a non-drug containing tip layer in the mold. The clean mold is placed in a mold holder. One dispenses a small amount (20 pL) of formulation solution without drug, as a droplet on the mold. The formulation may contain, for example, 70% dextran 70, 30% sorbitol in histidine buffer solvent, such that the formulation has, for example, 30% solids content as applied. The mold with the formulation covering it is placed in a pressure vessel under ca. 50 psi for about 30 seconds. Pressure is then removed. The excess formulation is wiped with a silicone wiper with the interference between wiper edge and surface of mold about 1-10 mils. The mold is placed in an incubator at a temperature of 32*C, for about half an hour. [000131] 2) Casting drug containing layer in the mold. After the step 1) above, one dispenses a small amount of formulation, for example, 75 gL, as a droplet on the mold, place a cover slip on top of the droplet to help spread the liquid onto the whole surface of the mold. -27- The formulation may contain, for example, 15% human parathyroid hormone 1-34 fragment (hPTH(l-34)), 65% dextran 70, 20% sorbitol in histidine buffer solvent, such that the formulation has, for example, 30% solids content as applied (e.g., B12 in Example 5 above). The mold with the formulation covering it is placed in a pressure vessel under ca. 50 psi for about 30 seconds. Pressure is then removed. The excess formulation is wiped with a silicone wiper with the interference between wiper edge and surface of mold about 110 mils. The mold is placed in an incubator at a temperature of 32*C, for about half an hour. [000132] 3) Casting the basement layer on top of the drug-containing layer in the mold. After step 2) above, then about 150 pL of basement solution which comprises poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with L/G ratio of 75/25 in acetonitrile is placed on the mold (on top of the drug-containing layer). A thin film is cast using a wiper with the clearance between edge of the wipe and surface of the mold about 10-20 mil. The mold is then placed into a pressure vessel under 10-30 psi with controlled venting for about 5 min. The mold is further dried at room temperature for about 30 min. The array may then be demolded, for example using double-sided adhesive tape, and optionally attached to a polyethylene terephthalate film as backing. EXAMPLE 8 CASTING ARRAYS WITH A RATE CONTROLLING LAYER [000133] A microneedle array with a rate controlling layer can be prepared in the following steps: [000134] 1) Casting a thin film of PLGA at the bottom of each cavity of the mold. The clean mold is placed in a mold holder. One dispenses a small amount (for example 20 pL) of PLGA solution (for example solution C4 of Example 4) as a droplet on the mold. A thin film is cast using a.wiper, with the clearance between the edge of the wiper and the surface of the mold being about 1-5 mils. The mold is then placed into a pressure vessel under 10-30 psi for about 30 sec. Pressure is then removed. The excess formulation is wiped with a silicone wiper, with the interference between wiper edge and the mold surface about 1-10 mils. The mold is placed in an incubator at a temperature of 32*C, for about half an hour. Additional steps may be taken to ensure that the thin film of PLGA is spread over the sides of the mold cavity. [000135] 2) Casting a drug-containing solution. After the step 1) above, one dispenses a small amount of formulation, for example, 75 pL, as a droplet on the mold, placing a cover slip on top of the droplet to help spread the liquid onto the whole surface of the mold. The -28formulation may contain, for example, 15% human parathyroid hormone 1-34 fragment (hPTH(1-34)), 65% Dextran 70, 20% sorbitol in histidine buffer solvent, such that the formulation has, for example, 30% solids content as applied (e.g., B12 in Example 5 above). The mold with the formulation covering it is placed in a pressure vessel under ca. 50 psi for about 30 seconds. Pressure is then removed. The excess formulation is wiped with a silicone wiper with the interference between wiper edge and surface of mold about 1-10 mils. The mold is placed in an incubator at a temperature of 32*C, for about half an hour. [000136] 3) Casting a thin layer of PLGA on top of the drug-containing layer in the mold. The mold with drug-containing layer cast is removed from the drying oven. Any residues of