AU2009244013B2 - Methods and compositions for the treatment of Huntington's disease - Google Patents

Methods and compositions for the treatment of Huntington's disease

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AU2009244013B2
AU2009244013B2 AU2009244013A AU2009244013A AU2009244013B2 AU 2009244013 B2 AU2009244013 B2 AU 2009244013B2 AU 2009244013 A AU2009244013 A AU 2009244013A AU 2009244013 A AU2009244013 A AU 2009244013A AU 2009244013 B2 AU2009244013 B2 AU 2009244013B2
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nucleic acid
polymorphism
cag
allele
subject
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Jeffrey Carroll
Michael Hayden
Simon Warby
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University of British Columbia
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University of British Columbia
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K31/00Medicinal preparations containing organic active ingredients
    • A61K31/70Carbohydrates; Sugars; Derivatives thereof
    • A61K31/7088Compounds having three or more nucleosides or nucleotides
    • A61K31/713Double-stranded nucleic acids or oligonucleotides
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N15/00Mutation or genetic engineering; DNA or RNA concerning genetic engineering, vectors, e.g. plasmids, or their isolation, preparation or purification; Use of hosts therefor
    • C12N15/09Recombinant DNA-technology
    • C12N15/11DNA or RNA fragments; Modified forms thereof; Non-coding nucleic acids having a biological activity
    • C12N15/113Non-coding nucleic acids modulating the expression of genes, e.g. antisense oligonucleotides; Antisense DNA or RNA; Triplex- forming oligonucleotides; Catalytic nucleic acids, e.g. ribozymes; Nucleic acids used in co-suppression or gene silencing
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K48/00Medicinal preparations containing genetic material which is inserted into cells of the living body to treat genetic diseases; Gene therapy
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N2310/00Structure or type of the nucleic acid
    • C12N2310/10Type of nucleic acid
    • C12N2310/11Antisense

Abstract

Methods and compositions for reducing expression of a mutant huntingtin (mHTT) protein in a cell are provided. Such methods include contacting the cell with an effective amount of a nucleic acid silencing agent targeting a differentiating polymorphism in RNA encoding the mHTT.

Description

WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR THE TREATMENT OF HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE FIELD OF INVENTION [0001] The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the treatment of 5 Huntington's disease. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION [0002] Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is inherited in a dominant fashion and results from a mutation that expands the polymorphic trinucleotide (CAG) tract in the Huntingtin gene (HTT). The average CAG tract size in the general population 10 is 17-26 repeats (wildtype allele), however, in HD patients the CAG tract has expanded to 36 repeats or more (mutant allele) (Huntington's Disease Collaborative Research Group 1993. Cell 72(6):971-83). The HTT gene encodes the HTT protein and the expanded CAG tract results in a pathological increase in the polyglutamine repeats near the N-terminal of the protein. Individuals carry two copies of the HTT gene and one mutant allele is sufficient to result in HD. 15 [0003] Selective reduction or elimination ("knockdown" or "silencing") of a defective gene product is a therapeutic approach that may be useful in many genetic diseases or disorders, however the HTT protein appears to have a role during development of the nervous system and a protective role in cells. In mouse models, constitutive knockout of the HTT gene is lethal during embryonic development (Nasir et al 1995. Cell 81(5):811-23), while adult inactivation of the 20 HTT gene leads to progressive cell death in the brain and the testes (Dragatsis et al 2000. Nat. Genet 26:300-306). Reduction of huntingtin expression from the wildtype allele may, therefore, have negative consequences. [0004] Sequence-based methods, such as antisense oligonucleotide (ASO), RNAinterference (RNAi) technology, microRNA (miRNA) or small hairpin interference RNA (shRNA), may be 25 used for precise targeting of genes or nucleic-acid gene products . Some antisense (ASO), siRNA and ribozyme molecules have been developed that reduce huntingtin expression in vitro or in mouse models, (Handley et al 2006. Clin. Sci. (Lond). 110:73-88; Denovan-Wright et al., 2006. Gen Ther, 13:525-131; Koutsilieri et al 2007. J. Neural Trans. Suppl. 72:43-49). [0005] Allele specific silencing has been demonstrated in cells expressing mutant genes in 30 dominant human diseases - for example, spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) type 3, SCA6, sickle cell anemia, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Familial amyloidotic WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 polyneuropathy (FAP), Alzheimer's disease, slow channel congenital myasthenic syndrome and inherited dystonia. [0006] The trinucleotide expansion that causes neurodegenerative disease, such as the CAG expansion in HTT that causes HD, is a clear allelic difference between the normal and mutated 5 gene for these disorders (Bonini et al 2005. Neuron 48:715-718). However, the size of the disease-causing expansion mutation (in nucleotides) is frequently greater than the targeting capacity of siRNA or ASO molecules, and further, represents a highly repetitive element. This size may make the trinucleotide expansion difficult to target with siRNA or ASO methodologies.. 10 [0007] PCT Publication WO 2008/005562 to Aronin et al. discloses several SNPs found in the Huntingtin gene, and discloses some specific nucleic acid sequences that may target one of the identified SNPs. [0008] In order to effect an allele-specific reduction of expression of the mutant allele in a dominant gene disorder, such as those involving a polyglutamine expansion, greater detailed 15 knowledge of the polymorphisms specific to a particular group of subjects, or an individual subject is required. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION [0009] The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the treatment of Huntington's disease. 20 [00 10] In accordance with one aspect of the invention, there is provided a method of reducing expression of a mutant huntingtin (mHTT) protein in a cell, comprising contacting the cell with an effective amount of a nucleic acid silencing agent targeting a differentiating polymorphism in RNA encoding the mHTT. [0011] In accordance with another aspect of the invention, there is provided a method of 25 selecting a nucleic acid silencing agent targeting a differentiating polymorphism in RNA encoding an mHTT protein of a subject, comprising obtaining a nucleic acid sample from the subject; identifying one or more differentiating polymorphisms in the nucleic acid sample; selecting a nucleic acid silencing agent comprising a sequence that preferentially targets the differentiating polymorphism in the RNA encoding an mHTT protein. -2 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 [0012] In accordance with another aspect of the invention, there is provided a method of reducing expression of an mHTT protein in a subject, comprising obtaining a nucleic acid sample from the subject; identifying one or more than one differentiating polymorphisms in the nucleic acid sample; selecting one or more than one nucleic acid silencing agents comprising a sequence 5 that preferentially targets the one or more than one differentiating polymorphism in the RNA encoding an mHTT protein; and administering to the subject an effective amount of the one or more than one nucleic acid silencing agent. [0013] In accordance with another aspect of the invention, there is provided a method of screening for a nucleic acid silencing agent targeting a differentiating polymorphism in RNA io encoding an mHTT protein in a subject, comprising providing a cell heterozygous for a differentiating polymorphism in a nucleic acid sequence encoding huntingtin (HTT); contacting the cell with one or more candidate nucleic acid silencing agents targeting the differentiating polymorphism; assaying the cell for HTT and mHTT RNA, protein or RNA and protein expression; and determining the one or more nucleic acid silencing agents from the candidate 15 nucleic acid silencing agents. [0014] The polymorphism may be found in an intron, a promoter, a 3' untranslated region (UTR) or an exon of an HTT gene. [0015] In accordance with another aspect of the invention, the differentiating polymorphism is a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). 20 [0016] In accordance with another aspect of the invention, the nucleic acid silencing agent is an oligonucleotide. The oligonucleotide may be selected from the group comprising SEQ ID NO: 68-134, 207, 209, 210, 211, 213, 215, 216, 286, 219, 221, 222, 223,294,229, 223, 238, 242, 311, 249, 252, 256, 258, 259, 261, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 270, 271, 274, 275, 277, 278, 335, 306 or 223, or a fragment thereof 25 [0017] In accordance with another aspect of the invention, the SNP may be selected from the group consisting of polymorphisms identified by RefSNP rs13114311, rs12506200, rs762855, rs363081, rs363075, rs3025849, rs363102, rs3025838, rs362322, rs2276881, rs1006798, rs3856973,rs2285086, rs7659144, rsl6843804, rs2024115, rs10015979, rs7691627,rs4690072, rs6446723, rs363064, rsl 1731237, rs4690073, rs363099,rs363096, rs2298967, rs2298969, 30 rs6844859, rs363092, rs7685686, rs363088, rs362331, rs916171, rs362275, rs3121419, -3- WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 rs362272, rs362271, rs3775061, rs362310, rs362307, rs362306, rs362303 rs362296 and rs1006798. [0018] In accordance with another aspect of the invention, the expression is reduced from 1% to 90%. 5 [0019] This summary of the invention does not necessarily describe all features of the invention. Other aspects, features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art upon review of the following description of specific embodiments of the invention. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS 10 [0020] These and other features of the invention will become more apparent from the following description in which reference is made to the appended drawings wherein: [0021] Figure 1 shows a table of the sequence context, identity and frequency for each of the 190 polymorphisms initially considered for allele differentiation in Huntington's disease subjects. NCBI_ 36 - Chromosome 4 coordinates relative to genome assembly build 36 (Mar 2006); 15 Distance CAG - distance (bp) between the SNP the CAG tract in the HTT gene; ALL Major frequency of the major allele - all populations pooled; ALL Minor- frequency of the minor allele - all populations pooled; MAF - Minor allele frequency; MAF CEU - MAF of the CEU population; MAF YOR - MAF of the Yoruban population; MAF ASI - MAF of the Asian population. 23% of polymorphisms had an MAF > 0.20 ("common" SNPs); 45% of 20 polymorphisms had an MAF <0.05 ("rare" polymorphisms). [0022] Figure 2: Specific SNPs are highly associated with CAG-expanded chromosomes. (A) HD patient chromosomes were phased to allow comparison between the disease chromosome (>35 CAG) and control chromosome within each patient (total 65 individuals). tSNP is identified by number and its position indicated relative to the HTT gene. Alleles are either A/B 25 (major/minor). Allele counts are indicated (middle) and the frequency graphed (bottom). Twelve out of 22 tSNPs have a significantly different allele distribution between HD and control chromosomes (*chi-square <0.0023). (B) Allelic frequency on 27-35 CAG chromosomes is similar to disease chromosomes. Allele counts are indicated for phased control chromosomes (n= 116) and compared to 27-35 CAG chromosomes (n=66) that contain an intermediate CAG 30 tract size for the HTT gene and may result in new mutations for HD in future generations. Eleven -4- WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 out of 22 tSNPs have significantly different allele distribution between 27-35 CAG and control chromosomes (*chi-square <0.0023). These eleven associated tSNPs were found in both HD and 27-35 CAG chromosomes and appear to be common on CAG expanded chromosomes. (C) There is no significant difference in the allele distribution between 27-35 CAG and HD chromosomes 5 for any tSNPs. [0023] Figure 3: CAG-expanded chromosomes are associated with haplogroup A. (A) Three major haplogroups (A, B, C) are defined using 22 tSNP positions. The nucleotide defining each haplogroup at each tSNP is shown. Variable tSNP positions are indicated (*). tSNPs with a gray box indicate nucleotide changes relative to haplogroup A. The amount of similarity between the 10 haplogroups is indicated by a neighbour-joining tree (right). (B) Frequency distribution of haplogroups on HD (n=65), 27-35 CAG (n=66) and general population (n= 116) chromosomes. CAG-expanded chromosomes (>27 CAG) are enriched for haplogroup A relative to the general population. Chromosomes from the general population with <27 CAG phased for CAG size (right) demonstrate that high-normal CAG chromosomes also have an enrichment for haplogroup 15 A relative to low-normal CAG chromosomes. The mean CAG tract size for each group is indicated (C) CAG size distribution for all chromosomes on haplogroups A or C. In the chromosomes used in this study, the mean CAG sizes for haplogroup A are significantly larger (p<0.00001, t-test) than haplogroup C. The high odds ratio on haplogroup A is an indication that CAG expansion is much more likely to occur on haplogroup A chromosomes. 20 [0024] Figure 4 shows Specific haplogroup A variants are enriched on CAG-expanded chromosomes. (A) To determine if there are differences in haplogroup A chromosomes from CAG-expanded and normal chromosomes, haplogroup A was divided into 5 major variants by subtracting the common tSNPs (light gray text) and using differences at the 12 remaining tSNP positions (black text). The wildcard asterisk (*) is used for variable allele positions. Dark gray 25 boxes indicate differences relative to the Al variant. The relationship between the variants is shown by a neighbour-joining tree (right). (B) CAG-expanded chromosomes (HD, N=62 and 27 35 CAG carriers, n=55) have similar haplogroup A variant distributions and are specifically enriched for Al and A2 relative to chromosomes from the general population (n=61). Phased chromosomes from the general population (right) demonstrates that large normal chromosomes 30 also have an enrichment for variant Al and A2 relative to low normal chromosomes. Variants A4 and A5 are almost absent from CAG-expanded chromosomes. (C) CAG size distribution of chromosomes in each of subgroup. Variant Al, A2 and A3 chromosomes have a broad CAG size - 5- WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 distribution that extends from low normal (<16 CAG) to high (>50). For the chromosomes used in this study, the mean CAG size and odds ratio of each variant is indicated. The highest HD risk variants, Al and A2, have significantly elevated mean CAG size and odds ratios >1. Variant A3 is a moderate HD risk haplotype, as it has a larger component of CAG sizes in the normal range 5 and therefore a lower mean CAG size. Chromosomes with variant A4 or A5 are stable in the normal range. [0025] Figure 5: Ethnic groups that have a low prevalence of HD do not have HD risk haplotypes in their general population. The prevalence of HD is much higher in Western European populations relative to Asia and Africa. Although the frequency of haplogroup A is 10 similar between Europe and Asia (A), the frequencies of the high risk variants of haplotype A, Al and A2, are not found in the Asian populations (B). As expected, there is more genetic diversity in the Yoruba population, with a lower level of risk haplotypes and a relatively greater frequency of 'other' haplotypes. Number of chromosomes assessed in each ethnic group is indicated in brackets. 15 [0026] Figure 6: Disease-associated SNPs can be efficiently targeted for allele-specific silencing of the mutant HTT mRNA. In an HD patient whose genotype is known, specific heterozygous alleles can be used to distinguish the CAG expanded mRNA from non-expanded mRNA (ie alleles that are 100% sensitive of the disease allele and 100% specific). Because of the expense of clinically testing and validating each target, it is important to maximize the patient coverage 20 with a minimum number of targets. A theoretical maximum number of targetable patients (89%) exists because in this cohort, seven of the 65 HD patients were not heterozygous at any tSNP and therefore could not be targeted. The maximum percent of the HD population in this study that could be treating using a single target (disease-associated allele) is 52%. The development of a therapy towards a second allele target would increase the patient coverage to 80%. 25 [0027] Figure 7:SNP Population Coverage Disease-associated SNPs can be efficiently targeted for allele-specific silencing of the mutant HTT mRNA. In an HD patient whose genotype is known, specific heterozygous alleles can be used to distinguish the CAG-expanded mRNA from non-expanded mRNA (i.e. alleles that are 100% sensitive of the disease allele and 100% specific). Because of the expense of clinically testing and validating each target, it may be 30 important to maximize the patient coverage with a minimum number of targets. A theoretical maximum number of targetable patients (89%) exists because in this cohort, seven of the 65 HD -6- WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 patients were not heterozygous at any tSNP and therefore could not be targeted. The maximum percent of the HD population in this study that could be treating using a single target (disease associated allele) is 52%. The development of a therapy towards a second allele target would increase the patient coverage to 80%. Set # - the set of target(s) comprising 1, 2, 3 or 4 SNPs; 5 Target (s) - Internal reference # for SNPs, RefSNP designation is provided in Table 1, disease associated allele is indicated; % cover - % HD pop coverage: the percentage of HD population having at least one of the target SNPs indicated DETAILED DESCRIPTION 10 [0028] The invention provides, in part, methods and compositions for the treatment of Huntington's disease. More particularly, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that allow for differentiation between mutant and wild-type alleles of HTT nucleic acid sequences are provided; such polymorphisms may be useful for the design of diagnostic reagents and kits, and the development of therapeutic agents for use in the diagnosis and treatment of Huntington's disease. 