AT98290T - Difluormethylverbindungen. - Google Patents

Difluormethylverbindungen.

Info

Publication number
AT98290T
AT98290T AT89908422T AT89908422T AT98290T AT 98290 T AT98290 T AT 98290T AT 89908422 T AT89908422 T AT 89908422T AT 89908422 T AT89908422 T AT 89908422T AT 98290 T AT98290 T AT 98290T
Authority
AT
Austria
Prior art keywords
difluormethylverbindungen
Prior art date
Application number
AT89908422T
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Dieter Dorsch
Ekkehard Bartmann
Hans-Adolf Kurmeier
Ulrich Finkenzeller
Georg Weber
Herbert Plach
Eike Poetsch
Original Assignee
Merck Patent Gmbh
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE3825425 priority Critical
Priority to DE3909802A priority patent/DE3909802A1/en
Application filed by Merck Patent Gmbh filed Critical Merck Patent Gmbh
Priority to PCT/EP1989/000821 priority patent/WO1990001056A1/en
Publication of AT98290T publication Critical patent/AT98290T/en

Links

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07DHETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07D239/00Heterocyclic compounds containing 1,3-diazine or hydrogenated 1,3-diazine rings
    • C07D239/02Heterocyclic compounds containing 1,3-diazine or hydrogenated 1,3-diazine rings not condensed with other rings
    • C07D239/24Heterocyclic compounds containing 1,3-diazine or hydrogenated 1,3-diazine rings not condensed with other rings having three or more double bonds between ring members or between ring members and non-ring members
    • C07D239/26Heterocyclic compounds containing 1,3-diazine or hydrogenated 1,3-diazine rings not condensed with other rings having three or more double bonds between ring members or between ring members and non-ring members with only hydrogen atoms, hydrocarbon or substituted hydrocarbon radicals, directly attached to ring carbon atoms
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07CACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07C22/00Cyclic compounds containing halogen atoms bound to an acyclic carbon atom
    • C07C22/02Cyclic compounds containing halogen atoms bound to an acyclic carbon atom having unsaturation in the rings
    • C07C22/04Cyclic compounds containing halogen atoms bound to an acyclic carbon atom having unsaturation in the rings containing six-membered aromatic rings
    • C07C22/08Cyclic compounds containing halogen atoms bound to an acyclic carbon atom having unsaturation in the rings containing six-membered aromatic rings containing fluorine
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07CACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07C255/00Carboxylic acid nitriles
    • C07C255/49Carboxylic acid nitriles having cyano groups bound to carbon atoms of six-membered aromatic rings of a carbon skeleton
    • C07C255/54Carboxylic acid nitriles having cyano groups bound to carbon atoms of six-membered aromatic rings of a carbon skeleton containing cyano groups and etherified hydroxy groups bound to the carbon skeleton
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07CACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07C323/00Thiols, sulfides, hydropolysulfides or polysulfides substituted by halogen, oxygen or nitrogen atoms, or by sulfur atoms not being part of thio groups
    • C07C323/01Thiols, sulfides, hydropolysulfides or polysulfides substituted by halogen, oxygen or nitrogen atoms, or by sulfur atoms not being part of thio groups containing thio groups and halogen atoms, or nitro or nitroso groups bound to the same carbon skeleton
    • C07C323/02Thiols, sulfides, hydropolysulfides or polysulfides substituted by halogen, oxygen or nitrogen atoms, or by sulfur atoms not being part of thio groups containing thio groups and halogen atoms, or nitro or nitroso groups bound to the same carbon skeleton having sulfur atoms of thio groups bound to acyclic carbon atoms of the carbon skeleton