dry formulation left on the base of the mold are removed by tape strip using a 3M 1516 single-sided adhesive. One then places on the mold, on top of the drug-containing layer, about 10 siL of polymer solution which comprises poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with L/G ratio of 75/25 in acetonitrile. A thin film is cast using a wiper with the clearance between edge of the wipe and surface of mold about 1-5 mil. The mold is then placed into a pressure vessel under 10-30 psi with controlled venting for about 30 seconds. The mold is further dried at room temperature for about 30 min. [000137) 4) Casting a dissolvable layer on top of the thin PLGA layer. After step 3) above, one dispenses a small amount of formulation, for example, 25 pL, as a droplet on the mold and places a cover slip on top of the droplet to help spread the liquid onto the whole surface of the mold. The formulation may contain, for example, 70% Dextran 70, 30% sorbitol in histidine buffer solvent, such that the formulation has, for example, 30% solids content as applied. The mold with the formulation covering it is placed in a pressure vessel under ca. 50 psi for about 30 seconds. Pressure is then removed. The excess formulation is wiped with a silicone wiper with the interference between wiper edge and surface of mold about 1-8 mils. The mold is placed in an incubator at a temperature of 32*C, for about half an hour. [0001381 5) Casting a basement layer on top of the dissolvable layer in the mold. After step 4) above, then about 150 pL of basement solution which comprises poly(lactic acid-co glycolic acid) (PLGA) with L/G ratio of 75/25 in acetonitrile is placed on the mold (on top of the drug-containing solution). A thin film is cast using a wiper, with the clearance between edge of the wipe and surface of mold about 10-20 mil. The mold is then placed into a pressure vessel under 10-30 psi with controlled venting for about 5 min. It is believed that this pressure treatment helps to tailor the depth where the active pharmaceutical ingredient (drug substance) is delivered. The mold is further dried at room temperature for about 30 -29min. The array may then be demolded, for example using double-sided adhesive tape, and optionally attached to a polyethylene terephthalate film as backing. EXAMPLE 9 CASTING ARRAYS FOR SUSTAINED RELEASE OF DRUG SUBSTANCE FROM THE ARRAY (000139] A microneedle array for sustained release of drug substance from the array can be prepared in the following steps: [0001401 1) Casting a drug-containing layer for sustained release of drug substance. The clean mold is placed in a mold holder. One dispenses a small amount (e.g., 75 PL) of aqueous solution which comprises hPTH(l-34), a polymeric matrix such as polyethylene glycol-co-poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PEG-PLGA) copolymer, and excipients such as sucrose or sorbitol. The polymeric matrix is generally amphiphilic in nature. The hydrophobic segment(s) of the polymer can help control the release of drug substance. Examples of such formulations are described in the table below. The liquid formulation is spread manually on the surface of the mold with a glass cover slip. The mold with the formulation covering it is placed in a pressure vessel under ca. 50 psi for about 30 seconds. Pressure is then removed. The excess formulation is wiped with a silicone wiper with the interference between wiper edge and surface of mold about 1-10 mils. The mold is placed in an incubator at room temperature for about half an hour. [0001411 The following table gives the details of aqueous solutions to form microneedle arrays, comprising drug substance hPTH, polymeric matrix and excipients. Ex. # Polymer Excipients hPTH Solids in (1-34) casting solution Type Wt% Type Wt% Wt% Wt% DI PEG-PLGA (50/50(65/35)) 50 Sucrose 35 15 10 D2 PEG-PLGA (50150(65/35)) 45 Sucrose 40 15 10 D3 PEG-PLGA (50/50(65/35)) 45 Sucrose 40 is 20 D4 PEG-PLGA (50/30(65/35)) 55 Sucrose 35 10 10 DS PEG-PLGA (50/30(65/35)) 55 Sucrose 35 10 10 D6 PEG-PLGA (50/30(65/35)) 55 Sorbitol 35 10 10 -30- D7 PEG-PLGA (50/50(65/35)) 45 Sorbitol 40 15 10 D8 Pluronic F68 50 Sucrose 35 15 25 D9 Pluronic F 127 50 Sucrose 35 15 15 DlO Pluronic F68 50 Sorbitol 35 15 25 Dll PluronicF127 50 Sorbitol 35 15 15 [000142] In the table above, PEG-PLGA denotes a blend of polyethylene glycol and poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid). 