15 [0029] In the description that follows, a number of terms are used extensively, the following definitions are provided to facilitate understanding of various aspects of the invention. Use of examples in the specification, including examples of terms, is for illustrative purposes only and is not intended to limit the scope and meaning of the embodiments of the invention herein. [0030] The cellular machinery (enzymes, proteins, cofactors, nucleic acids etc.) required for 20 transcription of a nucleic acid sequence to a pre-mRNA, the subsequent processing of the primary transcript or pre-mRNA to a mature mRNA, translocation of the mRNA to the cytoplasm, post-transcriptional modification, splicing, assembly of a ribosome and initiation of translation of the mRNA to obtain a polypeptide are well-studied processes. The cellular machinery for RNA interference (RISC, DICER and the like) and double-stranded RNA 25 processing pathways are also well-studied processes. Comprehensive reviews of these processes may be found in textbooks and reviews of the literature; see, for example, The Cell: A Molecular Approach ( 3 rd edition) by GM Cooper and RE Hausman. ASM Press, 2006; Lehninger: Principles of Biochemistry ( 4 1h edition) by DL Nelson and MM Cox, WH Freeman & Co., 2004. [0031] A "nucleic acid silencing agent" or an "agent" refers to a composition that acts in a 30 sequence specific manner to effect a reduction in the level of a product (a "gene product") of a given nucleic acid sequence (e.g. a 'gene'). The reduction may be effected by interference with any of the processing of a pre-mRNA following transcription from the DNA of a cell or subject -7- WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 (e.g. splicing, 5' capping, 5' or 3' processing, or export of the processed mRNA to the cytoplasm) or by interference with translation of a mature mRNA, or by specific, directed destruction of the pre-mRNA or mature mRNA. Antisense (ASO) and RNA interference (RNAi - effected by short interfering RNA, or siRNA) are two examples of such methods; microRNA 5 (miRNA) is another. [0032] An antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) is an oligonucleotide that is complementary to a specific RNA sequence, and when hybridized to this specific sequence, interfere with processing or translation of the RNA. The nucleosides comprising an ASO may be purine or pyrimidine nucleosides, or a combination of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, connected by an 10 internucleoside linkage. ASOs are described generally in, for example, Crooke 2004. Annu. Rev. Med 55:61-95; Chan et al., 2006. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 33:533-40; and in Curr Mol Med 4:465-487. [0033] An siRNA is a short (20-30 nucleotide) double-stranded RNA (or modified RNA) molecule that may effect a reduction in the level of a gene product by allowing for specific 15 destruction of mRNA via the RNA interference pathway. The specific mRNA is degraded in the cytoplasm by the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). [0034] An miRNA is a short (20-30 nucleotide) single-stranded RNA molecule that may effect a reduction in the level of a gene product. An miRNA is complementary to a part of an mRNA, either a coding region or a non-translated region (e.g. 5' untranslated region (UTR), 3' UTR). 20 The miRNA may anneal to form a double-stranded complex and trigger degradation in a process similar to that of siRNA. Translation may also be disrupted by miRNA. [0035] A "candidate nucleic acid silencing agent" or "candidate agent" is a nucleic acid silencing agent that may be screened or tested for its ability to effect a reduction in the level of a gene product. 25 [0036] "Silencing" refers to preferential reduction in the expression of a gene product of a specific allele. The specific allele may be referred to as the "target" or "target sequence". An agent may be described as targeting a specific allele where the agent comprises a sequence that hybridizes with a differentiating polymorphism found in a mutant HTT (mHTT) nucleic acid sequence. In some embodiments the gene product may be a polypeptide or a nucleic acid, such 30 as a mRNA or an hn RNA. -8 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 [0037] "Hybridization" includes an interaction in which one or more polynucleotides and/or oligonucleotides interact in an ordered manner (sequence-specific) to form a complex that is stabilized by hydrogen bonding - also referred to as "Watson-Crick" base pairing. Variant base pairing may also occur through non-canonical hydrogen bonding includes Hoogsteen base 5 pairing. Under some thermodynamic, ionic or pH conditions, triple helices may occur, particularly with ribonucleic acids. These and other variant hydrogen bonding or base-pairing are known in the art, and may be found in, for example, Lehninger: Principles of Biochemistry ( 4 ,h edition) by DL Nelson and MM Cox, WH Freeman & Co., 2004. [0038] Hybridization between two nucleic acids may occur in an antiparallel configuration 1o this is referred to as 'annealing', and the paired nucleic acids are described as complementary. A double-stranded polynucleotide may be "complementary", if hybridization can occur between one of the strands of the first polynucleotide and the second. The degree of which one polynucleotide is complementary with another is referred to as homology, and is quantifiable in terms of the proportion of bases in opposing strands that are expected to 15 hydrogen bond with each other, according to generally accepted base-pairing rules. An oligonucleotide may self-hybridize, e.g. forming a hairpin or stem-loop structure, the sequences forming the double-stranded region may be referred to as 'complementary'. [0039] Hybridization reactions can be performed under conditions of different "stringency". The stringency of a hybridization reaction includes the difficulty with which any two nucleic acid 20 molecules will hybridize to one another. Stringency may be increased, for example, by increasing the temperature at which hybridization occurs, by decreasing the ionic concentration at which hybridization occurs, or a combination thereof. Under stringent conditions, nucleic acid molecules at least 60%, 65%, 70%, 75% or more identical to each other remain hybridized to each other, whereas molecules with low percent identity cannot remain hybridized. An example 25 of stringent hybridization conditions are hybridization in 6x sodium chloride/sodium citrate (SSC) at about 44-45'C, followed by one or more washes in 0.2xSSC, 0.1% SDS at 50'C, 55'C, 60'C, 65'C, or at a temperature therebetween. [0040] Probes used in hybridization may include double-stranded DNA, single-stranded DNA and RNA oligonucleotides, and peptide nucleic acids. Hybridization conditions and 30 methods for identifying markers that hybridize to a specific probe are described in the art - for a general description, see, for example, Brown, T. "Hybridization Analysis of DNA Blots" in -9- WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 Current Protocols in Molecular Biology. FM Ausubel et al, editors. Wiley & Sons, 2003. Suitable hybridization probes for use in accordance with the invention include oligonucleotides, polynucleotides or modified nucleic acids from about 10 to about 400 nucleotides, alternatively from about 20 to about 200 nucleotides, or from 5 about 30 to about 5 100 nucleotides in length. Specific sequences may be identified by hybridization with a primer or a probe, and this hybridization is subsequently detected by conventional methods e.g. radiograph, colourimetric detection, fluorescence and the like. [0041] The term 'nucleoside' refers to a molecule of ribose or deoxyribose sugar bonded through carbon-I of the sugar ring to a nitrogenous base. Examples of nitrogenous bases include purines 10 such as adenine, guanine, 6-thioguanine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and pyrimidines such as cytosine, thymine and uracil. Examples of purine nucleosides include adenosine (A), guanosine (G), inosine (I), 2'-O-methyl-inosine, 2'-0-methyl-adenosine, 2'-0-methyl-guanine, 2 chlorodeoxyadenosine, 7-halo-7-deaza-adenosine, 7-halo-7-deaza-guanine, 7-propyne-7-deaza adenosine, 7-propyne-7-deaza-guanine, 2-amino-adenosine, 7-deazainosine, 7- thia-7,9 15 dideazainosine, formycin B, 8-Azainosine, 9-deazainosine, allopurinol riboside, 8-bromo inosine, 8-chloroinosine, 7-deaza-2-deoxy-xanthosine, 7-Deaza-8-aza-adenosine, 7-deaza-8-aza guanosine, 7-deaza-8-aza-deoxyadenosine, 7-deaza-8-aza-deoxyguanosine, 7-deaza-adenosine, 7 deaza-guanosine, 7-deaza-deoxyadenosine, 7-deaza-deoxyguanosine, 8-amino-adenosine, 8 amino-deoxyadenosine, 8-amino-guanosine, 8-amino-deoxyguanosine,3-deaza-deoxyadenosine, 20 3-deaza-adenosine, 6-thio-deoxyguanosine, and the like, and other purine nucleosides as described in Freier et al 1997 (Nucleic Acids Res. 25:4429-4443), incorporated herein by reference. [0042] Examples of pyrimidine nucleosides include deoxyuridine (dU), uridine (U), cytidine (C), deoxycytidine (dC), thymidine (T), deoxythymidine (dT), 5-fluoro-uracil, 5-bromouracil, 2' 25 0-methyl-uridine, 2'-0-methyl cytidine, 5-iodouracil, 5-methoxy-ethoxy-methyl-uracil, 5 propynyl deoxyuridine, pseudoisocytidine, 5-azacytidine, 5-(1-propynyl)cytidine, 2' deoxypseudouridine, 4-thio-deoxythymidine, 4-thio-deoxyuridine, and the like, and other substituted pyrimidines as disclosed in Freier et al,1997 (Nucleic Acids Res. 25:4429-4443). [0043] Purine or pyrimidine nucleosides also include phosphoramidite derivatives used in 30 oligonucleotide synthesis using standard methods. - 10- . WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 [0044] "Nucleoside" also includes nucleosides having substituted ribose sugars (bicyclic or otherwise). Some representative patents and publications that teach the preparation of non bicyclic modified sugars include, but are not limited to, U.S. Patents: 4,981,957; 5,118,800; 5,319,080; 5,359,044; 5,393,878; 5,446,137; 5,466,786; 5,514,785; 5,519,134; 5,567,811; 5 5,576,427; 5,591,722; 5,597,909; 5,610,300; 5,627,053; 5,639,873; 5,646,265; 5,658,873; 5,670,633; 5,792,747; 5,700,920; and 6,600,032; and WO 2005/121371. Some representative patents and publications that teach the preparation of bicyclic modified sugars include, but are not limited to, 'locked nucleic acids', such as those described in WO 99/14226, WO 00/56746, WO 00/56748, WO 01/25248, WO 0148190, WO 02/28875, WO 03/006475, WO 03/09547, 10 WO 2004/083430, US 6,268,490, US 6,794499, US 7,034,133. Other examples of substituted ribose sugars are described in, for example, Freier, 1997 (Nucleic Acids Res. 25:4429-4443) and Herdewijn et al., 2000. (Antisense Nucleic Acid Drug Dev 10:297-310) both of which are incorporated by reference herein. [0045] A 'nucleotide' refers to a nucleoside having an internucleoside linkage group bonded 15 through the carbon-5 of the sugar ring, usually a mono-, di- or tri-phosphate, and may be suitable for enzymatic polymerization. In other examples, the nucleotides may be phosphoramidites, suitable for non-enzymatic polymerization or synthesis of nucleic acid polymers. [0046] An intemucleoside linkage group refers to a group capable of coupling two nucleosides, as part of an oligonucleotide backbone. Examples of internucleoside linkage groups are described 20 by Praseuth et al (Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1489:181-206) and Summerton et al 1997. (Antisense and Nucleic Acid Drug Dev 7:187-195), both of which are incorporated herein by reference. For example, phosphodiester (P0 4 -), phosphorothioate (P03s-), phosphoramidate (N3'-P5') (PO 3 NH) and methylphosphonate (PO 3

CH

3 ), peptidic linkages ("PNA"), and the like; see, for example, US Patent 5969118. Inclusion of such modified linkage groups, modified 25 ribose sugars or nitrogenous bases in an oligonucleotide may reduce the rate of hydrolysis of the oligonucleotide in vitro or in vivo. [0047] The term "gene" refers generally to an ordered sequence of nucleotides located at a specific position on a chromosome, encoding one or more specific functional products (e.g. an RNA molecule, a polypeptide). The region encoding the one or more specific functional 30 products may be referred to as a 'coding region' or 'coding sequence'. Non-coding regions (e.g. introns) may be found in proximity to the coding region e.g. 5' or 3' to the coding region, and - 11 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 provide for regulatory sequences involved in transcription, modification, processing or translation of the functional product. Coding regions and some transcribed but untranslated sequences are found within exons and introns. An "exon" is a segment of a gene transcript that codes information for protein synthesis. An "intron" is a segment of a gene transcript situated 5 between exons. Introns are removed by splicing of the pre-mRNA nuclear transcript resulting in a mature mRNA that may be subsequently translocated to the cytoplasm and translated. [0048] An "allele" is one of a pair, or one of a series of different forms of a given locus or marker. In a diploid organism or cell, the members of an allelic pair occupy corresponding positions (loci) on a pair of homologous chromosomes. If these alleles are identical, the 10 organism is said to be 'homozygous' for that allele; if they differ, the organism or cell is said to be 'heterozygous' for that allele. [0049] A "haplotype" is a set of alleles of closely linked loci on a chromosome that are generally inherited together. For example, a polymorphic allele at a first site in a nucleic acid sequence on the chromosome may be found to be associated with another polymorphic allele at a second site 15 on the same chromosome, at a frequency other than would be expected for a random association (e.g. "linkage equilibrium"). These two polymorphic alleles may be described as being in linkage disequilibrium (LD). A haplotype may comprise two, three, four or more alleles. The set of alleles in a haplotype along a given segment of a chromosome are generally transmitted to progeny together unless there has been a recombination event. 20 [0050] "Expression" refers to transcription of a specific allele or gene (yielding pre-mRNA, mRNA or other RNA molecule), or to the translation of an mRNA transcribed from the specific allele or gene (yielding a polypeptide). Expression may be absolute (e.g. the allele or gene is expressed, or it is not), or may be described as relative to the expression of another allele (e.g. the allele exhibits greater or lesser expression, relative to a control, or a heterozygous allele; or 25 greater or lesser expression in response to interaction with a nucleic acid silencing agent). Expression may be quantified using a variety of methods. For example, RNA expression may be detected, quantified, or detected and quantified by Northern blotting, RT-PCR, qPCR, DNA microarray, SAGE, SuperSAGE, dot-blot, primer extension, 5' RACE, 3'RACE or the like. Expression of polypeptides may be detected, quantified, or detected and quantified by Western 30 blotting, ELISA, ELISPOT, or the like. Such methods, and others that may be suitable will be within the knowledge of a skilled worker in the art, and are described generally in, for example, - 12 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 Current Protocols in Molecular Biology (2000-2008). Ausubel et al. Editors Wiley Interscience The exact amount or level of expression, or change in amount or level of expression, is not important as long as it is statistically significant as determined by standard techniques. [0051] A human nucleic acid sequence for "normal" or "wild-type" HTT is exemplified by 5 GenBank reference sequences NM_002111.6 (mRNA) and NC_000004.10 and NT_006081.18 (genomic). The human wild-type HTT protein is exemplified by GenPept reference sequence NP_002102.4. Other examples of such sequences will be available from these or similar databases, or as obtained by sequencing a sample comprising HTT nucleic acid or protein. As is known in the art, the expanded CAG tract of mutant HTT (mHTT) nucleic acid sequences is 10 found in the region encoding exon 1. Subjects with HD are usually heterozygous for the mHTT allele of the sequence. Subjects that are at risk for HD may be heterozygous for the mHTT allele - identification of the expanded CAG tract in the exon 1 sequences may be, at least, predictive of HD in a subject, and may further confirm a clinical diagnosis. [0052] A differentiating polymorphism is a variation in a nucleotide sequence that permits 15 differentiation between a 'wild-type' and mutant allele of a nucleic acid sequence. Differentiating polymorphisms may include insertions or deletions of one or a few nucleotides in a sequence, or changes in one or a few nucleotides in a sequence. [0053] An agent 'preferentially targets' a differentiating polymorphism in an RNA encoding a mHTT by effecting a reduction in the level of mHTT in a cell that is greater than the reduction of 20 normal HTT in the cell. The level of mHTT in the cell may be from about 1% to about 10%, from about 10% to about 20%, from about 20% to about 30%, from about 30% to about 40%, from about 40% to about 50%, from about 50% to about 60%, from about 60% to about 70%, from about 70% to about 80%, from about 80% to about 90% or from about 90% to about 100% or greater, or any amount therebetween. The exact amount or quantity of reduction in mHTT is 25 not important as long as it is statistically significant as determined by standard techniques. [0054] A "single nucleotide polymorphism" or "SNP" is a single nucleotide variation between the genomes of individuals of the same species. In some cases, a SNP may be a single nucleotide deletion or insertion. In general, SNPs occur relatively frequently in genomes and thus contribute to genetic diversity. The density of SNPs in the human genome is estimated to be 30 approximately 1 per 1,000 base pairs. In addition, SNPs are thought to be spaced relatively uniformly throughout the genome. Furthermore, SNPs are thought to be mutationally more - 13- WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 stable than other polymorphisms, lending their use to association studies in which linkage disequilibrium between markers and an unknown variant is used to map disease-causing mutations. SNPs may have two, three or four alleles, or (although it may be possible to have three or four different forms of an SNP, corresponding to the different nucleotides), thus 5 facilitating genotyping (by a simple plus/minus assay rather than a length measurement) and automation. The location of a SNP is generally flanked by highly conserved sequences. An individual may be homozygous or heterozygous for an allele at each SNP location ("the SNP allele") - a heterozygous SNP allele is an example of a differentiating polymorphism. [0055] Those of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that nucleic acid molecules are double 10 stranded and therefore reference to a particular SNP site on a strand also refers to the corresponding site on the complementary strand. Thus, reference may be made to either strand to refer to a particular SNP site or position, SNP allele, or nucleotide sequence, such as those set forth herein. Probes and primers may be designed to hybridize to either strand and SNP genotyping methods may target either strand. 