AT247128T - Containing amino nucleosides and oligonucleosides - Google Patents

Containing amino nucleosides and oligonucleosides

Info

Publication number
AT247128T
AT247128T AT94928048T AT94928048T AT247128T AT 247128 T AT247128 T AT 247128T AT 94928048 T AT94928048 T AT 94928048T AT 94928048 T AT94928048 T AT 94928048T AT 247128 T AT247128 T AT 247128T
Authority
AT
Austria
Prior art keywords
oligonucleosides
containing amino
amino nucleosides
nucleosides
containing
Prior art date
Application number
AT94928048T
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Phillip Dan Cook
Muthiah Manoharan
Charles J Guinosso
Original Assignee
Isis Pharmaceuticals Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US08/117,363 priority Critical patent/US6783931B1/en
Application filed by Isis Pharmaceuticals Inc filed Critical Isis Pharmaceuticals Inc
Priority to PCT/US1994/010131 priority patent/WO1995006659A1/en
Publication of AT247128T publication Critical patent/AT247128T/en

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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N15/00Mutation or genetic engineering; DNA or RNA concerning genetic engineering, vectors, e.g. plasmids, or their isolation, preparation or purification; Use of hosts therefor
    • C12N15/09Recombinant DNA-technology
    • C12N15/11DNA or RNA fragments; Modified forms thereof; Non-coding nucleic acids having a biological activity
    • C12N15/113Non-coding nucleic acids modulating the expression of genes, e.g. antisense oligonucleotides; Antisense DNA or RNA; Triplex- forming oligonucleotides; Catalytic nucleic acids, e.g. ribozymes; Nucleic acids used in co-suppression or gene silencing
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K47/00Medicinal preparations characterised by the non-active ingredients used, e.g. carriers or inert additives; Targeting or modifying agents chemically bound to the active ingredient
    • A61K47/50Medicinal preparations characterised by the non-active ingredients used, e.g. carriers or inert additives; Targeting or modifying agents chemically bound to the active ingredient the non-active ingredient being chemically bound to the active ingredient, e.g. polymer-drug conjugates
    • A61K47/51Medicinal preparations characterised by the non-active ingredients used, e.g. carriers or inert additives; Targeting or modifying agents chemically bound to the active ingredient the non-active ingredient being chemically bound to the active ingredient, e.g. polymer-drug conjugates the non-active ingredient being a modifying agent
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    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07HSUGARS; DERIVATIVES THEREOF; NUCLEOSIDES; NUCLEOTIDES; NUCLEIC ACIDS
    • C07H21/00Compounds containing two or more mononucleotide units having separate phosphate or polyphosphate groups linked by saccharide radicals of nucleoside groups, e.g. nucleic acids
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    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
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    • C12N15/00Mutation or genetic engineering; DNA or RNA concerning genetic engineering, vectors, e.g. plasmids, or their isolation, preparation or purification; Use of hosts therefor
    • C12N15/09Recombinant DNA-technology
    • C12N15/11DNA or RNA fragments; Modified forms thereof; Non-coding nucleic acids having a biological activity
    • C12N15/113Non-coding nucleic acids modulating the expression of genes, e.g. antisense oligonucleotides; Antisense DNA or RNA; Triplex- forming oligonucleotides; Catalytic nucleic acids, e.g. ribozymes; Nucleic acids used in co-suppression or gene silencing
    • C12N15/1131Non-coding nucleic acids modulating the expression of genes, e.g. antisense oligonucleotides; Antisense DNA or RNA; Triplex- forming oligonucleotides; Catalytic nucleic acids, e.g. ribozymes; Nucleic acids used in co-suppression or gene silencing against viruses
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
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    • C12N15/00Mutation or genetic engineering; DNA or RNA concerning genetic engineering, vectors, e.g. plasmids, or their isolation, preparation or purification; Use of hosts therefor
    • C12N15/09Recombinant DNA-technology
    • C12N15/11DNA or RNA fragments; Modified forms thereof; Non-coding nucleic acids having a biological activity
    • C12N15/113Non-coding nucleic acids modulating the expression of genes, e.g. antisense oligonucleotides; Antisense DNA or RNA; Triplex- forming oligonucleotides; Catalytic nucleic acids, e.g. ribozymes; Nucleic acids used in co-suppression or gene silencing
    • C12N15/1131Non-coding nucleic acids modulating the expression of genes, e.g. antisense oligonucleotides; Antisense DNA or RNA; Triplex- forming oligonucleotides; Catalytic nucleic acids, e.g. ribozymes; Nucleic acids used in co-suppression or gene silencing against viruses
    • C12N15/1132Non-coding nucleic acids modulating the expression of genes, e.g. antisense oligonucleotides; Antisense DNA or RNA; Triplex- forming oligonucleotides; Catalytic nucleic acids, e.g. ribozymes; Nucleic acids used in co-suppression or gene silencing against viruses against retroviridae, e.g. HIV