1000143] 2) Casting a dissolvable layer on top of the drug-containing layer in the mold. After the step 1) above, one dispenses a small amount of formulation, for example, 25 pL, as a droplet on the mold, place a cover slip on top of the droplet to help spread the liquid onto the whole surface of the mold. The formulation may contain, for example, 70% Dextran 70, 30% sorbitol in histidine buffer solvent, such that the formulation has, for example, 30% solids content as applied. The mold with the formulation covering it is placed in a pressure vessel under ca. 50 psi for about 30 seconds. Pressure is then removed. The excess formulation is wiped with a silicone wiper with the interference between wiper edge and the surface of the mold about 1-8 mils. The.mold is placed in an incubator at a temperature of 32*C, for about half an hour. [0001441 3) Casting a basement layer on top of the dissolvable layer in the mold. After step 2) above, then about 150 pL of basement solution which comprises poly(lactic acid-co glycolic acid) (PLGA) with L/G ratio of 75/25 in acetonitrile is placed on the mold (on top of the dissolvable layer) and thin film is cast using a wiper with the clearance between edge of the wipe and surface of mold about 10-20 mil. The mold is then placed into a pressure vessel under 10-30 psi with controlled venting for about 5 min. The mold is further dried at room temperature for about 30 min. The array may then be demolded, for example using double sided adhesive tape, and optionally attached to a polyethylene terephthalate film as backing. EXAMPLE 10 CASTING ARRAYS WITH A CONTROLLED MENISCUS 1000145] The meniscus of the drug-containing layer in a solvent cast microneedle array manufacturing process might need to be controlled, for example to improve the consistency of skin penetration or improve efficiency. The meniscus can be controlled during the casting process as described below during the drying process: -31- [000146] The clean mold is placed in a mold holder. One dispenses a small amount (20 pL) of formulation solution without drug, as a droplet on the mold. The formulation may contain, for example, 70% Dextran 70, 30% sorbitol in histidine buffer solvent, such that the formulation has, for example, 30% solids content as applied. The mold with the formulation covering it is placed in a pressure vessel under ca. 50 psi for about 30 seconds. Pressure is then removed. The excess formulation is wiped with a silicone wiper with the interference between wiper edge and surface of mold about 1-10 mils. (000147] One instance of controlling the meniscus of the drug-containing layer is to manage the initial drying of the drug-containing layer as follows: place the mold back in the pressure vessel under ca. 30 psi with controlled venting for 5-10 min, as an initial drying. Pressure is then removed. The mold is further dried in the incubator at a temperature of 32*C, for about 20-30 min. [0001481 Another instance of controlling the meniscus of the drug-containing layer is to manage the initial drying of the drug-containing layer as follows: the mold is placed back in a controlled humidity chamber with 50-75% RH for 5-10 min, as an initial drying. Pressure is then removed. The mold is further dried in the incubator at a temperature of 32 0 C, for about 20-30 min. EXAMPLE 11 SKIN PENETRATION EFFICIENCY OF ARRAYS wiTn ~50% SUGAR CONTENT [000149] Two sets of arrays, El and E2, were prepared as described above. Arrays of type El were cast from a water solution of 25% by weight bovine serum albumin (BSA), 25% polyvinyl alcohol USP, and 50% trehalose. The water solution contained approximately 16.1% solids content. Arrays of type E2 were (i) cast from a water solution containing approximately 16.3% solids content, which consisted of 25% BSA, 20% polyvinyl alcohol USP, 27% trehalose, and 28% maltitol, producing a layer comprising the microneedles and a portion of the base, and then (ii) cast from 20 wt% Eudragit EPO in 3:1 ethanol:isopropyl alcohol, producing a second layer comprising a portion of the base. Both types of arrays had 200 pm high microneedles with a 400 pm spacing between microneedles. The arrays were 10 mm in diameter. Three arrays of each type were tested. [0001501 Skin penetration efficiency was tested using cadaver skin. The donor was a 77 year old white female. The skin was mounted on a foam-cork base and blotted on the