15 [0056] SNPs may occur in protein-coding nucleic acid sequences (a "cSNP"). Such a SNP may result in an amino acid change in the encoded protein which may have functional consequences i.e., result in a "variant" protein or polypeptide. Alternatively, such a SNP may be "silent" in that it does not result in an amino acid change. SNPs may also occur in introns and in intergenic regions but may result in a phenotypic change. For example, a SNP resulting in aberrant splicing 20 may result in a non-functional protein. Alternatively, a SNP may have no phenotypic effect. A variant protein or polypeptide contains at least one amino acid residue that differs from the corresponding amino acid sequence of the polypeptide that is referred to as "wild-type" or "normal" in the art. Such variant polypeptides can result from a codon change or from a nonsense mutation, or from any SNP that results in altered structure, function, activity, 25 regulation, or expression of a protein. [0057] It will be appreciated by a person of skill in the art that any numerical designations of nucleotides within a sequence are relative to the specific sequence. Also, the same positions may be assigned different numerical designations depending on the way in which the sequence is numbered and the sequence chosen. Furthermore, sequence variations such as insertions or 30 deletions, may change the relative position and subsequently the numerical designations of particular nucleotides at and around a mutational site. For example, the sequences represented by - 14- WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 accession numbers AL390059.10, CH471131.2, L27416.1, L34020.1, Y07983.1, Z49154.1, Z49155.1, Z49769.1 and Z69837.1 all represent genomic human HTT nucleotide sequences; and AB016794.1, AB209506.1, AK025918.1, AK290544.1, BC014028.2, L12392.1, L20431.1 all represent human HTT mRNA nucleotide sequences. However, there may be some sequence 5 differences, numbering differences between them, or sequence and numbering differences between them. Other sequences representing human HTT sequences, mutant or normal, may be identified by sequencing nucleic acid samples, or using any of the above sequences, or a fragment of any of the above sequences in a BLAST search of a sequence database comprising one or more HTT sequences (mutant or normal, full, partial or fragments thereof). BLAST may 10 also be used to identify HTT sequences, or HTT-like sequences in other species e.g. mouse, rat, primate or the like. [0058] In sequences described or referenced herein, a nucleotide represented by the symbol M may be either an A or C, a nucleotide represented by the symbol W may be either an T/U or A, a nucleotide represented by the symbol Y may be either an C or T/U, a nucleotide represented by 15 the symbol S may be either an G or C, while a nucleotide represented by the symbol R may be either an G or A, and a nucleotide represented by the symbol K may be either an G or T/U. Similarly, a nucleotide represented by the symbol V may be either A or G or C, a nucleotide represented by the symbol B may be either G or C or T/U, a nucleotide represented by the symbol D may be either A or G or T/U, a nucleotide represented by either H may be either A or C or 20 T/U, and a nucleotide represented by the symbol N may be an A or G or C or T/U, or unknown, or other. [0059] Table 1: Selected differentiating polymorphisms found in HTT Ref SNP Polymorphism No. Polymorphism Location relative to HTT gene rs2857936 1 Y p rs7694687 2 Y p rs12506200 3 R p rs762855 11 Y p rs3856973 14 Y intron 1 rs2285086 17 Y intron 2 rs7659144 18 S intron2 rs7688390 19 R intron 2 - 15 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 Ref SNP Polymorphism No. Polymorphism Location relative to HTT gene rs16843804 21 Y intron 3 rs2024115 22 Y intron 3 rs7665816 24 R intron 5 rs10015979 26 R intron 6 rs7691627 29 R intron 6 rs6834455 31 S intron 6 rs4690072 43 K intron 8 rs6446723 45 Y intron 10 rs363081 55 Y intron 16 rs363075 63 Y exon 20 rs363064 65 R intron 21 rs3025849 69 Y intron 22 rs363106 71 R intron 24 rs6855981 76 R intron 24 rs363102 80 Y intron 25 rsl1731237 84 Y intron26 rs10155264 86 R intron 26 rs363101 88 R intron 27 rs4690073 89 R intron 28 rs363100 90 Y intron 28 rs6839274 92 R intron 28 rs3025838 95 R intron 28 rs363141 96 R intron 28 rs363099 + 97 R (silent) exon 29 rs7654034 98 W intron 29 rs6446725 103 R intron 29 rs363098 104 R intron 30 rs363097 109 Y intron 33 rs363096 112 R intron 34 rs363095 113 Y intron 35 rs363094 117 Y intron 37 rs7683309 118 Y intron 37 rs2298967 119 Y intron 37 - 16 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 Ref SNP Polymorphism No. Polymorphism Location relative to HTT gene rs2298969 120 R intron 37 rs10488840 121 R intron 37 rs363093 122 R intron 37 rs363125+ 123 K (T1722N) exon 39 rs363124 124 R intron 39 rs6839081 125 W intron 39 rs6844859 127 Y intron 39 rs16844026 128 Y intron 39 rs16844028 130 R intron 40 rs363092 131 K intron 40 rs363091 139 Y intron 41 rs363090 140 W intron 41 rs7685686 146 R intron 42 rs363088 151 W intron 45 rs362338 153 Y intron 47 rs362331+ 157 Y (Y2311H) exon 50 rs916171 161 S intron 50 rs362322 169 Y intron 52 rs362276 170 S intron 52 rs362275 172 R intron 54 rs362274 174 Y intron 56 rs2276881 176 Y exon 60 rs3121419 177 R intron 60 rs362272 178 Y (V2788L) exon 61 rs362271 179 Y intron 61 rs3775061 180 Y intron 64 rs362310 181 R intron 64 rs362307+ 182 R 3'UTR rs362306+ 183 Y 3'UTR rs362304+ 184 K 3'UTR Rs362303 185 R 3'UTR rs362296 187 K3 to HTT gene - 17 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 Ref SNP Polymorphism No. Polymorphism Location relative to HTT gene rs3121417 188 Y 3'to HTT gene rs3129322 189 R 3' to HTT gene rs1006798 190 R 3' to HTT gene P = promoter of HTT gene [0060] Differentiating polymorphisms may be found throughout the RNA, corresponding to the promoter, 5' UTR (untranslated region), intron, exon, 3' UTR, or outside of the gene (3' or 5' to the HTT gene sequence. 5 [0061] PCT Publication WO 2008/005562 to Aronin discloses some polymorphisms (six) that are also listed in Table I - these are indicated by a "+" following the RefSNP designation. Aronin also describes some polymorphisms that were sequenced in the initial set of 190 (Figure 1) - rs10657 4 5, rs2276881, rs362303, rs2237008, rs 363125. [0062] Polymorphisms found in exons may also be present in the mature mRNA, while 10 polymorphisms found in introns may be present in mature mRNA where an aberrant splicing event occurred, or in the hnRNA when it is first translated. Polymorphisms in the 5' and 3' UTR may also be present in the mature mRNA. [0063] Sequences comprising HTT polymorphisms are provided in Tables 2 and 3, such sequence information is known in the art and available through, for example dbSNP, a database 15 maintained by the National Centre for Biotechnology Information. Examples of such sequences are provided herein, however one of skill in the art will be able to obtain the sequence information using the RefSNP references and the dbSNP database, for example, [0064] Table 2: Nucleic acid sequences comprising HTT polymorphisms of Table 1. SEQ ID Internal SNP Target DNA Sequence (5' to 3) NO: Ref # 1 1 rs2857936 AAGAAAATGCTTGGGGGCTGCTTTTCRTTGAAAAGAAAACCTT ACCGAGGAC 2 3 rsl 2506200 GATTACAGGCATGAGCCAGCATGCCCRGCCTAGTCTACATTT TTATAAATTG 3 11 rs762855 AGCCTCCCAAGAACTGGGAACTAACRGCTGTTTCTCTGCTGT CCTTCTCAAG 4 14 rs3856973 GGATAGGGAAATGTCAGGGTTAATCRAGTGTTAACTTATTTTT ATTTTTAAA 5 22 rs2024115 ACTTTGTGCCGTTAGCATCGTTACTRGCTTGAAGTTGACCATC - 18- WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 SEQ ID Internal SNP Target DNA Sequence (5' to 3) NO: Ref # TGGACGTAC 6 65 rs363064 TTTGTTTTTGTAGGAAAATGTTACCYGTATTCTCCATTTGAATT CAGTTTAG 7 89 rs4690073 ATAGAATCAACTTCTACTTGTAGATTRATTTAGGGAGAACTTA TACCTCAGA 8 97 rs363099 GCACGGAAAAGTTTGGAGGGTTTCTYCGCTCAGCCTTGGATG TTCTTTCTCA 9 112 rs363096 AAGGTCTAAATGGATGTTTTTGTTTYTAGGGAATCAGAGGCAA TCATTCCAA 10 119 rs2298967 TGGGATGCGGGTAAGGGGACAGACAAYAGAAAAGCAAGTGA GTGAAGTCTAT 11 178 rs362272 CAGCAGGGTTGGAGCCCTGCACGGCRTCCTCTATGTGCTGG AGTGCGACCTG 12 182 rs362307 TGGGGCCGGAGCCTTTGGAAGTCTGYGCCCTTGTGCCCTGC CTCCACCGAGC 13 190 rs1006798 TGTTGAGTGTTCTGGGTGCTGGAGATRTCATGGTGGATGACA CAAAGGCCCT 14 86 rs10155264 AACCTGCCTTCTGTCTCTGTGACTCTRCGTCTTCTGGACATTA CTGTGGATG 15 121 rs10488840 TCATGACACAGGAGACACAAATCGCCRTTGTGGTGTTCACAG ACATGGGTTA 16 128 rsl6844026 AGACCAAGTGACTGTGTCCACGGCGAYGGCGCTCTGCATTT CACTTTAGCGG 17 130 rs16844028 TGTGTTCTGTGTCCTTCTACATGTCCRAGCGATCTCTGTGCA GCTCAAATGT 18 174 rs362274 GTTTTTCACTCAAAAGTATTTTAGCRTAGAGCTCTGTGATTCC GTAGCTATT 19 170 rs362276 TCCTCACAGTATGTCTGTCCTGACTSAACTCGGATGATGTCAC TTCCTTTTC 20 184 rs362304 TGTCTGGATGCACAGATGCCATGGCMTGTGCTGGGCCAGTG GCTGGGGGTGC 21 153 rs362338 AAGACAGAATGGAAGTCAAGGTTGCRTATTTGCCGTAGACTT CAACACAGTG 22 140 rs363090 TCTCTGCTCAGTATGGATACTGGACCWTGTGCTGCCAGGGC TCCCAGTAGGG 23 139 rs363091 TTCAAAAAGGCTTACTAAGGTTCTCRTTATGGGTGGCCCTCTT TTTGCAAAA 24 122 rs363093 GCCCTTGAGTTACATAGCTGGTGTAYAGGAAGCTGTCGTTTC TTTTGGCTTA 25 117 rs363094 CCCCGCAGCCTTGGCTTGTTGTTGCRTAGTGATGGTAGCTTA AGGTCCTTGT -19- WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 SEQ ID Internal SNP Target DNA Sequence (5' to 3') NO: Ref # 26 113 rs363095 GTCAGTGGCAGCCATGTGCTTCTCARGCTCTGCATGTGTGTC TGTGTATGTG 27 109 rs363097 CAGTTTCAAGCTATCTAACAGGTTCRCTTACCTCTTTAAAAAG GAATGGAAT 28 104 rs363098 TTGTGGGGTCCAGCGCAGCACTTTTYGGCTCAGTCCATGATT GAGCCAAGAG 29 90 rs3631 00 AGATTATTTCACATAGCTCTTGCACRTTTCTTGATAAATGAATC CTCAGGTA 30 88 rs3631 01 CAGACCACCTTTTGGTCTGAAGCATYTCTAAGTGCCACTGGC TGACATGCAG 31 71 rs363106 GGAATACTTGTTTCTGCTATATTAGYTGTGTGAGACTAGTGAC AGGAGCTGT 32 124 rs363124 TCATACCTGTCTTGAAGTTCTGTCAYGTTCTGTCTCTTGTCCT CAGTAGAGA 33 123 rs363125 AATAGGTTAAGAGATGGGGACAGTAMTTCAACGCTAGAAGAA CACAGTGAAG 34 96 rs363141 AAGGAATTTCTTTCCAAAATATTTTYCCAGTGCTGACAACAAA CACGCAGAC 35 103 rs6446725 TTAATGAGTGAATGAACAGATACATARATGCATGAAAGAATGG TTGTAATGT 36 31 rs6834455 CGAGCTCTTCTTGGCGTCTGTGGCTTSAATAAGCTTGCTTTTT GCTGGTATC 37 125 rs6839081 GTTTTACACGCTGTCAGTAATAAAAGWCTTCTCCCTGCAGGG CAGCCTGCCT 38 92 rs6839274 ACCTTTCCATGCTCCTAGTGCTTGCTRTCTGTTTATTATTTTCC TTCCTGAA 39 98 rs7654034 TTTTTAGTGGCCAGCAGTCTCCATGTWTAACACATTTTAGCAA AATGGAAAA 40 24 rs7665816 TGAGTTAAAAATATGGTTGTTGCACTRTGAATAGTTTGGTTTA GTCAAAACA 41 118 rs7683309 GAATTTCTATGATCAAATGACATGAAYCATTGTTTCCACAACT GCAGTGGAA 42 19 rs7688390 CTAGAAGAATGGACATCATAAAGATARGAGCAGAAGTCAGTA AAATAGAAAA 43 2 rs7694687 GGAATGGGAGCAGTTCCTAGCTTGAAYTTCCCCTTTAGCTTC AGTGATTTGG 44 26 rsl 0015979 TTTCGGCGTACTAGAGTGACTCTTTARCCTAGCTGCGGGAAG ATGACTGTGC 45 21 rs16843804 AGTCCACTTACATCAACTGCCCATGCYACGGTTAAAGAGATC ATCGACTGAT 46 17 rs2285086 TCCTTGCTTGATCTTTCTCACTGGGRTGAACTAGCAGCACCTT CTTTTGTAG -20- WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 SEQ ID Internal SNP Target DNA Sequence (5' to 3') NO: Ref # 47 120 rs2298969 GGCACTGGAGTGGAATGGCCCAAGTCRGCATCCCTTGGCAG CATGAAAGCAA 48 177 rs3121419 GTGTTTCTAGTCCCAAATCTGGGTGYTATAGTCTCTTTTTAGC GTGGTGGTt 49 179 rs362271 TTAAAGCTGCTGGACGGCAGGTTCTRTACACACGTGTCCTTG ACAAAGCACG 50 172 rs362275 TTCTAATGTCTTGCAGAGATTTTATYAGGCTTCTTGAAGTGTT CACGTACAT 51 183 rs362306 GTCACCTGCTGGTTGTTGCCAGGTTRCAGCTGCTCTTGCATC TGGGCCAGAA 52 157 rs362331 TTGTGACCCACGCCTGCTCCCTCATCYACTGTGTGCACTTCA TCCTGGAGGC 53 151 rs363088 TGACCTGTTTGAGTATTGATGAGAAGWTAGCTGTGAAGAAAA AGGTTTAAAC 54 131 rs363092 TTGGGAGAGGAGGGTATTCATCCCAMAGTGGTTTGCCTATTT CACATTCCAT 55 180 rs3775061 GCTCCACTGTTTGACCAGATGAGGCRTTCTGAACAGCCAAGC CTGTGCTGGT 56 43 rs4690072 cAGTCTCTGGTGCCAGAAAGGTTGGGKAGCACTGTGATATAG TATTAAAAGT 57 45 rs6446723 AAGTTCTGATTGTTAATCATAAAGTCYAGAAAATTAAAAGATAA TAAAATGA 58 127 rs6844859 AATGCTACCTGCCATTTCATCCTCAGYGAGGAAGGTGATACA CAGAGAGACC 59 76 rs6855981 AACCATTGTCATATGCCCTAGTAAAARCATTCCTTCATTGGAC ACTTAGGCC 60 18 rs7659144 GGAAAAGCCTCAGATATGTGGAAAAASCCATTTCCACATGGC CCATGGGTCA 61 146 rs7685686 TATCCTAGAGACTTTTTCTGGTGATGRCAATTTATTAATAGTC ACTTTTTGC 62 29 rs7691627 CTTACGTATTATATTTCTTTGATTGTRTTTCTTATTTGATGAGA AAGCTGTG 63 161 rs916171 GATGGAAGTGTGTAGAAATTCTTCTSTTTGTTCTGTTGTAATTT TAGTTGCA 64 188 rs3121417 CTGTGAGGTCTCCGCTTTCAGTTGCRTTGATTTGATTTTTTCT GAGCCTTGA 65 189 rs3129322 GTGTGAGCCTGGGTATCTTCAGAGGYTCGGTGGACACAGGC AGCTGCCCGCG 66 187 rs362296 TTCCTCTTCCTCATCGGAGAGCACAMCCTGTCCCCTTGCCGA GCTGTGCCCT 67 84 rsl 1731237 CTCCCCAGTCACTGGGTTCAGTCCTTYCTGCCCACCAGCACA TGCTTTCTAG -21- WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 [0065] The sequences (SEQ ID NOs: 1-67) provided in Table 2 provide genomic DNA sequences comprising and flanking the polymorphisms, illustrated in a 5' to 3' orientation. [0066] The sequences (SEQ ID NO: 139-206) provided in Table 3 provide genomic DNA sequences comprising and flanking the polymorphisms, and illustrating the opposite strand as is 5 provided in Table 2. Table 3 provides the sequence with the major allele indicated; the corresponding sequence comprising the minor allele will be apparent to one of skill in the art upon consideration of the information provided in Table 3. [0067] Table 3: Nucleic acid sequences comprising HTT polymorphisms of the opposite strand of the the sequences of Table 1. The major allele of the polymorphism is shown in capital letters. SEQ ID SNP Major/ Sequence NO: Internal minor Ref# allele 139 1 C/T ttaggcagatactgagggtaagaaagtcctcggtaaggttttcttttcaaTgaaaagcagc ccccaagcattttcttttctaacaaagageagcctgtaaa 140 2 C/T gtgagcagaaggatgactttgaatggaatgggagcagttcctagettgaaCttccecttta gcttcagtgatttgggggctcaaggtatgttcctttcaca 141 3 A/G cgcctcagcctcccgaaatgctgggattacaggcatgagccagcatgcccGgcctagtc tacatttttataaattgctaattcaaagttccctetccaaaa 142 11 A/G tgggttcaggtgatcctcccacatcagcctcccaagaactgggaactaacAgctgtttctc tgctgtccttctcaagaaaagggaggctactgctacccca 143 14 G/A tggaggaacttcaaagcagggaaggggatagggaaatgtcagggttaatcGagtgttaa cttatttttatttttaaaaaaattgttaagggcttccagca 144 17 G/A tggggcattgactgtaggtcagctttccttgcttgatctttctcactgggAtgaactagcagc accttcttttgtagctgetttgcttttgactatetttc 145 18 CIG gaatatattataggaagataacctggaaaagcctcagatatgtggaaaaaCccatttccac atggcccatgggtcagaagtgaagtcaaaagggaaatttg 146 19 A/G ctgtctcaaaaacaaaaacagttactagaagaatggacatcataaagataGgagcagaa gtcagtaaaatagaaaacaaaaatacataggaaatcaataaa 147 21 C/T cacaagttttacgaagaccatetcagtccacttacatcaactgcccatgcCacggttaaag agatcatcgactgatgtttggcacagcttcctccctcttg 148 22 G/A cttgagaagccettctctaatgtggactttgtgccgttagcatcgttactAgettgaagttga ccatctggacgtactttctggtttagcctcacaagtga 149 24 A/G caaaatatccatttgtctgttacatgagttaaaaatatggttgttgcactGtgaatagtttggtt tagtcaaaacagttgtatcttaacggattgagaaac 150 26 A/G ggcatttttccagagcagatttgttttcggcgtactagagtgactctttaAcctagctgcggg aagatgactgtgccaagactgcaggtaggagaaagctc 151 29 A/G tgcctaagtaaatagtcatggttgcttacgtattatatttctttgattgtGtttcttatttgatgag aaagctgtgttttttgctctgggttgaaactgga 152 31 C/G gatgtatgtggcgcctccaaagcccgagctcttcttggcgtctgtggcttCaataagcttge tttttgctggtatccctcctaccctcccctgtccccagc 153 43 G/T tggaaaaattgtctcccatgaaaccagtctctggtgccagaaaggttgggTagcactgtg atatagtattaaaagtgctaataaatatggcatactgcctt 154 45 C/T atccttccagatcatataatgcttaagttctgattgttaatcataaagtcTagaaaattaaaag -22- WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 ataataaaatgaaagtgacttttaggtattagagttt 155 65 TIC agtgttgatggcagatatgaacccttttgtttttgtaggaaaatgttaccCgtattetccatttg aattcagtttagatttgttaggaatcgcagcttaag 156 71 TIC ttggctttttggaaaaatatctgatggaatacttgtttctgctatattagCtgtgtgagactagt gacaggagctgtgggaaatgaatgccaaatgttctt 157 76 A/G gctgtctcatctccagttcagcagaaccattgtcatatgccctagtaaaaGcattcettcatt ggacacttaggecccaatacttteatteagatctacta 158 84 C/T gggtgttcccttacccacttgccactccccagtcactgggttcagtccttCctgcccacca gcacatgctttctaggctctgtcctaggccgtcttctctc 159 86 A/G tgcetccagctgcaggcagccactaacctgccttctgtctctgtgactctAcgtcttctgga cattactgtggatgggctcatacagtcagtgagcttgtg 160 88 T/C attagaaactaatgactgatgtacacagaccaccttttggtctgaagcatTtctaagtgcca ctggctgacatgcagcccctacagcctccaggcttccag 161 89 A/G tttattgattttgggatgtgaacaatagaatcaacttctacttgtagattGatttagggagaac ttatacctcagatgttaagtcaccctgtccagaatgt 162 90 G/A ttaaaggattttaaaaaaaacttaaagattatttcacatagctcttgcacAtttcttgataaatg aatccteaggtattcctctgtttttgttactaatag 163 92 A/G tcatatcatcttgaatttcagggcacetttccatgctcctagtgettgctAtctgtttattattttc cttcctgaataccctgaactccagcatgttctgc 164 96 TIC gagtagtttttgtatagctatctgaaaggaatttctttccaaaatattttTccagtgctgacaac aaacacgcagacacaccctgcaaggtgagtgtacgg 165 97 TIC aaggtcacgctggatettcagaacagcacggaaaagtttggagggtttctCcgctcagcc ttggatgttctttctcagatactagagctggccacactgca 166 98 A/T taaaccactgtgcttaataagtagtttttagtggccagcagtctccatgtAtaacacattttag caaaatggaaaatactatatgttttaaatttgaacgt 167 103 A/G ggtacttgataacagtttattgaattaatgagtgaatgaacagatacataAatgeatgaaag aatggttgtaatgtatataacttggatttcaagactttt 168 104 T/C ctgttggcataatcagctgggaggattgtggggtccagcgcagcacttttTggetcagtcc atgattgagccaagaggccatccttcccttcactccccag 169 109 G/A aattattaccataattgatcatctgcagtttcaagctatctaacaggttcActtacctetttaaa aaggaatggaatttagcaggacagtaactgagaccc 170 112 TIC tgatatgtatcttaattttaaaagaaaggtctaaatggatgtttttgtttTtagggaatcagag gcaatcattccaaacatctttttcttcttggtattac 171 113 G/A ttttcatatacecactttgaacgttgtcagtggcagccatgtgcttctcaGgctctgcatgtgt gtctgtgtatgtgaaggtactggttagagacgtttca 172 117 G/A aatgttagccaaacagcaggtttgtccccgcagccttggcttgttgttgeAtagtgatggta