AU2013204077B2 - Method and composition for road construction and surfacing - Google Patents

Method and composition for road construction and surfacing Download PDF

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AU2013204077B2
AU2013204077B2 AU2013204077A AU2013204077A AU2013204077B2 AU 2013204077 B2 AU2013204077 B2 AU 2013204077B2 AU 2013204077 A AU2013204077 A AU 2013204077A AU 2013204077 A AU2013204077 A AU 2013204077A AU 2013204077 B2 AU2013204077 B2 AU 2013204077B2
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emulsion
road
rosin
resin
pitch
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Frank D. Elswick
Gina M. Greenlee
Robert W. Vitale
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Midwest Industrial Supply Inc
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Midwest Industrial Supply Inc
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Abstract

1: \an\Interwoven\NRPortbl\DCC\WAM\5033945_l.doc-8 04/2013 Methods and compositions for improving the strength and longevity of secondary roadways through environmentally sound practices are disclosed herein. A composition for road sealing includes an aqueous emulsion of acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer, water, and a resin-modified emulsion, wherein the resin-modified emulsion includes a mixture of pitch and rosin, an emulsifying agent, and water. WO 2011/140413 PCT/US20111/035463 zC 0~ LO 1-1 z w z SiN10d VlYC 3 31A0 SUIBSTITrUTE SHEET (RULE 26)

Description

fj:\wam\nfewven\lWortbl\DCC\WAMX5 055023_.DOC-/04/20t3 METHOD AND COMPOSITION FOR ROAD CONSTRUCTION AND SURFACING I. Background A. Field [00011 This application claims priority to provisional patent applications, Serial No. 61/332,479, filed May 7, 2010, and Serial No. 61/379,570, filed September 2, 2010, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference. This is a divisional of Australian Patent Application No. 2011247969, the entire contents of which are incorporated herein by reference. This invention generally relates to methods and compositions for improving the strength and longevity of secondary roadways through environmentally sound practices. B. Description of the Related Art [0002] The engineering and construction of secondary roads (hereafter, "gravel roads," "earth roads," or "unpaved roads") has been perpetually plagued by two interrelated problems: the deterioration of the road due to water, and the loss of surface cohesion and road compaction due to traffic. The deleterious effects of water on roadways, in particular, are well documented in the prior art. In cold weather, moisture that penetrates a road's base layers freezes and rips cracks into the road substrate that seriously undermine the load bearing capacity and longevity of the roadway. Likewise, in milder weather, when water seeps into the road's base layers it results in softening and erosion that causes potholes that are an expensive and recurring problem. And if the potholes are not immediately repaired, they fill with water and further exacerbate the deterioration of the roadway. [0003] The impact of water on secondary roads-such as rural roads, access roads, field and forestry roads, or mountain roads-is especially pronounced because the quality of the surfacing materials is lower than in an asphalt paved road, for example, and thus provides reduced surface protection from the elements. Additionally, because of capillary action, water also seeps into the road base from the sides and bottom of the road's base or sub base. Compared to sealed or "paved" roads, which require large machinery to pour concrete or to lay and smooth a bitumen-based surface, secondary unpaved roads are relatively easy and inexpensive to build. But unpaved roads require much more frequent 1 WO 2011/140413 PCT/US20111/035463 2 maintenance-particularly after wet periods or when faced with increased traffic-and are generally prone to other problems not associated with paved roads. [0004] For example, many secondary roads-of either an earth or gravel variety-utilize native soils, often in conjunction with gravel quarried from local resources, to create the road's sub-base and base layers. Unfortunately, native soils and gravel are not always of suitable quality, resulting in a road base with diminished physical and mechanical properties. When secondary roads are constructed of poor road base materials, routine maintenance is not strictly employed, and the road is exposed to heavy moisture and/or traffic, the erosion of the road-due to damage to the road surface, sub-base, and base materials-is hastened. [0005] Defects in road surfaces are typically classified into two categories: surface deterioration and surface deformation. While surface deterioration is related mostly to the quality of the surfacing materials and the way they respond to weather or traffic stresses, surface deformations often have combined causes that include both stresses to the road surface itself and other factors such as sub-base and base capacity and stability. Surface deterioration is exemplified by "dust," the result of loss of fine binder material from road surfaces. Dust is a substantial problem for secondary roads, as the loss of these fine materials leads to other types of road distress such as loss of cohesion and compaction of the road fill material, and reduced capacity to maintain the requisite moisture in the road fill. [0006] Surface deformations include ruts, corrugations, depressions, and potholes. Ruts are longitudinal depressions in the wheel paths caused by high moisture content, inadequate strength in the subsurface soil or base, inadequate surface course thickness, or heavy traffic loads. Corrugating or "washboarding" is a series of ridges and depressions across the road surface caused by lack of surface cohesion. Depressions are localized low areas one or more inches below the surrounding road surfaces that are caused by settlement, excessive moisture content, and/or improper drainage. Potholes are small depressions or voids in the road surface one or more inches deep which are caused by excessive moisture content, poor drainage, weak sub-base or base, poorly graded aggregate, or a combination of these factors.
