AU2013212529A1 - Automated formwork climbing system - Google Patents

Automated formwork climbing system Download PDF

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Publication number
AU2013212529A1
AU2013212529A1 AU2013212529A AU2013212529A AU2013212529A1 AU 2013212529 A1 AU2013212529 A1 AU 2013212529A1 AU 2013212529 A AU2013212529 A AU 2013212529A AU 2013212529 A AU2013212529 A AU 2013212529A AU 2013212529 A1 AU2013212529 A1 AU 2013212529A1
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AU
Australia
Prior art keywords
concrete
jacking
support
primary
platform
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Granted
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AU2013212529A
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AU2013212529B2 (en
Inventor
Graham Shaw
John STELLA
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Australian Constructions Systems Holdings Pty Ltd
SHANNON HALL Pty Ltd
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SHANNON HALL Pty Ltd
SUREFORM SYSTEMS Pty Ltd
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Priority to AU2012900268A priority Critical patent/AU2012900268A0/en
Priority to AU2012900268 priority
Application filed by SHANNON HALL Pty Ltd, SUREFORM SYSTEMS Pty Ltd filed Critical SHANNON HALL Pty Ltd
Priority to AU2013212529A priority patent/AU2013212529B2/en
Priority to PCT/AU2013/000053 priority patent/WO2013110126A1/en
Publication of AU2013212529A1 publication Critical patent/AU2013212529A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of AU2013212529B2 publication Critical patent/AU2013212529B2/en
Assigned to SHANNON HALL PTY LTD, Australian Constructions Systems Holdings Pty Ltd reassignment SHANNON HALL PTY LTD Request for Assignment Assignors: SHANNON HALL PTY LTD, SUREFORM SYSTEMS PTY LTD
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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04GSCAFFOLDING; FORMS; SHUTTERING; BUILDING IMPLEMENTS OR AIDS, OR THEIR USE; HANDLING BUILDING MATERIALS ON THE SITE; REPAIRING, BREAKING-UP OR OTHER WORK ON EXISTING BUILDINGS
    • E04G11/00Forms, shutterings, or falsework for making walls, floors, ceilings, or roofs
    • E04G11/06Forms, shutterings, or falsework for making walls, floors, ceilings, or roofs for walls, e.g. curved end panels for wall shutterings; filler elements for wall shutterings; shutterings for vertical ducts
    • E04G11/20Movable forms; Movable forms for moulding cylindrical, conical or hyperbolical structures; Templates serving as forms for positioning blocks or the like
    • E04G11/28Climbing forms, i.e. forms which are not in contact with the poured concrete during lifting from layer to layer and which are anchored in the hardened concrete

Abstract

A system (100) for progressive erection of a concrete structure (110) comprises: a platform (190) to support wall forms (210, 220) within which part of the concrete (structure 110) can be erected; a plurality of bracing columns (140) to support the plat form (190); a primary support beam (160) which supports the bracing columns (140), The primary support beam (160) has a first end and a second end and each end is engageable with the concrete structure (110). The system also comprises a primary jacking beam (50) positioned below the primary support beam (160). The primary sacking beam (150) has a first end and a second end and each end is engageable with the concrete structure. The system (100) includes a hydraulic ram operably associated with each of the bracing columns and operable to displace the bracing columns and the primary support beam away from the primary jacking beam to raise the platform.

Description

WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 "Automated Formwork Climbing System" Cross-Reference to Related Applications The present application claims priority from Australian Provisional Patent Application No 2012900268 filed on 24 January 2012, the content of which is 5 incorporated herein by reference. It will be appreciated by persons skilled in the art that numerous variations and/or modifications may be made to the above-described embodiments, without departing from the broad general scope of the present disclosure. The present 10 embodiments are, therefore, to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive. TECHNICAL FIELD The present disclosure relates to systems for incrementally casting vertical 15 concrete structures and relates particularly to self-climbing formworks (SCF) that enable the incremental casting of vertical concrete elements in the construction industry. BACKGROUND 20 Concrete is an important building material in the current age and is widely used due to its strength, cost and resilience. Concrete is formed from mixing cementious materials, sand and rock with water which initiates an exothermic reaction (due to the hydration process), which creates the concrete form we recognise. The maximum heat evolution of concrete is between 8 and 20 hours at which 25 time the rate of hydration (hence generation of heat) begins to slow to the point at which the rate of cooling to ambient temperature is greater than the rate at which heat is generated and elements begin to cool. Whilst the concrete is hydrating and hardening it remains in a mould until such time as the concrete can retain its shape independently of the mould. This period will vary depending on the size of concrete element being cast 30 and the design strength of the concrete. Some concrete construction is done by assembling discrete, pre-cast elements that have been made elsewhere. This may complicate the connections to surrounding elements that may result in structural weakness and areas of increased stress. To this end, integrally casting members on site offers a great many advantages in some construction situations. Moulds are initially 35 positioned at the beginning of the casting process, they then begin to move slowly and WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 2 continuously as the concrete is placed, thus eliminating any joint condition and allowing sizable concrete elements to extend to virtually any height required. Incremental casting is where a structure is cast on site in any number of individual pours, with a small overlap. Moulds are manoeuvred into place to align the 5 next casting with the previous casting. The concrete is cast and once the concrete has reached the required strength the moulds are stripped and raised to the next level (sometimes known as jump-forming). This method allows the process to be non continuous so it does not require shift work, there is more time to place reinforcement, penetrations and fitments and hence increases accuracy and is less dependent on 10 concrete mix design for stability. Incremental casting, like continuous casting, allows for reinforcing bar ("rebar") to be lapped within the concrete, thus maintaining continuity. It is imperative that a tall concrete structure be straight and aligned and to this end incrementally cast in situ concrete offers advantages over slipformed concrete. One 15 industry method of achieving this end is to employ an Automated Formwork Climbing System (AFCS). A typical vertical concrete casting system will require a mould, also known as "formwork"). The formwork is set in position, the concrete is cast and at an appropriate point in the curing process the formwork is released and raised to the next level. A 20 manual system relies on an external lifting device (like a tower crane) to lift the formwork from one position to the next so it can be re-secured to the just cast structure. This method requires extensive time and, labour for the form to be raised and repositioned and due to practical restraints on lifting capacities of cranes, requires the formwork to be lifted incrementally in sections rather than as one unit. 25 A Self-contained AFCS is a system that can climb the formwork up the concrete element/s it is casting as each section is cast and completed without external input. It does not rely on any external lifting equipment such as cranes, and takes its support from the structure it has just cast. An AFCS not only reduces time but reduces safety hazards to onsite works. 30 The types of AFCS can be essentially divided into two sub-categories of system: Top Climbing Systems (TCS) or Bottom Climbing Systems (BCS). A TCS has its lifting devices mounted above its upper deck. It then pushes on the fresh concrete that has just been cast to raise itself to the next position. This method has disadvantages. The lifting devices take up space on the upper working decks and 35 create difficulties for ancillary plant working in the vicinity (cranes, concrete placing equipment). The primary load path is such that during the raising process, the system WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 3 hangs from the upper steelwork, thus members are subject to load reversal and will be in tension. By comparison, BCS have their lifting devices mounted below the top working platform, as separate, isolated units. Their internal support below the top deck gives 5 clear access to the upper working platform for loading of materials and allows greater flexibility for utilisation of construction plant (such as cranes and concrete placing equipment), One current disadvantage of a BCS is the size and position of the system's raising devices (usually hydraulic rams). These are typically discreet, isolated units 10 taking up usable space in the cells between the formwork panels under the top platform. These areas are sometimes cramped and present restricted access and safety hazards to workers required to enter these areas. In addition, all current BCS raise the systems such that the formwork hangs from the top platform during raising. It would be desirable to address 'or ameliorate one or more shortcomings or 15 disadvantages associated with prior BCS for concrete casting or to at least provide a useful alternative. Any discussion of documents, acts, materials, devices, articles or the like which has been included in the present specification is not to be taken as an admission that any or all of these matters form part of the prior art base or were common general 20 knowledge in the field relevant to the present invention as it existed before the priority date of each claim of this application. SUMMARY According to a first aspect of the invention, there is provided a system for progressive erection of a concrete structure, the system comprising, a platform to 25 support wall forms within which part of the concrete structure can be erected, a plurality of bracing columns to support the platform, a primary support beam which supports the bracing columns, the primary support beam having a first end and a second end, each end being engageable with the concrete structure, a primary jacking beam positioned below the primary support beam , the primary jacking beam having a first 30 end and a second end, each end being engageable with the concrete structure, and a hydraulic ram operably associated with each of the bracing columns and operable to displace the bracing columns and the primary support beam away from the primary jacking beam to raise the platform. The system preferably includes four bracing columns.
WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 4 The hydraulic ram may be located within the bracing column. The hydraulic ram may be located within a jacking mast within the bracing column. The hydraulic ram may act on the bracing column such that there is no change in a primary load path for the system when the platform is raised. 5 The hydraulic ram may engage an associated primary jacking beam proximate an end of the associated primary jacking beam which is engageable with the concrete structure. The system may comprise additional primary support beams and each additional primary support beam may support one or more bracing columns which support the 10 platform. In some embodiments of the invention, the system includes two primary support beams. Typically, in use, the system is arranged such that the primary support beam extends between the two closest sides of a shaft of the concrete structure. However, in some embodiments, the primary support beam extends between the two most distant sides of the shaft. 15 The system mayfurther comprise a secondary support beam. The secondary support beam may have a first end and a second end. The first end may be engageable with the concrete structure and the second end may be engaged with the primary support beam. The system may include a plurality of secondary support beams. In an embodiment of the invention, the system includes one primary support beam and two 20 secondary support beams. The system may comprise additional primary jacking beams. In some embodiments of the invention, the system includes two primary jacking beams. Typically, in use, the system is arranged such that the primary jacking beam extends between the two closest sides of a shaft of the concrete structure. However, in some 25 embodiments, the primary jacking beam extends between the two most distant sides of. the shaft. The system may further comprise a secondary jacking beam. The secondary jacking beam may have a first end and a second end. The first end may be engageable with the concrete structure and the second end may be engaged with the primary 30 jacking beam. The system may include a plurality of secondary jacking beams. In an embodiment of the invention, the system includes one primary jacking beam and two secondary jacking beams. The system may further comprise an additional bracing column which supports the platform and which is supported by the secondary support beam. In some 35 embodiments of the invention, the system includes four bracing columns. In such WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 5 embodiments, each bracing column will be supported by a primary support beam or a secondary support beam. The system may further comprise an additional hydraulic ram operably associated with the additional bracing column and operable to displace the additional 5 bracing column and the secondary support beam away from the primary jacking beam. The system may comprise a hydraulic power pack for powering said system. The system may further comprise tilt-feet that are engageable with and disengageable from the concrete structure under the force of gravity to support the system on the concrete structure. 10 The tilt feet may be provided on the ends of the primary support beam and the primary jacking beam, and on the first end of the secondary support beam and the first end of the secondary jacking beam. In use, the bracing columns may extend substantially vertically from within a space in the concrete structure; and the primary support beam and the primary jacking 15 beam may extend substantially horizontally within the space in the concrete structure. The primary support beam may be located at a vertical height lower than or equal to the height of components of the system suspended from the platform or attached to the bracing columns. The system may further comprise an additional lower platform or platforms. 20 The wall-forms may include projections for forming recesses (pockets) in the concrete structure. The tilt feet may be received in the recesses when engaging the concrete structure. The recesses (for receiving the tilt feet of the primary and secondary support beams and the primary and secondary jacking beams) may have a flat base. Instead, the base of these recesses may be at an incline and, thereby, change an angle at 25 which the load of the system is transferred into the concrete structure. According to a second aspect of the invention, there is provided a method of progressive erection, of concrete structures using the above-described system. The method comprising the steps of: supporting the system though the primary support beam and the primary jacking beam on a foundation or an existing concrete structure; 30 positioning the wall-forms to form a mould; pouring molten concrete into the mould; allowing the poured molten concrete to cure forming a newly cured concrete structure; removing the wall-forms from the newly cured concrete structure; disengaging the primary support beam from the foundation or existing concrete structure while maintaining support of the system through the primary jacking beam; activating the 35 rams to raise the bracing columns, the primary support beam and the platform away from the primary jacking beam; engaging the primary support beam with the newly WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 6 cured concrete structure to support the system on the newly cured concrete structure;, disengaging the primary jacking beam from the foundation or existing concrete structure; retracting said rams to raise the primary jacking beam to a position below the primary- support beam; and engaging the primary jacking beam with the newly cured 5 concrete structure such that the system is supported on the newly cured concrete structure by both the primary support beam and the primary jacking beam. Throughout this specification the word "comprise", or variations such as "comprises" or "comprising", will be understood to imply the inclusion of a stated element, integer or step, or group of elements, integers or steps, but not the exclusion o 10 any other element, integer or step, or group of elements, integers or steps. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS The invention will now be described with reference to select embodiments described in further detail below, by way of example, with reference to the 15 accompanying drawings and legend, in which: Fig. 1 is a cross-sectional view of a Self-Climbing Formwork (SCF); and Fig. 2 is a horizontal cross-section (plan view) through the self-climbing formwork set-up showing the layout for the jacking beams; and Fig. 3 is a section through the self-climbing formwork set-up showing how the 20 tilt-feet pivot to release the jacking and support beams from the concrete structure; and Fig. 4A is a side view of a tilt-foot; and Fig. 4B is a top view of a tilt-foot; and Fig. 5A is a side view of a ram support column with hydraulic ram; and Fig. 5B is a front view of a ram support column with hydraulic ram; and 25 Fig. 5C is a top view of a bracing column upper main beam gridwork mount; and Fig. 6A is a detailed section of a jacking mast, showing a ram, and hydraulic connections within; and Fig. 6B is a detailed cross-section of the jacking mast and hydraulic ram, 30 through one of the hydraulic connections; and Fig. 7A is a plan view of a collar that connects a jacking mast to a support beams; and Fig. 7B is a side section of the collar showing the central aperture for a jacking mast to pass through; and 35 Fig. 7C is a section of a lower end of ajacking mast, aligned with the collar of Fig 7B; and WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 7 Fig. 8A is a side view of a mounting bracket that can connect a jacking mast to a jacking beam; and Fig. 8B is a top view of a mounting bracket that connects a jacking mast to a jacking beam, in relative location to a jacking beam; and 5 Fig. 9 is a cross-sectional view of a typical self-climbing formwork set-up erecting multiple shafts simultaneously; and Fig. 10 is a section of the typical self-climbing formwork set-up showing connector detail; and Fig. 11 A is a section through a main beam showing how a gridwork clamp is 10 positioned; and Fig. 11 B is a section through a secondary beam showing how a gridwork clamp is positioned; and Fig. 12A is a side view of a wall-form vertical adjustment bracket; and Fig. 12B is a top view of a wall-form vertical adjustment bracket; and 15 Fig. 13A is a top and side view of a first assembly of a horizontal and lateral wall-form adjustment bracket; and Fig. 13B is a top and side view of a second assembly of a horizontal and lateral wall-form adjustment bracket; and Fig. 14A is a top and side view of a third assembly of a horizontal and lateral 20 wall-form adjustment bracket; and Fig. 14B is a is a top and side view of a fourth assembly of a horizontal and lateral wall-form adjustment bracket; and Fig. 15A is a side view of a two-way adjustment turnbuckle; and Fig. 15B is a side view of an internal portion of an internal turnbuckle; and 25 Fig. 15C is a side view of an external portion of an internal turnbuckle; and Fig. 16A is a front view of a vertical adjustor for a turnbuckle adaptor; and Fig. 16B is a side view of a vertical adjustor for a turnbuckle adaptor; and Fig. 17A is a top view of a perimeter cladding gridwork connector; and Fig. 17B is a side view of a perimeter cladding gridwork connector; and 30 Fig. 18A is a top view of an external hanger suspension bracket; and Fig. 18B is a left view of an external hanger suspension bracket; and Fig. 18C is a side view of an external hanger suspension bracket; and Fig. 18D is a right view of an external hanger suspension bracket; and Fig. 19A is a