gcttaaggtccttgtgaaaggtgggtggctggaatcagc 173 118 C/T gcctggcctattcatcactaatcagaatttctatgatcaaatgacatgaaTcattgtttccac aactgcagtggaaggaaatggcctggcagtgccagttt 174 119 C/T gccttcttggagtgaagattttgttgggatgcgggtaaggggacagacaaTagaaaagc aagtgagtgaagtctataccatggcggctgatcaggaacacc 175 120 A/G agcagggccacccatgtgagacceggcactggagtggaatggcccaagteAgcatcc cttggcagcatgaaagcaaaaccagcaaggtttgctggtggctt 176 121 A/G gcagaagcaacagggaggatcagttcatgacacaggagacacaaatcgccGttgtggt gttcacagacatgggttaggattggctgcatggatgacagagc 177 122 TIC gacgatgagatgattatgatgatttgcccttgagttacatagctggtgtaCaggaagctgtc gtttcttttggcttacgtagaaatgtttgtggtgtctaa 178 123 CIA gtatttaatctcctgtacagtaattaataggttaagagatggggacagtaCttcaacgctag aagaacacagtgaagggaaacaaataaagaatttgccag 179 124 TIC tcctgcattatctatggetcttggttcatacetgtcttgaagttctgtcaTgttctgtctettgtc - 23 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 ctcagtagagatgctacagcagtggctcgcctcag 180 125 A/T tcagattgtcaccatgtgctggcagttttacacgctgtcagtaataaaagTcttctccctgca gggcagcctgcctccaataaatacgtgtagtatcaaat 181 127 C/T tgtacagttcacaaagcttaaaaaaatgctacctgccatttcatcctcagTgaggaaggtg atacacagagagaccaagtgactgtgtccacggcgacggc 182 128 C/T cagtgaggaaggtgatacacagagagaccaagtgactgtgtccacggcgaCggcgetc tgcatttcactttagcggttaatgtactctacctatattttta 183 130 A/G cttgcctttgtgggataagggtggtgtgttctgtgtccttctacatgtccGagcgatctctgt gcagctcaaatgtggtcactgtcttattgcgctgattt 184 131 C/A tttttgtttcctgcttttcctcttgttgggagaggagggtattcatcccaAagtggtttgcctatt tcacattccatctaggataagcagaatagccaaga 185 139 G/A acctcttggaaatgttattttaccattcaaaaaggcttactaaggttctcGttatgggtggcc etctttttgcaaaaggttttcaggcttaagctccattt 186 140 A/T aaagagggcaggtgctgccgtgcctctctgctcagtatggatactggaccTtgtgctgcc agggctcccagtagggccagttcatggcactcagctggaaa 187 146 A/G cgactctccaactgaaagaggtgttatcctagagactttttctggtgatgAcaatttattaat agtcactttttgetttactttctctattgaagtagttt 188 151 A/T aaactagggcctgcatttgtatcatgacctgtttgagtattgatgagaagAtagctgtgaag aaaaaggtttaaacaagtgtattttcctttaagaageca 189 153 G/A atgttatcatctaagctccatggccaagacagaatggaagtcaaggttgcGtatttgccgt agacttcaacacagtgtcgtaatgcgtgacgtcaataact 190 157 C/T ggagcgtggtctectccacagagtttgtgacccacgcctgctccctcatcTactgtgtgca cttcatcctggaggccggtgagtccccgtccatgaacggt 191 161 G/C tgtaaaatgttgaataaaaagcactgatggaagtgtgtagaaattcttctCtttgttctgttgt aattttagttgcagtgcagcctggagagcagcttctt 192 170 G/C gtggagagaagtcgggcttcctgcttcctcacagtatgtctgtcctgactCaactcggatg atgtcacttccttttcatcttctcaggtgtggaagcttgg 193 172 T/C ccatgagtagtacctggtttcatttttctaatgtcttgcagagattttatCaggcttcttgaagt gttcacgtacattacgctaacacgatattaataata 194 174 G/A agttgtgtggggatttgggatgcacgtttttcactcaaaagtattttagcGtagagctctgtg attccgtagctatttaggagtttaagcaccttgaaggc 195 177 T/C ggggccgttttgtcacagtgaccctgtgtttctagtcccaaatctgggtgCtatagtctctttt tagcgtggtggttgtcttagtcttttttggctgctac 196 178 G/A gcacgctcaggagcagccacctgcccagcagggttggagccctgcacggcGtcctcta tgtgctggagtgcgacctgctggacgacactgccaagcagctc 197 179 G/A actgtgattccgacctcaccttatcttaaagctgctggacggcaggttctGtacacacgtgt ccttgacaaagcacggctggtgccgcaacccctcagcga 198 180 G/A tcaagagcatactcaggtggaccttgctccactgtttgaccagatgaggcAttctgaacag ccaagcctgtgctggtctgttttcatgttgattttttttt 199 182 T/C gtgggagagactgtgaggcggcagctggggccggagcctttggaagtctgCgcccttg tgccctgcctccaccgagccagcttggtccetatgggcttccg 200 183 G/A ggtgaccaggtcctttetcctgatagtcacctgctggttgttgccaggttGcagctgctcttg catctgggccagaagtcctccctcctgcaggctggctg 201 184 C/A ggtggggtgtgcatgccacgccccgtgtctggatgcacagatgecatggcCtgtgctgg gccagtggctgggggtgctagacacccggcaccattctccct 202 185 T/C cacagatgccatggcctgtgctgggccagtggctgggggtgctagacaccCggcacca ttctccttctctcttttttetcaggatttaaaatttaatta 203 187 C/A cggcagagctgccetcaacacagccttcctcttcctcatcggagagcacaCcctgtcccc ttgccgagctgtgccctgtgccttcggtggtatttgatttt 204 188 G/A gcaaggccccggacagaccgccagcctgtgaggtctccgctttcagttgcGttgatttga - 24 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 ttttttctgagccttgaaggaggggtccggggcctggccct 205 189 T/C gctggcttgcgacgtgagggctgaggtgtgagcetgggtatettcagaggTtcggtgga cacaggcagctgcccgcggecccactgttcccgtggcctcet 206 190 A/G aacacctgttcacatgcacagccctgttgagtgttctgggtgctggagatAtcatggtgga tgacacaaaggccctggcctcttggagcttatgctcccat [0068] A strand of a double-stranded DNA molecule (such as genomic DNA) is referred to as the "positive" strand or "positive sense" strand if the same RNA sequence (replacing T with U for RNA) is translatable into protein (e.g. for a coding region) or is on the same strand as sequence 5 translatable into protein (e.g. for a non-coding region, such as may be found in an intron or exon). [0069] The sequences provided in Table 2 and 4 may be useful to a person skilled in the art, to design further primers, probes or other oligonucleotides for identification of HTT polymorphisms as described herein, or for obtaining further sequence information flanking a polymorphism. 10 Further, the sequences provided in Tables 2 and 4 may be useful to a person skilled in the art to design one or more nucleic acid silencing agents that specifically hybridize to a differentiating polymorphism found in the mHTT nucleic acid sequence. Such agents may comprise any one or more than one of SEQ ID NO: 1-67,139-206, , or fragment thereof, the agent comprising a specific polymorphism. For example, SEQ ID NO: I illustrates the genomic sequence flanking 15 and including rs2857936, the actual genomic sequence obtained when sequencing this region would have either an A or a G in the 27 h position of SEQ ID NO: 1. [0070] Examples of nucleic acid silencing agents that preferentially target a differentiating polymorphism are provided in Table 4, in a 5'-3' orientation. Such agents may, under suitable conditions, hybridize with a complementary sequence, such as those exemplified in 20 Table 2. Other agents comprising one or more than one of SEQ ID NOs: 68-134, 207-274, or 275-342, or fragments thereof, will also be apparent to those skilled in the art. [0071] The sequences illustrated in Tables 2, 3 and 4 include a polymorphism. It will be apparent to one of skill in the art, upon consideration of the one or more polymorphism identified in the subject's sample, which is the appropriate nucleotide to include in the 25 silencing agent comprising the polymorphism. For example, the polymorphism illustrated in SEQ ID NO: 1 is described as "R". As indicated, R may be a G or an A. If the subject's sample has a G at the polymorphic position, the nucleic acid silencing agent would comprise - 25 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 a C at the equivalent position - SEQ ID NO: 68 is an sequence of an exemplary silencing agent, with a "Y" describing the polymorphism. As indicated, Y may be C or T. Thus Tables 2, 3 or 4, taken in combination with the information set out herein, provides one of skill in the art with sufficient information to select a useful sequence for a nucleic acid 5 silencing agent that hybridizes to one allele of a differentiating polymorphism. [0072] Table 4: Exemplary nucleic acid silencing agents for sequences comprising polymorphisms according to Table 1 SEQ SNP SNP Reverse Complement (5' to 3) for Targeting Oligo ID NO: Internal Ref # 68 1 rs2857936 GUCCUCGGUAAGGUUUUCUUUUCAAYGAAAAGCAGCCCCCA AGCAUUUUCUU 69 3 rs 12506200 CAAUUUAUAAAAAUGUAGACUAGGCYGGGCAUGCUGGCUCA UGCCUGUAAUC 70 11 rs762855 CUUGAGAAGGACAGCAGAGAAACAGCYGUUAGUUCCCAGUU CUUGGGAGGCU 71 14 rs3856973 UUUAAAAAUAAAAAUAAGUUAACACUYGAUUAACCCUGACAU UUCCCUAUCC 72 22 rs2024115 GUACGUCCAGAUGGUCAACUUCAAGCYAGUAACGAUGCUAA CGGCACAAAGU 73 65 rs363064 CUAAACUGAAUUCAAAUGGAGAAUACRGGUAACAUUUUCCU ACAAAAACAAA 74 89 rs4690073 UCUGAGGUAUAAGUUCUCCCUAAAUYAAUCUACAAGUAGAA GUUGAUUCUAU 75 97 rs363099 UGAGAAAGAACAUCCAAGGCUGAGCGRAGAAACCCUCCAAA CUUUUCCGUGC 76 112 rs363096 UUGGAAUGAUUGCCUCUGAUUCCCUARAAACAAAAACAUCC AUUUAGACCUU 77 119 rs2298967 AUAGACUUCACUCACUUGCUUUUCURUUGUCUGUCCCCUUA CCCGCAUCCCA 78 178 rs362272 CAGGUCGCACUCCAGCACAUAGAGGAYGCCGUGCAGGGCU CCAACCCUGCUG 79 182 rs362307 GCUCGGUGGAGGCAGGGCACAAGGGCRCAGACUUCCAAAG GCUCCGGCCCCA 80 190 rs1006798 AGGGCCUUUGUGUCAUCCACCAUGAYAUCUCCAGCACCCAG AACACUCAACA 81 86 rs 10155264 CAUCCACAGUAAUGUCCAGAAGACGYAGAGUCACAGAGACA GAAGGCAGGUU 82 121 rs10488840 UAACCCAUGUCUGUGAACACCACAAYGGCGAUUUGUGUCUC CUGUGUCAUGA 8 128 rs16844026 CCGCUAAAGUGAAAUGCAGAGCGCCRUCGCCGUGGACACA GUCACUUGGUCU 84 130 rs16844028 ACAUUUGAGCUGCACAGAGAUCGCUYGGACAUGUAGAAGGA CACAGAACACA 85 174 rs362274 AAUAGCUACGGAAUCACAGAGCUCUAYGCUAAAAUACUUUU GAGUGAAAAAC 86 170 rs362276 GAAAAGGAAGUGACAUCAUCCGAGUUSAGUCAGGACAGACA UACUGUGAGGA 87 184 rs362304 GCACCCCCAGCCACUGGCCCAGCACAKGCCAUGGCAUCUG UGCAUCCAGACA 88 153 rs362338 CACUGUGUUGAAGUCUACGGCAAAUAYGCAACCUUGACUUC CAUUCUGUCUU -26- WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 SEQ SNP SNP Reverse Complement (5 to 3) for Targeting Oligo ID NO: Internal Ref # 89 140 rs363090 CCCUACUGGGAGCCCUGGCAGCACAWGGUCCAGUAUCCAU ACUGAGCAGAGA 90 139 rs363091 UUUUGCAAAAAGAGGGCCACCCAUAAYGAGAACCUUAGUAA GCCUUUUUGAA 91 122 rs363093 UAAGCCAAAAGAAACGACAGCUUCCURUACACCAGCUAUGU AACUCAAGGGC 92 117 rs363094 ACAAGGACCUUAAGCUACCAUCACUAYGCAACAACAAGCCAA GGCUGCGGGG 93 113 rs363095 CACAUACACAGACACACAUGCAGAGCYUGAGAAGCACAUGG CUGCCACUGAC 94 109 rs363097 AUUCCAUUCCUUUUUAAAGAGGUAAGYGAACCUGUUAGAUA GCUUGAAACUG 95 104 rs363098 CUCUUGGCUCAAUCAUGGACUGAGCCRAAAAGUGCUGCGC UGGACCCCACAA 96 90 rs3631 00 UACCUGAGGAUUCAUUUAUCAAGAAAYGUGCAAGAGCUAUG UGAAAUAAUCU 97 88 rs3631 01 CUGCAUGUCAGCCAGUGGCACUUAGARAUGCUUCAGACCAA AAGGUGGUCUG 98 71 rs363106 ACAGCUCCUGUCACUAGUCUCACACARCUAAUAUAGCAGAA ACAAGUAUUCC 99 124 rs363124 UCUCUACUGAGGACAAGAGACAGAACRUGACAGAACUUCAA GACAGGUAUGA 100 123 rs363125 CUUCACUGUGUUCUUCUAGCGUUGAAKUACUGUCCCCAUC UCUUAACCUAUU 101 96 rs363141 GUCUGCGUGUUUGUUGUCAGCACUGGRAAAAUAUUUUGGA AAGAAAUUCCUU 102 103 rs6446725 ACAUUACAACCAUUCUUUCAUGCAUYUAUGUAUCUGUUCAU UCACUCAUUAA 103 31 rs6834455 GAUACCAGCAAAAAGCAAGCUUAUUSAAGCCACAGACGCCA AGAAGAGCUCG 104 125 rs6839081 AGGCAGGCUGCCCUGCAGGGAGAAGWCUUUUAUUACUGAC AGCGUGUAAAAC 105 92 rs6839274 UUCAGGAAGGAAAAUAAUAAACAGAYAGCAAGCACUAGGAG CAUGGAAAGGU 106 98 rs7654034 UUUUCCAUUUUGCUAAAAUGUGUUAWACAUGGAGACUGCU GGCCACUAAAAA 107 24 rs7665816 UGUUUUGACUAAACCAAACUAUUCAYAGUGCAACAACCAUAU UUUUAACUCA 108 118 rs7683309 UUCCACUGCAGUUGUGGAAACAAUGRUUCAUGUCAUUUGAU CAUAGAAAUUC 109 19 rs7688390 UUUUCUAUUUUACUGACUUCUGCUCYUAUCUUUAUGAUGUC CAUUCUUCUAG 110 2 rs7694687 CCAAAUCACUGAAGCUAAAGGGGAARUUCAAGCUAGGAACU GCUCCCAUUCC 111 26 rs10015979 GCACAGUCAUCUUCCCGCAGCUAGGYUAAAGAGUCACUCUA GUACGCCGAAA 112 21 rsl6843804 AUCAGUCGAUGAUCUCUUUAACCGURGCAUGGGCAGUUGA UGUAAGUGGACU 113 17 rs2285086 CUACAAAAGAAGGUGCUGCUAGUUCAYCCCAGUGAGAAAGA UCAAGCAAGGA 114 120 rs2298969 UUGCUUUCAUGCUGCCAAGGGAUGCYGACUUGGGCCAUUC CACUCCAGUGCC 115 177 rs3121419 AACCACCACGCUAAAAAGAGACUAUARCACCCAGAUUUGGG ACUAGAAACAC 116 179 rs362271 CGUGCUUUGUCAAGGACACGUGUGUAYAGAACCUGCCGUC CAGCAGCUUUAA -27- WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 SEQ SNP SNP Reverse Complement (5' to 3) for Targeting Oligo ID NO: Internal Ref # 117 172 rs362275 AUGUACGUGAACACUUCAAGAAGCCURAUAAAAUCUCUGCA AGACAUUAGAA 118 183 rs362306 UUCUGGCCCAGAUGCAAGAGCAGCUGYAACCUGGCAACAAC CAGCAGGUGAC 119 157 rs362331 GCCUCCAGGAUGAAGUGCACACAGURGAUGAGGGAGCAGG CGUGGGUCACAA 120 151 rs363088 GUUUAAACCUUUUUCUUCACAGCUAWCUUCUCAUCAAUACU CAAACAGGUCA 121 131 rs363092 AUGGAAUGUGAAAUAGGCAAACCACUKUGGGAUGAAUACCC UCCUCUCCCAA 122 180 rs3775061 ACCAGCACAGGCUUGGCUGUUCAGAAYGCCUCAUCUGGUC AAACAGUGGAGC 123 43 rs4690072 ACUUUUAAUACUAUAUCACAGUGCUMCCCAACCUUUCUGGC ACCAGAGACUG 124 45 rs6446723 UCAUUUUAUUAUCUUUUAAUUUUCURGACUUUAUGAUUAAC AAUCAGAACUU 125 127 rs6844859 GGUCUCUCUGUGUAUCACCUUCCUCRCUGAGGAUGAAAUG GCAGGUAGCAUU 126 76 rs6855981 GGCCUAAGUGUCCAAUGAAGGAAUGYUUUUACUAGGGCAUA UGACAAUGGUU 127 18 rs7659144 UGACCCAUGGGCCAUGUGGAAAUGGSUUUUUCCACAUAUC UGAGGCUUUUCC 128 146 rs7685686 GCAAAAAGUGACUAUUAAUAAAUUGYCAUCACCAGAAAAAGU CUCUAGGAUA 129 29 rs7691627 CACAGCUUUCUCAUCAAAUAAGAAAYACAAUCAAAGAAAUAU AAUACGUAAG 130 161 rs916171 UGCAACUAAAAUUACAACAGAACAAASAGAAGAAUUUCUACA CACUUCCAUC 131 188 rs3121417 UCAAGGCUCAGAAAAAAUCAAAUCAAYGCAACUGAAAGCGGA GACCUCACAG 132 189 rs3129322 CGCGGGCAGCUGCCUGUGUCCACCGARCCUCUGAAGAUAC CCAGGCUCACAC 133 187 rs362296 AGGGCACAGCUCGGCAAGGGGACAGGKUGUGCUCUCCGAU GAGGAAGAGGAA 134 84 rsl 1731237 CUAGAAAGCAUGUGCUGGUGGGCAGRAAGGACUGAACCCA GUGACUGGGGAG [0073] It will be apparent that a nucleic acid silencing agent that is complementary to those illustrated may also be useful. When a DNA polymorphism, or a sequence flanking the DNA polymorphism, comprises thymine (T), it will also be apparent that an RNA sequence comprising 5 the same polymorphism and/or flanking sequence may comprise a uracil (U) in place of the T. [0074] As illustrated in Table 1, a subset of the polymorphisms are found in exonic sequences, including rs 363099, rs362272, rs362307, rs362304, rs363125, rs362306, rs362331. Sequences comprising these polymorphisms are found in Tables 2 and 3, and sequences that may be used in whole or in part for a nucleic acid silencing agent for these polymorphisms are illustrated in 10 Tables 4 and 5. - 28 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 [0075] Without wishing to be bound by theory, RNA transcripts (either mature mRNA or pre mRNA) comprising a polymorphism listed in Table 1 that allows for differentiation between a normal and mutant allele of HTT may be targeted by an antisense nucleic acid targeting agent comprising a corresponding sequence as listed in Table 4, or a fragment thereof Again, without 5 wishing to be bound by theory, mature RNA transcripts (e.g. mRNA) comprising a polymorphism found in an exonic sequence (e.g. rs363099, rs362272, rs362307, rs362304, rs363125, rs362306, rs36233 1) may be targeted by an siRNA nucleic acid silencing agent, comprising a corresponding sequence as listed in Table 4, or a portion or fragment thereof [0076] ASO are examples of nucleic acid silencing agents according to some embodiments of the 10 present invention. Generally, ASOs may be about 20 nucleotides, but may range from about 12 to about 25 nucleotides, or any length in between. For example, an ASO may be 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 or 25 nucleotides in length, with the proviso that the ASO selectively differentiate the nucleic acid molecules at the polymorphism. While Table 5 exemplifies ASOs for the major or minor allele that are 20 nucleotides in length, with the 15 polymorphism at the centre, it is known that the position corresponding to the polymorphism may range away from the centre of the sequence, from about 1, 2, 3,4, 5,6, 7 or 8 nucleotides 5' or 3' to the position correpsponding to the polymorphism. [0077] Table 5: Exemplary ASO for major and minor alleles of the polymorphisms illustrated in Table 3. The specific allele is indicated in upper case font. Internal SNP Major allele Minor allele SEQ ID NO: ASO SEQ ID NO: ASO reference # 1 207 gctgcttttcGttgaaaaga 275 gctgcttttcAttgaaaaga 2 208 taaaggggaaGttcaagcta 276 taaaggggaaAttcaagcta 3 209 tagactaggcCgggcatgct 277 tagactaggcTgggcatgct 11 210 gagaaacagcCgttagttcc 278 gagaaacagcTgttagttcc 14 211 agttaacactCgattaaccc 279 agttaacactTgattaaccc 17 212 tgetagttcaTeccagtgag 280 tgctagttcaCcccagtgag 18 213 gtggaaatggGtttttccac 281 gtggaaatggCtttttccac 19 214 acttctgctcCtatctttat 282 acttctgctcTtatctttat 21 215 ctttaaccgtGgcatgggca 283 etttaaccgtAgcatgggca 22 216 aacttcaagcTagtaacgat 284 aaettcaagcCagtaacgat 24 217 aaactattcaCagtgcaaca 285 aaactattcaTagtgcaaca 26 218 cgcagctaggTtaaagagtc 286 cgcagctaggCtaaagagte 29 219 aaataagaaaCacaatcaaa 287 aaataagaaaTacaatcaaa 31 220 caagcttattGaagccacag 288 caagcttattCaagccacag - 29 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 43 221 tcacagtgctAcccaacctt 289 teacagtgctCcccaacctt 45 222 ttaattttctAgactttatg 290 ttaattttctGgactttatg 65 223 tggagaatacGggtaacatt 291 tggagaatacAggtaacatt 71 224 gtctcacacaGctaatatag 292 gtctcacacaActaatatag 76 225 tgaaggaatgCttttactag 293 tgaaggaatgTttttactag 84 226 tggtgggcagGaaggactga 294 tggtgggcagAaaggactga 86 227 ccagaagacgTagagtcaca 295 ccagaagacgCagagtcaca 88 228 ggcacttagaAatgcttcag 296 ggcacttagaGatgcttcag 89 229 ctccctaaatCaatctacaa 297 ctccctaaatTaatctacaa 90 230 tatcaagaaaTgtgcaagag 298 tatcaagaaaCgtgcaagag 92 231 aataaacagaTagcaagcac 299 aataaacagaCagcaagcac 96 232 tcagcactggAaaaatattt 300 tcagcactggGaaaatattt 97 233 aggctgagcgGagaaaccct 301 aggctgagcgAagaaaccct 98 234 aaatgtgttaTacatggaga 302 aaatgtgttaAacatggaga 103 235 tttcatgcatTtatgtatct 303 tttcatgcatCtatgtatct 104 236 ggactgagccAaaaagtgct 304 ggactgagccGaaaagtgct 109 237 aagaggtaagTgaacctgtt 305 aagaggtaagCgaacctgtt 112 238 tgattccctaAaaacaaaaa 306 tgattccctaGaaacaaaaa 113 239 catgcagagcCtgagaagca 307 catgcagagcTtgagaagca 117 240 accatcactaTgcaacaaca 308 accatcactaCgcaacaaca 118 241 ggaaacaatgAttcatgtca 309 ggaaacaatgGttcatgtca 119 242 ttgettttctAttgtctgtc 310 ttgcttttctGttgtctgtc 120 243 caagggatgcCgacttgggc 311 caagggatgcTgacttgggc 121 244 aacaccacaaCggcgatttg 312 aacaccacaaTggcgatttg 122 245 acagcttcctGtacaccagc 313 acagcttcctAtacaccagc 123 246 tagcgttgaaGtactgtccc 314 tagcgttgaaTtactgtccc 124 247 gagacagaacAtgacagaac 315 gagacagaacGtgacagaac 125 248 cagggagaagActtttatta 316 cagggagaagTcttttatta 127 249 caccttcctcActgaggatg 317 cacettcctcGctgaggatg 128 250 gcagagcgccGtcgccgtgg 318 gcagagcgccAtcgccgtgg 130 251 agagatcgctCggacatgta 319 agagatcgctTggacatgta 131 252 gcaaaccactGtgggatgaa 320 gcaaaccactTtgggatgaa 139 253 ccacccataaCgagaacctt 321 ccacccataaTgagaacctt 140 254 tggcagcacaAggtccagta 322 tggcagcacaTggtccagta 146 255 taataaattgTcatcaccag 323 taataaattgCcatcaccag 151 256 ttcacagctaTcttctcate 324 ttcacagctaActtctcatc 153 257 acggcaaataCgcaaccttg 325 acggcaaataTgcaaccttg 157 258 tgcacacagtAgatgaggga 326 tgcacacagtGgatgaggga 161 259 acagaacaaaGagaagaatt 327 acagaacaaaCagaagaatt 170 260 catcCgagttGagtcaggac 328 catccgagttCagtcaggac 172 261 caagaagcctGataaaatct 329 caagaagcctAataaaatct 174 262 cagagctctaCgctaaaata 330 cagagctctaTgctaaaata 177 263 agagactataGcacecagat 331 agagactataAcacccagat 178 264 acatagaggaCgccgtgcag 332 acatagaggaTgccgtgcag 179 265 cacgtgtgtaCagaacctgc 333 cacgtgtgtaTagaacctgc 180 266 ctgttcagaaTgcctcatct 334 ctgttcagaaCgcctcatct 182 267 gcacaagggcGcagacttcc 335 geacaagggcAcagacttcc 183 268 agagcagctgCaacctggca 336 agagcagctgTaacctggca 184 269 gcccagcacaGgccatggca 337 gcccagcacaTgccatggca 185 270 gaatggtgccGggtgtctag 338 gaatggtgccAggtgtctag - 30 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 187 271 aggggacaggGtgtgctetc 339 aggggacaggTtgtgctctc 188 272 atcaaatcaaCgcaactgaa 340 atcaaatcaaTgcaactgaa 189 273 tgtccaccgaAcctctgaag 341 tgtccaccgaGcctctgaag 190 274 tccaccatgaTatctccage 342 tccaccatgaCatctccagc [0078] The invention, therefore provides, for nucleic acids and nucleic acid silencing agents comprising one or more than one of SEQ ID NO:68-134, or one or more of SEQ ID NO: 207 342, or portions or fragments thereof. 