WO 2011/140413 PCT/US2011/035463 3 [0007] As such, the problems typically associated with secondary roads-both surface deterioration and deformation-are caused by: 1) the harmful effects of water and high moisture content, including settlement and erosion, on the road surface and base, 2) the lack of surface cohesion and resulting loss of road compaction caused by dust, and 3) the heavy traffic loads exerted on roads with weak or inadequate soil, sub-base, or base. Industry has provided for the addition of various chemical additives to impart water repellency on road materials, with varying degrees of success and environmental impact. However, water repellant chemicals are not binders, and load bearing capacity, stability, and frost resistance are not improved by their application to the soil or road base. In many cases, dust can also be reduced on gravel roads by applying chemical additives (commonly known in the art as "dust suppressors" or "dust retardants") which draw moisture from the air to improve fine aggregate cohesion. And "soil stabilizers," which are chemicals designed to act as binders and coalesce forming bonds between the soil or aggregate particles, have shown promise in greatly improving the load bearing and traffic capacity of the road. But existing soil stabilizers and dust retardants are difficult to apply and use in cold climates, tend to have long cure times, short life-cycles, and do not provide the requisite protection against water damage; particularly excessive moisture content resulting from capillary action. [0008] Repairing damaged roadways by conventional methods can be extremely expensive, time consuming, and environmentally disruptive because the entire compacted gravel layer of the road must be replaced. Excavating the roadbed of a 1-km portion of road measuring 4 m in width produces about 2000 cubic meters (M 3 ) of earthy waste; in a conventional road bed repair project, this would require roughly 220 truckloads of waste to be removed from the worksite, with 220 truckloads of new gravel being shipped back the worksite to complete the project. In isolated locations, or locations with difficult terrain, the expense of removing and later replacing the gravel is exorbitant-as is the impact on local residents (who must cope with noise and air pollution), normal users of the roadway (who experience detours or extended delays during repair), and the landfills that store the removed waste. Conventional binders are a liquid asphalt, which turns into a black heat-absorbing road surface. At installation a conventional chip sealed surface must be swept resulting in the loss of as much as 20% of the chips installed.
H:\parntenovenWortbl\DCC\PAR6194594_I dc-!1304/2014 4 [00091 As a result, there is a need in the art for an improved method of building up roads to create strength and longevity, wherein road builders will be able improve the longevity of the roadway, impart increased load bearing and traffic capacity, and reduce the time, costs, and environmental impact associated with conventional road repair projects. I. Summary 100101 The present stabilization technology may offer advantages in a wide variety of road applications from unpaved roads that will remain un-surfaced to roads that will receive running surface treatments. Roadbed stabilization treatments include maximizing potential road strength by blending organic emulsions into native roadbed soils, old graveled roads, or recycled roadway surface materials to create a superior structure that maximizes potential road strength and extends the useful life of the road bed. Construction systems in accordance with embodiments of the present invention may use in-place soils in conjunction with "green" products to engineer improved roadways by stabilizing the sub-base and providing a chip seal running surface - without relying on any asphaltic products. One or more embodiments of the present inventive components may be formulated to be as gentle on the environment as they are effective on the roadway - at only a fraction of the cost. One advantage one or more embodiments may provide is a process eliminating the need to import costly base or aggregate materials to build a sub-base for subsequent paving or chip sealing. One or more embodiments of the inventive components may produce lighter surfaces that do not absorb heat; are non-hazardous, non-flammable, non-corrosive, and non-toxic; use natural products harvested on sustainable basis; will not harm vegetation or wildlife; and will not leach out of the surface so they are safe to use close to streams and bodies of water. [0011] The present invention provides a road, the road comprising: an emulsion composition comprising: an aqueous emulsion of acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer; and a resin-modified emulsion, wherein the resin-modified emulsion comprises: a mixture of pitch and rosin; an emulsifying agent; and water; H:\par\IntwovenNR4 ortbl\DCCPARk6194594 1.do 17/04/2014 5 wherein the emulsion composition is substantially free of asphalt and the emulsion composition is combined with soil to form a road base; and a tack coat, wherein the tack coat is on top of the road base. t00121 In one embodiment, the composition includes soil and a binder. [0013] In another embodiment, the composition includes synthetic fibers. In some embodiments, the emulsion composition further comprises: synthetic fibers; and a binder. [0014] In another embodiment, the acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer is between about 5.0% and about 60.0% by weight of the aqueous emulsion and the water is between about 40.0% and about 95.0% by weight of the aqueous emulsion; and the resin-modified emulsion is between about 1.0% and about 55.0% by weight of the emulsion composition, wherein the mixture of pitch and rosin is about 1% to about 90% by weight of the resin-modified emulsion, the pitch is between about 5% and about 95% by weight of the mixture of pitch and rosin, the rosin is between about 1% to about 70% by weight of the mixture of pitch and rosin, the emulsifying agent is between about 0.1% to about 5.0% by weight of the resin-modified emulsion, and the water is between about 10% to about 98% by weight of the resin-modified emulsion. [0015] In the present invention, the road includes a tack coat. [0016] In another embodiment, the composition further includes limestone chips. [00171 In another embodiment, the tack coat comprises: a second emulsion composition comprising: an aqueous emulsion of acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer; and a resin-modified emulsion, wherein the resin-modified emulsion comprises: a mixture of pitch and rosin; an emulsifying agent; and water. [0018] In another embodiment, the tack coat comprises an aqueous emulsion. In some H:\ parUmenvoven\NRonbl\DCC\PARM194594_1.doc-17/04/2014 6 embodiments, the tack coat comprises a second aqueous emulsion of acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer. [0019] In another embodiment, the tack coat comprises an aqueous emulsion and a viscosity enhancer. [0020] In another embodiment, the composition is substantially free of polycyclic organic matter. [0021] The present invention further provides a method for road sealing, the method comprising: mixing an emulsion composition with associated native soil to form a road base; applying to the road base a tack coat; adding rock chips to the tack coat; and rolling the tack coat; wherein the emulsion composition is substantially free of asphalt and wherein the emulsion composition comprises: an aqueous emulsion of acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer; and a resin-modified emulsion, the resin-modified emulsion comprising: a mixture of pitch and rosin; an emulsifying agent; and water. [0022] In an embodiment, the step of applying to the road base a tack coat is applying to the road base a tack coat comprising about 25% to about 75% by weight resin-modified emulsion and about 25% to about 75% by weight of aqueous emulsion. [0022A] In some embodiments, the aqueous emulsion is an aqueous emulsion of acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer. [0022B] In some embodiments, the resin-modified emulsion comprises: a mixture of pitch and rosin; an emulsifying agent; and water.