side view of a perimeter beam external hanger cladding connector; 35 and WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 8 Fig. 19B is a front view of a perimeter beam external hanger cladding connector; and Fig. 20A is a horizontal cross-section (plan view) through the self-climbing formwork set-up showing bracing column support gridwork and exterior platform 5 hangers; and Fig. 20B is a top view of an external cladding corner; and Fig. 21 is a horizontal cross-section (plan view) through the self-climbing formwork set-up showing main overhead gridwork, wall-form support structure and exterior platform hanger; and 10 Fig. 21 B is a top view of an alternative cladding corner; and Fig. 22 is a detailed cross-section of the wall-forms in position to receive a concrete pour; and Fig. 23A is a side view of a wall-form outer mounting bracket; and Fig. 23B is a front view of a wall-form outer mounting bracket; and 15 Fig. 23C is a top view of a wall-form outer mounting bracket; and Fig. 24A - 24G show a single cycle of the self-climbing formwork system; wherein Fig. 24A shows the initial position, with a support beam and a jacking beam are locked in place; and 20 Fig. 24B shows a series of wall-forms in position around a newly poured concrete structure; and Fig. 24C shows the series of wall-forms stripped and the self-climbing formwork ready to climb; and Fig. 24D shows the tilt-feet of the support beam detached from the concrete 25 structure as the self-climbing formwork system begins to rise; and Fig. 24E shows the self-climbing formwork climbing past a pair of support beam pockets in the fresh'concrete structure, and the support beam tilt-feet located into the support beam pockets; and Fig. 24F shows two rams retracting, thereby raising the jacking beam into 30 position; and Fig. 24G shows the jacking beam tilt-feet located into the fresh concrete structure ready to begin a next cycle; Fig. 25 is a horizontal cross-section (plan view) through the self-climbing formwork set-up showing the layout for the support beams. 35 WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 9 LEGEND Reference Description 100 Self-Climbing Formwork (SCF) 110 Concrete Shaft Structure 115 Vacant Internal Space 120 Hydraulic ram 125 Hydraulic Connections 127 Ram Connector Collar 130 Jacking Mast 137 Jacking Mast to Jacking Beam Mounting Bracket 140 Bracing Column 145 Bracing Column Mount to Main Beam 147 Jacking Mast to Jacking Beam Mount Point 150 Primary Jacking Beam (jacking bridge) 151 Lift Doorways 155 Jacking Beam Pockets 157 Secondary Jacking Beam 159 Jacking Beam Pocket Upper Surface 160 Primary Support Beams 165 Support Beam Pockets 167 Secondary Support Beam 170 Telescopic External Hanger 173 Telescopic External Hanger Guide Wheel 175 Telescopic Internal Hanger 177 Telescopic Internal Hanger Guide Wheel 180 Tilt-foot 181 Tilt-foot Pivot 182 Tilt-foot Bearer Plate 184 Tilt-foot Contact Face 190 Upper Platform or Gridwork 200 Diagonal Bracing 201 Diagonal Bracing Attachment Points 210 Wall-form Inner 215 Horizontal and Lateral Adjustment Bracket WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 10 Reference Description 216 Assembly I of Horizontal and Lateral Adjustment Bracket 217 Assembly 2 of Horizontal and Lateral Adjustment Bracket 218 Assembly 3 of Horizontal and Lateral Adjustment Bracket 219 Assembly 4 of Horizontal and Lateral Adjustment Bracket 218 Vertical Adjustment Bracket 220 Wall-form Outer 223 Wall-from top set of walers 225 Wall-form Outer Hanging Bracket 230 Projection Jacking Beam Pocket 240 Projection Support Beam Pocket 250 Hydraulic Power Pack 260 Pouring Chute 265 Mesh Cover 270 External Platform Hanger 275 External Platform Corner 280 Cladding Sheets 290 Platform-3 295 Central Platform-3 300 Perimeter Support Beam 310 Gridwork Connector to Perimeter Beam 320 Main Beams 330 Secondary Beams 340 Perimeter Cladding Connector 360 Internal Hanger 365 Internal Hanger Suspension Bracket 370 Gridwork Clamp (main beam to secondary beam) 380 Guide Wheel 390 Modular Stair Unit 400 Trailing platform-4 410 Perimeter Cladding 420 Bracing Column Upper Mount 430 Central Shaft 440 Hop-up Bracket System 450 Internal Hanger Horizontal Member WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 11 Reference Description 453 Internal Hanger Base Units 455 Internal Hanger Vertical Member and Gridwork 456 Cladding Corner Unit 457 External Hanger Horizontal Units 459 External Vertical Hanger 460 Wall-form Girder Trolley 465 Wall-form Girder Trolley Suspension Assembly 470 Internal Corner Assembly 480 Datum Point 490 External and Internal Turnbuckle 495 2 way adjustor Turnbuckle 497 Vertical Adjustor Turnbuckle Adaptor 500 Female Fitting 510 Male Fittin 520 Internal Wall-form Corner 530 Tie Bars 540 External Corner for Wall-Form Outer 550 External Corner for External Platform Hanger DETAILED DESCRIPTION In Figures 1 and 2, reference numeral 100 generally designates a system for progressive erection of a concrete structure, in the form of a self-climbing formwork 5 (SCF), according to an embodiment of the present invention. In Figures 1 and 2, the system 100 is shown in cross-section as applied to a partially erected concrete structure I10. The system 100 comprises an upper platform or gridwork 190 adapted to support a suspended wall form 220 positioned to allow the progressive formation and extension of the existing concrete structure 110. The upper platforn/gridwork 190 is supported by 10 four vertical bracing columns 140 where the bracing columns extend from within a substantially vacant internal space 115 formed as the concrete structure 110 is formed or erected. The vertical bracing columns 140 support inner wall-forms 210, which in combination with the suspended wall-form outers 220, provide the formwork within which the concrete structure 110 can be erected. The vertical bracing columns 140 are 15 supported by horizontal support beams 160 which extend within the vacant space 115 and are themselves supported by the existing concrete structure 110. The horizontal WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 12 support beams 160 provide lateral support for the vertical bracing columns 140. The bracing columns 140, associated support beams 160, the upper platform/gridwork 190 and wall-forms 210 and 220, are all moved in a vertical direction by hydraulic rams 120 acting on the jacking beams 150 positioned below the bracing columns 140 and 5 upper platform/gridwork 190 to allow the system 100 to self-climb the concrete structure 110 being formed. As shown in Figs. 1 and 3, a hydraulic ram 120 is located within a jacking mast 130 which is located above the jacking beam 150 and bolted to the hydraulic ram mount 137 in the jacking beam, which sits underneath a support beam 160. Selective 10 ends of the jacking beam 150 are located securely but not permanently into a jacking beam pocket 155 by tilt-feet 180. Both ends of the support beam 160 are located securely but not permanently into a pair of support beam pockets 165 in the concrete structure 110 by tilt-feet 180. Figure 3 shows the tilt-foot 180 connected to the ends of both jacking beams 15 150 and support beams 160 by a fixed pivot point 181. The tilt-foot 180 is free to rotate about pivot point 181 as the self-climbing formwork 100 is being raised to clear the newly formed concrete shaft structure 110. As the self-climbing formwork 100 reaches the next level of either jacking beam pockets 155 or support beam pockets 165, the multiple tilt-feet 180 will rotate under their own weight and gravitational forces into the 20 new beam pockets to secure the self-climbing formwork 100 in its new raised position. The support beam pockets 165,are the primary load bearing point for the self climbing formwork 100 when the system is at rest and the next concrete pour is occurring. The jacking beam pockets 155 become the primary load bearing points, once the support beams 160 have disengaged from the support beam pockets 165 and the 25 self-climbing formwork 100 is in the process of raising itself into the correct position for the next cycle. Referring again to Figure 1, the wall-form inners 210 are attached to the ram bracing columns 140, while the wall-form outers 220 are suspended from the upper platform/gridwork 190. The bracket arrangement for suspending the wall-form outers 30 220 is shown in more detail in Figures 23A, 23B and 23C. Once a pair of guide wheels is affixed to the wall-form suspension bracket 225, it provides a wall-form girder trolley 460 (Figure 10) that can be used to position and manoeuvre the wall-form outers 220 into position. The wall-form girder trolley 460 can be seen in location on a primary beam 320 in Figure 10. As the wall-form outers 220 hang within the self-climbing 35 formwork 100 they are able to be adjusted in three directions to accurately align with the wall-form inners 210 to form an aligned mould to receive the fluid and WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 13 homogeneous concrete mix. The wall-form inners 210 can be adjusted both horizontally and laterally using an adjustment bracket 215, and adjustments vertically are controlled by an adjustment bracket 218. Multiple wall-form inners 210 and outers 220 may be used to provide the required mould for a pour. This will depend on whether 5 single or multiple walls are being formed or, as shown in Fig. 2, a closed shaft structure 110 is to be formed. A jacking beam pocket projection 230 is positioned on an inner wall-form 210, to provide a mould for the jacking beam pocket 155, for use in the next cycle of the self-climbing formwork 100. Similarly, a pair of support beam pocket projections 240 10 are positioned at equal heights on two -separate wall-form inners 