5 [0079] In some embodiments, the one or more nucleic acid silencing agents comprise one or more than one of SEQ ID NO: 207, 209, 210, 211, 213, 215, 216, 286, 219, 221, 222, 223,294,229, 223, 238, 242, 311, 249, 252, 256, 258, 259, 261, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 270, 271, 274, 275, 277, 278, 335, 306 or 223. [0080] A cell heterozygous for a differentiating polymorphism may be used to screen for nucleic 10 acid silencing agents that preferentially target a differentiating polymorphism in an RNA encoding an mHTT protein. [0081] Any cell comprising both an mHTT and a normal HTT expressed nucleic acid sequence may be useful for screening and identification of nucleic acid silencing agents. The cell may be a primary cell or cell line isolated from a subject affected with Huntington's disease, e.g. a 15 lymphoblastic cell or cell line obtained from a sample of a living subject (the subject may be currently living, or may be deceased) (Gutekunst et al. 1995 Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Sep 12;92(19):8710-4. Primary cells or cell lines isolated from a subject may also be immortalized using standard transformation techniques. [0082] A cell may be an immortalized cell or cell line, for example a HEK293 cell, that 20 expresses both a mHTT and normal HTTThe mHTT and normal HTT nucleic acids may be provided to the cell by stable or transient transfection or transformation methods, as are known in the art. The mHTT and/or normal HTT may be constitutively expressed, or may be conditionally expressed. Expression of the mHTT and/or normal HTT may be suppressed by inclusion of a drug or other reagent in the culture medium that downregulates expression. An example of a 25 system that allows for induction or suppression of expression in this manner is the "Tet-On/Off' system (Bujard et al 1992. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 89:5547-555 1). Other examples of conditional expression systems include Cre (e.g. US 4959317), and FLP-FRT recombination. Other systems that allow for inducible or conditional expression, and their -31- WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 suitability for use with a cell line or screening method will be within the knowledge of a skilled worker. [0083] The cell may be contacted with one or more than one candidate nucleic acid silencing agents (e.g. those listed in Table 4 or 5, or others that may be designed comprising one or more 5 of the sequences of Table 4 or 5, or a fragment thereof). Following contact, the cell may be assayed for the expression of HTT and mHTT protein, mRNA or protein and mRNA. For example, RT-PCR may be used to examine the level of HTT and mHTT mRNA. Primers flanking the expanded CAG tract may be useful to distinguish between the two amplification products obtained from the HTT and mHTT mRNA (Graham et al 2005. Neurobiology of 10 Disease 21(2):444-55). An example of primer sequences useful for this purpose is 5'GAAAGTCAGTCCGGGTAGAACTTC 3' (SEQ ID NO: 137) and 5' CAGATACCCGCTCCATAGCAA (SEQ ID NO: 138) 3'. Alternately, or in addition, cells contacted with candidate nucleic acid silencing agents may be screened using anti HTT antibodies and immunologic techniques (e.g. Western blotting, ELISA and the like). If, following 15 contact of the cell with an agent, the level of mHTT protein and/or mRNA is decreased in the cell, the agent may be said to 'preferentially target' the allele found on the mutation-containing chromosome. [0084] "Contacting" a cell with an agent according to some embodiments of the invention includes, without limitation, any and all methods of delivery of an agent to a cell. For example, 20 an agent may be provided in a delivery vehicle and the cell induced to phagocytose the vehicle comprising the agent, the agent may be provided in a solution or suspension of culture medium or buffer, the culture medium or buffer combined with the cells. [0085] Therefore, the invention provides for a method of screening for a nucleic acid silencing agent targeting a differentiating polymorphism in RNA encoding an mHTT protein in a subject, 25 comprising providing a cell heterozygous for a differentiating polymorphism in a nucleic acid sequence encoding huntingtin (HTT); contacting the cell with one or more candidate nucleic acid silencing agents targeting the differentiating polymorphism; assaying the cell for HTT and mHTT RNA, protein or RNA and protein expression; and determining the one or more nucleic acid silencing agents from the candidate nucleic acid silencing agents. 30 [0086] Not all polymorphisms may be found in all subjects, and not all subjects may be heterozygous for any given polymorphism. In order to use a nucleic acid silencing agent to - 32 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 reduce expression of a mutant allele of HTT in a cell or a subject, according to some embodiments of the invention, suitable polymorphisms will need to be identified. If allele specific silencing is to be performed in a cell or cell line, the heterozygous polymorphism may already be known (e.g. if the cell has been genetically altered to express a particular allele, or if it 5 has been previously characterized). The complement of allelic polymorphisms in a subject may not be as well-known, and therefore, before providing a nucleic acid silencing agent to a subject, it may be preferable to determine not only the identity of the heterozygous allele, but also its chromosomal association. If the subject is a transgenic or otherwise genetically modified animal, the heterozygous polymorphism may be known. 10 [0087] The term "subject" or "patient" generally refers to mammals and other animals including humans and other primates, companion animals, zoo, and farm animals, including, but not limited to, cats, dogs, rodents, rats, mice, hamsters, rabbits, horses, cows, sheep, pigs, goats, poultry, etc. A subject includes one who is to be tested, or has been tested for prediction, assessment or diagnosis of allograft rejection. The subject may have been previously assessed 15 or diagnosed using other methods, such as those described herein or those in current clinical practice, or may be selected as part of a general population (a control subject). A subject may be a transgenic animal, e.g. a rodent, such as a mouse, that comprises a normal or mutant allele of nucleic acid sequence of interest. For example, the subject may a transgenic mouse comprising a wild-type or mutant form of HTT. 20 [0088] A subject at risk for Huntington's disease may be tested for the CAG expansion. A sample is obtained from the subject and the size of the CAG tract (number of repeats) is determined by any suitable method. Molecular diagnosis of an expanded CAG tract is necessary for the described allele specific knockdown. Laboratory guidelines for Huntington disease genetic testing (Anonymous. ACMG/ASHG statement. The American College of 25 Medical Genetics/American Society of Human Genetics Huntington Disease Genetic Testing Working Group. Am J Hum Genet 1998; 62:1243-7) indicate that 26 or fewer CAG repeats are considered 'normal'; 27-35 CAG repeats are considered a mutable normal allele; and 36 or greater CAG repeats are considered a disease-causing allele. A subject receiving a molecular diagnosis of 36 or greater CAG repeats may be a suitable subject for screening for differentiating 30 polymorphisms and treatment with one or more than one nucleic acid silencing agents. - 33 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 [0089] Identification of polymorphisms in a subject may be performed by any of several methods familiar in the art. In addition to identification of the differentiating polymorphisms, their affiliation with the mHTT allele will also need to be determined - the sequence of the nucleic acid silencing agent will need to preferentially target the polymorphic 5 allele of the mHTT RNA, relative to the normal HTT RNA. [0090] For example, once a subject has had a confirmed molecular diagnosis of Huntington's disease, the subject may be screened for some or all of the polymorphisms listed in Table 1. A sample comprising nucleic acid is obtained from the subject; any of several methods that identify a polymorphism may be used to identify differentiating polymorphisms in the subject's nucleic 10 acid sample. Following identification of that subject's complement of differentiating polymorphisms (e.g. a subset of the screened polymorphisms), the identification of the specific polymorphism present on the mutant chromosome is determined (chromosome phasing). Genotypes from other family members (usually a 'trio' within the pedigree - e.g. mother, father and child, but may include any immediate family members) are used to 'phase' the alleles and 15 determine which SNP allele is being inherited on the chromosome also carrying the HD mutation. Phasing may be determined empirically from the genotyping of the trios. Alternatively, or in addition, phasing may be deduced by collecting lymphblasts or other primary cells from the subject in question and testing agents for the selective silencing of the mutant allele as described. 20 [0091] Following determination of the phasing of the one or more than one differentiating polymorphisms, one or more than one nucleic acid silencing agents may be synthesized. The nucleic acid silencing agents may be subsequently tested on a cell comprising one or more of the same polymorphisms identified in the subject, to determine the magnitude of reduction of expression for each agent alone or in combination with another agent, or to determine an 25 effective amount of the agent. [0092] Alternately, an effective amount of the agent may be administered to the subject without prior testing of magnitude of reduction of expression. [0093] As an illustrative example, a subject having received a molecular diagnosis of an expanded CAG tract is subsequently screened, and a polymorphism corresponding to rs362272 30 (Internal SNP reference #178) is found. Two relatives (e.g. both parents) are also tested for this allele, to determine which specific nucleotide of the polymorphism is present on the mutant and - 34 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 normal chromosomes. As an example, the mutant chromosome is found to have the G allele, and the normal chromosome is found to have the A allele. A nucleic acid silencing agent comprising the polymorphism and some or all of SEQ ID NO: 78, and having a C in the position equivalent to the 33d nucleotide of SEQ ID NO: 78 is synthesized. As SNP #178 is found in an exon, an 5 siRNA agent may be suitable. An example of one strand of such an siRNA agent is shown (in a 5'-3' orientation) in SEQ ID NO: 135: SEQ ID NO: 135 ACAUAGAGGACGCCGUGCAGGG. [0094] If desired, the siRNA agent may be tested on a cell comprising the same polymorphism as present in the subject, e.g. to test the magnitude of reduction of expression, or to provide an 10 estimate of dosing, or the like, before administering to the subject. Following administration of the agent either as a single dose, or in a series of doses, the subject may be tested for levels of HTT and mHTT protein. [0095] As another illustrative example, a subject having received a molecular diagnosis of an expanded CAG tract is subsequently screened, and a polymorphism corresponding to rs6855981 15 (Internal SNP reference #84) is found. Two relatives (e.g. both parents) are also tested for this allele, to determine which specific nucleotide of the polymorphism is present on the mutant and normal chromosomes. As an example, the mutant chromosome is found to have the C allele, and the normal chromosome is found to have the T allele. A nucleic acid silencing agent comprising the polymorphism and some or all of SEQ ID NO: 134, and having a G in the position 20 equivalent to the 32d nucleotide of SEQ ID NO: 134 is synthesized. As SNP #178 is found in an intron, an antisense agent may be suitable. An example of one strand of such an antisense agent is shown (in a 5'-3' orientation) in SEQ ID NO: 136: SEQ ID NO: 136: CUAGAAAGCAUGUGCUGGUGGGCAGGAAGGACUGAACCCAGUGACUGGGGAG 25 [0096] If desired, the antisense agent may be tested on a cell comprising the same polymorphism as present in the subject, e.g. to test the magnitude of reduction of expression, or to provide an estimate of dosing, or the like, before administering to the subject. Following administration of the agent either as a single dose, or in a series of doses, the subject may be tested for levels of HTT and mHTT protein -35- WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 [0097] The invention, therefore, provides for a method of selecting a nucleic acid silencing agent targeting a differentiating polymorphism in RNA encoding an mHTT protein of a subject, comprising: obtaining a nucleic acid sample from the subject; identifying one or more differentiating polymorphisms in the nucleic acid sample; selecting a nucleic acid silencing 5 agent comprising a sequence that preferentially targets the differentiating polymorphism in the RNA encoding an mHTT protein. [0098] The invention also provides for a method of reducing expression of an mHTT protein in a subject, comprising obtaining a nucleic acid sample from the subject, identifying one or more than one differentiating polymorphism in the nucleic acid sample, selecting one or more than one 10 nucleic acid silencing agents comprising a sequence that preferentially targets the one or more than one differentiating polymorphism in the RNA of the subject encoding the mHTT protein and administering to the subject an effective amount of the one or more than one nucleic acid silencing agent. [00991 A "sample" may be any organ, tissue, cell, or cell extract isolated from a subject, such as 15 a sample isolated from a subject having HD, or at risk for HD or with a family history of HD or having one of the risk factors for HD, or the like. A sample may include, without limitation, tissue (e.g., from a biopsy or autopsy), cells, blood, serum, milk, urine, stool, saliva, feces, mammalian cell culture or culture medium, or any other specimen, or any extract thereof, obtained from a patient (human or animal), subject, or experimental animal. A sample may also 20 include, without limitation, products produced in cell culture by normal or transformed cells (e.g., via recombinant DNA or monoclonal antibody technology). A sample may also be a cell or cell line created under experimental conditions, that are not directly isolated from a subject. A sample can also be cell-free, artificially derived or synthesized. A "control" includes a sample or standard obtained for use in determining the baseline e.g., expression or activity or occurrence. 25 Accordingly, a control may be obtained by a number of means including from non-HD cells or tissue e.g., from a subject not having HD; from a subject not suspected of being at risk for HD; or from cells or cell lines derived from such subjects, or extracts thereof. A control may also be a standard, e.g., previously established standard. Accordingly, any test or assay conducted according to the invention may be compared with the standard and it may not be necessary to 30 obtain a control sample for comparison each time. - 36 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 [00100] Tables I and 2 list candidate polymorphisms. The genomic nucleic acid of a subject may comprise one or more candidate polymorphisms as a heterozygous allele. [001011 Identification of polymorphisms [00102] SNPs can be assayed using techniques such as TaqMan assays, molecular beacon 5 assays, nucleic acid arrays, allele-specific primer extension, allele-specific PCR, arrayed primer extension, homogeneous primer extension assays, restriction fragment length polymorphism, direct sequencing, single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, etc. [00103] Probes or primers may be used to detect SNPs - such probes and primers need not 10 contain a SNP but may be directed to, for example, flanking sequences such that, when used together with amplification techniques, e.g., primer extension techniques, they generate a SNP containing amplified nucleic acid molecule. SNPs can be assayed using allele-specific hybridization probes or primers. SNP allele-specific probes or primers may be used in pairs that are identical except for a single mismatch representing the allelic variant at the SNP position. For 15 techniques that rely on hybridization, the stringency should be high enough to distinguish between the SNP alleles, but not so high that no hybridization occurs. In general, the high stringency conditions described herein are suitable. [00104] Probes or primers may be attached to a solid support, e.g., bead or microarray, or may be provided in solution, e.g., with a buffer or enzyme. An array refers to an ordered 20 arrangement of two or more nucleic acid molecules, polypeptides or proteins on a substrate. A substrate may be any rigid or semi-rigid support to which the two or more nucleic acid molecules, polypeptides or proteins may be attached. In some embodiments, a substrate may be a liquid medium. Substrates include membranes, filters, chips, slides, wafers, fibers, beads, gels, capillaries, plates, polymers, and microparticles and the like. 25 [00105] High density nucleic acid or polypeptide arrays are also referred to as "microarrays," and may for example be used to monitor the presence or level of expression of a large number of genes or polypeptides or for detecting SNPs and variants. Arrays and microarrays generally require a solid support (for example, nylon, glass, ceramic, plastic, silica, aluminosilicates, borosilicates, metal oxides such as aluminum and nickel oxide, various clays, 30 nitrocellulose, etc.) to which the nucleic acid molecules or polypeptides are attached in a - 37 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 specified 2-dimensional arrangement, such that the pattern of hybridization or binding to a probe is easily determinable. In some embodiments, at least one of the nucleic acid molecules or polypeptides is a control, standard, or reference molecule, such as a housekeeping gene or portion thereof that may assist in the normalization of expression levels or assist in the determining of 5 nucleic acid quality and binding characteristics; reagent quality and effectiveness; hybridization success; analysis thresholds and success, etc. [00106 Polypeptide variants encoded by a SNP-containing molecule may be identified by for example antibodies capable of specifically binding to the variant polypeptide but not to the wild type polypeptide. 