H:par\nterwoven\NRPorbWCCWAR6 I9459_l.doc-1704/2014 7 [0022C] In some embodiments of the method of the present invention, no polycyclic organic matter is used. [0023] In another embodiment, the method includes adding a binder to the road base and adding synthetic fibers to the road base. [0024] In another embodiment of the road, the emulsion composition comprises: about 5% to about 95% aqueous emulsion by volume; and about 5% to about 95% resin-modified emulsion by volume. [0025] In another embodiment, the emulsion composition comprises about 25% aqueous emulsion by volume and about 75% resin-modified emulsion by volume; the tack coat comprises about 25% by volume of a thickened polymer emulsion comprising an aqueous emulsion of acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer and about 75% by volume of a pitch/rosin emulsion comprising a mixture of pitch and rosin, an emulsifying agent and water; and the road further comprises a seal coat formed from a coating mixture diluted 2:1 with water, said coating mixture comprising about 25% by volume of a thickened polymer emulsion comprising an aqueous emulsion of acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer and about 75% by volume of a pitch/rosin emulsion comprising a mixture of pitch and rosin, an emulsifying agent, and water. 100261 In another embodiment, the composition further includes a rheology modifier, [0027] In another embodiment, the rheology modifier is chosen from the group comprising naturally occurring gums, polyacrylamide polymers, methylcellulose, silicas, and carbonates. [0028] In another embodiment, the composition further includes a drying aid. [00291 In another embodiment, the drying aid is chosen from the group comprising surfactants, linseed oil, walnut oil, corn oil, tong oil, poppy oil, perilla oil, cotton oil, and alcohols. [00301 In another embodiment, the composition further includes a curing agent or accelerator. [00311 In another embodiment, the curing agent or accelerator is chosen from the group comprising various binders/hardeners including, but not limited to, hydraulic curing agent and non-hydraulic curing agent. [0032] In another embodiment, a method for road sealing includes applying a tack coat directly on H:paTntenvoveniNRPortbECC\PAR\61945941.doc-17/042014 7A an associated asphalt road, wherein the tack coat is chosen from the group consisting of aqueous emulsion, resin-modified emulsion, mixture of aqueous emulsion and resin-modified emulsion, aqueous emulsion and viscosity enhancer, resin-modified emulsion with viscosity enhancer, and mixture of aqueous emulsion and resin-modified emulsion with viscosity enhancer. [00331 In an embodiment of the method of the present invention, the method further includes mixing a curing agent with the associated native soil prior to mixing the emulsion composition with the associated native soil to form the road base. [0034] In another embodiment, the method further includes the addition of the curing agent or accelerator to the aqueous emulsion or resin-modified emulsion prior to application into, or onto, the native soil or road bed. [0035] In another embodiment, the method further includes mixing an aqueous emulsion and a resin-modified emulsion with associated native soil to form a road base, applying to the road base a tack coat of aqueous emulsion, adding rock chips to the tack coat, wherein the chips are not washed prior to use, and rolling the tack coat. [0035A] In some embodiments of the method of the present invention, the method further comprises grading and compacting the road base before applying the tack coat to the road base. [0035B] In some embodiments of the present invention, the rosin is 36% to 70% by weight of the mixture of pitch and rosin of the emulsion composition. [0036] Other potential benefits and advantages one or more embodiments may provide will become apparent to those skilled in the art to which it pertains upon reading and understanding of the following detailed specification. [0037I The invention may take physical form in certain parts and arrangement of parts, at least one embodiment of which will be described in detail in this specification. Embodiments outside the scope of the claimed invention are also described herein. M. Brief Description of the Drawings [0037A] Various embodiments, including embodiments outside the scope of the claimed invention, are described herein, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings in which: [0038] FIGURE 1 shows a chart of the Samitron stiffness measurements of one embodiment H:\par\ulenvown\NRPortb\DCPARW194594_1.doc-17/04/2014 7B represented with a chip seal 'A" thick and a Samitron depth of measurement of - 9"; [0039] FIGURE 2 shows a comparative chart of CBR testing; [0040] FIGURE 3 shows a comparative chart of resilient modulus; and, [0041] FIGURE 4 shows a chart showing the increase in pressure withstood by a composition disclosed herein. IV. Detailed Description [00421 In FIGURES 2 and 3 the Resilient Modulus was calculated based on the CBR values according to the Relationship: Mr (psi) = 1500 CBR. Formulation A is (a) 67% by weight percent based upon the total weight of the emulsion a mixture comprising pitch, rosin, an emulsifying agent, and water; (b) 33% acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer and water; and (c) chip sealed with acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer and water. Formulation B is (a) 67% by weight percent based upon the total weight of the emulsion a mixture comprising pitch, rosin, an emulsifying agent, and water; (b) 33% acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer and water; and (c) chip sealed with thickened acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer and water. [00431 In one embodiment disclosed herein, the characteristics of the emulsion composition for road base materials can include a composition that is an aqueous emulsion comprising about 5.0% to about 60.0% by weight (including, but not limited to, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59 and 60) of acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer, and 40.0% to about 95.0% by weight (including, but not limited to, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46,47,48,49, 50,51,52,53, 54,55, WO 2011/140413 PCT/US2011/035463 8 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, and 95) of water. In this embodiment, this aqueous emulsion is combined with a resin-modified emulsion (described in U.S. Patent No. 4,822,425, which is incorporated herein by reference) which comprises from (a) about 1 to about 90 weight percent based upon the total weight of said emulsion of a mixture comprising pitch from about 5 to about 95 weight percent (including, but not limited to, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24,25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41,42,43,44,45, 46,47,48,49,50, 51, 52, 53, 54,55,56, 57, 58, 59, 60,61,62,63, 64,65,66,67,68,69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, and 95) based on the total weight of the mixture and rosin from 1 to 70 weight percent (including, but not limited to, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, and 70) based on the total weight of the mixture; (b) from about 0.1 to 5.0 weight percent (including, but not limited to, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 3.0, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 4.0, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, and 5.0) based upon the total weight of said emulsion of an emulsifying agent and (c) from about 9.9 to 98 weight percent (including, but not limited to, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42,43,44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, and 98) based upon the total weight of the emulsion of water. [0044] When the term "water insoluble" is used herein, it is meant that the mixture of pitch and rosin when dispersed onto the aggregate material after the water has evaporated will not be washed away by rainwater and the like thereby weakening the final product. As mentioned, the oil base dust control products do not adhere or bind themselves to the aggregate but are water soluble and do wash away with the rain. When the term "non flammable" is used herein it is meant that the mixture or the emulsion will not catch fire WO 2011/140413 PCT/US2011/035463 9 instantly when exposed to a spark or flame and will not burn rapidly or continuously. When the term "non-corrosive" is used herein it is meant that the mixture of emulsion has a neutral pH. Consequently, it will not rust or corrode metals. Many of the dust control agents of the prior art are chloride based, such as, magnesium chloride and calcium chloride which are corrosive. When the term "emulsion" or "pine tar emulsion" is used herein it is meant that the mixture of pitch and rosin has been emulsified in water using an emulsifying agent. The water being the continuous phase and the mixture of pitch and rosin being the dispersed phase. Standard emulsifying technology is used to produce the emulsion of the instant invention. Any standard emulsifying unit can be used that will produce a maximum particle size in the pitch and rosin phase of from about 5 to 10 microns (including, but not limited to, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10). When the term "stabilizing" is used herein in the context of stabilizing aggregate, it is meant that when aggregate is applied to roadways and the like, the aggregate is held into place forming a solid paving material such that even through the paving material is subjected to heavy traffic such as automobiles and heavy trucks, freezing and thawing, wind and rain, erosion, etc., the material will remain unchanged. When the term "aggregate" is used herein, it is meant to refer to materials, such as, granular rock particles, shale or similar materials with similar hardness and inertness either natural or manufactured, and either in situ or imported. When the term "pitch" is used herein, it is meant to refer to pine tar pitch which is the residue obtained from a "distillation column" in the paper producing process. When the word "rosin" is used herein, it is meant to mean the rosin as defined in the Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 9th Edition, published by Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1977, page 756. [0045] When the term "pliable" is used herein it is meant that the stabilized aggregate will not break up under the maximum allowable highway axle weights of vehicles traveling on these roadways paved with the stabilized aggregate. When the term "water impermeable" is used herein it is meant that the stabilized aggregate is waterproof and will actually shed water. When the term "weight supporting" is used herein it is meant that the stabilized aggregate is bound together sufficiently to withstand stress and pressures associated with heavy vehicles traveling on roadways. When the term repairable" is used herein, it is meant that the stabilized aggregate is easily repaired, as WO 2011/140413 PCT/US2011/035463 10 compared to asphalt where certain asphalt patching material tends to be easily removed from "pot holes." When the term "stable" is used herein to describe the instant emulsion, it is meant to mean that the continuous water phase of the emulsion will not separate from the pitch/rosin phase of the emulsion for at least 1 month. When the terms "stable" or "stabilized" are used herein to describe the instant stabilized aggregate material, it is meant that the pitch/rosin coating on the aggregate will not re-emulsify or "plate out" after compaction of the aggregate and after the water has evaporated. This stabilized aggregate material will remain stable even when exposed to large amounts of water such as heavy rains. If this material was not stable, the pitch/rosin would re-emulsify resulting in the material becoming soft and non-weight supporting. When the term "solid material" is used herein, it is meant to describe the stabilized aggregate after it has formed a "block" of material or has formed a roadway surface, etc. When the term "freeze resistant" is used herein, it is meant that the stabilized aggregate may be subjected to freezing and thawing temperatures without affecting the strength or weight supporting capability of the stabilized aggregate. When the term "dilutable" is used herein, it is meant that the concentrated emulsion is capable and may be diluted with water, e.g., I to 30 parts water to 1 part emulsions, to form a product which is easily mixed with aggregate to provide a "pothole" or crack patching material or it may be sprayed to seal asphalt, concrete or other paved surfaces, etc. When the term "emulsifying agent" is used herein, it is meant to mean that it will facilitate the formation of an emulsion. An emulsion as defined herein or as used herein, is defined in the Condensed Chemical Dictionary 9th Edition, page 340. Any suitable emulsifying agent may be used. Emulsifiers may be anionic, cationic or nonionic. A large number of such emulsifying agents are well known in the emulsion art. Anionic emulsifiers include soaps, such as, the alkali metal soaps of fatty acids, rosin acids, tolyl acids, alkaryl sufonic acids, and the like. Cationic emulsifying agents include aliphalic amines, aromatic amines with fatty acid chains, fatty amides quaternary ammonium salts, polyethylene diamines and their quaternary ammonium derivatives, alkyl imidazolines and the like. Nonionic emulsifying agents include polyoxyethylene derivative of alcohols, acids, ethers, phenols, aides, or amines.