210, in order to provide moulds for a pair of support beam pockets 165 for use in the next cycle of the self-climbing formwork 100. Multiple projections 230/240 will be required depending on the number of walls being formed in each pour. The loads applied to the self-climbing formwork 100 are primarily resisted by 15 the steel upper platform/gridwork 190 and bracing columns 140, either by axial or flexural resistive actions with minimal or no structural support derived from the wall form inners 210 and wall-form outers 220. Applied environmental loads, such as wind loading, and system stability is provided by bracing the primary members to form a statically determinate braced frame. The diagonal braces 200 are attached to the bracing 20 columns 140 at diagonal bracing attachment points 201. These braces 200 are adjustable and are used to apply pressure to the wall-form outers 220 during pouring and curing. When the self-climbing formwork 100 is in use all system working loads are transferred to the supporting concrete shaft structure I10, through the network of supporting beams 160 and jacking beams 150 under the bracing columns 140. The 25 bracing columns 140 are held primarily in compression within all cycles of the self climbing formwork 100. The upper platform/gridwork 190 is made up of plurality of main beams 320 and secondary beams 330. The main beams 320 are the primary support beams and comprise of two back-to-back channels that are connected to the perimeter frame 300 30 using gridwork to perimeter beam connectors 310. Many items are connected to the main support beams 320, for example the secondary beams 330, upper platform/gridwork 190, wall-form outers 220, perimeter support beam 300 and the internal hanger 360. The secondary beams 330 are the primary bearing beams for upper 35 platform/gridwork 190. Like the main beams 320 they are comprised of two back-to back channels and are connected to the main beams 320. Aside from upper WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 14 platform/gridwork 190 the wall-form outers 220, perimeter support beam 300 and the internal hanger 360 may also be connected and supported by the secondary beams 330. Further supported by the upper platform/gridwork 190 is a modular stair unit 390 which is erected in parallel with the concrete structure 110 as it rises. Fig. 2 shows 5 a possible location of the modular stair unit 390 positioned centrally between two concrete shaft structures 110 being constructed simultaneously. The modular stair unit 390 allows access from the constructed floors below to the self-climbing formwork 100. The stair unit 390 may be suspended from the upper platform/gridwork 190 or supported by cantilevered beams, external to the self-climbing formwork 100. 10 The main beams 320 and secondary beams 330 are joined using a plurality of gridwork clamps 370, which are adjustable and releasable joint mechanisms. The gridwork clamps 370 have been developed to speed up the erection and dismantling of the self-climbing formwork 100. They eliminate the need for purpose made brackets to bolt the upper platform/gridwork 190 together and further eliminate the need for 15 drilling of holes in the flanges of the main beams 320 and secondary beams 330 when joining them together. The gridwork clamps 370 are shown in detail in Figure 11. Supported by the upper platform/gridwork 190 above the shaft structure 110 opening is a hydraulic power pack 250 which travels with the self-climbing formwork 100 as it rises up the concrete structure 110. The power pack 250 supplies the necessary 20 power to run the hydraulic rams 120 attached to the jacking beams 150. A single hydraulic ram 120 is shown in a jacking mast 130 as a -section in Figure 6A. Installing the Hydraulic power pack 250 above the ram bracing columns 140, assists in the stability of the self-climbing formwork 100 and further eliminates the need for any cabling or trailing connections between the jacking masts 130 and the power pack 250 25 as the height of the shaft structure 110 increases. The hydraulic rams 120 used require around a 12 tonne capacity and an extension travel of around 3800 mm enclosed in a square hollow section jacking mast 130, although these requirements may vary depending on the nature of the construction job. Pouring chutes 260 are positioned on the upper platform at wall openings and 30 are covered by a reinforcing mesh 265. These chutes allow the fluid concrete to be channelled accurately into the prepared mould (closed system of inner wall-forms 210 and outer wall-forms 220) and minimise spillage. The pouring chutes are of a size that allows reinforcing steel bars (rebar) to be placed into the mould before the concrete is poured to reinforce the concrete shaft structure 110. 35 Further supported by the upper platform/gridwork 190 at its perimeter is an external platform hanger 270 which surrounds the self-climbing formwork 100. The WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 15 corners of the external platform hanger 270 are joined by corner pieces 275 shown in Figure 21B. The external platform hanger 270 and the cladding sheets 280 are referred to as the perimeter cladding 410. Platform-3 290 is generally made of plywood and is used to seal the underside of the self-climbing formwork 100. Platform-3 290 is 5 assembled to the perimeter cladding 410 either on site or pre-assembled before delivery to the site. Once the perimeter cladding and platform-3 290 are joined to each other, they are affixed to the perimeter support beam 300, using a perimeter cladding connector 340. The perimeter cladding connector 340 is shown in side detail in Fig. 19A and front detail in Fig. 19B. 10 The perimeter support beam 300 is a rectangular hollow section and runs around the entire perimeter of the self-climbing formwork 100. The perimeter support beam is connected to the ends of the main beams 230 and the secondary beams 330 of the upper platform/gridwork 190 and is used primarily to stabilise the perimeter of the self climbing formwork 100 and to support the external platform hangers 270 around the 15 self-climbing formwork 100. The connection method between the main and secondary beams of the upper platform/gridwork 190 and the perimeter support beam 300 is a unique in that gridwork to perimeter beam connector 310 which is shown in detail in Figures 17A and 17B. The cladding sheets 280 may be of a solid or perforated nature depending on the 20 atmospheric conditions of the environment and whether it is more desirable to protect the self-climbing formwork 110 and structure 110 from inclement weather conditions or maximise air flow and heat loss to assist in the cement hydration process. Although the cladding sheets 280 enshroud the self-climbing formwork 100 they do not hamper the concrete curing process. 25 Fig. 2 shows a possible layout for the primary jacking beams 150 and the secondary jacking beams 157 within the concrete structure 110. In this embodiment, each shaft structure 110 has: two secondary jacking beams 157; one primary jacking beam 150 (also referred to as a jacking bridge) and four mounting points into jacking beam pockets 155 in the wall surface of concrete shaft 110. This configuration provides 30 sufficient stability and strength for the self-climbing formwork 100 to support itself on the concrete shaft structure 110 and maintain free faces in the shaft structure 110 for lift doorways 151. A primary jacking beam 150 typically consists of two back-to-back channels with a tilt-foot 180 on each end, although other cross-sections may be utilised. The 35 jacking mast 130 has a mounting point 147 which is bolted between the two channels of the primary jacking beam 150 using a jacking mast to jacking beam mounting WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 16 bracket 137. The primary jacking beam 150 typically spans at right angles from the concrete shaft structure 110, between the two closest sides. However, in the embodiment shown in Figure 2, the primary jacking bean 150 spans at right angles from the concrete shaft I10, between the two most distant sides of the concrete shaft 5 structure 110. A secondary jacking beam 157 may be required when a primary jacking beam 150 cannot be utilised. The secondary jacking beam 157 consists of two back-to back channels (see Figure 2). The secondary jacking beam 157 has a tilt-foot 180 at one end (a first end) to mount it into the concrete structure 110 and support the weight of the self-climbing formwork 100. As shown in Figure 2, the other end (the second end) 10 of the secondary jacking beam 157 is connected to the primary jacking beam 150. As shown in Figure 2, the combination of the primary jacking beam 150 and two secondary jacking beams 157 provides a jacking beam framework which is suitable for supporting the self-climbing formwork 100 during jacking while also being able to work around any obstructions or openings (such as openings formed by the doorways 15 151) in the concrete structure 110. The jacking mast 130 can also be mounted to the secondary jacking beam 157 in the same manner as attachment to the primary jacking beam 150. The primary jacking beams 150 and the secondary jacking beam 157 are used to span the opening of the concrete structure 110 giving the hydraulic rams 120 a solid platform to bear against during the lifting operation of the self-climbing formwork 20 100. The jacking mast to jacking beam bracket 137 is shown in more detail in Figures 8A and 8B. Similar in construction to the primary jacking beams 150, the primary support beams 160 are constructed of two back-to-back channels with a tilt-foot 180 at each 25 end. As can be seen in Figure 3, the jacking mast 130 is connected to the primary