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    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
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    • C12N15/00Mutation or genetic engineering; DNA or RNA concerning genetic engineering, vectors, e.g. plasmids, or their isolation, preparation or purification; Use of hosts therefor
    • C12N15/09Recombinant DNA-technology
    • C12N15/11DNA or RNA fragments; Modified forms thereof; Non-coding nucleic acids having a biological activity
    • C12N15/113Non-coding nucleic acids modulating the expression of genes, e.g. antisense oligonucleotides; Antisense DNA or RNA; Triplex- forming oligonucleotides; Catalytic nucleic acids, e.g. ribozymes; Nucleic acids used in co-suppression or gene silencing
    • C12N15/1131Non-coding nucleic acids modulating the expression of genes, e.g. antisense oligonucleotides; Antisense DNA or RNA; Triplex- forming oligonucleotides; Catalytic nucleic acids, e.g. ribozymes; Nucleic acids used in co-suppression or gene silencing against viruses
    • C12N15/1133Non-coding nucleic acids modulating the expression of genes, e.g. antisense oligonucleotides; Antisense DNA or RNA; Triplex- forming oligonucleotides; Catalytic nucleic acids, e.g. ribozymes; Nucleic acids used in co-suppression or gene silencing against viruses against herpetoviridae, e.g. HSV
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    • C12N15/00Mutation or genetic engineering; DNA or RNA concerning genetic engineering, vectors, e.g. plasmids, or their isolation, preparation or purification; Use of hosts therefor
    • C12N15/09Recombinant DNA-technology
    • C12N15/11DNA or RNA fragments; Modified forms thereof; Non-coding nucleic acids having a biological activity
    • C12N15/113Non-coding nucleic acids modulating the expression of genes, e.g. antisense oligonucleotides; Antisense DNA or RNA; Triplex- forming oligonucleotides; Catalytic nucleic acids, e.g. ribozymes; Nucleic acids used in co-suppression or gene silencing
    • C12N15/1135Non-coding nucleic acids modulating the expression of genes, e.g. antisense oligonucleotides; Antisense DNA or RNA; Triplex- forming oligonucleotides; Catalytic nucleic acids, e.g. ribozymes; Nucleic acids used in co-suppression or gene silencing against oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
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    • C12N15/00Mutation or genetic engineering; DNA or RNA concerning genetic engineering, vectors, e.g. plasmids, or their isolation, preparation or purification; Use of hosts therefor
    • C12N15/09Recombinant DNA-technology
    • C12N15/11DNA or RNA fragments; Modified forms thereof; Non-coding nucleic acids having a biological activity
    • C12N15/113Non-coding nucleic acids modulating the expression of genes, e.g. antisense oligonucleotides; Antisense DNA or RNA; Triplex- forming oligonucleotides; Catalytic nucleic acids, e.g. ribozymes; Nucleic acids used in co-suppression or gene silencing
    • C12N15/1138Non-coding nucleic acids modulating the expression of genes, e.g. antisense oligonucleotides; Antisense DNA or RNA; Triplex- forming oligonucleotides; Catalytic nucleic acids, e.g. ribozymes; Nucleic acids used in co-suppression or gene silencing against receptors or cell surface proteins
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
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    • C12N2310/00Structure or type of the nucleic acid
    • C12N2310/30Chemical structure
    • C12N2310/31Chemical structure of the backbone
    • C12N2310/315Phosphorothioates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
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    • C12N2310/00Structure or type of the nucleic acid
    • C12N2310/30Chemical structure
    • C12N2310/31Chemical structure of the backbone
    • C12N2310/318Chemical structure of the backbone where the PO2 is completely replaced, e.g. MMI or formacetal
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
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    • C12N2310/00Structure or type of the nucleic acid
    • C12N2310/30Chemical structure
    • C12N2310/32Chemical structure of the sugar
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
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    • C12N2310/00Structure or type of the nucleic acid
    • C12N2310/30Chemical structure
    • C12N2310/32Chemical structure of the sugar
    • C12N2310/3212'-O-R Modification
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
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    • C12N2310/00Structure or type of the nucleic acid
    • C12N2310/30Chemical structure
    • C12N2310/35Nature of the modification
    • C12N2310/352Nature of the modification linked to the nucleic acid via a carbon atom
    • C12N2310/3527Other alkyl chain
AT94928048T 1990-01-11 1994-09-02 Containing amino nucleosides and oligonucleosides AT247128T (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US08/117,363 US6783931B1 (en) 1990-01-11 1993-09-03 Amine-derivatized nucleosides and oligonucleosides
PCT/US1994/010131 WO1995006659A1 (en) 1992-07-01 1994-09-02 Amine-derivatized nucleosides and oligonucleosides