WO 2011/140413 PCT/US2011/035463 :11 [0046] When the term "binder/hardner" is used herein, it is meant a substance that sets and hardens and can bind materials together and accelerates the curing process. When the term "hydraulic curing agent" is used herein, it is meant a substance that cures due to hydration or a chemical reaction independent of water content. When the term "non hydraulic curing agent" is used herein, it is meant a substance that must be kept dry during the curing process. [0047] In several embodiments of the present invention, methods for improving soil or road base materials are provided. As used in this patent application, the term "soil" is broadly used to describe the top layer of the earth's surface, consisting of rock and mineral particles mixed with organic matter (also known as, by non-limiting reference, earth or dirt); whether originally located at the road construction site ("native soil" or "in situ soil") or transported to the road construction site. As used in this patent application, the phrase "road base materials" is broadly used to describe any substance from which a road surface, base, or sub-base could be constructed; including, but certainly not limited to by this non-limiting reference, rock, broken rock, gravel (whether pebble, granule, or other size or mixture), sand, cobble, slag, or other construction aggregate or fill material. The mamer of composition application can include any method chosen with sound engineering judgment; but in most instances, application of the chemical agent to the soil is accomplished by the use of conventional spray equipment (spray trucks). The agent is gravity fed or pumped through hoses, spray nozzles, or fixed sprayers and evenly applied to the soil or material to be treated. [0048] In one embodiment, a road base is built of the aqueous emulsion and resin modified emulsion mixed with the native soil. In one embodiment the road base is about four inches deep. In another embodiment, a binder (i.e. Portland cement) can be added to the road base. In another embodiment, synthetic fibers can be added to the base as well. In one embodiment, a tack coat of about 25 % by weight to about 75% by weight (including, but not limited to, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, and 75) of the resin-modified emulsion and about 25% by weight to about 75% by weight (including, but not limited to, 25, 26,27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, H:\parInterwovn\RPortbIXDCC\PAR\6[945941.doc-17/04/2014 12 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, and 75) of the aqueous emulsion can be added to the road base. After the tack coat is applied, chips of limestone are added to the tack coat, which is then rolled with a pneumatic roller, and then roiled with a steel drum. In this embodiment, no asphalt is used to build the road, and the product is substantially free of polycyclic organic matter, including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. It is to be understood that the tack coat could also be just the aqueous emulsion. It is also to be understood that the tack coat could be a combination of the aqueous emulsion and a viscosity enhancer. [00491 In another embodiment, the composition includes about 25% polymer emulsion (either thickened or unthickened) by volume and about 75% pitch/rosin emulsion by volume as a base. The base is diluted to achieve optimum moisture. The chip contains a tack coat which is about 25% thickened polymer emulsion by volume and about 75% pitch/rosin emulsion by volume, wherein no water is added to the tack coat, and a seal coat which is the composition as the tack coat, except that it is diluted 2:1 with water. Embodiments disclosed herein can be used as a base alone, a surface alone, both base and surface, chip over existing asphalt roads, as well as chip over existing stable native soil roads. In several embodiments, the aggregate can be chosen from the group comprising in situ soils, reclaimed asphalt, reclaimed concrete, limestone, river rock, granite, decomposed granite, and any combination of the above aggregates. The aggregate can be either washed or unwashed. [0050 In one embodiment Marshall Stability testing was performed in accordance to ASTM D 6927 on several formulations, with the range of results being 4,450 lbs to 12,490 lbs. The CBR testing was conducted in accordance with ASTM D1883-99. The aggregate material was sieved in accordance to ASTM D 422. The aggregate was classified through USCS (Unified Soil Classification System) as SP-poorly-graded sand; > 50% of coarse fraction passes No.4 sieve; through AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials) as A-1-b material = General rating as a subgrade is excellent to good. The optimum moisture was determined to be 7.2% calculated in accordance to ASTM D 1557. [00511 The road base of embodiments disclosed herein can be made of native soil combined with the aqueous emulsion, the native soil combined with the resin-modified emulsion, or the native soil combined with the aqueous emulsion and the resin-modified emulsion. The present invention provides a road, the road comprising: an emulsion composition comprising: 13 an aqueous emulsion of acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer; and a resin-modified emulsion, wherein the resin-modified emulsion comprises: a mixture of pitch and rosin; an emulsifying agent; and water; wherein the emulsion composition is substantially free of asphalt and the emulsion composition is combined with soil to form a road base; and a tack coat, wherein the tack coat is on top of the road base. In one embodiment of this invention, the chips do not need to be washed prior to use. [0052] In another embodiment, the tack coat can be applied directly to an asphalt road as well. In this embodiment, the tack coat can be the aqueous emulsion, the resin-modified emulsion, the aqueous emulsion/resin-modified emulsion, or any of the previous combined with a viscosity enhancer. To this tack coat can be added the chips as described above. [0053] In one embodiment, the treated soil or road base materials are graded and compacted, using any means chosen with sound engineering judgment, and a top coat of the composition is applied. Motor-graders, asphalt grinders, mixers, pug mills, compactors, rollers, and other conventional construction equipment may be utilized to blend, set grade, and compact stabilized base, if necessary, as described in herein. A top coat is defined broadly as any application of the soil or road base materials chemical improvement composition that is applied after compaction. [0054] In another embodiment, the composition includes a curing agent. The curing agent may allow the road or road base to be open to traffic or use in a matter of hours rather than days. The curing agent may increase the early strength of the surface without compromising the late or long term strength. The curing agent may allow for rapid attainment of residual moisture levels and allows installation in conditions of less than ideal moisture. The curing agent may be exothermic, allowing for use in less then ideal temperatures normally needed for emulsion drying and curing. With reference now to FIGURE 4, the graph shows increase in pressure withstood with the increased percentage of curing agent mixed with the aggregate ("native soil"). Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were used. The curing agent used in the testing of FIGURE 4 was a non-Portland hydraulic binder, and in this particular example was Ciment Fondu*, available H:\pamenwoven\NRPonL\DCCPARM6194594_ dc-17104/2014 13A from Kerneos SA, Seine, France. Ciment Fondu* has a chemical composition of 37.5% to 41.0% by weight A1 2 0 3 , 35.5% to 39.0% by weight CaO, 3.5% to 5.5% SiO 2 , 13.0% to 17.5% Fe 2