10 [00107] Detection of a SNP or polypeptide variant associated with an HD mutant allele may be combined with traditional methods of diagnosis and analysis known in the art. [001081 Statistical analyses such as those described herein or known in the art may be carried out to determine the level of significance of the results. The particular method by which a differentiating polymorphism is identified is not important, only that it is identified. 15 [00109] Once a differentiating polymorphism is identified, software tools may be useful to aid in design of nucleic acid silencing agents. Such software tools may consider melting temperature (Tm), G/C content of the sequence surrounding the polymorphism, length, nature of the polymorphism (purine/pyrimidine), and the like. Algorithms that employ some of these sequence-based characteristics include that of Reynolds et al (Nature Biotechnology 22:326-33), 20 OligoCalculator, Cenix Biosciences (Echeverri et al., Ambion TechNotes 11(3) URL:www.ambion.com/techlib/tn/113/14.html) and the like. Examples of software tools include, but are not limited to, SDS (siRNA Design Software) (URL: www.i.cs.hku.hk/~sirna/software/sirna.php), siRNA DNA designer 1.5 (URL: www.irisgenetics.com/siRNAdesigner.htm). Use and knowledge of other software tools that 25 may be useful for design of the nucleic acid silencing agents as described herein will be within the knowledge of a skilled worker. [00110] A fragment or portion of a nucleic acid sequence includes a nucleic acid sequence comprising a subset of the nucleotide complement of a designated nucleic acid sequence. The fragment may, for example, comprise an intronic region, and exonic region, a coding region, a 30 non-coding region, a 5' untranslated region, a 3' untranslated region, or the like. In some - 38 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 embodiments of the invention, the fragment may comprise a sequence encoding a region or domain common to proteins of the same general family. In some embodiments of the invention, the fragment may include sufficient nucleic acid sequence amino acid sequence to specifically identify the sequence from which it is derived, e.g. a gene. 5 [001111 A nucleic acid sequence, or fragment or portion of a nucleic acid sequence may range in size from as small as 5-10 nucleotides, to almost the "full-length" of the nucleic acid sequence from which it is derived. For example, a fragment or portion may be from about 0.001% to 0.1%, from about 0.1% to about 1%, from about 1% to about 10%, from about 10% to about 20%, from about 20% to about 30%, from about 30% to about 40% , from about 40% to 10 about 50%, from about 50% to about 60%, from about 60% to about 70%, from about 70% to about 80%, from about 80% to about 90% or from about 90% to about 100% of the full-length nucleic acid sequence. Alternately, a fragment or portion may be from about 4 to about 10 nucleotides, or any amount therebetween; from 10 to about 50 nucleotides, or any amount therebetween; from about 50 to about 100 nucleotides, or any amount therebetween; from about 15 100 to about 150 nucleotides, or any amount therebetween; from about 150 to about 250 nucleotides or any amount therebetween; from about 250 to about 500 nucleotides or any amount therebetween. Alternately, a fragment or portion may be 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 35, 40,45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100 or more nucleotides long. 20 [00112] Sequence identity or sequence similarity may be determined using a nucleotide sequence comparison program, such as that provided within DNASIS (for example, using, but not limited to, the following parameters: GAP penalty 5, #of top diagonals 5, fixed GAP penalty 10, k-tuple 2, floating gap 10, and window size 5). However, other methods for alignment of sequences for comparison are well-known in the art for example the algorithms of Smith & 25 Waterman (1981, Adv. Appl. Math. 2:482), Needleman & Wunsch (J. Mol. Biol. 48:443, 1970), Pearson & Lipman (1988, Proc. Nat'l. Acad. Sci. USA 85:2444), and by computerized implementations of these algorithms (e.g. GAP, BESTFIT, FASTA, and BLAST - Altschul et al. 1009. J. Mol Biol 215:403-410), or by manual alignment and visual inspection. [00113] A nucleic acid sequence, or fragment or portion of a nucleic acid sequence may be 30 specifically identified when its sequence may be differentiated from others found in the same phylogenetic Species, Genus, Family or Order. Such differentiation may be identified by - 39 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 comparison of sequences. A BLAST search allows for comparison of a query sequence with a specific sequence or group of sequences, or with a larger library or database (e.g. GenBank) of sequences, and identify not only sequences that exhibit 100% identity, but also those with lesser degrees of identity. 5 [00114] In some embodiments of the invention, a subset of the polymorphisms shown in Tables I and 2 may be preferred for use in screening a subject for differentiating polymorphisms. As an example, a subject may be screened for the presence and identity of one or more polymorphisms described herein as internal reference number 1, 3, 11, 14, 22, 55, 63, 65, 69, 80, 89, 95, 97, 112, 119, 169, 176, 178, 181, 182, 185 and 190. In another embodiment, the one or 10 more polymorphisms may be selected from the group comprising 14, 22, 63, 80, 89, 97, 112, 119, 178, 182 and 190. As illustrated in Figures 7 and 8, in yet other embodiments of the invention, a subject may be screened for the presence and identity of 1, 2, 3 or 4 polymorphisms, to provide for maximum coverage of the population being tested, with a minimum of sites. [00115] Polymorphism #182, is one of group shown to be significantly associated with 15 disease chromosomes (comprising the mHTT sequence). Two alleles are found at this position nucleotides C or T. Data from 65 HD-affected subjects is shown in Figure 2A, and a significantly different allele distribution is observed in the disease chromosome compared to the control chromosome. Looking at Figure 3A, the distribution shows that haplogroup A (an average of 44 CAG repeats) demonstrates variability (T or C) at position 182, while haplogroups B and C are 20 predominantly a C at this position. When haplogroup A is broken down in to subgroups (Figure 4A, B), it can be seen that the frequency of the Al allele T occurs in ~55% of the chromosomes, while the -44% of subgroups A2-A5 are the C allele. [00116] As is illustrated in Figure 7, polymorphism 182 may be useful differentiating polymorphism. A nucleic acids silencing agent (e.g. an ASO) that specifically hybridizes with 25 the "T" allele may be useful as a therapeutic agent for a subject with HD and exhibiting this polymorphism. For an HD patient, the data provided herein illustrates that >50% of the time, an HD subject is heterozygous at SNP 182, (using the internal reference numbers of Table 1) and the 'T' allele found on the disease chromosome. In a subject not heterozygous at SNP182, or if the 'T' allele is not associated with the disease chromosome, then SNP182 would not be suitable 30 for treatment (as it would not differentiate between the disease and normal gene product or transcript), and an alternate target site would be selected. (e.g. An ASO that targets the T - 40 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 polymorphism if provided to a subject homozygous for the T allele would be expected to hybridize equally to both the transcript of the disease chromosome and that of the normal chromosome - this may be detrimental, in that the normal HTT protein may be reduced or not produced. Therefore, genotyping of an HD affected subject provides important information for 5 selection of one or more suitable ASO. [00117] As illustrated in Figure 7, the inventors have identified several polymorphisms that are predominantly associated with the disease chromosome, thus it may not be necessary to genotype an HD patient for all polymorphisms that may be found within the HD gene sequence and surrounding region. A subset of 8 polymorphisms individually demonstrate >40% coverage 10 of the subject population. When two polymorphisms are combined, 12 different combinations may each provide >60% coverage. In other words, 60% of HD patients could be treated with one of the two SNP targets in this 2 SNP panel. 22 different combinations of 3 polymorphisms provide >80% coverage, and 17 sets of 4 different polymorphisms provide >85% coverage. [001181 Design of nucleic acid silencing agents 15 [00119] General methods of chemical and enzymatic synthesis of nucleic acid molecules comprising a variety of bases and internucleoside linkages are known, as are methods comprising a combination of chemical and enzymatic syntheses. The selection of a particular method of synthesis may not be critical, and a skilled worker will be able to select an expedient method of synthesizing one or more nucleic acid silencing agents as is desired. Such methods are generally 20 described in the art - see, for example, Cobb AJ 2007. Org. Biomol Chem 5:3620-75; Gait MJ 1991. Curr.Opin Biotechnol 2:61-8. (both of which are herein incorporated by reference). As an example, synthesis reagents are available from several suppliers e.g. Proligo (Hamburg, Germany), Dharmacon Research (Lafayette, CO, USA), Pierce Chemical (part of Perbio Science, Rockford, IL , USA), Glen Research (Sterling, VA, USA), ChemGenes (Ashland, MA, USA), 25 and Cruachem (Glasgow, UK). Additionally, some commercial sources offer synthesis services for siRNA reagents e.g. Dharmacon, Qiagen, Genset Oligos, Glen Research, Xeragon, Proligo, Ambion and the like. [00120] Methods for synthesizing oligonucleotides for individual use or as part of an insoluble support (e.g. array) are also known: Bernfield et al., 1967. J. Biol. Chem. 30 242(18):4134-43; Sulston et al 1968 PNAS 60(2):409-415; Gillam et al., 1975. Nucleic Acid Res. 2(5):613-624; Bonora et al., 1990. Nucleic Acid Res. 18(11):3155-9; Laskkari et al 1995. -41- WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 PNAS 92(17):7912-5; McGall et al 1996. PNAS 93(24):13555-60; Albert et al, 2003. Nucleic Acid Res. 3 1(7):e35; Gao et al 2004. Biopolymers 73(5):579-96; and Moorcroft et al 2005. Nucleic Acid Res. 33(8):e75. [00121] Selection of the nucleotide complement of the agent will generally be dependent 5 on the sequence surrounding the differentiating polymorphism, but may be varied to enhance hybridization, improve cell-penetrating or nucleus-penetrating properties, prevent undesired cross-hybridization, or otherwise improve the selectivity of the agent for the differentiating polymorphism. Pei et al (Nature Methods 2006 3:670-6) discusses methods and considerations that may be useful. For example, 3' end structures of the agent may comprise a TT or UU 10 terminal dinucleotide. The agent may comprise a G/C content in the range of about 30-50%, but this may be decreased, or increased to achieve the desired selectivity of the agent. The nucleotide complement may be selected to accommodate, or avoid including, a series of identical or similar nucleotides adjacent to each other - e.g. a plurality of purines or pyrimidines in sequence. [00122] Use of an siRNA expression vector to generate an agent may necessitate the 15 design of a sequence within the vector comprising a pair of inverted repeats separated by a short spacer or 'hairpin loop' sequence. An RNA transcript produced from such a sequence may subsequently fold to form a short hairpin structure, which may be subsequently cleaved to remove the single-stranded loop, providing the paired sense/antisense siRNA structure. Selection of target sequence, length of the inverted repeats that encode the stem of the 'hairpin' 20 structure, nucleotide composition and order of the spacer sequence and the presence or absence of 5' overhangs may be varied, depending on the nature of the polymorphism and the surrounding sequence, desired selectivity and nature of the nucleotides and/or internucleoside linkages. See, for example of methods, vector design and like; Elbashir et al., EMBO J. 2001 20:6877-6888); Sui et al., 2002. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. US A 99(8): 5515-5520; Lee et al., 2002. 25 Nature Biotechnology 20: 500-505; Yu et al., 2002. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99(9) : 6047 6052; Paul et al., 2002. Nature Biotechnology 20: 505-508; Brummelkamp et al., 2002. Science 296 : 550-553; Jacque et al., 2002. Nature 418 : 435-438; Miyagishi et al., 2002. Nature Biotechnology 20 : 497-500; Paddison et al., 2002. Genes Devel. 16: 948-958. [00123] Examples of expression vectors suitable for use with the present application 30 include but are not limited to the standard transient expression vectors, adenoviruses, - 42 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 retroviruses, lentivirus-based vectors, as well as other traditional expression vectors. Any vector that has an adequate siRNA expression and procession module may be used. [001241 Therapeutic regimens [00125] Therapeutic regimens for Huntington's disease may include administration of one 5 or more nucleic acid silencing agent by itself, or in combination with another treatment. Examples of treatments that may be combined with admininstration of the one or more nucleic acid silencing agent may include but are not limited to, antidepressants, antipsychotics, sedatives, nutrition therapy, administration of some fatty acids, or other pharmaceutical or reparative therapy. Some examples of pharmaceutical therapies for Huntington's disease may include 10 neuroprotective agents, for example minocycline, lamotrigine, creatine, remacemide (alone or in combination with Coenzyme Q), riluzole, LAX-I 01,and the like. Reparative therapeutic approaches, such as transplantation with primary cells or tissue may include neural grafts, embryonic or fetal tissue transplants, and the like. Some extant therapeutic regimens, and experimental therapeutic regimens are described by Handley et al 2006. Clinical Science 110:73 15 88. [00126] An "effective amount" of a nucleic acid silencing agent refers to the amount of agent required to reduce the expression of an mHTT nucleic acid or mHTT protein. The effective amount may be calculated on a mass/mass basis (e.g. micrograms or milligrams per kilogram of subject), or may be calculated on a mass/volume basis (e.g. concentration, 20 micrograms or milligrams per milliliter). An effective amount may be extrapolated based on animal testing, or from experimental results obtained using cultured cells. A skilled worker will have familiarity with other expressions of mass, volume and/or concentration that may be suitable. [00127] For example, compositions comprising one or more agents according to various 25 embodiments of the invention, may be provided as one or more doses, expressed as a mass/volume unit. The dose may comprise from about 0.1 ug/ml to about 20 mg/ml, or any amount therebetween, for example 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 140, 160 180, 200, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1500, 2000, 5000, 10000, 20000 ug/ml, or any amount therebetween; or from about 1 ug/ml to about 2000 ug/ml, or any amount therebetween, 30 for example 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0, 30.0, 35.0, 40.0, 50.0 60.0, 70.0, 80.0, 90.0, 100, 120, 140, 160 180, 200, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1500, 2000, ug/ml or any amount therebetween; or - 43 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 from about I Oug/ml to about 1 000ug/ml or any amount therebetween, for example 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0, 30.0, 35.0, 40.0, 50.0 60.0, 70.0, 80.0, 90.0, 100, 120, 140, 160 180, 200, 250, 500, 750, 1000 ug/ml, or any amount therebetween; or from about 3Oug/ml to about I 000ug/ml or any amount therebetween, for example 30.0, 35.0, 40.0, 50.0 60.0, 70.0, 80.0, 90.0, 100, 120, 140, 5 160 180, 200, 250, 500, 750, 1000 ug/ml. [00128] As another example, compositions comprising one or more agents according to various embodiments of the invention, may be provided as one or more doses, expressed a mass/mass unit, The dose may comprise from about 0.1 ug/kg to about 20mg/kg (based on the mass of the subject), for example 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 10 100, 120, 140, 160 180, 200, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1500, 2000, 5000, 10000, 20000 ug/kg, or any amount therebetween; or from about lug/kg to about 2000ugfkg or any amount therebetween, for example 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0, 30.0, 35.0, 40.0, 50.0 60.0, 70.0, 80.0, 90.0, 100, 120, 140, 160 180, 200, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1500, 2000 ug/kg, or any amount therebetween; or from about I Oug/kg to about 1 000ug/kg or any amount therebetween, for example 10.0, 15.0, 15 20.0, 25.0, 30.0, 35.0, 40.0, 50.0 60.0, 70.0, 80.0, 90.0, 100, 120, 140, 160 180, 200, 250, 500, 750, 1000 ug/kg, or any amount therebetween; or from about 30ug/kg to about I 000ug/kg or any amount therebetween, for example 30.0, 35.0, 40.0, 50.0 60.0, 70.0, 80.0, 90.0, 100, 120, 140, 160 180, 200, 250, 500, 750, 1000 ug/kg. [00129] One of skill in the art will be readily able to interconvert the units as necessary, 20 given the mass of the subject, the concentration of the adjuvant composition, individual components or combinations thereof, or volume of the adjuvant composition, individual components or combinations thereof, into a format suitable for the desired application. [00130] The amount of a nucleic acid silencing agent administered, where it is administered, the method of administration and the timeframe over which it is administered may 25 all contribute to the observed effect of the agent. As an example, a composition comprising an agent may be administered systemically e.g. intravenous administration and have a toxic or undesirable effect, while the same composition administered subcutaneously may not yield the same undesirable effect. [00131] Compositions comprising one or more than one agents according to various 30 embodiments of the invention may be formulated with any of a variety of pharmaceutically acceptable excipients, frequently in an aqueous vehicle such as Water for Injection, Ringer's - 44 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 lactate, isotonic saline or the like. Pharmaceutically acceptable excipients may include, but are not limited to, for example, salts, buffers, antioxidants, complexing agents, tonicity agents, cryoprotectants, lyoprotectants, suspending agents, emulsifying agents, antimicrobial agents, preservatives, chelating agents, binding agents, surfactants, wetting agents, anti-adherents agents, 5 disintegrants, coatings, glidants, deflocculating agents, anti-nucleating agents, surfactants, stabilizing agents, non-aqueous vehicles such as fixed oils, or polymers for sustained or controlled release. See, for example, Berge et al. (1977. J. Pharm Sci. 66:1-19). Other examples of such excipients may be generally described in Remington- The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 2 1 "t edition. Gennaro et al editors. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Philadelphia (both 1o of which are herein incorporated by reference). [00132] Compositions comprising one or more than one agents according to various embodiments of the invention may be administered by any of several routes, including, for example, subcutaneous injection, intraperitoneal injection, intramuscular injection, intravenous injection, epidermal or transdermal administration, mucosal membrane administration, orally, 15 nasally, rectally, or vaginally. Targeting of the compositions to the tissues of the central nervous system may involve delivery to the CSF and brain by intrathecal, intracerebroventricular or intraparenchymal administration. Carrier formulations may be selected or modified according to the route of administration . As a general reference, see, for example, Remington- The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 21 st edition. Gennaro et al editors. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 20 Philadelphia. [00133] Compositions comprising one or more than one agents according to various embodiments of the invention may be provided in a unit dosage form, or in a bulk form suitable for formulation or dilution at the point of use. [00134] Compositions comprising one or more than one agents according to various 25 embodiments of the invention may be administered to a subject in a single-dose, or in several doses administered over time. Dosage schedules may be dependent on, for example, the subject's condition, age, gender, weight, route of administration, formulation, or general health. Dosage schedules may be calculated from measurements of adsorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity in a subject, or may be extrapolated from measurements on an 30 experimental animal, such as a rat or mouse, for use in a human subject. Optimization of dosage and treatment regimens are will be within the scope of knowledge of one of skilled in the art, as -45- WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 exemplified in Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics I Pth edition. 2006. LL Brunton, editor. McGraw-Hill, New York. [00135] In the context of the present invention, the terms "treatment", "treating", "therapeutic use," or "treatment regimen" as used herein may be used interchangeably are meant 5 to encompass prophylactic, palliative, and therapeutic modalities of administration of the compositions of the present invention, and include any and all uses of the presently claimed compounds that remedy, alleviate or reduce in severity one or more symptoms or pathologies associated with Huntington's disease, or which prevents, hinders, retards, or reverses the progression of symptoms, signs, conditions, or disorders associated therewith. Thus, any 10 prevention, amelioration, alleviation, reversal, or complete elimination of an undesirable disease state, symptom, condition, sign, or disorder associated with Huntington's disease, is encompassed by the present invention. A treatment may comprise administration of an effective amount of a composition comprising one or more than one agent as described herein. [00136] The delivery of nucleic acid silencing agents of the invention may be facilitated by 15 a delivery vehicle or vector. For example, a short cationic peptide (Jones et al 2005. British Journal of Pharmacology 145:1093-1102) that facilitates cellular uptake ("cell penetrating peptides") may be covalently linked to one or more nucleic acid silencing agents, or covalently linked to a vehicle comprising one or more nucleic acid silencing agents. As another example, a nucleic acid silencing agent may be complexed with a carrier, including but not limited to, 20 liposomes, nanoparticulate carrier (Torchilin, VP. March 31,2008. Biopolymers), virosome, magnetic beads, microbeads, charged polymers, or virus-like particles. A sequence encoding a nucleic acid silencing agent may be contained in a vector, and the vector delivered to a cell or administered to a subject; alternately such a vector may be complexed with a liposome, nanoparticulate carrier, virosome, virus-like particle, etc as described above. Agents may also be 25 delivered to a cell by transfection, nucleofection, electroporation, biolistic methods (e.g.'gene gun'), magnetofection, or other nucleic acid delivery methods (see, for example Bonetta et al 2005. Nature Methods 2:875-883). Reagents and instructions for their use are available from commercial suppliers e.g. OLIGOFECTAMINE Reagent (Invitrogen), TransIT-TKOTM transfection reagent (Mirus), jetSI TM (Polyplus-transfection SAS), Silencerim siRNA 30 Transfection Kit (Ambion), FuGENE 6 (Roche) and siIMPORTERrm (Upstate). Use and knowledge of other reagents, kits and the like that may be used for delivery of the nucleic acid silencing agents as described herein will be within the knowledge of a skilled worker. -46- WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 [001371 Kits [00138] The invention also provides for a kit for use in identification of one or more than one of a subject's differentiating polymorphisms in a normal and mHTT allele. The kit may comprise reagents for specific and quantitative detection of one or more than one of the 5 differentiating polymorphisms as indicated in SEQ ID NO: 1-67, along with instructions for the use of such reagents and methods for analyzing the resulting data. The kit may include, for example, one or more than one labelled oligonucleotides capable of selectively hybridizing to one or more of the differentiating polymorphisms as indicated in SEQ ID NO: 1-67. The kit may further include, for example, an oligonucleotide operable to amplify a region of the marker (e.g. 10 by PCR). Instructions or other information useful to combine the kit results with those of other assays the prediction or diagnosis of Huntington's disease in a subject may also be provided. The kit may further include tubes for blood collection, buffers and the like, along with instructions for their use. [00139] The kit may further comprise one or more nucleic acid silencing agents such as 15 those described herein, for selectively hybridizing to a differentiating polymorphism. [00140] Embodiments of the invention are illustrated, in part, by the following non limiting examples: Example 1: Identification of target SNPs [00141] SNPs were identified using preliminary sequencing of the Hapmap cohort,and 20 information available from the dbSNP database maintained by the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (Sherry et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 2001 Jan 1;29(l):308-11 URL: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/SNP/). Sequence data at the 190 SNP positions (Figure 1) was obtained from sequencing of the Hapmap population (Gibbs et al., 2003. Nature 426 789 796(URL: hapmap.org/) conducted at the McGill/Genome Quebec Innovation Centre. Nucleic 25 acid samples from 65 Huntington's disease-affected subjects were genotyped for these SNPs, each subject having a mutant and normal chromosome. Phasing of the polymorphisms (which allele is associated with the normal and mutant chromosomes) in the 65 HD subjects was established using genotyping information obtained from mother-father-child trios, or was computed using statistical algorithms using software such as PHASEv2.1 (Marchini J et al 2006. 30 American Journal of Human Genetics 8(3):437-50), or a combination of both methods. -47- WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 Phylogenetic and Linkage Analysis Phylogenetic analysis of genotypes was performed using the Mega3 software 34. Each individual from the Hapmap cohort was compared based on sequence similarity at the 190 SNP positions to construct a neighbour-joining tree rooted on the chimpanzee sequence. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis was performed using Haploview 5 software [00142] Haplogroups Individual haplotypes were combined into haplogroups using specific tSNPs to define the groupings. Haplogroup A was defined using tSNPs that had allele distributions that were significantly associated with disease chromosomes (chi-square disease vs control) and had high sensitivity (>0.95). Haplogroup B and C were defined manually to classify 10 the remaining haplotypes. The remaining unclassified haplotypes were singleton or rare haplotypes were put into an 'other' haplogroup but are not necessarily related to each other. Analysis of the haplogroup variants was performed only on chromosomes that were defined as haplogroup A. Variants AI-A4 were defined and distinguished from each other using the remaining tSNPs not used in the definition of haplogroup A. 15 [001431 Statistics The association of SNPs to specific alleles was performed using chi square, odds ratio, sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative predictive values. [Ad = disease associated allele; An = non disease]. Odds ratio is the fold increase of having the disease if the specific allele is present ((Ad/Ancase) / (Ad/An )). Sensitivity is a measure of how well a SNP allele correctly identifies the disease state (proportion of cases with the disease-associated 20 allele (Ad/Ad+An case)). Specificity is a measure of how well a SNP allele correctly identifies the control state (An/Ad+An control). Positive predicted value (PPV) is the proportion of subjects with the disease-associated allele who have the disease (Ad case / Ad case + Ad control). Negative predicted value (NPV) is the proportion of subjects who do not have the disease associated allele and do not have the disease (An control / An case + An control). When 25 indicated, a student's t-test was performed for comparison between two groups One-way ANOVA performed for more than 2 groups with Tukey's post-hoc comparison. [00144] SNPs that are in linkage disequilibrium co-segregate as haplotypes. A subset of SNPs may therefore be sampled and the haplotype inferred. Haplotypes were established and tagging SNPS (tSNPs) representing each haplotype were identified using this information 30 (Tagger software; de Bakker ett al., 2006. Pac. Symp. Bicomput: 476-486. 22 non-redundant tSNPs were found sufficient to assess the genetic diversity in the region The HD patient and -48- WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 control populations were genotyped at each of the 22 tSNP loci using the SNPstream platform (Bell et al., 2002. Biotechniques Suppl:70-77). The tSNPs are listed in Table 6. [00145] Table 6. Tagging SNPs (tSNPs) Polymorphism No. RefSNP Polymorphism 1 rs13114311 Y 3 rs12506200 R I1I rs762855 Y 14 rs3856973 Y 22 rs2024115 Y 55 rs363081 Y 63 rs363075 Y 65 rs363064 R 69 rs3025849 Y 80 rs363102 Y 89 rs4690073 R 95 rs3025838 R 97 rs363099 R 112 rs363096 R 119 rs2298967 Y 169 rs362322 Y 176 rs2276881 Y 178 rs362272 Y 181 rs362310 R 182 rs362307 R 185 rs362303 R 190 rs1006798 R 5 Example 2: Identification differentiating polymorphisms - target SNPs [00146] Candidate target SNPs were identified by comparison of the frequency distribution, by chi-square and odds ratio, in CAG-expanded chromosomes vs control chromosomes within the 65 HD patient cohort. Target-candidate tSNPs were selected based on the selective enrichment of one allele on CAG-expanded alleles (as evidenced by an Odd ratio 10 (OR) >3) (Table 7) and a degree of high heterozygosity in HD patients (Table 8). tSNPs with a significant p-value (alpha=0.00025 after bonnferroni correction) are observed for tSNPS 1, 11, 14, 22, 65, 89, 97, 119, 178, 182 and 190; indicating that the distribution of the alleles are significantly different between the mutant and wild-type HD chromosomes. The phased allelic analysis of the 65 HD patients is also shown in Table 8. Additional SNPs exhibiting a 15 correlation (r2<0.5) with the tSNPs were also identified as targets. A total of 67 SNPs were - 49 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 therefore considered as target SNPs due to strong linkage disequilibrium with CAG expansion in the studied population of HD patients (Table 1). [00147] Table 7: Allelelic analysis of tagging SNPs (tSNPs) in the HD gene region in 65 HD patients. tSNP is identified by number. Allele is either A/B (major/minor) sorted for highest risk. 5 The observed allele counts (total of 65 for each) for the HD chromosome (mutant CAG size) and control (wildtype CAG size) are indicated. Odds ratio (OR) is the fold increase of having the disease if the specific allele is present. P-value is indicated from chi-test comparing the count distribution between the HD allele vs Control allele. Significant p-values (*) indicates that the distribution of the alleles are significantly different between HD and control chromosomes (alpha 10 = 0.00025 after bonferroni correction). Sensitivity is a measure of how well a SNP allele correctly identifies the disease state. Specificity is a measure of how well a SNP allele correctly identifies the control state. Positive predicted value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with the specific risk allele who have CAG expansion in the HD gene. Negative predicted value (NPV) is the proportion of patients who do not have the specific risk allele and do not have CAG 15 expansion. Odds ratio (OR) or equal to or greater than 3 and significant p-values are the best indication of disease association. Distance Observed (65) from tSNP Allele HD Control p-value OR Sensitivity Specificity PPV NPV CAG (kb) B 56 24 *8.0E-09 11 0.86 0.63 0.70 0.82 -14 3 B 64 55 4.6E-03 12 0.98 0.15 0.54 0.91 -13 11 A 64 32 *1.7E-10 66 0.98 0.51 0.67 0.97 -2 14 B 64 36 *5.6E-09 52 0.98 0.45 0.64 0.97 4 |22 A 65 37 *2.3E-09 inf 1.00 0.43 0.64 1.00 28 55 A 0 0 - - 0.00 1.00 - 0.50 57 63 A 5 5 LOE+00 1 0.08 0.92 0.50 0,50 61 65 B 64 40 *14E-07 40 0.98 0.38 0.62 0.96 65 69 A 64 64 1.OE+00 1 0.98 0.02 0.50 0.50 67 80 B 22 12 4.6E-02 2 0.34 0.82 0.65 0.55 72 89 B 63 36 *2.7E-08 25 0.97 0.45 0.64 0.94 84 95 A 1 1 1.OE+00 1 0.02 0.98 0.50 0.50 85 97 B 64 38 *2.9E-08 45 0.98 0.42 0.63 0.96 85 112 A 43 24 8.5E-04 3 0.66 0.63 0.64 0.65 103 119 A 64 38 *2.9E-08 45 0.98 0.42 0.63 0.96 109 169 A 65 65 - - 1.00 0.00 0.50 - 145 176 A 0 2 1.5E-01 0 0.00 0.97 0.00 0.49 155 178 B 64 38 *2.9E-08 45 0.98 0.42 0.63 0.96 158 181 B 64 63 5.6E-01 2 0.98 0.03 0.50 0.67 163 182 A 34 4 *7.2E-09 17 0.52 0.94 0.89 0.66 165 185 B 64 63 - 5.6E-01 2 0.98 0.03 0.50 0.67 166 190 A 62 38 *5.9E-07 15 0.95 0.42 0.62 0,90 182 -50- WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 [00148] Table 8: SNP heterozygosity in 65 HD patients and provides candidate targets for the selective knockdown of CAG-expanded alleles. Heterozygosity is required for selective targeting of the polyglutamine-expanded allele at any one SNP position. The count of each genotype (AA, AB or BB) and heterozygosity (Het. = frequency of AB) is indicated (top) at each 5 tSNP position. Phased alleles on the CAG-expanded chromosomes and minor allele frequency (MAF) for each of the 65 HD patients is also shown (middle). Target quality is [heterozygosity]/[minor allele frequency] and provides a relative estimate of the suitability of the major allele for targeting (higher number is a better knockdown target). tSNP I 3 11 14 22 55 63 65 69 80 89 95 97 112 119 169 176 178 181 182 185 190 GENOTYPES OF HD PATIENTS AA 4 0 31 1 37 0 1 1 63 34 2 0 1 15 38 65 0 1 0 0 0 35 AB 41 11 33 28 27 0 8 24 2 28 27 2 19 37 26 0 2 26 3 38 3 29 BB 19 54 0 36 0 65 56 40 0 3 36 63 29 13 1 0 63 38 62 27 45 1 Het. 004 17 0152 043 042 0.00 0 12 0.37 0 03 0.43 042 0.03 0.3) 0.57 04010.00 0,13 1.40 0.5 0.58 010 0.45 ALLELES ON THE DISEASE CHROMOSOME A 9 1 64 1 65 0 5 1 64 43 2 1 1 43 64 65 0 I 1 34 1 62 B 56 64 1 64 0 65 60 64 1 22 63 64 64 22 1 0 65 64 64 31 64 3 MAF 0 14 0. 02 (12 0.02 ( 00 0(00 0 ()8 002 0.W2 0.34 0.03 0.02 ,.02 0.34 0012 (.00 0.0) o122 0.112 0.45 0.02 1.05 TARGET Alele B B B A B B B A A B B B A A A B B 13 A B A quality 5 11 34 28 0 0 2 24 2 1 14 2 25 2 26 0 0 26 3 1 4 10 10 [00149] Example 3: SNP frequency distribution on HD chromosomes. Using the patterns of linkage disequilibrium in the 190 validated SNPs, a panel of 22 non redundant tagging SNPS (tSNPs) was designed to efficiently assess genotypes and construct haplotypes in the HTT gene region. In order to determine which genotypes came from each chromosome within each individual, chromosomes were phased by CAG-tract size. This allowed grouping of 15 chromosomes by CAG-tract size, and comparison of genotypes between the groups. HD patients (n=65) of European ancestry were genotyped at the 22 tSNP positions. Genotype information for disease chromosomes (>35 CAG) and control chromosomes (<36 CAG) from these HD patients is shown in Figure 2A. Allele counts for the major (A) and minor (B) alleles are given at each of the 22 tSNP positions. 