stratum corneum side to remove excess moisture and to check for holes. -32- [0001511 The microneedle arrays were placed needle-side down directly on skin, the arrays being in contact with skin for less than fifteen seconds. A portable spring-loaded impactor with a 10 rmm tip was used to drive the microneedles into skin by impact loading. The impactor was used to hold arrays in skin for one minute. The arrays were then pulled out of the skin. A certain effort was required to pry the arrays out of the skin, confirming that the arrays possessed bioadhesive properties. India ink was used to stain the sites to confirm penetration. [000152] FIG. I depicts the skin penetration efficiency measurement for a E2 array. Small squares (two in the figure) are used to mark places where penetration was deemed insufficient. Skin penetration efficiency was rated at 99.6%. Skin penetration efficiency is estimated by counting the number of relatively dark stained areas (holes) in the microneedle treated skin region relative to the number of microneedles on the array used to treat the skin. EXAMPLE 12 TEWL. SPE AND DISSOLUTION TESTS OF ARRAYS [000153] The following data pertain to microneedle arrays of type E3, cast from a water solution (approximately 20.3% solids content) comprising BSA 5 wt%, PVA USP 20 wt%, hydroxypropyl p-cyclodextrin 15 wt%, trehalose 30 wt%, and maltitol 30 wt/o. Data are also given for arrays of type E2 from Example 11 and for polysulfone (PSF) arrays, which do not dissolve. Array Application Pre Post TEWL Type Time TEWL TEWL Ratio SPE Needle Dissolution % Array %Length E3 2 min 10.9 16.9 1.6 >90% 100% 80% E3 2 min 5.8 16.9 2.9 >90% 90% 80% E3 2 min 4.6 18.3 4.0 >90% 90% 80% E3 2 min 3.7 22.9 6.2 >90% 90% 80% E3 2 min 8.5 20.4 2.4 >90% 90% 70% E2 2 min 8.9 26.9 3.0 >90% 90% 80% E2 2 min 6.4 25.2 3.9 >90% 90% 80% E2 2 min 5.5 23.1 4.2 >90% 90% 80% E2 2 min 4.7 17.2 3.7 >90% 90% 60% E2 2 min 7.4 18.3 2.5 >90% 90% 70% PSF 2 min 6.0 26.8 4.5 >90% NA NA PSF 2 min 6.3 18.5 3.0 >90% NA NA PSF 2 min 4.9 15.1 3.1 >90% NA NA -33- [000154] In this table the TEWL data were obtained using anesthetized laboratory rats. The SPE (skin penetration efficiency) is measured by using India ink. The % Array needle dissolution value indicates the percentage of microneedles in the array that showed some dissolution, whereas the %Length indicates the percentage of the total length of the microneedles which dissolved. The dissolution was estimated by observing the needles under the microscope after use. EXAMPLE 13 SURFACE TREATMENT TO IMPROVE WETTING [000155] Sylgard 184 silicone elastomer from Dow Coming (Midland, Michigan) was given a surface treatment to improve wetting as follows. A quartz glass ring surrounded by a polyurethane ring were placed atop a 5 mm thick sheet of Sylgard 184. These formed a basin in which a monomer solution was placed. Methacrylic acid 1.58 g, water 14.42 g, benzyl alcohol 0.14 g, and NaIO 4 0.0022 g were placed in the basin. A total dose of 9.98 J/cm 2 of ultraviolet radiation was applied using an H type ultraviolet bulb three inches above the substrate. A conveyor was used to move the substrate past the ultraviolet bulb at 4 feet/minute for four passes. A UV Fusion Systems Model P300M was used for the ultraviolet exposure. [000156] Wetting was measured by placing 10 pL drops of particular liquids on the treated and untreated silicone elastomer. The results are given in the following table (standard deviations in parentheses, N = 3): Liquid Drop Size on Untreated Drop Size on Treated Surface (mm 2 ) Surface (mm 2 ) n-propanol 27.8 (2.2) 30.5 (2.4) 50% n-propanol 18.8 (1.7) 25.8 (1.2) water 9.3(0.5) 13.2(2.1) [0001571 A similar experiment was carried out in which the Sylgard 184 was pretreated with a 1% solution of benzophenone in heptane and dried for 15 minutes at 32*C. A solution containing acrylic acid 5 g, benzyl alcohol 0.35 g, NaIO 4 0.035 g, and water 45 g was applied to pretreated Sylgard 184. In both cases doses of approximately 9.6 J/cm 2 of ultraviolet light were applied in a similar manner to the preceding experiment. The results are given in the following table: -34- Liquid Drop Size with Metbacrylic Drop Size With Acrylic Acid Solution (mm 2 ) Acid Solution (mm 2 ) n-propanol 52.2 (2.0) 56.7 (8.7) 50% n-propanol 250.0 (20.0) 150.0 (10.5) water 37.5 (4.0) 31.7 (6.3) EXAMPLE 14 TEST OF SUPER WETTING AGENT [000158] A mixture