support beam 160 using a ram connector collar 127 which is a unique design which allows the hydraulic ram 120 to be extended from the base of the self-climbing formwork 100 as opposed to a top climbing system where the rams are extended from the top of the construction platform. The ram connection collar 127 is unique in that it 30 maintains alignment of the ram bracing columns 140 while allowing the primary/secondary jacking beams 150, 157 and support beams 160 to move relative to one another. The ram connector collar 127 is shown in more detail in Figures 7A, 7B. Figure 7C shows the alignment between the ram connection collar 127 and the jacking mast 130. The primary support beams 160 are connected to guide wheels 380 to 35 provide stability and tolerance in the self-climbing formwork 100 set-up. Platform-3 290 is connected to these support beams 160. The primary support beams 160 typically WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 17 span at right angles from the concrete structure 110 between the closest sides of the shaft, but it may also span at right angles from the concrete structure I10 between the most distant sides of the shaft (see Figure 25). Where a primary support beam 160 cannot be employed due to obstructions or openings in the concrete shaft 110, a 5 secondary support beam 167 may be utilised. As with the primary jacking beam 150 and the secondary jacking beam 157, the secondary support beam 167 is of a similar construction to the primary support beams 160 and also incorporates a tilt-foot 180 at one end (the first end). The other end (the second end) of the secondary support beam 167 is engaged with the primary support beam 160. By using the combination of a 10 primary support beam 160 and two secondary support beams 167, it is possible to form a support beam framework which is suitable for supporting the self-climbing formwork 100 while also being avoiding any obstructions or openings (such as openings formed. by the doorways 151) in the concrete structure 110. Using the support beams 160, 167, a support structure can be formed in each shaft 110 to support the self-climbing 15 formwork 100 while the concrete is being poured and the newest section of the shaft 110 is being constructed. The jacking masts 130 are located within the ram bracing columns 140, and extend from the primary/secondary jacking beams 150, 157 at their base to upper mounting points on the upper platform/gridwork 190. The ram bracing columns 140 are 20 further supported and cross-braced by diagonal bracing 200. Fig. 3 shows two superimposed positions of the tilt-feet 180 a solid line in its unloaded position and a dashed line in its loaded position, relative to the cross-section of a primary jacking beam 150 and a primary support beam 160. The tilt-foot 180 at the end of the jacking beam 150 or the support beam 160 is positioned within either a 25 jacking beam pocket 155 or a support beam pocket 165 respectively. This is the loaded position shown in dashed outline The weight of the self-climbing formwork 100 is transferred through the plurality of tilt-feet 180 whilst the bearer plate 182 is in contact with-the appropriate beam pocket 155/165. The Tilt-foot 180 is attached to the jacking beam 150 by a pivot point 181 at the apex of the tilt-foot 180. As the self-climbing 30 formwork 100 begins to rise, the contact face 184 of the tilt-foot 180 is brought into contact with the upper surface of the jacking beam pocket 159 which applies pressure to the tilt-foot 180 causing it to rotate about its pivot 181 and release the jacking beam 150 from the jacking beam pocket 155. A similar cycle is provided for in reverse when the.tilt foot 180 is to be positioned. As the self-climbing formwork 100 is raised to its 35 new locations, the tilt-foot 180 find the jacking beam pocket 155 created during the previous concrete pour by the projection jacking beams pocket 230 and under the WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 18 influence of gravity, hinges about its pivot 180 into the newly formed jacking beam pocket 155 where the bearer plate 182 will self-locate and position itself ready to resume weight bearing of the self-climbing formwork 100 for the subsequence construction phase. The cycle for the support beam 160 ,and its attached tilt-feet 180 is 5 the same as described above for the jacking beams 150, 157 tilt-feet 180. Fig. 3 shows the support beam pocket 165 and the jacking beam pocket 155 to have a -flat base; however it is contemplated that the base of the pockets 155/165 could be at an incline, thus changing the angle at which the load of the self-climbing formwork 100 is transferred into the concrete shaft structure 110. This can offer advantages where the 10 load distribution of the self-climbing formwork 100 needs to be redistributed. Respective changes would also be required to the tilt feet 180 profile and the projections for the jacking beam pocket and the support beam pocket 230/240 to create the adjusted pockets 155/165. Fig. 4A shows a tilt-foot 180 in side view, which has an approximately 15 triangular profile. The bearer plate 182 is located at one corner of the tilt-foot 180 and a pivot point 181 is located approximately at the apex of the triangular plate, which has a radius of about 21.5 mm. Fig. 4B shows a top section of the tilt-foot 180 where it can be seen that the tilt foot 180 is formed using two approximately triangular plates, about 20mm in thickness, 20 that are connected at the base by the bearer plate 182 and at the top by a bolt through the pivot point 181. The tilt-foot 180 is typically constructed of steel wherein all hot rolled sections, including flat plate, are about 300MPa. All steel plate within the tilt foot 180 is about 250MPa to about 350MPa. It is preferred that all fillet welds are 6mm continuous UNO and all butt welds should be full penetration UTNO. The bolt as shown 25 in pivot point 181 is about a Grade 8.8/S with washers under the rotating part. Fig. 5A shows a front view of a ram bracing column 140 which preferably consists of a heavy duty square hollow section and inside the column 140 the jacking mast 130 is located. The jacking mast 130 within the bracing column 140 is connected to a main beam 320 at its top most point by a mount point 145, and the jacking beam 30 150, 157 at its lowest point, through mounting point 147. It is also connected to the support beam 160 by a ram connector collar 127 allowing the jacking beam 150, 157 and support beam 160 to move independently of each other- when the self-climbing formwork 100 is raising its position. The ram bracing columns 140 support the entire weight of the self-climbing formwork 100 through the support beams 160 during the 35 construction phase (positioning the wall-forms 210 and 220 and pouring the concrete) and continue to support the weight through the jacking beams 150, 157 during the WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 19 jacking phase (when the self-climbing formwork 100 is being raised or "jacked" up into the new position for the next construction cycle). By incorporating the jacking mast 130 and ram 120 into the bracing column 140 the usable area at the centre of the concrete shaft 110 is maximised and not filled with 5 columns and rams separately reducing available space for workers to gain access. The bracing columns 140 are typically located at the edges of the support beams 160 and jacking beams 150, 157, although variation is possible for different layouts. By positioning the bracing columns 140 at the edges of the support beams 160 and jacking beams 150, 157, the stress applied to beams 150, 157 and 160 is reduced during the 10 jacking of the self-climbing formwork 100. A series of diagonal brace attachments points 201 can be seen along the length of the column 140. These are for affixing the diagonal bracing columns 200, primarily at levels 2 and 3 of the self-climbing formwork 100. The diagonal braces 200 provide additional lateral support for the ram bracing columns 140. 15 Fig. 5B shows a ram bracing column 140 in a front view. At the top of the bracing column 140, a bracing- column upper mount 420 is shown that connects the bracing column 140 to the upper platform/gridwork 190. Fig. 5C illustrates the bracing column upper mount 420 from a plan view. Fig. 6A shows a detailed section of a jacking mast 130, showing the central 20 location of a hydraulic ram 120, and a plurality of hydraulic connections 125 within. The jacking mast 130 has a mounting plate with an aperture at either end. At the top is a mounting point 145 to a main beam 320 and at the bottom of jacking mast 130 is the mounting point 147 to a jacking beam 150, 157. Once in place the jacking mast 130 is hidden within a bracing column 140 to maximise the working space within in the 25 concrete shaft structure 110. The jacking mast 130 shown in Figure 6A is a Sureform Cylinder Ram St 3800, with a working pressure of about 240 Bar and a test pressure of about 300 Bar. It is possible to use many different sizes and strength of ram, depending on the needs of the specific job, the St 3800 is offered merely by way of example in one embodiment. 30 Fig. 6B shows a detailed cross-section through the jacking mast 130, at a horizontal location that bisects a hydraulic connection 125. The hydraulic connectors 125 are located at the top of the jacking mast 130, to minimise the necessary cabling required to provide hydraulic fluid and therefore hydraulic pressure from the hydraulic pack 250 to the hydraulic ram 120. This minimises the potential for entanglement of 35 any trailing cables and improves safety for those working on the self-climbing formwork 100 as well as the potential for cable damage during operation.
WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 20 Fig. 7A shows a plan view of the ram connector collar 127 that connects the jacking mast 130 to the support beam 160. There are eight bolt holes, grouped in pairs and positioned at four equidistant positions around the perimeter of the collar 127. Fig. 7B is a side view of the collar 127 in section, and in conjunction with 5 Figure 7C, shows the alignment of the bottom of the jacking mast 130 so that it may pass through the collar 127 to and attach rigidly to the jacking beam 150, 157, through mount 147. The collar 127 ensures that the jacking mast 130 and the support beam 160 are aligned at all times, but the jacking mast 130 is free to move through the collar 127 when the self-climbing formwork 100 is being raised and lowered. 10 Fig. 8A shows a side view of bracket 137 that mounts the jacking mast 130 to the jacking beam 150, 157. The bracket 137 uses AS 3679 (or an equivalent) for all hot rolled sections and AS 1163, grade C350 (or equivalent) for square and rectangular hollow sections. A steel AS 1163, grade 200 (or equivalent) is used for circular hollow sections. 15 Fig. 8B shows a plan view of the bracket 137, in position on a jacking beam 150 and the four bolts and corresponding bolt holes that are used to mount the bracket 137 to the jacking beam 150. The bolts used for this assembly are about M20 (8.8) and about 40 mm long, washers and M20 nuts should be used with each bolt. The central hole in bracket 137 is used to secure mount 147 at the bottom of the jacking mast 130, 20 this can be done using a pin of about 48 mm diameter and 120 mm long and a pair of appropriate R clips (about 3mm). Fig. 9 shows a cross-section view of a typical self-climbing formwork 100 where there are two concrete shaft structures 110 being constructed contemporaneously with a central shaft 430 for a modular stair unit 390 in between. Within the central shaft 25 430 there is an internal hanger 360 mounted at its top most point to a main beam 320, by an internal hanger suspension bracket 365. The internal hanger suspension bracket is shown in detail in Figures 18A-18D. In this particularly preferred embodiment auxiliary platforms may be provided in addition to the main upper platform previously described. The internal hanger 360 can also be mounted to a secondary beam 330 30 (Figure 10) at upper platform/gridwork 190 level. The internal hanger 360 allows for the construction of the platform-3 290 below the height of a suspended wall-form outer 220 where there are no support beams 160 in the concrete structure 110 for support. The bottom of the internal hanger 360 is mounted to part of platform-3 290 (Figure 9). This central platform-3 section 295 rises up through the central shaft 430 as the 35 structure rises and helps to stabilise and support the self-climbing formwork 100. The central platform-3 290 allows construction work to be carried out in the central shaft WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 21 430 that would otherwise be inaccessible. At the two ends of the central section 295 are telescoping internal hangers 175 that contact the outer walls of the concrete shaft structures 110 with guide wheels 177. The telescoping nature of the internal hanger 175 allows it to self-adjust to different sizes of central shaft 430 and also to compensate for 5 tolerance issues. The internal hander guide wheels 177 also allow for a smooth operational movement of the central platform-3 section 295 as the self-climbing formwork 100 rises, reducing frictional forces and transferring some wind loads on the self-climbing formwork 100 back into the concrete shaft structure 110. A hop-up bracket system 440 can be attached to the wall-form outer 220 to 10 allow safe access for workers while locating the reinforcement doorway forms, block outs or any other reinforcements required, prior to the concrete being poured. Fig. 10 shows an enlarged section of the typical self-climbing formwork set-up focusing on connector detail. Figures 11 to 19 should be viewed in conjunction with Fig. 10, which will assist with understanding location and relative spatial positioning of 15 the assembled components around some of the more complex areas of the self-climbing formwork 100. Fig. 1 l A shows a section through a main beam 320 detailing how a gridwork clamp 370 is used and positioned to join the main beam 320 to a secondary beam 330. Fig. 11 B shows a section through a secondary beam 330 and illustrates how the 20 platform or gridwork clamp 370 is located to form a connection to a main beam 320. Fig. 12A shows a side view of a vertical wall-form adjustment bracket 218, which is made up of three plates sections. The bracket 218 is attached to the bracing column 140 using the pair of holes shown and to an internal turnbuckle 490 at the distal end, where there is a single hole. The crossbar of the bracket 218 is positioned under 25 the wall-form top set of walers 223 (a waler being a horizontal beam used to brace or support an upright member) and when the internal turnbuckle 490 is adjusted the vertical position of the wall-form inner 210 is adjusted. This bracket 218 is shown in Fig. 10 fully assembled and correctly located. Fig. 12B shows a top view of the vertical wall-form adjustment bracket 218, 30 where it is shown that the two longitudinal plates of the bracket are joined by a cross bar plate. The two longitudinal plates each have three holes, aligned in pairs to form an axis around each of which a fulcrum may be created. Once the bracket 218 is fixed to the bracing column 140 the bracket acts like a see-saw: as the internal turnbuckle 490 is tightened the cross bar plate rises up and as the internal turnbuckle 490 is loosened the 35 crossbar plate drops down, thus allowing for vertical adjustment of the wall-form inner 210.
WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 22 Fig. 13A shows a top and side view of a first component of a horizontal and lateral wall-form adjustment bracket 215. As this bracket 215 controls four degrees of freedom, it is more complex than its counterpart vertical adjustment bracket 218. Bracket 215 has been split into four main assembles, 216, 217, 218 and 219 shown 5 respectively in Figures 13A, 13B, and 14A and 14B. 13A and 13B are alternative brackets that may be used in place of 14A and 14B. When the assemblies are joined together a two-way adjustor turnbuckle 495 is attached to the proximate end, the bracket 215 is centrally mounted to a bracing column 140 and the distal end is attached to a wall-form inner 210. The assembled bracket 215 10 is best shown in Fig. 10. Once in place the bracket 215 can be used to adjust both the horizontal and lateral position of the wall-form inner 210 Fig. 15A shows a side view of a two-way adjustment turnbuckle 495 as used in the horizontal and lateral adjustment bracket 215 shown in Fig. 10. Fig. 15B shows a side view of an internal portion of an internal turnbuckle 490 15 and Fig. 15C shows a side view of an external portion of internal turnbuckle 490. The internal portion (male fitting) 510 is screwed into the external portion (female fitting) 500, of the turnbuckle and the two ends affixed to adjoining structure. For example, for the vertical adjustor bracket 218, the internal turnbuckle 490 is attached to the vertical adjustor bracket 218 and the bracing column 140. When tightening the wall-form inner 20 210 and wall-form outer 220 into position to receive a pour the internal turnbuckle 490 is attached to different wall-forms to adjust their proximity to one another (shown in detail in Fig. 22). The two ends of the internal turnbuckle 490 remain attached to the structure but their proximity to one another can be adjusted using the threaded section of the male fitting 510. 25 Fig. 16A shows a front view of a vertical adjustor for a turnbuckle adaptor 497. The shaded areas of the diagram represent the fillet welding that connects the components of this adaptor 497. Fig. 16B shows a side view of a vertical adjustor for a turnbuckle adaptor 497. Fig. 17A shows a top view of a platform or gridwork to perimeter beam 30 connector 310. This connector 310 is used to join the main beams 320 and secondary beams 330 to the perimeter support beam 300. Fig. 17B shows a side view of a platform or gridwork to perimeter beam connector 310. Fig. 10 shows the connector 310 in location joining a main beam 320 to the perimeter support beam 300 (shown in section). Further detail is shown in Fig. 21 35 illustrating a plan view of the self-climbing formwork 100 and clearly showing the multiple locations around the perimeter beam 300 that the connector 310 may be used.
WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 23 Fig. 18A shows a top view of an internal hanger suspension bracket 365. The external hanger suspension bracket is made from four components; a main body, a mounting plate on its right face and two mounting brackets along its top. In top view the four mounting holes can be clearly distinguished, where the external hanger 5 suspension bracket attaches to upper platform/gridwork 190. Fig. 18B shows a left view of an external hanger suspension bracket 365 and one of its two mounting plates centrally positioned on the top face. Fig. 18C shows a side view of an external hanger suspension bracket 365. Fig. 18D shows a right view of an external hanger suspension bracket 365. This 10 is the face that is mounted to the external hanger 270 and the four mounting points can be seen in the corners of the mounting plate. Fig. 19A shows a side view of a perimeter beam external cladding hanger connector 340. This connector 340 joins the perimeter support beam 300 to the external ,hanger 270. The connector 340 is shaped in a u-shape section that hooks over the 15 perimeter support beam 300 and is then bolted to secure it in position. Fig. 19B shows a front view of the perimeter beam external cladding hanger connector 340 and shows its four securing holes at the perimeter. Fig. 20A shows a cross-sectional view of the support beam structure at the platform-3 290 level. Internal hanger base units 453 and external hanger horizontal 20 units 457 are positioned around the entire core structure 110 to support platform-3 290 and maintain its location. The horizontal units 457 are positioned both around the corners of where the outer wall-forms 220 come together and at a plurality of locations along the length of each outer wall-form 220. Internal hanger vertical members 455 are used internal to the concrete structure 110 to assist in locating and positioning the wall 25 form inners 210. The wall-form outer 220 is attached to the main beams 320 or to the secondary beams 330 by the wall-form girder trolley 460 at the upper platform/gridwork 190 level. The girder-trolley is formed from attaching wheels or rollers to the wall-form outer hanging bracket 225. The girder trolley 460 allows the wall-form outers 220 to be rolled in and out of position, allowing greater access to the 30 formwork 470 and reinforcing operations. Fig. 23 shows the wall-form outer hanging bracket 225 in more detail. Fig. 20B shows a top view of an external cladding corner 456. The corner 456 sits outside of the perimeter cladding 410 and is used to join the external corners of the external platform hangers 270. 35 Fig. 21 shows the main platform or grid work plan and support structure for the self-climbing formwork 100. The main beams 320 are shown running parallel, across WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 24 the two concrete shaft structures 110, and the secondary beams 330 running perpendicular to the main beams 320 across/each individual concrete shaft structure 110. The main beams 320 and the secondary beams 320 are connected by gridwork clamps 370. The ram location points 480 are generally located where main beam 320 5 and secondary beams 330 cross each other. These positions may be varied to minimise the stresses on the structure for each construction configuration. A further set of secondary beams 330 are shown abounding the central shaft 430, allowing for internal hangers 360 to be suspended and a modular stair unit 390 to be constructed. Around the circumference of the diagram at the outermost layer the external platform hanger 270 10 can be seen mounted and suspended from the perimeter support beams 300 by perimeter cladding connectors 340. The perimeter cladding hanger connector 340 is shown in detail in Figures 19A and 19B. Fig. 21B shows a top view of an external platform corner 275. The corner 275 sits outside of the external platform hangers 270 and is used as a tensioning mechanism 15 on the external corners of the external platform 270. Fig. 22 shows the wall-form outers 220 and wall-form inners 210 in position to receive a pour of concrete. In order to properly align the eight necessary wall-forms for each concrete shaft I10 to be poured a number of horizontal and lateral adjustment brackets 215 and vertical adjustment brackets 218 are provided (see also Figure 10). 20 The wall-forms are used to form the mould for the concrete vertical elements of the shaft structure 110. The vertical adjustment bracket 218 is connected to the ram bracing column 140 and has a distal end that sits underneath the.top set of waters 223 on the wall-forms 210. The proximate end of bracket 218 is then connected by a two-way adjustor turnbuckle 495 to the ram bracing column 140. By adjusting the turnbuckle 25 490 the wall-form inner 210 and outer 220 can be moved vertically during the levelling process (before the concrete is poured). The horizontal and lateral adjustment bracket 215 is comprised of four items, which interlock with each other. The parts of bracket 215 are shown in detail in Figures 13A, 13B, 14A or 14B. Bracket 215 is connected to both the ram bracing columns 140 and the wall-form inner 210. By adjusting the 30 internal turnbuckle 495 on the horizontal and lateral adjustment bracket 215 the wall form inner 210 is moved in two separate directions. It should be noted that the wall forms 220 are supported by girder trolleys 460 and are moved manually. The wall-form winners 210 have internal corners 520 incorporating internal turnbuckles 495 which can be tightened into position to hold the wall-form inners 210 35 in place during the plumbing operation. To plumb the two internal wall-forms 210 an internal turnbuckle 490 is used, located between two corners of adjacent wall-form WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 25 inners 210. The internal turnbuckle 490 comprises of a male 510 and a female fitting 500 each of which are affixed to a given wall-form inner 210. The two parts of the internal turnbuckle 495 are then screwed together and can be tightened and loosened and locked into position to secure the wall-form inners 210 butted up against the 5 existing concrete structure .110. The internal turnbuckle is shown in detail in Figures 15B and 15C. Fig. 23A shows a side view of a wall-form outer mounting bracket 225. Fig. 23B shows a front view of a wall-form outer mounting bracket 225. The two holes in the central plate allow the centre plate to swing down for the suspension 10 assembly 465 to be moved into position to support the wall-form outer 220 from the girder trolley 460. Once the girder trolley 460 and suspension assembly 465 are attached to the wall-form buters 220 to be slid easily into position and adjusted where necessary. Fig. 23C shows a top view of the wall-form outer mounting bracket 225. This 15 view shows the cavity within the bracket 225 in which the suspension assembly 465 is captured, allowing the girder trolley 460 to move along either main beams 320 or secondary beams 330 with ease. Figs. 24A-24G shows the process steps of the self-climbing formwork 100 through one complete cycle (for detail, also see the other Figures referred to above). 20 Fig. 24A shows the self-climbing formwork 100 in position ready to begin construction phase. The primary jacking beams 150 and support beams 160 are securely in place. The wall-forms inner 210 and outer 220 are located within about 75mm from the top of the concrete structure 110 from the previous pour. At this time the lateral and horizontal adjustments can be made with the appropriate bracket 215. Further 25 adjustments are then made using the vertical adjustment bracket 218, to ensure the plumbing and levelling is kept accurate. A dumpy, laser or water level can be used to assess the requirements for wall-form adjustments. The wall-form inners 210 (also referred to as tle main internal wall-forms) are set-up first, and once plumb they are pushed against the previous poured concrete structure 110, and tensioned using the 30 internal hanger horizontal members 450. To plumb the end internal wall-form 210 the internal turnbuckles 490 are used, located at the corners of the wall-form inners 210. The internal wall-forms 210 are tightened into position by winding out the internal turnbuckle 490, the sides of the male 510 and a female fitting 500 of the internal turnbuckle 490 until locked into position and the bottom of the internal wall-forms 210 35 are hard against the concrete structure 110. The plumbing phase is then complete.
WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 26 For the pour, the RL (reduced level) needs to be transferred around the entire perimeter of the self-climbing formwork 100 about 100mm below the top of the previous structure 110, then the positions of all projections 230/240, block-outs, penetrations can be checked from the RL and the top of the levelled wall-forms 210. 5 Once the measurements are all checked to the data and gridlines provided by the surveyor, the penetration, block-outs projections 230/240 and reinforcing steel can be installed, and a form release agent is also applied to the rolling wall-form outers 220. The wall-form outers 220 are then moved into place using the wall-form girder trolleys 460 and a plurality of tie-bars 530 are installed to tie internal 210 and external 220 10 wall-forms together to support the loads from the poured concrete. The external wall forms 220 are tightened into position using external wall-form outer corners 540 which are adjusted using external turnbuckles 490 similar in set-up to those used in the wall form internal corners 520. When construction phase begins, the concrete pouring chutes 260 are positioned 15 and the mesh covers 265 are lifted out of the way. The concrete is poured into the closed wall-form structure in uniform spread layers. As the pour continues the wall form ties bars 530 are monitored to ensure there is no loosening of the joints or movement of the wall-forms or leakage of the concrete. The self-climbing formwork 100 should be cleaned after each pour if any spillages have occurred, as it should be 20 maintained in a clean state to ensure system function is at full capacity. Fig. 24B shows the system after the concrete has been poured and the wall forms still in place. A typical curing time would be about 24 hours, although this will always vary depending on the dimensions of the job and the amount of concrete poured at one time. 25 In Fig. 24C the wall-form ties 530 are released and the wall-form outers 220 rolled out away from the fresh concrete structure 110. In Fig. 24D the wall-form inners 210 are released by un-tightening the inner wall-form concerns 520, releasing the internal hanger horizontal members 450 and internal turnbuckles 490. The wall-form inners 210 are pulled away from the concrete 30 structure 110 creating a gap or approximately 20mm. The horizontal and lateral adjustor bracket 215 should be used to move the wall-form inner 210 away from the fresh concrete structure 110. Planks and hop-up brackets 440 are then installed to allow the various block-outs and penetrations and projections to be removed, cleanly and safely. A number of safety checks are then instigated before the self-climbing 35 formwork 100 can be given the all clear to jump. All surplus equipment and material are removed from the self-climbing formwork 100 both internally and from the top WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 27 working upper platform/gridwork 190 and a visual inspection is carried out and all appropriate trades are in agreement that there is no further work to be carried out at this level. An exclusion zone is set of about 3m minimum around the self-climbing formwork 100 as a total exclusion zone on the last poured floor. Finally a spotter is 5 assigned to each internal box and a visual inspection is conducted of the hydraulic power pack 250 and rams 120 and any cabling. After all inspections each ram 120 is primed to about 1 000psi and the power pack 250 is engaged to initiate the jump. As the self-climbing formwork 100 begins to climb the tilt-feet 180 of the support beams 160 will swing clear of the support beam pockets 165 under the force of gravity. 