    • C07C323/03Thiols, sulfides, hydropolysulfides or polysulfides substituted by halogen, oxygen or nitrogen atoms, or by sulfur atoms not being part of thio groups containing thio groups and halogen atoms, or nitro or nitroso groups bound to the same carbon skeleton having sulfur atoms of thio groups bound to acyclic carbon atoms of the carbon skeleton the carbon skeleton being acyclic and saturated
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07CACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07C323/00Thiols, sulfides, hydropolysulfides or polysulfides substituted by halogen, oxygen or nitrogen atoms, or by sulfur atoms not being part of thio groups
    • C07C323/10Thiols, sulfides, hydropolysulfides or polysulfides substituted by halogen, oxygen or nitrogen atoms, or by sulfur atoms not being part of thio groups containing thio groups and singly-bound oxygen atoms bound to the same carbon skeleton
    • C07C323/18Thiols, sulfides, hydropolysulfides or polysulfides substituted by halogen, oxygen or nitrogen atoms, or by sulfur atoms not being part of thio groups containing thio groups and singly-bound oxygen atoms bound to the same carbon skeleton having the sulfur atom of at least one of the thio groups bound to a carbon atom of a six-membered aromatic ring of the carbon skeleton
    • C07C323/20Thiols, sulfides, hydropolysulfides or polysulfides substituted by halogen, oxygen or nitrogen atoms, or by sulfur atoms not being part of thio groups containing thio groups and singly-bound oxygen atoms bound to the same carbon skeleton having the sulfur atom of at least one of the thio groups bound to a carbon atom of a six-membered aromatic ring of the carbon skeleton with singly-bound oxygen atoms bound to carbon atoms of the same non-condensed six-membered aromatic ring
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07CACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07C43/00Ethers; Compounds having groups, groups or groups
    • C07C43/02Ethers
    • C07C43/20Ethers having an ether-oxygen atom bound to a carbon atom of a six-membered aromatic ring
    • C07C43/215Ethers having an ether-oxygen atom bound to a carbon atom of a six-membered aromatic ring having unsaturation outside the six-membered aromatic rings
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07CACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07C43/00Ethers; Compounds having groups, groups or groups
    • C07C43/02Ethers
    • C07C43/20Ethers having an ether-oxygen atom bound to a carbon atom of a six-membered aromatic ring
    • C07C43/225Ethers having an ether-oxygen atom bound to a carbon atom of a six-membered aromatic ring containing halogen
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K19/00Liquid crystal materials
    • C09K19/04Liquid crystal materials characterised by the chemical structure of the liquid crystal components, e.g. by a specific unit
    • C09K19/06Non-steroidal liquid crystal compounds
    • C09K19/08Non-steroidal liquid crystal compounds containing at least two non-condensed rings
    • C09K19/10Non-steroidal liquid crystal compounds containing at least two non-condensed rings containing at least two benzene rings
    • C09K19/12Non-steroidal liquid crystal compounds containing at least two non-condensed rings containing at least two benzene rings at least two benzene rings directly linked, e.g. biphenyls
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K19/00Liquid crystal materials
    • C09K19/04Liquid crystal materials characterised by the chemical structure of the liquid crystal components, e.g. by a specific unit
    • C09K19/06Non-steroidal liquid crystal compounds
    • C09K19/08Non-steroidal liquid crystal compounds containing at least two non-condensed rings
    • C09K19/30Non-steroidal liquid crystal compounds containing at least two non-condensed rings containing saturated or unsaturated non-aromatic rings, e.g. cyclohexane rings
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K19/00Liquid crystal materials
    • C09K19/04Liquid crystal materials characterised by the chemical structure of the liquid crystal components, e.g. by a specific unit