of 10 g Sylgard base, I g Sylgard catalyst; and 0.55 g Q2-5211 was prepared, the base and catalyst being mixed first and the Q2-52.11 being added subsequently. This mix was then spread over a PET liner at 0.60 mm thickness. The mix was cured for a period of hours at 165*F. The wet-out of the Q2-5211 sample was estimated by recording the spreading of a single drop of BSA (bovine serum albumin) casting solution through video. It was found that that there was a -260% increase in drop area compared to a control. The casting solution had the composition of Example 3, row A14. EXAMPLE 15 FABRICATION OF MICRONEEDLE ARRAYS USING SUPER WETTING AGENT [0001591 In order to test the value of a "super wetting agent," Dow Corning Q2-52 11, with Sylgard 184 molds, the following tests were carried out. A mixture of 10 g Sylgard base, 1 g Sylgard catalyst, and 0.55 g Q2-5211 was prepared, the base and catalyst being mixed first and the Q2-5211 being added subsequently. This mix was then spread over a master microneedle array in order to prepare a mold. The mix on the master was placed under vacuum for 20 minutes and then cured for several hours at 155*F. Red food coloring was mixed with a BSA (bovine serum albumin) casting solution used in Example 3. Ten jL of this solution was pipetted onto the mold array. A half-inch-wide 30 mil thick piece of high impact polystyrene (HIPS) was used as a squeegee and the formulation was spread across the array several times. [000160] The sample was placed on a small piece of Lexan® and vortexed for 5 seconds to homogenize the liquid layer and move entrapped air. The sample was placed in a pressure vessel and pressurized at 15 psi for 10 minutes. The sample was then removed and placed in a drying chamber for one hour. The sample was then removed and 75 pL of a second layer not containing BSA was spread over the back of the array using the squeegee. The sample was -35placed in the pressure vessel and pressurized at 15 psi for 2 minutes. The sample was removed and again placed in a drying chamber for one hour. [000161] The array was removed from the mold by using a 17 mm button of 30 mil HIPS with double sided-adhesive on both sides of the button. One side of the button was adhered to a 17 mm diameter magnetic rod. The button was lowered on the array, gently compressed, then slowly removed while holding the silicone mold down. The button was then removed from the magnetic bar using a knife blade and the sample was adhered to a glass slide for better handling. [000162] Microscopic examination of the array showed that the colored portion of the array was predominantly confined to the tips of the microprojections. This is attributed to superior wetting of the cast solutions on the mold on account of the inclusion of super wetting agent in the mold. EXAMPLE 16 SOLVENT CASTING OF POLYSULFONE MICRONEEDLES 10001631 Microneedle arrays were made from polysulfone dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF). Volumes of 150 and 200 gL were spread over a silicone mold to which a rim of PET was attached with PVP-PEG adhesive. The % solids in the casting solutions was 15 or 20%. The mold with casting solution was pressurized at I bar for 5 minutes. The whole was then placed in a 60*C oven for periods ranging from 1 hour to overnight. The polysulfone was then demolded and the needles microscopically inspected. Air bubbles were seen in some cases, but other than the air bubbles, the microneedles appeared good. EXAMPLE 17 SOLVENT CASTING OF POLYSTYRENE MICRONEEDLES [000164] Microneedle arrays were made from polystyrene dissolved in toluene. Volumes of 75 to 125 pL were spread over a silicone mold to which a rim of PET was attached with PVP-PEG adhesive. The % solids in the casting solutions was 15%. The mold with casting solution was pressurized at 1 bar for 5 minutes. The whole was then placed in a 60*C oven for periods ranging from 2 to 3 h. The polystyrene was then demolded and the needles microscopically inspected. A small air bubble was seen in one case, but other than the air bubble, the microneedles appeared good. -36- EXAMPLE 18 HPTH(1-34) STABILITY IN DRY FILMS MADE WITH MICRONEEDLE CASTING FORMULATIONS 10001651 Dry films of microneedle casting formulations were made using process conditions similar to those for casting microneedle arrays in order to evaluate the stability of hPTH (1-34 fragment) in the dried form. About 20 jL of liquid formulation is placed in an Eppendorf tube. The formulation is spread into a thin film in the inside wall of the tube, then dried at 32*C for 30 min, and then further dried under vacuum at room temperature overnight. The dry films inside the Eppendorf tube were packaged in a polyfoil bag and stored at different temperatures for different durations. The purity of the hPTH(1-34) was analyzed by both reverse phase HPLC (rp-HPLC) and size exclusion HPLC (sec-HPLC). The details of the formulations are indicated in the table below. 