10 In Fig. 24E the self-climbing formwork 100 climbs to the level of the next set of support beam pockets 165 (having swung in and out of the jacking beam pockets 155 below) and the tilt-feet 180 rotate into position to bear the weight of the self-climbing formwork 100 on the tilt-foot bearer plates 182. In Fig. 24F the hydraulic rams 120 are put into retract mode, so that the jacking 15 beams 150 are now drawn up the concrete structure 110 just poured Finally in Fig. 24G the tilt-feet 180 attached to the jacking beams 150 are firmly located into the jacking beam pockets 165 at the next level up and the weight of the system is again borne on the tilt-feet bearing plates 182 into the concrete shaft structure 110. 20 The invention as described with reference to the particular preferred embodiments provides for the first time many advantages including: e Formwork suspended from the jumpform's upper platform; e All system loads in the system working condition transferred to the supporting concrete structure via beams under the bracing columns, keeping the columns 25 primarily in compression; * A system where no primary members go into tension when the system is raised; * A unique rams located within the system bracing columns; * The compact design of the system; * The stability of the overall system; 30 * A unique ram to jacking beam connection; e A unique ram to bracing column connection using a collar; e A unique two way adjustor bracket for locating the wall-forms; and e A unique adjustable bracing strut for locating the wall-form to the existing concrete structure. 35 In particular Fig. I shows the self-climbing formwork (SCF) 100 as a compact system, where the central hollow of the concrete shaft structure 110 is not substantially WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 28 filled by hydraulic equipment and is still retained as a useable working area during a construction process. This is due to the placement of a hydraulic ram 120 and a jacking mast 130 located within a selected bracing column 140, allowing the self-climbing formwork 100 to be efficiently and stably raised to each new level. As the hydraulic 5 rams 120 are located within the bracing columns 140 and the self-climbing formwork 100 is a bottom climbing system, the system climbing effects no change in the primary load path for the jump-form structure: the self-climbing formwork 100 does not hang nor do the primary members (bracing columns 140) go into tension as the system is raised (system load reversal). This design feature enhances the stability of. the self 10 climbing formwork 100 as it is being raised to the next level for a construction phase. The self-climbing formwork 100 can be broken down into approximately 4 levels. The first, referred to as Platform-1 is the upper most platform above the self climbing formwork 100. The second level referred to as platform-2, is midway between the upper and lower extremities of a single concrete pour. The third level, referred to as 15 platform-3 290, is the base of the self-climbing formwork 100 immediately below which the self-climbing formwork 100 is structurally mounted into the concrete shaft structure 110. Platform-3 290 comprises multiple sections the perimeter sections 170 which are attached to the external platform hanger 270 and a central section 295 which is suspended from the main beams 320. The fourth level, referred to as platform-4 is a 20 trailing platform 400. This trailing platform 400 is either suspended using rolled hollow sections or steel cables and can be used as a lift installation platform or as an access/egress platform to the system. A fifth level can be attached to the self-climbing formwork 100 as an additional trailing platform for access/egress to the self-climbing formwork 100. 25 It will be appreciated by persons skilled in the art that numerous variations and/or modifications may be made to the particulars as shown in the specific embodiments without departing from the scope of the specification as broadly described. The present embodiments are, therefore, to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive. 30

Claims (17)

1. A system for progressive erection of a concrete structure, the system comprising; a platform to support wall forms within which part of the concrete structure can 5 be erected; a plurality of bracing columns to support the platform; a primary support beam which supports the bracing columns, the primary support beam having a first end and a second end, each end being engageable with the concrete structure; 10 a primary jacking beam positioned below the primary support beam, the primary jacking beam having a first end and a second end, each end being engageable with the concrete structure; and a hydraulic ram operably associated with each of the bracing columns and operable to displace the bracing columns and the primary support beam away from the 15 primary jacking beam to raise the platform.
2. The system of claim 1, wherein the hydraulic ram is located within the bracing column. 20
3. The system of claims 1 or claim 2, wherein the hydraulic ram is housed within a jacking mast.
4. The system of any one of claims I to 3, wherein the hydraulic ram acts on the bracing column such that there is no change in a primary load path for the system when 25 the platform is raised.
5. The system of any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the hydraulic ram engages an associated primary jacking beam proximate an end thereof which is engageable with the concrete structure. 30
6. The system of any one of claims I to 5, further comprising a secondary support beam, the secondary support beam having a first end and a second end, the first end being engageable with the concrete structure and the second end being engaged with the primary support beam. 35 WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 30
7. The system of any one of claims I to 6, further comprising a secondary jacking beam, the secondary jacking beam having a first end and a second end, the first end 5 being engageable with the concrete structure and the second end being engaged with the primary jacking beam.
8. The system of claim 6 or claim 7, further comprising: an additional bracing column which supports the platform and which is 10 supported by the secondary support beam.
9. The system of claim 8, further comprising an additional hydraulic ram operably associated with the additional bracing column and operable to displace the additional bracing column and the secondary support beam away from the primary jacking beam. 15
10. The system of any one of claims 1 to 9, including a hydraulic power pack for powering the system.
11. The system of any one of claims 1 to 10, further including tilt-feet that are 20 engageable with and disengageable from the concrete structure under the force of gravity to support the system on the concrete structure.
12. The system of claim 11, wherein the tilt feet are provided on the ends of the primary support beam and the primary jacking beam, and on the first end of the 25 secondary support beam and the first end of the secondary jacking beam.
13. The system of any one of claims I to 12, wherein, in use, the at least two bracing columns extend substantially vertically from within a space in the concrete structure; and 30 the at least one primary support beam and the at least one primary jacking beam extend substantially horizontally within the space in the concrete structure.
14. The system of any one of claims 1 to 13, further comprising an additional lower platform or platforms. 35 WO 2013/110126 PCT/AU2013/000053 31
15. A method of progressive erection of concrete structures using the system of claim 1, comprising the steps of: supporting the system though the primary support beam and the primary jacking beam on a foundation or an existing concrete structure; 5 positioning the wall-forms to form a mould; pouring molten concrete into the mould; allowing the poured molten concrete to cure forming a newly cured concrete structure; removing the wall-forms from the newly cured concrete structure; 10 disengaging the primary support beam from the foundation or existing concrete structure while maintaining support of the system through the primary jacking beam; activating the rams to raise the bracing columns, the primary support beam and the platform away from the primary jacking beam; engaging the primary support beam with the newly cured concrete structure to 15 support the system on the newly cured concrete structure; disengaging the primary jacking beam from the foundation or existing concrete structure; retracting the rams to raise the primary jacking beam to a position below the primary support beam; and 20 engaging the primary jacking beam with the newly cured concrete structure such that the system is supported on the newly cured concrete structure by both the primary support beam and the primary jacking beam.
16. The system of any one of claims 1 to 12, wherein the primary support beam is 25 located at a vertical height lower than or equal to the height of components of the system suspended from the platform or attached to the bracing columns.
17. The system according to any one of claims I to 13, comprising four bracing columns. 30
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AU2013212529A AU2013212529B2 (en) 2012-01-24 2013-01-24 Automated formwork climbing system
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EP3135840B1 (en) 2015-08-28 2018-11-28 DOKA GmbH Climbing formwork
EP3228776A1 (en) 2016-04-08 2017-10-11 DOKA GmbH Climbing formwork and method for erection of a concrete structure
CN106758833B (en) * 2016-12-16 2018-07-13 四川公路桥梁建设集团有限公司 A kind of hydraulic climbing die block system for the construction of small-sized variable cross-section pier
CN106812120A (en) * 2017-03-21 2017-06-09 中国葛洲坝集团三峡建设工程有限公司 Hydraulic self-lifting truss-like cantilever heavy type arch dam template system
EP3470602A1 (en) 2017-10-10 2019-04-17 DOKA GmbH Formwork and method for erection of a concrete structure
US10914083B2 (en) * 2018-06-11 2021-02-09 Wilian Holding Co. Wall-climbing concrete form lifting system
CN112177321B (en) * 2020-10-09 2022-03-25 浙大宁波理工学院 Creeping formwork construction equipment and method for building external wall and floor slab
US11248382B1 (en) * 2020-11-10 2022-02-15 Peri Ag Climbing support subsystem

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