    • C09K19/06Non-steroidal liquid crystal compounds
    • C09K19/08Non-steroidal liquid crystal compounds containing at least two non-condensed rings
    • C09K19/30Non-steroidal liquid crystal compounds containing at least two non-condensed rings containing saturated or unsaturated non-aromatic rings, e.g. cyclohexane rings
    • C09K19/3001Cyclohexane rings
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K19/00Liquid crystal materials
    • C09K19/04Liquid crystal materials characterised by the chemical structure of the liquid crystal components, e.g. by a specific unit
    • C09K19/06Non-steroidal liquid crystal compounds
    • C09K19/08Non-steroidal liquid crystal compounds containing at least two non-condensed rings
    • C09K19/30Non-steroidal liquid crystal compounds containing at least two non-condensed rings containing saturated or unsaturated non-aromatic rings, e.g. cyclohexane rings
    • C09K19/3098Unsaturated non-aromatic rings, e.g. cyclohexene rings
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K19/00Liquid crystal materials
    • C09K19/04Liquid crystal materials characterised by the chemical structure of the liquid crystal components, e.g. by a specific unit
    • C09K19/06Non-steroidal liquid crystal compounds
    • C09K19/32Non-steroidal liquid crystal compounds containing condensed ring systems, i.e. fused, bridged or spiro ring systems
    • C09K19/321Compounds containing a bicyclo [2,2,2] octane ring
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K19/00Liquid crystal materials
    • C09K19/04Liquid crystal materials characterised by the chemical structure of the liquid crystal components, e.g. by a specific unit
    • C09K19/06Non-steroidal liquid crystal compounds
    • C09K19/32Non-steroidal liquid crystal compounds containing condensed ring systems, i.e. fused, bridged or spiro ring systems
    • C09K19/322Compounds containing a naphthalene ring or a completely or partially hydrogenated naphthalene ring
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07CACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07C2601/00Systems containing only non-condensed rings
    • C07C2601/12Systems containing only non-condensed rings with a six-membered ring
    • C07C2601/14The ring being saturated
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K19/00Liquid crystal materials
    • C09K19/04Liquid crystal materials characterised by the chemical structure of the liquid crystal components, e.g. by a specific unit
    • C09K19/06Non-steroidal liquid crystal compounds
    • C09K19/32Non-steroidal liquid crystal compounds containing condensed ring systems, i.e. fused, bridged or spiro ring systems
    • C09K19/322Compounds containing a naphthalene ring or a completely or partially hydrogenated naphthalene ring
    • C09K2019/325Compounds containing a naphthalene ring or a completely or partially hydrogenated naphthalene ring containing a tetrahydronaphthalene, e.g. -2,6-diyl (tetralin)
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K19/00Liquid crystal materials
    • C09K19/04Liquid crystal materials characterised by the chemical structure of the liquid crystal components, e.g. by a specific unit
    • C09K19/06Non-steroidal liquid crystal compounds
    • C09K19/32Non-steroidal liquid crystal compounds containing condensed ring systems, i.e. fused, bridged or spiro ring systems
    • C09K19/322Compounds containing a naphthalene ring or a completely or partially hydrogenated naphthalene ring
    • C09K2019/326Compounds containing a naphthalene ring or a completely or partially hydrogenated naphthalene ring containing a decahydronaphthalene, e.g. -2,6-diyl (decalin)
AT89908422T 1988-07-27 1989-07-26 Difluormethylverbindungen. AT98290T (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE3825425 1988-07-27
DE3909802A DE3909802A1 (en) 1988-07-27 1989-03-24 Difluormethylverbindungen
PCT/EP1989/000821 WO1990001056A1 (en) 1988-07-27 1989-07-26 Difluoromethyl compounds