O
3 , less than 1.5% MgO, and less than 4.0% TiO 2 . In another embodiment, the curing agent comprises greater than 37.0% Al 2
O
3 , less than 41.0% CaO, less than 6.0% SiC 2 , less than 18.5% Fe 2
O
3 , less than 1.5% MgO, and less than 4.0% TiO 2 . In another embodiment, the curing agent can be aluminum silicate. When the WO 2011/140413 PCT/US2011/035463 14 curing agent is added to the soil, the curing agent is approximately 0.1% to approximately 20.0% by weight of the soil (including, but not limited to 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 3.0, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 4.0, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 5.0, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 6.0, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 7.0, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 8.0, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 9.0, 9.0, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 10.0, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 11.0, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 12.0, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.9, 13.0, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 14.0, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 15.0, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 16.0, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3, 16.4, 16.5, 16.6, 16.7, 16.8, 16.9, 17.0, 17.1, 17.2, 17.3, 17.4, 17.5, 17.6, 17.7, 17.8, 17.9, 18.0, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, 18.8, 18.9, 19.0, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 19.4, 19.5, 19.6, 19.7, 19.8, 19.9, and 20.0.) When the curing agent is added to the emulsion, the curing agent is approximately 0.1% to approximately 30.0% by weight (including, but not limited to 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 3.0, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 4.0, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 5.0, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 6.0, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 7.0, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 8.0, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 9.0, 9.0, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 10.0, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 11.0, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 12.0, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.9, 13.0, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 14.0, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 15.0, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 16.0, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3, 16.4, 16.5, 16.6, 16.7, 16.8, 16.9, 17.0, 17.1, 17.2, 17.3, 17.4, 17.5, 17.6, 17.7, 17.8, 17.9, 18.0, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, 18.8, 18.9, 19.0, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 19.4, 19.5, 19.6, 19.7, 19.8, 19.9, 20.0, 20.1, 20.2, 20.3, 20.4, 20.5, 20.6, 20.7, 20.8, 20.9, 21.0, 21.1, 21.2, 21.3, 21.4, 21.5, 21.6, 21.7, 21.8, 21.9, 22.0, 22.1, 22.2, 22.3, 22.4, 22.5, 22.6, 22.7, 22.8, 22.9, 23.0, 23.1, 23.2, 23.3, 23.4, 23,5, 23.6, 23.7, 23.8, 23.9, 24.0, 24.1, 24.2, 24.3, 24.4, 24.5, 24.6, 24.7, 24.8, 24.9, 25.0, 25.1, 25.2, 25.3, 25.4, 25.5, 25.6, 25.7, 25.8, 25.9, 26.0, 26.1, 26.2, 26.3, 26.4, 26.5, 26.6, 26.7, 26.8, 26.9, 27.0, 27.1, 27.2, 27.3, 27.4,27.5, 27.6, 27.7, 27.8, 27.9, 15 28.0, 28.1, 28.2, 28.3, 28.4, 28.5, 28.6, 28.7, 28.8, 28.9, 29.0, 29.1, 29.2, 29.3, 29.4, 29.5, 29.6, 29.7,29.8,29.9, and 30.0). [0055] In one embodiment disclosed herein, the characteristics of the emulsion composition for road base materials can include a composition that is an aqueous emulsion comprising about 5.0% to about 60.0% by weight (including, but not limited to, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59 and 60) of acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer, about 0.1% to about 30.0% by weight (including, but not limited to 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 3.0, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 4.0, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 5.0, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 6.0, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 7.0, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 8.0, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 9.0, 9.0, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 10.0, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 11.0, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 12.0, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.9, 13.0, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 14.0, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 15.0, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 16.0, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3, 16.4, 16.5, 16.6, 16.7, 16.8, 16.9, 17.0, 17.1, 17.2, 17.3, 17.4, 17.5, 17.6, 17.7, 17.8, 17.9, 18.0, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, 18.8, 18.9, 19.0, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 19.4, 19.5, 19.6, 19.7, 19.8, 19.9, 20.0, 20.1, 20.2, 20.3, 20.4, 20.5, 20.6, 20.7, 20.8, 20.9, 21.0, 21.1, 21.2, 21.3, 21.4, 21.5, 21.6, 21.7, 21.8, 21.9, 22.0, 22.1, 22.2, 22.3, 22.4, 22.5, 22.6, 22.7, 22.8, 22.9, 23.0, 23.1, 23.2, 23.3, 23.4, 23.5, 23.6, 23.7, 23.8, 23.9, 24.0, 24.1, 24.2, 24.3, 24.4, 24.5, 24.6, 24.7, 24.8, 24.9, 25.0, 25.1, 25.2, 25.3, 25.4, 25.5, 25.6, 25.7, 25.8, 25.9, 26.0, 26.1, 26.2, 26.3, 26.4, 26.5, 26.6, 26.7, 26.8, 26.9, 27.0, 27.1, 27.2, 27.3, 27.4, 27.5, 27.6, 27.7, 27.8, 27.9, 28.0, 28.1, 28.2, 28.3, 28.4, 28.5, 28.6, 28.7, 28.8, 28.9, 29.0, 29.1, 29.2, 29.3, 29.4, 29.5, 29.6, 29.7, 29.8, 29.9, and 30.0) and 10.0% to about 94.9% by weight (including, but not limited to, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, and 94.9) of water. In this embodiment, this aqueous emulsion is combined with a resin-modified emulsion (described in U.S. Patent No. 4,822,425, which is incorporated herein by reference) which comprises from (a) about 1 to about 90 weight percent based upon the total weight of said emulsion of a mixture comprising pitch from about 5 to about 95 weight percent HApar\ntcrvn\NRVctbhDCCPAR\6194594 _doc-17/04/2014 16 (including, but not limited to, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, and 95) based on the total weight of the mixture and rosin from 1 to 70 weight percent (including, but not limited to, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, and 70) based on the total weight of the mixture; (b) from about 0.1 to 5.0 weight percent (including, but not limited to, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 3.0, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 4.0, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, and 5.0) based upon the total weight of said emulsion of an emulsifying agent and (c) from about 9.9 to 98 weight percent (including, but not limited to, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, and 98) based upon the