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
AT247128T true AT247128T (en) 2003-08-15

Family

ID=22372495

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
AT94928048T AT247128T (en) 1990-01-11 1994-09-02 Containing amino nucleosides and oligonucleosides

Country Status (7)

Country Link
US (1) US6528631B1 (en)
EP (1) EP0728139B1 (en)
JP (1) JP3484197B2 (en)
AT (1) AT247128T (en)
AU (1) AU679566B2 (en)
CA (1) CA2170869C (en)
DE (2) DE69433036D1 (en)

Families Citing this family (208)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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US20040198682A1 (en) * 2001-11-30 2004-10-07 Mcswiggen James RNA interference mediated inhibition of placental growth factor gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050054596A1 (en) * 2001-11-30 2005-03-10 Mcswiggen James RNA interference mediated inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050267058A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-12-01 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of placental growth factor gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (sINA)
US20050148530A1 (en) * 2002-02-20 2005-07-07 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20070203333A1 (en) * 2001-11-30 2007-08-30 Mcswiggen James RNA interference mediated inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050075304A1 (en) * 2001-11-30 2005-04-07 Mcswiggen James RNA interference mediated inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20040147022A1 (en) * 1996-06-06 2004-07-29 Baker Brenda F. 2'-methoxy substituted oligomeric compounds and compositions for use in gene modulations
JP2008501693A (en) * 2004-06-03 2008-01-24 アイシス ファーマシューティカルズ、インク. Duplex composition having individually regulated strands for use in gene regulation
US7812149B2 (en) 1996-06-06 2010-10-12 Isis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 2′-Fluoro substituted oligomeric compounds and compositions for use in gene modulations
US5898031A (en) * 1996-06-06 1999-04-27 Isis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Oligoribonucleotides for cleaving RNA
US20040171031A1 (en) * 1996-06-06 2004-09-02 Baker Brenda F. Sugar surrogate-containing oligomeric compounds and compositions for use in gene modulation
US9096636B2 (en) 1996-06-06 2015-08-04 Isis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Chimeric oligomeric compounds and their use in gene modulation
US20050119470A1 (en) * 1996-06-06 2005-06-02 Muthiah Manoharan Conjugated oligomeric compounds and their use in gene modulation
DE69834038D1 (en) 1997-07-01 2006-05-18 Isis Pharmaceutical Inc Compositions and methods of administration of oligonucleotides via the esophagus
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US20060247194A1 (en) * 2000-08-30 2006-11-02 Sirna Therapeutics , Inc. Rna interference mediated treatment of alzheimer's disease using short interfering nucleic acid (sina)
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US20080188430A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2008-08-07 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1) gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
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US20050164968A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-07-28 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of ADAM33 gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
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US20050196765A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-09-08 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of checkpoint Kinase-1 (CHK-1) gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050233996A1 (en) * 2002-02-20 2005-10-20 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of hairless (HR) gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050191638A1 (en) * 2002-02-20 2005-09-01 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated treatment of polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat expansion diseases using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050014172A1 (en) * 2002-02-20 2005-01-20 Ivan Richards RNA interference mediated inhibition of muscarinic cholinergic receptor gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050227935A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-10-13 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of TNF and TNF receptor gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050153915A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-07-14 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of early growth response gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050119212A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-06-02 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of FAS and FASL gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US9181551B2 (en) 2002-02-20 2015-11-10 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of gene expression using chemically modified short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050182009A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-08-18 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of NF-Kappa B / REL-A gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US8202979B2 (en) * 2002-02-20 2012-06-19 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of gene expression using chemically modified short interfering nucleic acid
US20050164224A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-07-28 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of cyclin D1 gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20090176725A1 (en) * 2005-08-17 2009-07-09 Sirna Therapeutics Inc. Chemically modified short interfering nucleic acid molecules that mediate rna interference
US20050130181A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-06-16 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of wingless gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20060142226A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2006-06-29 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US7833992B2 (en) * 2001-05-18 2010-11-16 Merck Sharpe & Dohme Conjugates and compositions for cellular delivery