20 [00150] HD chromosomes demonstrated a dramatically different allele distribution compared to control chromosomes. Of the 22 tSNPs, over half (12 SNPs) were significantly associated with disease chromosomes (p <0.0023, chi-square test; alpha = 0.0023 after -51 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 bonferroni correction). For example, at tSNP # 11, the allele distribution on the control chromosome (A-32, B-33) is significantly different compared to the disease chromosome (A-1, B-64) (p = 1.7x 10-1, chi-square). This significant association is matched with an extremely high odds ratio (OR=66) at this and other SNP positions. In addition to many tSNPs being 5 significantly associated with disease chromosomes, some tSNPs have a single allele that is a highly sensitive marker of disease chromosomes (Figure 2). Sensitivity is a measure of how frequently a specific allele occurs on a disease chromosome and for 19 tSNPs the sensitivity is >0.85. It is important to note that not all significantly associated SNPs are highly sensitive markers of disease chromosomes. For example, tSNP #11 is a highly sensitive marker of disease 10 chromosomes (64/65 = 0.98) while tSNP #182 is less so (34/65 = 0.52). tSNP #182 is however, a specific marker (specificity 0.94) due to its low minor allele frequency on general population chromosomes. [00151] This data was confirmed in a replication cohort of 203 HD patients. The same tSNPs were significantly associated with the disease chromosome. Surprisingly, some tSNPs are 15 not associated with disease chromosomes, even in the combined cohort of 268 HD patients. For example, at tSNP #63 the allele distributions between disease (A-29, B-239) and control (A-14, B-254) chromosomes remain similar despite the fact that surrounding tSNPs have extremely strong associations. The incomplete allelic association and variable marker sensitivity is therefore not consistent with a simple single founder hypothesis for the origin of HD 20 chromosomes. This unusual pattern across the gene region would require an unlikely series of recombination events or significantly different mutation rates at different SNP positions. [00152] Example 4: SNP frequency distribution on 27-35 CAG chromosomes. Individuals with increased CAG tract size (27-35 CAG) relative to the general population are not at risk for developing the signs and symptoms of HD. However, children of parents with 27-35 25 CAG may be at risk for inheriting a CAG-allele that has expanded in the disease range. In total, 66 chromosomes in the 27-35 CAG range were phased and compared to 116 control chromosomes from the general population (<27 CAG) at each of the 22 tSNP positions (Figure 2B). The frequency of alleles on 27-35 CAG chromosomes was significantly different from control chromosomes at 11 tSNP positions (p<0.0023, chi-square test). The odds of these 30 specific tSNPs being associated with CAG-expansion is high (odds ratio >3). Notably, these 11 out of 12 tSNP positions are also significantly associated with HD chromosomes. Many tSNPs are also sensitive markers of 27-35 CAG chromosomes. Eighteen tSNPs have a sensitivity ratio - 52 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 >0.85. Notably, these are 18 out of 19 tSNP positions were also sensitive markers of disease chromosomes. Furthermore, similar to HD chromosomes, not all tSNPs with significant associations have a single allele that is a sensitive marker of 27-35 CAG. Again, tSNP #182 is significantly associated with 27-35 CAG chromosomes (p=1.7x10- 7 , chi-square) but not a 5 sensitive marker (30/66 = 0.45). Control chromosomes all had similar allele frequency distributions, regardless of the source of the control chromosome. There were also no significant differences in the allele frequencies (p>0.0023, chi-square test) on control chromosomes (<27 CAG) whether they came from the general population or the control chromosome (lower CAG) from HD patients or control chromosomes of 27- 35 CAG carriers. The allele frequencies on 27 10 35 CAG chromosomes were not significantly different at any tSNP positions (p>0.0 0 2 3 , chi square test) from HD chromosomes (Figure 2G). Taken together, this data suggests that as a group, 27-35 CAG chromosomes and HD chromosomes are genotypically similar across the HTT gene region. 15 [00153] Example 5: Haplogroup frequencies on CAG-expanded chromosomes Haplogroups were defined manually using tSNPs that are significantly associated (p<0.002 3 ) and are highly sensitive markers (>0.95) of disease chromosomes (Figure 3A). Three major haplogroups, A, B and C could be used to describe >96% of all chromosomes in our study cohort of HD patients, 27-35 CAG individuals, and controls from the general population. A neighbour 20 joining phylogeny demonstrates that haplogroup A and B are much more closely related than either are to haplogroup C (Figure 3A). The 'other' haplogroup comprised singletons that could not be easily classified into the defined haplogroups and total only 4% of the chromosomes. [00154] HD chromosomes are almost exclusively (95%) haplogroup A (Figure 3B). In contrast, haplogroup A accounts for only 53% of chromosomes from the general population (<27 25 CAG). Haplogroup C was also very common on control chromosomes (41 %) but completely absent from disease chromosomes. Similar to the HD chromosomes, 27-35 CAG chromosomes are enriched (83%) for haplogroup A relative to controls. It is also notable that each individual from the general population (<27 CAG) could be phased for high CAG and low CAG within the normal range, the higher CAG (mean CAG= 19.8+2.7) chromosome was also statistically 30 enriched (p=O. 041, chi-square) for haplogroup A (62%) relative to the low CAG (mean CAG=17.3+2.1) chromosome (43%). - 53 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 [00155] The CAG sizes for all chromosomes from 10-50 CAG containing haplogroup A or C are plotted in Figure 3C. For the chromosomes used in this study, the mean CAG size for haplogroup A (33.9+11.7) is significantly (p<0.00001, t-test) greater than haplogroup C (18.9+5.9). Although haplogroup A and C are both found on control chromosomes (<27 CAG), 5 haplogroup A is uniquely enriched on chromosomes with an expanded CAG-tract. Even when considering only control chromosomes (<27 CAG), the mean CAG of haplogroup A (18.8+3.0) has a small but significant increase (p<0.00001, t-test) compared to haplogroup C (mean=17.5+2.3). The odds ratio of haplogroup A is 8.4, meaning that CAG chromosomes >26 CAG are 8.4 fold more likely to occur on haplogroup A than any other haplogroup. io [00156] Example 6:Variants of Haplogroup A on CAG-expanded chromosomes Haplogroup A is present on almost all CAG-expanded chromosomes but only -50% of control chromosomes. To determine whether there were differences between haplogroup A when found on disease and control chromosomes, haplogroup A was subdivided into variants by subtracting the core elements that define haplogroup A, and assessing the tSNPs that remain. Since 15 haplogroup A was defined by 10 tSNPs (3, 11, 14, 22, 65, 89, 97, 119, 169, and 178) the haplogroup variants are defined by tSNPs at the remaining positions (tSNP 1, 55, 63, 69, 80, 95, 112, 176, 181, 182, 185 and 190). Haplogroup variants Al-A5 capture 98% of all haplogroup A chromosomes (Figure 4A). The remaining 2% of haplogroup A chromosomes were classified as 'other', as they were singletons difficult to classify into variant groupings. 20 [00157] Of all of the HD chromosomes on haplogroup A, the majority (55%) can be classified as variant Al (Figure 4A). Chromosomes with 27-35 CAG are also enriched for variant A1 (53%). In contrast, variant A4 and A5 are almost absent from expanded CAG chromosomes. Control chromosomes from the general population (<27 CAG) have a more even mixture of variants A1-A5. It is notable that in the general population (<27 CAG), variant Al 25 occurs more than 3 times more frequently on chromosomes with high-normal CAG vs low normal CAG (Figure 4B). [00158] The distribution of CAG sizes for all chromosomes carrying each haplogroup A variant is plotted in Figure 4C. Variant Al occurs on chromosomes that range from 12 to 50 CAG, with the distribution shifted towards CAG-expansion (mean CAG=38.8+9.5). Variant A2 30 also occurs on a range of CAG sizes extending from low normal (CAG 15) to high expanded (CAG 49) with an upward shift in mean CAG size (35+11). Variant A3 has a bimodal - 54 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 distribution around normal and CAG expanded chromosomes (mean CAG+28 12). Variant A4 (mean CAG=20+8) and A5 (mean CAG=1 7+5) are predominantly found on chromosomes with <27 CAG. The mean CAG is significantly different in all variants, with the exception of A4 vs A5 (p<0.001, one way anova, tukey posthoc). 5 [00159] Variant Al confers the greatest odds ratio of CAG-expansion (ie chromosomes with variant Al are 6.4 times more likely to carry a CAG-expansion). Variant A2 chromosomes are almost equally likely to carry a normal or expanded CAG (odds ratio 1.1). Variant A3 is almost twice as likely to contain a normal CAG vs expanded (odds ratio 0.5), whereas variant A4 and A5 are unlikely to carry a CAG-expansion (odds ratio is close to 0). Taken together, these 10 data suggest that there is an enrichment of specific haplotype variants on CAG-expanded chromosomes. Variant Al and A2 confer the highest risk for having a CAG-expanded chromosome, while A4 and A5 variants are extensively protected from CAG expansion. [00160] Example 7: Haplogroups in the HapMap cohort Using the same haplogroup definitions (Figure 3 and 4), the frequency of haplogroups in each ethnic group (CEU, ASI, 15 YOR) is shown in Figure 5. Interestingly, the frequency of haplogroup A is similar in Europe (46%), China (44%) and Japan (49%), even though the prevalence of HD in Asian populations is reported to be much lower than in Europe. However, further analysis reveals that the Chinese and Japanese general population cohorts lack the presence of variants Al and A2, the two variants with the highest odds ratio for CAG expanded chromosomes. They also have a very 20 high frequency of A5, a variant that is protected from CAG expansion. The Yoruba population also has a very high proportion of 'other' haplogroups, composed of non-matching haplotypes, which reflects the greater genetic diversity in this population. The frequency of the haplogroup A variants appears to be significantly associated with differences in HD prevalence. Risk haplogroup variants for CAG-expansion (Al and A2) are absent and protected haplogroup 25 variants (A4 and A5) are much more frequent in ethnic populations with a low prevalence of HD. [00161] Example 8 Identiffication of target SNPs and target SNP panels for allele specific silencing of mutant htt: To facilitate allele-specific gene silencing technologies for HD patients it may be useful to maximize coverage of the HD population with a minimal number of allele targets for silencing (e.g. select an allele, or set of alleles that are found in the majority 30 of the population). - 55 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 [00162] Sets 1-59 comprising from 1-4 SNP targets with multiple SNP combinations are illustrated in Figure 7. Percent 'coverage' is defined as the percent of the population of known genotypes that would be eligible for treatment. Seven of the 65 HD patients were not heterozygous at any SNP position, and therefore the maximum theoretical coverage is 89% 5 (58/65). The maximum coverage by any single SNP was 52% (tSNP 182). As illustrated in Figure 6, panels that included 4 or 5 target SNPs only provided a small increase the coverage compared to the 3 SNP panel, which targeted all but 3% of the theoretically targetable HD patients in the cohort. [00163] An HD patient may be assessed for differentiating polymorphisms correspoinding 10 to one or more SNPs using one or more of the sets illustrated in Figure 7. For each SNP (identified using the internal reference numbers provided in Table 1), the allele of the differentiaitng polymorphism is shown - about 52% of the HD population tested would be expected to have the T allele at this site. For the balance of the HD population, another set or sets of SNPs would need to be genotyped. Use of set # 43 for example, would identify at leat one 15 differentiating polymorphism in 88% of the HD population tested. Other differentiating polymorphisms may also be identified by assssing the genotype of more, or alternate SNPs. [00164] In addition to the tSNP targets reported here, further SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with these SNPs may also serve as useful targets, providing further flexibility to the selection of nucleic acid silencing agents that may be used. 20 [00165] Example 9: Nucleic acid silencing agents for selected differentiating polymorphisms. Once a differentiating polymorphism is identified, either by assessing for one or more of the sets of polymorphisms of Figure 7, or other polymorphisms disclosed herein, a silencing agent may be selected for administration to the subject. As described herein, some polymorphisms are predominantly, or exclusively one allele on the HD affected chromosome, 25 with the other allele found predominantly, or exclusively on the normal chromosome. [00166] Table 9 provides target alleles for selected differentiating polymorphisms (SNPs). An ASO corresponding to one or more target alleles found in the subject may be administered to the subject to decrease or reduce expression of mHTT protein in the cells of the subject. [00167] In some examples, a cell comprising the differentiating polymorphism may be 30 contacted with an effective amount of the ASO and the level of mHTT protein expressed by the - 56 - WO 2009/135322 PCT/CA2009/000645 cell, relative to a control cell not contacted with the ASO. For example, to target rs3852673 (also known as internal reference 14) which has a G in the differentiating polymorphism ("1 4G") an ASO comprising a nucleotide sequence according to SEQ ID:211 would be used. [00168] Table 9: target alleles for exemplary differentiating polymorphisms. rs number 5 RefSNP designation as per the dbSNP database, maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). rs number SNP internal Target Allele reference # rs3856973 14 G rs2285086 17 A rs7659144 18 C rs16843804 21 C rs2024115 22 A rs10015979 26 G rs7691627 29 G rs4690072 43 T rs6446723 45 T rs363075 63 G/A rs363064 65 C rs363102 80 A/G rs11731237 84 T rs4690073 89 G rs363099 97 C rs363096 112 T/C rs2298967 119 T rs2298969 120 A rs6844859 127 T rs363092 131 C rs7685686 146 A rs363088 151 A rs362331 157 T rs916171 161 C rs362275 172 C rs3121419 177 C rs362272 178 G rs362271 179 G rs3775061 180 A rs362310 181 T/C rs362307 182 T/C rs362306 183 G rs362303 185 T/C rs362296 187 C rs1006798 190 A -57- [00169] All citations are herein incorporated by reference. [00170] One or more currently preferred embodiments have been described by way of example. It will be apparent to persons skilled in the art that a number of variations and modifications can be made without departing from the scope of the invention as defined in the 5 claims. [00170A] Any discussion of documents, acts, materials, devices, articles or the like which has been included in the present specification is not to be taken as an admission that any or all of these matters form part of the prior art base or were common general knowledge in the field relevant to the present disclosure as it existed before the priority date of each claim of this 10 application. [00170B] Throughout this specification the word "comprise", or variations such as comprisese" or "comprising", will be understood to imply the inclusion of a stated element, integer or step, or group of elements, integers or steps, but not the exclusion of any other element, integer or step, or group of elements, integers or steps. -58-

Claims (9)

1. A method of reducing expression of a mutant huntingtin (mHTT) protein in a cell, comprising: a. contacting the cell with an effective amount of a nucleic acid silencing agent 5 targeting a differentiating polymorphism in RNA encoding the mHTT, wherein the differentiating polymorphism is a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identified by RefSNP number rs7685686.
2. A method of selecting a nucleic acid silencing agent targeting a differentiating polymorphism in RNA encoding an mHTT protein of a subject, comprising: 10 a. obtaining a nucleic acid sample from the subject; b. identifying a differentiating polymorphism in the nucleic acid sample, wherein the differentiating polymorphism is a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identified by RefSNP number rs7685686; and c. selecting a nucleic acid silencing agent comprising a sequence that preferentially 15 targets the differentiating polymorphism in the RNA encoding an mHTT protein.
3. A method of reducing expression of an mHTT protein in a subject, comprising: a. obtaining a nucleic acid sample from the subject; b. identifying a differentiating polymorphism in the nucleic acid sample, wherein 20 the differentiating polymorphism is a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identified by RefSNP number rs7685686; c. selecting one or more than one nucleic acid silencing agents comprising a sequence that preferentially targets the differentiating polymorphism in the RNA encoding an mHTT protein; and 25 d. administering to the subject an effective amount of the one or more than one nucleic acid silencing agent. 59
4. A method of screening for a nucleic acid silencing agent targeting a differentiating polymorphism in RNA encoding an mHTT protein in a subject, comprising: a. providing a cell heterozygous for a differentiating polymorphism in a nucleic acid sequence encoding huntingtin (HTT), wherein the differentiating polymorphism is 5 a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identified by RefSNP number rs7685686; b. contacting the cell with one or more than one candidate nucleic acid silencing agent targeting the differentiating polymorphism; c. assaying the cell for HTT and mHTT RNA, protein or RNA and protein 10 expression; and d. determining the one or more than one nucleic acid silencing agents from the one or more than one candidate nucleic acid silencing agents.
5. The method of any one of claims 1-4 wherein the nucleic acid silencing agent is an oligonucleotide. 15
6. The method of claim 5 wherein the oligonucleotide comprises a nucleic acid sequence derived from SEQ ID NO: 61.
7. The method of claim 5 wherein the oligonucleotide comprises a nucleic acid sequence selected from the group consisting of a reverse complement of SEQ ID NO: 61, SEQ ID Nos: 128, 255 and 323 and SEQ ID NO: 128 comprising thymines (T) in place of uracils 20 (U).
8. The method of claim 1 or claim 3 wherein the expression is reduced from 1% to 90%.
9. A method of any one of claims 1 to 8, substantially as described herein with reference to the Figures and/or Examples. - 60 -
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