total weight of the emulsion of water. [0056] In one embodiment disclosed herein, the characteristics of the emulsion composition for road base materials can include a composition that is an aqueous emulsion comprising about 5.0% to about 60.0% by weight (including, but not limited to, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59 and 60) of acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer and 40.0% to about 95% by weight (including, but not limited to, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, and 95) of water. In this WO 2011/140413 PCT/US2011/035463 17 embodiment, this aqueous emulsion is combined with a resin-modified emulsion (described in U.S. Patent No. 4,822,425, which is incorporated herein by reference) which comprises from (a) about I to about 90 weight percent based upon the total weight of said emulsion of a mixture comprising pitch from about 5 to about 95 weight percent (including, but not limited to, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, and 95) based on the total weight of the mixture and rosin from 1 to 70 weight percent (including, but not limited to, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, and 70) based on the total weight of the mixture; (b) from about 0.1 to 5.0 weight percent (including, but not limited to, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4,2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 3.0, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 4.0, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, and 5.0) based upon the total weight of said emulsion of an emulsifying agent (c) from about 9.8 to 98 weight percent (including, but not limited to, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, and 98) based upon the total weight of the emulsion of water, and (d) from about 0.1 to 30.0 weight percent (including, but not limited to 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 3.0, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 4.0, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 5.0, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 6.0, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 7.0, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 8.0, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 9.0, 9.0, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 10.0, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 11.0, 11.1, 11.2,11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 12.0, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.9, 13.0, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 14.0, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, H:\pa r\Interwoven\NRPortbl\DCC\PAR\6194594_1.doc-17104/2014 18 15.0, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 16.0, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3, 16.4, 16.5, 16.6, 16.7, 16.8, 16.9, 17.0, 17.1, 17.2, 17.3, 17.4, 17.5, 17.6, 17.7, 17.8, 17.9, 18.0, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, 18.8, 18.9, 19.0, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 19.4, 19.5, 19.6, 19.7, 19.8, 19.9, 20.0, 20.1, 20.2, 20.3, 20.4, 20.5, 20.6, 20.7, 20.8, 20.9, 21.0, 21.1, 21.2, 21.3, 21.4, 21.5, 21.6, 21.7, 21.8, 21.9, 22.0, 22.1, 22.2, 22.3, 22.4, 22.5, 22.6, 22.7, 22.8, 22.9, 23.0, 23.1, 23.2, 23.3, 23.4, 23.5, 23.6, 23.7, 23.8, 23.9, 24.0, 24.1, 24.2, 24.3, 24.4, 24.5, 24.6, 24.7, 24.8, 24.9, 25.0, 25.1, 25.2, 25.3, 25.4, 25.5, 25.6, 25.7, 25.8, 25.9, 26.0, 26.1, 26.2, 26.3, 26.4, 26.5, 26.6, 26.7, 26.8, 26.9, 27.0, 27.1, 27.2, 27.3, 27.4, 27.5, 27.6, 27.7, 27.8, 27.9, 28.0, 28.1, 28.2, 28.3, 28.4, 28.5, 28.6, 28.7, 28.8, 28.9, 29.0, 29.1, 29.2, 29.3, 29.4, 29.5, 29.6, 29.7, 29.8, 29.9, and 30.0) based upon the total weight of the emulsion of a curing agent. [0057] With reference to FIGURE 1, the Samitron stiffness measurements of one embodiment represent the stabilized soil as the chip seal is approximately M2 inch thick and the Samitron depth measurement is about 9 inches. This performance is comparable to that of the best quality aggregate bases used for interstate highway construction. This shows that embodiments disclosed herein may perform at least as well as a moderate volume road and excellent as a parking lot. FIGURE 1 represents approximately 'A inch of a chip seal over top of native soil mixed with a composition disclosed herein. [00581 In a listing of potential embodiments, the following chemical combinations are potential embodiments (all percentages are based on weight of the emulsion, the emulsions are between about 20% to about 65% by weight of active ingredient): polymer emulsion at about 100% by weight; pitch/rosin emulsion at about 100% by weight; thickened polymer emulsion at about 100% by weight; polymer emulsion (about 5% to about 95%) with pitch/rosin emulsion (about 5% to about 95%); and thickened polymer emulsion (about 5% to about 95%) with pitch/rosin emulsion (about 5% to about 95%). In several embodiments rheology modifiers (thickeners) may be used. The rheology modifier can be chosen from the group comprising naturally occurring gums (i.e. xanthan gum, guar gum), polyacrylamide polymers, methylcellulose, silicas, and carbonates. In several embodiments, drying aids are used. The drying aid can be chosen from the group comprising surfactants (i.e. alpha olefin sulfonates, sodium lauryl sulfonates, sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate), linseed oil, walnut oil, corn oil, tong oil, poppy oil, perilla oil, cotton oil, and alcohols (i.e. methanol, isopropyl alcohol). [0059] The embodiments have been described, hereinabove. It will be apparent to those skilled in the H:\par\nterwoven\NRPortbl\DCC\PAR\6194594_1.doc-17/04/2014 19 art that the above methods and apparatuses may incorporate changes and modifications without departing from the general scope of this invention. It is intended to include all such modifications and alterations insofar as they come within the scope of the appended claims. Although the description above contains much specificity, this should not be construed as limiting the scope of the invention, but as merely providing illustrations of some of the presently preferred embodiments of this invention. Various other embodiments and modifications are possible within its scope. Furthermore, notwithstanding that the numerical ranges and parameters setting forth the broad scope of the invention are approximations, the numerical values set forth in the specific examples are reported as precisely as possible. Any numerical value, however, inherently contain certain errors necessarily resulting from the standard deviation found in their respective testing measurements. [0060j Throughout this specification and the claims which follow, unless the context requires otherwise, the word "comprise", and variations such as "comprises" and "comprising", will be understood to imply the inclusion of a stated integer or step or group of integers or steps but not the exclusion of any other integer or step or group of integers or steps. [0061] The reference in this specification to any prior publication (or information derived from it), or to any matter which is known, is not, and should not be taken as an acknowledgment or admission or any form of suggestion that that prior publication (or information derived from it) or known matter forms part of the common general knowledge in the field of endeavour to which this specification relates.