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
AT98290T true AT98290T (en) 1993-12-15

Family

ID=25870516

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
AT89908422T AT98290T (en) 1988-07-27 1989-07-26 Difluormethylverbindungen.

Country Status (10)

Country Link
US (1) US5389292A (en)
EP (1) EP0381728B1 (en)
JP (1) JP2787360B2 (en)
KR (1) KR0156252B1 (en)
CN (1) CN1023699C (en)
AT (1) AT98290T (en)
DE (2) DE3909802A1 (en)
HK (1) HK47296A (en)
SG (1) SG26365G (en)
WO (1) WO1990001056A1 (en)

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US5536442A (en) * 1987-09-25 1996-07-16 Merck Patent Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter Haftung Fluorinated liquid crystal compounds and liquid crystal medium containing same
US5250220A (en) * 1989-08-12 1993-10-05 Merck Patent Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter Haftung 2,5-disubstituted heterocyclic compounds, and a liquid-crystalline medium
AT188959T (en) * 1989-09-06 2000-02-15 Merck Patent Gmbh Fluorobenzene derivatives and liquid crystalline medium
EP0449015B1 (en) * 1990-03-24 1998-07-01 MERCK PATENT GmbH Difluoromethyl compounds and liquid criystal medium
US5456860A (en) * 1990-03-31 1995-10-10 Merck Patent Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter Haftung Matrix liquid-crystal display
DE69111539D1 (en) 1990-04-02 1995-08-31 Merck Patent Gmbh Nematic liquid crystal mixtures and matrix-liquid crystal display.
JPH04506376A (en) * 1990-04-03 1992-11-05
WO1991016394A1 (en) * 1990-04-13 1991-10-31 MERCK Patent Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung Liquid crystalline medium
EP0478739B1 (en) * 1990-04-13 1996-09-11 MERCK PATENT GmbH Liquid crystalline medium
EP0477335B1 (en) * 1990-04-13 1995-07-05 MERCK PATENT GmbH Liquid crystalline medium
EP0477330B1 (en) * 1990-04-13 1997-03-12 MERCK PATENT GmbH Liquid crystalline medium
EP0477327A1 (en) * 1990-04-13 1992-04-01 MERCK PATENT GmbH Liquid crystalline medium
JP3293080B2 (en) * 1990-04-13 2002-06-17 メルク パテント ゲゼルシャフト ミット ベシュレンクテル ハフトング The liquid-crystal media
US5368772A (en) * 1990-04-13 1994-11-29 Merck Patent Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter Haftung Liquid-crystalline medium
EP0477334B1 (en) * 1990-04-13 1995-10-04 MERCK PATENT GmbH Liquid crystalline medium
WO1991016291A1 (en) * 1990-04-21 1991-10-31 MERCK Patent Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung Phenyl cyclohexanes and liquid crystalline medium
DE4107119A1 (en) * 1990-08-03 1992-02-06 Merck Patent Gmbh Fluessigkristallines medium
US5288428A (en) * 1990-08-15 1994-02-22 Hoffmann-La Roche Inc. Liquid crystal compounds having a terminal alkoxy propenyl group
WO1992013928A1 (en) * 1991-02-12 1992-08-20 MERCK Patent Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung Liquid-crystal compounds
US5409637A (en) * 1991-02-20 1995-04-25 Merck Patent Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter Haftung Nematic liquid-crystal composition
DE4107167B4 (en) * 1991-03-06 2008-05-08 Merck Patent Gmbh Liquid crystal mixture
JP3501455B2 (en) * 1991-08-03 2004-03-02 メルク パテント ゲゼルシャフト ミット ベシュレンクテル ハフトング Liquid crystal compound
EP0521420A1 (en) * 1991-07-04 1993-01-07 MERCK PATENT GmbH Fluorinated cyclohexyl derivatives
EP0543244B1 (en) * 1991-11-19 1997-08-20 MERCK PATENT GmbH Fluoro substituted tolans and liquid crystal mixtures containing them
US5482650A (en) * 1992-04-28 1996-01-09 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Liquid crystal compounds having perfluoroether terminal portions
US5262082A (en) * 1992-04-28 1993-11-16 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Ferroelectric liquid crystal compounds having perfluoroether terminal portions
US5422035A (en) * 1993-05-10 1995-06-06 Merck Patent Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter Haftung Benzene derivatives, and liquid-crystalline medium
JPH1135500A (en) * 1994-01-25 1999-02-09 Chisso Corp Liquid crystalline compound and liquid crystal composition containing the same
DE4417441A1 (en) * 1994-05-19 1995-11-23 Merck Patent Gmbh Fluormethylethinyl- and Difluormethylethinylbenzole and their use in liquid crystal mixtures
JP3579728B2 (en) 1994-06-23 2004-10-20 チッソ株式会社 Liquid crystal composition and liquid crystal display device
CN1136067A (en) * 1995-02-22 1996-11-20 智索公司 Liquid crystalline alkynyltolan compound, liquid crystal composition and liquid crystal display element
TW371312B (en) * 1995-04-12 1999-10-01 Chisso Corp Fluorine-substituted liquid-crystal compound, liquid-crystal composition and liquid-crystal display device
US5827450A (en) * 1995-10-10 1998-10-27 Merck Patent Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter Haftung Benzene derivatives, and liquid-crystalline medium
JPH101450A (en) * 1996-06-14 1998-01-06 Chisso Corp Fluorine-substituted alkyl ether compound, liquid crystal compound and liquid crystal display element
JPH10101600A (en) * 1996-09-25 1998-04-21 Chisso Corp Liquid-crystalline compound having fluoroalkyl group, liquid crystal composition, and liquid crystal display element
JP4044617B2 (en) * 1996-11-28 2008-02-06 チッソ株式会社 Liquid crystalline compound having negative dielectric anisotropy value, liquid crystal composition, and liquid crystal display device
US7198827B1 (en) 1998-09-21 2007-04-03 Dainippon Ink And Chemicals, Inc. Nematic liquid crystal composition and liquid crystal display device using the same
DE19941566A1 (en) * 1999-09-01 2001-03-08 Merck Patent Gmbh Stable (CF3) 2N salts and methods for their preparation
AT517967T (en) 2004-06-18 2011-08-15 Merck Patent Gmbh Liquid crystalline medium
AT416242T (en) 2004-06-18 2008-12-15 Merck Patent Gmbh Liquid crystalline medium
KR100591140B1 (en) * 2005-03-08 2006-06-12 신세계건설(주) Method for manufacturing double floor panel for using disused paper and plastic material
CN101451065B (en) 2007-11-28 2013-02-13 财团法人工业技术研究院 Liquid crystal compounds, LCD and electrooptical device
CN104073260A (en) * 2014-05-28 2014-10-01 北京大学 Naphthalene-series high-birefringence liquid crystal compound and preparation method thereof