US20050136436A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-06-23 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of G72 and D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US9657294B2 (en) 2002-02-20 2017-05-23 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of gene expression using chemically modified short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US8273866B2 (en) * 2002-02-20 2012-09-25 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. RNA interference mediated inhibition of gene expression using chemically modified short interfering nucleic acid (SINA)
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US20050124568A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-06-09 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of acetyl-CoA-carboxylase gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050159380A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-07-21 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of angiopoietin gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050164967A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-07-28 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (ECGF1) gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050203040A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-09-15 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050143333A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-06-30 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of interleukin and interleukin receptor gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (SINA)
US20050282188A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-12-22 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050159379A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-07-21 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc RNA interference mediated inhibition of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor (GIPR) gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US7517864B2 (en) * 2001-05-18 2009-04-14 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050153914A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-07-14 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of MDR P-glycoprotein gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050079610A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-04-14 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of Fos gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20060241075A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2006-10-26 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of desmoglein gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050288242A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-12-29 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of RAS gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050222066A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-10-06 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050176665A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-08-11 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of hairless (HR) gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050159376A1 (en) * 2002-02-20 2005-07-21 Slrna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition 5-alpha reductase and androgen receptor gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050182006A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-08-18 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc RNA interference mediated inhibition of protein kinase C alpha (PKC-alpha) gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050176664A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-08-11 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of cholinergic muscarinic receptor (CHRM3) gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20070042983A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2007-02-22 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
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US20050096284A1 (en) * 2002-02-20 2005-05-05 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated treatment of polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat expansion diseases using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050176666A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-08-11 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of GPRA and AAA1 gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050233997A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-10-20 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050137155A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-06-23 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated treatment of Parkinson disease using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050182007A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-08-18 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of interleukin and interleukin receptor gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (SINA)
US20050054598A1 (en) * 2002-02-20 2005-03-10 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition hairless (HR) gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050124567A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-06-09 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of TRPM7 gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
US20050287128A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2005-12-29 Sirna Therapeutics, Inc. RNA interference mediated inhibition of TGF-beta and TGF-beta receptor gene expression using short interfering nucleic acid (siNA)
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EP0728139B1 (en) 2003-08-13
JPH09500388A (en) 1997-01-14
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CA2170869A1 (en) 1995-03-09
EP0728139A1 (en) 1996-08-28

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