Claims (23)

1. A road, the road comprising: an emulsion composition comprising: an aqueous emulsion of acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer; and a resin-modified emulsion, wherein the resin-modified emulsion comprises: a mixture of pitch and rosin; an emulsifying agent; and water; wherein the emulsion composition is substantially free of asphalt and the emulsion composition is combined with soil to form a road base; and a tack coat, wherein the tack coat is on top of the road base,
2. The road of claim 1, wherein the emulsion composition further comprises: synthetic fibers; and a binder.
3. The road of claim 1 or 2, wherein: the acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer is between about 5.0% and about 60.0% by weight of the aqueous emulsion and the water is between about 40.0% and about 95.0% by weight of the aqueous emulsion; and the resin-modified emulsion is between about 1.0% and about 55.0% by weight of the emulsion composition, wherein the mixture of pitch and rosin is about 1% to about 90% by weight of the resin-modified emulsion, the pitch is between about 5% and about 95% by weight of the mixture of pitch and rosin, the rosin is between about 1% to about 70% by weight of the mixture of pitch and rosin, the emulsifying agent is between about 0.1% to about
5.0% by weight of the resin-modified emulsion, and the water is between about 10% to about 98% by weight of the resin-modified emulsion. H:\par\Interwoven\NRPortbl\DCC\PAR\6194594_1.doc-17/0412014 21 4. The road of claim 1 or 2, wherein the emulsion composition comprises: about 5% to about 95% aqueous emulsion by volume; and about 5% to about 95% resin-modified emulsion by volume. 5. The road of claim I or 2, wherein: the emulsion composition comprises about 25% aqueous emulsion by volume and about 75% resin-modified emulsion by volume; the tack coat comprises about 25% by volume of a thickened polymer emulsion comprising an aqueous emulsion of acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer and about 75% by volume of a pitch/rosin emulsion comprising a mixture of pitch and rosin, an emulsifying agent, and water; and the road further comprises a seal coat formed from a coating mixture diluted 2:1 with water, said coating mixture comprising about 25% by volume of a thickened polymer emulsion comprising an aqueous emulsion of acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer and about 75% by volume of a pitch/rosin emulsion comprising a mixture of pitch and rosin, an emulsifying agent, and water.
6. The road of any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the tack coat comprises: a second emulsion composition comprising: an aqueous emulsion of acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer; and a resin-modified emulsion, wherein the resin-modified emulsion comprises: a mixture of pitch and rosin; an emulsifying agent; and water.
7. The road of any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the tack coat comprises a second aqueous emulsion of acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer. H:\pa r\TntewovenXNRPortb\DCC\PAR\614594_1.doc-17/04/2014 22
8. The road of any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the emulsion composition is substantially free of polycyclic organic matter.
9. The road of any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the emulsion composition further comprises a curing agent.
10. The road of any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the emulsion composition further comprises a rheology modifier.
11. The road of any one of claims 1 to 10, wherein the emulsion composition further comprises a drying aid.
12. The road according to claim 1 and substantially as hereinbefore described.
13. A method for road sealing, the method comprising: mixing an emulsion composition with associated native soil to form a road base; applying to the road base a tack coat; adding rock chips to the tack coat; and rolling the tack coat; wherein the emulsion composition is substantially free of asphalt and wherein the emulsion composition comprises: an aqueous emulsion of acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer; and a resin-modified emulsion, the resin-modified emulsion comprising: a mixture of pitch and rosin; H:\par\Interwovean\NRPortbI\DCC\PAR\6194594_1 doc- 17/04/2014 23 an emulsifying agent; and water.
14. The method of claim 13, wherein the tack coat comprises an aqueous emulsion.
15. The method of claim 13, wherein the tack coat comprises an aqueous emulsion and a viscosity enhancer.
16. The method of claim 14 or 15, wherein the aqueous emulsion is an aqueous emulsion of acrylic and vinyl acetate polymer.
17. The method of claim 14, 15 or 16, wherein the tack coat comprises about 25% to about 75% by weight resin-modified emulsion and about 25% to about 75% by weight of the aqueous emulsion.
18. The method of claim 17, wherein the resin-modified emulsion comprises: a mixture of pitch and rosin; an emulsifying agent; and water,
19. The method of any one of claims 13 to 18, wherein the method further comprises: adding a binder to the road base; and, adding synthetic fibers to the road base. H:\par\lntelwoven\NRPortbI\DCC\PAR\6194594_ .doc-17104/2014 24
20. The method of any one of claims 13 to 19, wherein no polycyclic organic matter is used.
21. The method of any one of claims 13 to 20, further comprising mixing a curing agent with the associated native soil prior to mixing the emulsion composition with the associated native soil to form the road base.
22. The method of claim 21, wherein the curing agent is aluminum silicate.
23. The method of any one of claims 13 to 22, further comprising grading and compacting the road base before applying the tack coat to the road base.
24. The road of any one of claims 1 to 11 or the method of any one of claims 13 to 23, wherein the rosin is 36% to 70% by weight of the mixture of pitch and rosin of the emulsion composition.
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