1000166] The following table gives the details of formulations used to form dry films with hPTH as the drug. Ex. # Polymer Sugar hPTH Solids in (1-34) casting solution Type Wt% Type Wt% Wt% Wt% F1 PVA 52.6 Sucrose 26.3 21.1 22.8 F2 Dextran 70 64.9 Sorbitol 19.5 15.6 30.8 F3 Tetrastarch 64.9 Sorbitol 19.5 15.6 30.8 F4* Dextran 70 64.1 Sorbitol 19.4 15.4 31.2 *ca. 0.4 wt% of methionine is added to the formulation as an antioxidant agent. [0001671 Table A below illustrates the chemical purity as determined by rp-IIPLC of the hPTH(1-34) in different formulations as a function of storage time at three different temperatures. Table B below illustrates the monomer content as determined by sec-HPLC of the hPTH(1-34) in different formulations as a function of storage time at three different temperatures. It appears that hPTH(I1-34) is stable during storage for up to one month at even elevated temperature in all the formulations given in this example. (Formulation F3 was not sampled at the 1 week time point at room temperature or 40*C.) Table A F1 F2 F3 F4 4 0 C t=O 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 t =wk 99.77 99.87 99.78 100.00 -37t= 2wk 99.76 99.71 99.65 99.74 t = Imo. 99.78 99.69 99.66 99.73 Room Temp. t = 0 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 t = 1wk 99.75 100.00 100.00 t = 2wk 99.72 99.63 99.49 99.70 t= Imo 99.72 99.59 99.52 99.67 40 *C t=0 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 I = 1wk 99.72 99.79 99.88 t =mo 99.56 99.14 98.64 99.39 Table B F1 F2 F3 F4 4 *C t=0 . 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 t lwk 99.77 99.87 99.78 100.00 t = 2wk 99.76 99.71 99.65 99.74 t= mo 99.78 99.69 99.66 99.73 Room Temp. t = 0 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 t = lwk 99.75 100.00 100.00 t = 2wk 99.72 99.63 99.49 99.70 t=lmo 992.59 99.52 99.67 40 *C t=0 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 t = lwk 99.72 99.79 99.88 t = imo 99.56 99.14 98.64 99.39 -38-

Claims (27)

  1. 2. The array of claim 1, wherein the biodegradable polymer is selected from the group consisting of poly(lactic acid), poly(glycolic acid), poly(caprolactone), polyanhydrides, polyamines, polyorthoesters, polydioxanones, polyacetals, polyketals, polyphosphoesters, polyorthocarbonates, polyphosphazenes, polyvinyl alcohols, poly(malic acid), poly(amino acids), hydroxycellulose, polyphosphoesters, polysaccharides, hyalouronidase, and chitin. 3, The aray of clain 2,vherein the polysaccharide is selected from dextran and tetrastarch.
  2. 4. The array of claim 1, wherein the non-biodegradable polymer is selected from poly(lactic acidco-glycolic acid), polyesteramides, polycarbonates, polyacrylates and polymethacrylates.
  3. 5. The array of claim 1, wherein the first layer further comprises a component to facilitate degradation,
  4. 6. The array of claiN 5, wherein the component to facilitate degradation is selected from sugars, sugar alcohols, cyclodextrins, and water-swellable polymers. 3;
  5. 7. The array of claim 6, wherein the sugar is selected from dextrose, fructose. galactose, maltose, maltulose, emmaan nose lactse, lactulose, sucrose, and trehalose.
  6. 8. The array of claims 6, vherein the sugar alcohol is selected from sorbitol, lactitol, malitol or mannitol
  7. 9. The array of any one of laims 5-8, wherein the biodegradable polymes dextran the component to facilitate biodegradation is sorbit and the active ingredient is parathyroid hormone.
  8. 10. The array of claim 1, wherein at least one layer of the plurality of layers adheres to hurnan skin.
  9. 11. The array of claim 1, wherein at least some of the microprotrusions detach from the base following insertion into skin.
  10. 12. The array of claim i, wherein the rate at which at least one layer of the microprotrusions degrade is dependent on the pH of the environment following insertion of the array.