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US4048235A (en) * 1972-03-16 1977-09-13 Ciba-Geigy Corporation Propenyloxy benzene compounds
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DE3650014D1 (en) * 1985-09-18 1994-09-08 Merck Patent Gmbh Smectic liquid-crystalline phases.
WO1987005293A2 (en) * 1986-03-01 1987-09-11 MERCK Patent Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung Cyclohexane derivates
DE3620049A1 (en) * 1986-06-14 1987-12-17 Hoechst Ag Chiral ester of (alpha) -substituted phenylalkanoic acids and mesogenic hydroxyl compounds and their use as dopants in liquid crystal phases
US4886619A (en) * 1986-06-30 1989-12-12 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Fluorine-containing chiral smectic liquid crystals
CA1341138C (en) * 1986-06-30 2000-11-14 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Fluorine-containing chiral smectic liquid crystals
DE3714043A1 (en) * 1987-04-28 1988-11-17 Merck Patent Gmbh Electro-optical fluessigkristallanzeigeelement
CA1336441C (en) * 1987-12-28 1995-07-25 Manabu Uchida Liquid crystal composition
JPH0581585B2 (en) * 1988-02-26 1993-11-15 Chisso Corp
DE3906040A1 (en) * 1988-03-10 1989-09-21 Merck Patent Gmbh Cyclohexene derivatives
US5082587A (en) * 1988-09-23 1992-01-21 Janulis Eugene P Achiral fluorine-containing liquid crystals
EP0365962B1 (en) * 1988-10-20 1994-09-21 MERCK PATENT GmbH Matrix-type liquid-crystal display
JP2696557B2 (en) * 1989-03-07 1998-01-14 チッソ株式会社 Trifluoromethyl benzene derivatives
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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
EP0381728A1 (en) 1990-08-16
EP0381728B1 (en) 1993-12-08
DE3909802A1 (en) 1990-04-05
HK47296A (en) 1996-03-22
CN1039797A (en) 1990-02-21
US5389292A (en) 1995-02-14
DE58906377D1 (en) 1994-01-20
WO1990001056A1 (en) 1990-02-08
JPH03500413A (en) 1991-01-31
JP2787360B2 (en) 1998-08-13
SG26365G (en) 1995-09-18
KR907001958A (en) 1990-12-05
KR0156252B1 (en) 1998-11-16
CN1023699C (en) 1994-02-09

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