  11. 13. The array of claim 1, wherein at least one of the first or second ayers comprises at least one antioxidant.
  12. 14. The array of claim 13, wherein the antioxidant is selected from the group consisting of methionine, cysteine, D-alpha tocopherol acetate, DL-alpha tocopherol, ascorbyl palmitate, ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxyquinone, hydroxycomarin, butylated hydroxytoluene, cephalin, ethyl gallate, propyl gallate, octyl gallate, lauryl gallate, propylhydroxybenzoate, trihydroxybutyrophenone, dimethylphenol, ditertbutylphenol, vitamin E, lecithin, and ethanolamine. 40
  13. 15. The array of claim 1, wherein the active ingredient is selected from a polypeptide, a protein: a nucleic acid, a vaccine, a therapeutic antibody, and a parathyroid hormone.
  14. 16. The array of claim 1, wherein the array achieves a skin penetration effciency of at least about 80%, at least about 90%, or at least about 95%.
  15. 17. The array of claim 1, wherein at least one microprotrusion has a cross sectional diameter in a plane parallel to that of the base which decreases as a function of the distance of the plane parallel from the base in such a way that the cross sectional diameter decreases more rapidly near the base than further away from it.
  16. 18. The array of claim 1, wherein the second layer does not penetrate the skin when the microprotrusion is in use. 19 The aray of claim 1, wherein at least one layer comprises an antimicrobial
  17. 20. The array of claim 19 wherein the antimicrobial is selected from the group consisting of benzalkonium chloride, benzyl alcohol, chlorbutanol, meta cresol, esters of hydroxyl benzoic acd, phenol, and thimerosal.
  18. 21. The array of claim 1, at least one of the layers further comprising an antibacterial agent selected from the group consisting of benzalkonium chloride, benzyl alcohol, chlorbutanol, meta cresol, esters of hydroxyl benzoic acid, phenol, and thimerosal.
  19. 22. The array of claim 1. wherein the second layer contain the entire base and a portion of the ricoprotrusions 23, The array of claim L. wherein the number of microprotrusions in the array is at least about 100 or at least about 50 per cm 2 of base area. 41
  20. 24. A method of forming an array of microprotrusions, comprising the steps of (a) dispensing onto a mold having an array of microprotrusion cavities corresponding to the negative of the microprotrusions, (b) casting a solution comprising a biodegradable polymer, an active ingredient, and a first solvent atop the mold, (c) removing the first solvent, (d) casting a solution comprising a non-biodegradable polymer when placed on or in the skin and a second solvent atop the mold, (e) removing the second solvent, and (f) demoiding the resulting array from the mold,
  21. 25. The method of claim 24, wherein step (b) is carried out at least in part at a pressure lower than atmospheric.
  22. 26. The rnethod of claim 24, wherein a pressure higher than atmospheric is applied after step (b
  23. 27. The method of claim 24, further comprising a step (a) of placing the mold under compression.
  24. 28. The method of claim 24, wherein step (c) is carried out at least in part under an atmosphere comprising a gaseous substance which passes readily through the solvent or through the old. 29, The method of claim 24, wherein the mold is subjected to a surface treatment over at least some of its surface prior to casting which makes it easier for the solution which is cast to wet the surface, wherein the surface treatment comprises at least one of coating at least part of the surface of the mold with calcium carbonate: covering at least part of the surface of the mold with ethyl acetate, a silicone fluid, or a silicone polyether surfactant; treating the mold surface with ultraviolet light; attaching a moiety selected from a carboxylic acid or a hydroxyl to the mold surface; treating the mold surface with a plasma discharge; or treating the mold with a treatment which causes it to swell prior to step (b), 42 30, The method of claim 24, wherein the mold is comprised of a material selected from a ceramic material, a silicone rubber, a polyurethane, or a wax.
  25. 31. The method of claim 24, further comprising a step of sonicating the moid following casting,
  26. 32. The method of claim 24, wherein pressure above atmospheric is applied following the casting of step (b), or wherein pressure above at least about 10 psi above atmospheric is applied following the casting of step (b),
  27. 33. The method of claim 24, further comprising the step of packaging the array of microprotrusions in a sealed, ow oxygen package or in a sealed, low moisture package. 34 The method of claim 32, wherein the sealed, low oxygen package or the sealed, low moisture package further comprises a desiccant.
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